# BUILDING CAPACITY FOR COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS: LESSONS LEARNED FROM NAEP ITEM ANALYSES. Council of the Great City Schools

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1 1 BUILDING CAPACITY FOR COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS: LESSONS LEARNED FROM NAEP ITEM ANALYSES Council of the Great City Schools

2 2 Overview This analysis explores national, state and district performance on a sample of NAEP and college and career ready consortia (PARCC and SBAC) items that are similar to one another in type and complexity. The analysis explores student response patterns and sample responses on multiple-choice items, short constructed-response items, and extended constructed-response items on 2013 reading and mathematics assessments. Implications for instructional practices essential for student success on college and career ready standards are also explored.

3 3 How are NAEP Questions Used? The questions on the NAEP Questions Tool are meant to be used by teachers, parents, students, and others as examples of what NAEP asks students at grades 4, 8, and 12 in main state NAEP, and at ages 9, 13, and 17 for longterm trend NAEP. The questions also provide exemplars of what the assessment asks of students to assess their specific content knowledge and to compare individual student performance on a specific question with that of students across the state and the nation.

4 4 NAEP MATHEMATICS ITEMS 2013

5 5 Math Example 1 In the PARCC and SBAC examples released to date, students are asked to respond to an item with multiple parts (Part A, Part B, Step 1, Step 2, Step 3, etc.). Multistep problems are expected to be common on both the PARCC and SBAC Assessments. On a sample multistep item on NAEP, only twenty-three percent of students in Trial Urban Districts (TUDA) and thirty-two percent of students nationwide answered the item completely correctly.

6 Sample Grade 3-5 PARCC Math 6

7 Sample Grade 6-8 SBAC Math 7

8 8 Sample Mathematics Question and Detail Use centimeters in this question Which path from the tree to the tent is longer, path A or path B? Description: Measure and compare distances on a path Grade: 4 Year: 2013 Type of Question: Short Constructed Response Difficulty: Medium (40.49% Correct) Content Area: Measurement Complexity: Moderate Answer: How much longer? Answer: centimeters

9 9 How are students scored? Correct Answers path B and 3 centimeters (accept 2.9 to 3.1 cm) Partial 1 Answers path A with 3 centimeters, with or without showing lengths of segments (If work is shown and reflects an obvious mistake, then the response is scored as Incorrect 2.) Partial 2 Answers path B with 16 on the answer line Partial 3 Correctly measures each segment on path or labels total length of path A and path B (it must be clear which numbers go with the paths by showing lengths next to the path or by showing lengths of segments) The difference in length may or may not be correct based on the measurements shown Partial 4 Measures 4 of the 5 segments correctly and has correct difference in length based on these measurements Incorrect 1 Answers path B with 2 on the answer line, with or without work (This assumes the result is from computing 7 5. If work is shown and reflects an obvious mistake, then the response is scored as Incorrect 2.) Incorrect 2 All other incorrect responses

10 10 Sample Student Response Which path from the tree to the tent is longer, path A or path B? Answer: How much longer? Answer: centimeters Partial 1

11 11 Sample Student Response Which path from the tree to the tent is longer, path A or path B? Answer: How much longer? Answer: centimeters Partial 2

12 12 Sample Student Response Use centimeters in this question. student response Which path from the tree to the tent is longer, path A or path B? Answer: student response How much longer? Answer: centimeters student response Incorrect 2

13 13 How Did Students in Urban Districts Answer This Question? Urban Districts Incorrect 2 Incorrect 1 Partial 4 Partial 3 Partial 2 Partial 1 Correct Omitted National Public Albuquerque Atlanta Austin Baltimore City # Boston Charlotte # Chicago Cleveland Dallas Detroit 79 2 # 3 6 # 8 1 District of Columbia (DCPS) Fresno Hillsborough County Houston Jefferson County (KY) 59 3 # Los Angeles Miami-Dade # Milwaukee 58 4 # New York City # Philadelphia 61 7 # San Diego #

14 14 Math Example 2 The following example from SBAC provides an illustration of the rigor and depth of understanding needed by students on its items. Students were likely to select the distractors (Kansas and Indiana) when responding to the item if they did not account for the effects of rounding. Similarly, on the NAEP sample item below, students selecting the distractor (answer A), measured the object in centimeters. Students understood how to use a ruler, but did not have the depth of understanding to use millimeters. Only one out of three students nationally answered the item correctly.

15 Sample Grade 6-8 SBAC Math 15

16 16 Sample Mathematics Question and Detail Use millimeters for this question. What is the length of the key in millimeters (mm)? A. 5 mm B. 8 mm C. 50 mm D. 53 mm Description: Measure the length of an object Grade: 4 Year: 2013 Type of Question: Multiple Choice Difficulty: Hard (29.26% Correct) Content Area: Measurement Complexity: Low

17 17 How did students across states answer this question? A B C D * Omitted A B C D * Omitted National Public Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming DoDEA

18 How did student groups in the nation answer this question? 18 A B C D * Omitted White Black Hispanic Race/Ethnicity Asian/Pacific Islander American Indian/Alaska Native FRPL Location Two or more races Eligible Not eligible City Suburb Town Rural

19 19 Math Examples 3-5 The SBAC and PARCC exams will require students to explain the results of their answers to short and extendedresponse items in math. The following examples from NAEP illustrate the types of answers and the difficulty students had on short answer and extended-response NAEP items. In addition to the large percentage of students across the country who do not answer these items correctly (82 percent nationally in the first example), one should note the percentage of students who make no attempt to answer these types of items.

20 20 Sample Mathematics Question and Detail Liz is conducting an experiment to see whether students learn vocabulary words by a new method faster than they learn them by the old method. Fifty students will participate in the experiment. She pairs off the 50 students so that the two students in each pair have similar levels of vocabulary. One student in each pair then learns words by the old method. The other student in the pair learns words by the new method. Why did Liz pair off her 50 students instead of just having all 50 of them use the new method? Description: Evaluate an experimental design Grade: 8 Year: 2013 Type of Question: Short Constructed Response Difficulty: Hard (12.29% Correct) Content Area: Data analysis and probability Complexity: Moderate

21 21 Sample Student Response Correct Incorrect

22 22 How did students in Urban School Districts answer this question? Incorrect Correct Omitted Off task National Public Albuquerque Atlanta # Austin Baltimore City Boston Charlotte # Chicago Cleveland Dallas # Detroit District of Columbia (DCPS) Fresno Hillsborough County Houston Jefferson County (KY) # Los Angeles Miami-Dade # Milwaukee New York City Philadelphia # San Diego

23 How did students across states answer this question? 23 State Incorrect Correct Omitted Off task State Incorrect Correct Omitted Off task National Public Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas # California # Colorado # Connecticut # Delaware District of Columbia Florida # Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois # Indiana Iowa # Kansas # Kentucky # Louisiana Maine Maryland # Massachusetts # Michigan # Minnesota Mississippi # Missouri # Montana # Nebraska Nevada # New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina # North Dakota Ohio # Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania # Rhode Island # South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee # Texas Utah Vermont # Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming # DoDEA

24 Sample Grade 3-5 PARCC Math Item 24

25 25 Sample Mathematics Question and Detail (a) If c and d are different prime numbers less than 10 and the sum c+d is a composite number greater than 10, what is one possible pair of values for c and d? c = 5 d = 7 (b) If j and k are different prime numbers less than 10 and the sum j+k is a prime number less than 10, what is one possible pair of values for j and k? j = 2 k = 3 or j=2 k= 5 (c) If s and t are different prime numbers greater than 10, explain why the sum s+ t cannot be a prime number. If s and t are prime numbers greater than 10, then s and t are odd numbers. The sum s + t is an even number greater than 2, and therefore is not prime. Description: Solve problem involving prime numbers Grade: 8 Year: 2013 Type of Question: Extended Constructed Response Difficulty: Hard (16.77% Correct) Content Area: Number properties and operations Complexity: High

26 26 How did students in Urban School Districts answer this question? Incorrect Minimial Partial Satisfactory Extended Omitted Off task National Public Albuquerque # Atlanta # Austin Baltimore City # 15 # Boston Charlotte Chicago Cleveland # 17 # Dallas # 23 # Detroit # # 16 1 District of Columbia (DCPS) # 15 # Fresno Hillsborough County Houston # Jefferson County (KY) Los Angeles Miami-Dade Milwaukee # 15 # New York City # Philadelphia # San Diego

27 27 How did student groups across the nation answer this question? Incorrect Minimial Partial Satisfactory Extended Omitted Off task Race/ethnicity FRPL Location White Black Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander American Indian/Alaska Native # Two or more races Eligible # 12 1 Not eligible Information not available City Suburb Town Rural

28 Sample Grade 3-5 SBAC Math Item 28

29 Sample Grade 3-5 SBAC Math Item 29

30 30 Sample Mathematics Question and Detail The graph below shows the percentages of all households in the United States in the years 1940 to 1997 that owned at least one television set. (a) In which year do you think that television sets were most likely first available for purchase in stores? (b) In which year did 50 percent of the households own at least one television set? (c) Write a sentence or two that compares the growth in the percentage of households with television sets across the three (d) The points (1950, 10) and (1970, 90) both lie on the graph above. Both points are also solutions of the equation However, if the graph of were drawn for the years 1940 to 1997, it would not look like the graph shown. Explain why not. Description: Answer questions based on a graph Grade: 8 Year: 2013 Type of Question: Extended Constructed Response Difficulty: Hard (30.19% Correct) Content Area: Algebra Complexity: High

31 Sample Student Response 31 (a) In which year do you think that television sets were most likely first available for purchase in stores? (b) In which year did 50 percent of the households own at least one television set? (c) Write a sentence or two that compares the growth in the percentage of households with television sets across the d) The points (1950, 10) and (1970, 90) both lie on the graph above. Both points are also solutions of the equation However, if the graph of were drawn for the years 1940 to 1997, it would not look like the graph shown. Explain why not. Extended

32 Sample Student Response (a) In which year do you think that television sets were most likely first available for purchase in stores? 32 (b) In which year did 50 percent of the households own at least one television set? c) Write a sentence or two that compares the growth in the percentage of households with television sets across the three (d) The points (1950, 10) and (1970, 90) both lie on the graph above. Both points are also solutions of the equation However, if the graph of were drawn for the years 1940 to 1997, it would not look like the graph shown. Explain why not. Minimal

33 33 Sample Student Response (a) In which year do you think that television sets were most likely first available for purchase in stores? (b) In which year did 50 percent of the households own at least one television set? (c) Write a sentence or two that compares the growth in the percentage of households with television sets across the three decades of (d) The points (1950, 10) and (1970, 90) both lie on the graph above. Both points are also solutions of the equation However, if the graph of were drawn for the years 1940 to 1997, it would not look like the graph shown. Explain why not. Incorrect

34 How did student groups across the nation answer this question? 34 Incorrect Minimal Partial Satisfactory Extended Omitted Off task White # Black # 11 # Hispanic # 10 # Race/Ethnicity Asian/Pacific Islander American Indian/Alaska Native # # 4 # FRPL Location Two or more races Eligible # 9 # Not eligible # City # Suburb # Town # Rural #

35 35 NAEP READING ITEMS 2013

36 36 Reading Example 1 Consistent with the SBAC and PARCC exams in math, reading exams will require students to explain their answers to short and extended-response items.

38 38 Sample Reading Question and Detail The author ends the essay with a childhood story. Does the childhood story do a better job persuading readers of the author's point than the other parts of the essay? Explain why or why not. Description: Evaluate persuasiveness of ending in relation to the rest of the essay Grade: 8 Year: 2013 Type of Question: Extended Constructed Response Difficulty: Hard (33.13% Correct) Content Area: Informational Cognitive Target: Critique/Evaluate

39 39 Extensive Response Unsatisfactory Response

40 How did students across the nation answer this question? 40

41 41 Reading Examples 2 and 3 PARCC and SBAC items will require students to provide evidence from the text when answering questions. These items are referred to as text-dependent questions in the Common Core Standards. The following examples from NAEP show that over sixty percent of students nationally provided unacceptable responses to items requiring them to use information from the text to justify their answers (example 2). One should note that students were required to write their responses to NAEP items but were required to select texts from various choices on some PARCC and SBAC items.

44 44 Sample Reading Question and Detail Provide an example from the story that shows that Miguel does not feel part of Dominican culture. Description: La Napa: Provide relevant example from story in support of character description Grade: 4 Year: 2013 Type of Question: Short Constructed Response Difficulty: Hard (33.16% Correct) Content Area: Literary Cognitive Target: Integrate/Interpret

45 45 Student Responses Acceptable Unacceptable

46 How did students in Urban School Districts answer this question? 46 Unacceptable Acceptable Omitted Off task National Public Albuquerque Atlanta Austin Baltimore City Boston Charlotte Chicago Cleveland # Dallas Detroit # District of Columbia (DCPS) Fresno Hillsborough County Houston Jefferson County (KY) Los Angeles Miami-Dade # Milwaukee New York City Philadelphia San Diego #

49 49 Sample Reading Question and Detail Does the box on page 3 called "White Shark Facts" help you understand the rest of the article? Explain your answer using information from both the box and the rest of the article. Description: Explain relation between information in text box and the rest of the article Grade: 8 Year: 2013 Type of Question: Short Constructed Response Difficulty: Medium (56.15% Correct) Content Area Informational Cognitive Target Critique/Evaluate

50 Student Responses 50 Full Comprehension Partial Comprehension Little or No Comprehension

51 How did student groups across the nation answer this question? Little or No Comprehension Partial Comprehension 51 Full Comprehension Omitted Off task White # Black # Hispanic # Asian/Pacific Islander # American Indian/Alaska Native # Two or more races # 1

52 How do NAEP items compare to PARCC and Smarter Balanced Release Items? 52

53 53 What can we learn from NAEP items/question tools?

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