1 The Value of English Proficiency to the United States Economy By Amber Schwartz and Don Soifer December 2012
2 Also by the Lexington Institute: English Language Learners and NAEP: Progress Through Inclusion, by Don Soifer, March California English Learners Raising Achievement from the Bottom, by Don Soifer, July The Teaching of American History: Promise and Performance, by Robert Holland, December 2009.
3 Executive Summary What is the cost to the United States economy attributable to lack of basic English skills? The nation s English learner population continues to grow dramatically. According to the 2010 Census, there are currently just over 25 million English learners living in the United States, including more than 5.3 million learners currently attending elementary and secondary schools. To be certain, English learners are a population accustomed to confronting challenges. Dropout rates are just one of the many important educational indicators where their struggles far surpass other population groups. The economic obstacles are formidable as well: nearly 6 out of 10 English learners qualify for federal Free or Reduced Lunch programs. 1 This study specifically examines wage penalties facing the 16.5 million Spanishspeaking English learners, who research indicates are hit hardest due to poor English skills. Using wage penalty projections, data from the 2010 American Community Survey, and estimates of high school dropouts attributable to inadequate English skills, it is concluded that $37.7 billion in annual earnings are missed by Spanish speaking English learners each year. This means that adult, Spanish-speaking English learners lost approximately $3,000 per year in earnings, on average, as a direct result of inadequate English skills.
4 2 The Value of English Proficiency to the United States Economy Background Rapid growth in the number of English language learners (ELLs) in the United States has continued over the past decade. This changing population dynamic has produced major impacts on schools, not just in border states or those which have historically been home to large numbers of immigrants, but across the country and in communities where schools have little experience with English learners. There were 16.5 million limited English proficient Hispanics living in the United States in 2010, according to the Census Bureau s 2010 American Community Survey. Of this number, 3.8 million were in elementary and secondary schools. In fact, the total number of English learners of all language backgrounds enrolled in public schools grew from 3.5 million in the school year to over 5.3 million students in the school year. 2 The Hispanic student population as of 2009 was 3.8 million students, or 73 percent of all English learners, and accounted for the largest share of English learners enrolled in schools. 3 In considering education strategies for these students, it is essential to recognize that not all English learners are immigrants. In fact, only one in four English learners in public schools is foreign born. Nearly 60 percent were born into this country to immigrant parents, and nearly 20 percent are actually third-generation Americans. The challenges facing schools as they strive to serve this population are significant, and range from typically lower levels of parental involvement to higher mobility rates and less stable home situations. 4 The success these 3.8 million Spanish-speaking students have learning English will have direct consequences on not only their future economic and educational success, but on the economic prospects for regions where their growth has been most prominent. The challenges of educating these children are enormous, since currently these students trail the rest of the population both educationally and economically. Statistics show that many Hispanic English learners drop out of high school before ever mastering English, thus hindering their chances of achieving economic goals later in life.
5 Lexington Institute 3 English Language Learner Population Trends Such population shifts have hardly been limited to schools. In fact, more than half of the growth in the total population of the United States between 2000 and 2010 was due to the increase in the Hispanic population. ELLs accounted for 25 million of the United States population over the age of five and Spanish speakers accounted for 66 percent of this number. Although most of these (68 percent) have continued to settle in the historic immigration-destination states such as California, Texas, New York, New Jersey, Florida and Illinois, a growing number settled in nontraditional states such as Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut (see Figure 1). These new influxes of non-english residents in non-traditional states pose important challenges and implications for government agencies, businesses, schools, and communities. The U.S. Hispanic Population It is also important to note that while the terms Latino and Hispanic are used broadly as cultural symbols of identity, in reality strong differences exist, linguistically and culturally, between Spanish speakers of different national origins. In linguistic terms, these differences include language use according to context, individual and content, language varieties, ethnic terminology, and even new dialects and ways of speaking that occur with speakers of the same national origin living in different parts of the United States. 5 This is particularly true among the three largest subgroups by national origin in the United States: Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans. 6 Members of these groups share less in common than the Figure 1 States With Large English Learner Populations, 2010 State ELL Population Percent Share California 19.8% Texas 14.4% New York 13.5% New Jersey 12.5% Nevada 12.3% Florida 11.9% Hawaii 11.8% Arizona 9.9% Illinois 9.6% Rhode Island 9.2% New Mexico 9.2% Massachusetts 8.8% Connecticut 8.7% Source: 2010 American Community Survey, Table B16001, Language Spoken at Home by Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over reliance on one term, Hispanics, implies in describing them. The very term Spanish as it is used in the United States refers more to a diverse family of languages than to
6 4 The Value of English Proficiency to the United States Economy Since 1997, the number of English learner students in public schools has increased by 51 percent. one language. Culturally, and educationally, each of these nationalities conveys on its U.S. populations substantial differences, which prove challenges to schools serving diverse populations of Spanish speakers. The census reported that the Hispanic population of the United States grew by 43 percent between 2000 and Viewed from a different perspective, in one out of every four U.S. counties, the Hispanic population more than doubled in size between 2000 and But it would be a serious mistake to consider the U.S. Hispanic population as homogeneous. Certainly, Hispanics of Mexican origin comprise the largest Hispanic subgroup, totaling 31.8 million in 2010, or 63 percent of U.S. Hispanics. This represents a 54 percent increase since Hispanics of Puerto Rican decent ranked second in terms of size, comprising 9 percent. Cuban-Americans were third, making up approximately 4 percent. Hispanics whose origins were from El Salvador, the Dominican Republic and Guatemala made up the remaining subgroups whose U.S. populations numbered at least one million people. 9 Linguistic Isolation in the United States Even more than with individual English learners, the challenges for those in households defined as linguistically isolated are particularly acute in economic and educational terms. The Census Bureau defines a linguistically isolated household as one in which all members 14 years of age and older have at least some difficulty with English. There was an increase of one million linguistically isolated households between 2000 and 2010 in the United States, with 14.2 million individuals living in 5.3 million households. 10 As of 2010, linguistically isolated households accounted for 4.6 percent of the total United States population. This was a substantial increase from 2000, when the census reported there were 11.9 individuals in 4.4 million linguistically isolated households. A handful of states represent the largest majority of the linguistically isolated population, with California topping the list with linguistic isolated households at 10 percent (see Figure 2). Not surprisingly, linguistic isolation tends to be concentrated in metropolitan areas given the higher number of jobs available in these areas. Living in linguistically isolated areas has been strongly linked to lower earnings for non-english speakers. Those who live in enclaves that are linguistically isolated
7 Lexington Institute 5 frequently have less information about career opportunities in the mainstream economy, which generally offer higher wages. Simply stated, where linguistic isolation of speakers of a non-english language is the highest, earnings are lower. 11 Education and English Language Learners Since the school year, the number of English language learner students enrolled in public schools has increased by 51 percent. 12 They now account for approximately 5.3 million of the elementary and secondary school populations (see Figure 3). The staggering rate of growth of this group of students poses unique challenges for educators, especially in developing curriculum to match their specific needs. On the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the test known as the Nation s Report Card, 71 percent of 8th grade English learners scored at below basic in reading, the test s lowest level of achievement. Conversely, Englishspeaking peers scored below basic in reading 23 percent of the time. This gap has remained relatively unscathed since This staggering disparity deserves urgent attention from educators. English proficiency is important not only for the present and future wages of English learners and their families, but for Figure 2 Linguistic Isolation in the United States State 2010 Linguistically Isolated Households Percentage of Linguistically Isolated Households California 1,244, % New York 590, % Texas 697, % Illinois 344, % New Jersey 227, % Florida 488, % Nevada 63, % New Mexico 42, % Arizona 119, % Georgia 107, % Alaska 6, % Arkansas 18, % Tennessee 38, % South Carolina 27, % Louisiana 29, % United States 5,270, % Source: Household Language by Linguistic Isolation American Community Survey 1 year estimates - B16002
8 6 The Value of English Proficiency to the United States Economy Figure 3 Number and Percentage of ELL Enrollment Students, by State ( ) State Total ELL Enrollment ELL Percent of National Total California 1,526, % Texas 701, % Florida 234, % New York 213, % Illinois 175, % Arizona 166, % Nevada 134, % North Carolina 106, % United States 5,318, % Source: the prosperity of the entire United States economy as well, and especially for those regions with the largest ELL populations. It has been an unfortunate and challenging reality that many English learners drop out of school before ever becoming proficient in English. According to a 2009 study, 42 percent of adult, Spanish-speaking ELLs failed to graduate from high school, compared to only 11 percent of non-spanish speaking ELLs. 13 In fact, Hispanics have the highest rate of dropout of any major population group in the United States. English Proficiency and Earning Power Little research has been done on the effects of English proficiency with regard to compensation for non-immigrant workers, largely because of the shortage of data available. According to a 2009 report on the literacy skills of adult immigrants and adult English language learners, the employment rates for immigrants are not significantly different than those for native-born adults but immigrants are generally poorer than U.S.-born adults. The extent to which they are poorer is directly related to their ethnicity. Thirty-nine percent of non-spanish speakers had incomes below the poverty line, whereas 61 percent of immigrant Spanish speakers were below the poverty line. 14 These statistics illustrate the importance of creating educational opportunities designed specifically for Spanish speakers to help provide more longterm employment. Of the 6.3 million Spanish speaking English learner workers, most were likely to be employed in service occupations (37 percent) or production, craft and repair occupations (34 percent) followed by operators, fabricators, laborers (10 percent), sales, technical and office (9 percent), farming, fishing and forestry (8 percent) and lastly managerial and professional (2 percent).
9 Lexington Institute 7 Determining Lost Wages Due to Inadequate English Skills So given the linkages between language skills and economic status, to what extent can financial status be attributed specifically to English skills? Libertad Gonzalez, an economist at Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona, who has also done work in the United States on the faculty at Columbia University, examined the relationship between earnings and English proficiency for Hispanic workers in the United States in a 2005 paper. On average, LEP [limited English proficiency] imposes an overall wage penalty that lies between 3.8 and 38.6 percent, and reduces the probability of finding a job by 0 to 6.5 percentage points, she found. 15 Using Gonzalez s wage penalty projections, data from the 2010 American Community Survey, and estimates of high school dropouts attributable to inadequate English skills, it is concluded that $37.7 billion in annual earnings are missed by Spanish speaking English learners each year. The 2010 American Community Survey included data for nearly 6.3 million Hispanic working individuals, 16 years and older, who knew English not well or not at all. 16 Gonzalez s estimated wage penalties were applied to these groups, with those who knew English not at all receiving a larger wage penalty than those in the not well category. A calculation that takes account of these individuals occupations yields the result that every year these Hispanic working adults lose $31.1 billion as a result of limited English proficiency (see Figure 4). Since the detailed findings of the American Community Survey accounted for only 6.3 million of the 16.5 million limited English proficient Hispanics in the workforce, a conservative approach was taken to determine Only one in four English learners in public schools is foreign born. the wage penalty for the remaining population. The survey included those who were over 16 years of age, and defined employment as having held a job at some point in the last five years, whether part-time or full-time. After subtracting the Spanish-
10 8 The Value of English Proficiency to the United States Economy Figure 4 Wage Penalties Across Occupations, Spanish-speaking English Learners Categorized as Not well and Not at all (in thousands of dollars) Occupation Group Median Income Wage Penalty Not well # LEP Employed Not Well Missed Earnings Not Well Wage Penalty Not at all #LEP Employed Not at all Missed Earnings Not at all Total Missed Earnings Managerial and professional Service Occupations Sales, technical and office Production, craft and repair Farming, fishing and forestry $55, ,073 $1,457, ,857 $1,351,807 $2,826,982 $17, ,577,082 $2,765, ,482 $2,099,621 $4,865,550 $32, ,522 $2,096, ,135 $989,115 $3,085,828 $28, ,488,544 $9,904, ,103 $6,795,875 $16,700,382 $16, ,250 -$6, ,707 $530,723 $523,984 Operators, fabricators, laborers $24, ,158 $1,522, ,445 $1,557,092 $3,079,937 Total 4,263,629 2,035,729 Source: Gonzalez, 2005; American Community Survey 2010 TOTAL MISSED EARNINGS $31,082,663 speaking English learner student population (since it is assumed they are not yet in the workforce), 6.5 million Spanish-speaking adult English learners remained that were not accounted for in the survey. Of these 6.5 million adults, 2.7 million (42 percent) did not complete high school. It is assumed that 1.6 million (60 percent) of this group did not complete high school because of limited English skills. Last, Hispanics over the age of 65 accounted for 18 percent of the Hispanic population. Thirteen percent was subtracted from the total to account for those who were retired. This left an additional 1.4 million Hispanics who were in the workforce and were non-high school graduates. An Hispanic without a high school diploma earns an average of $24,357 per year and an Hispanic high-school graduate earns an average of $29,100 per year. 17 That is an additional $4,743 per year for having a high school diploma. The total missed earnings per year for Hispanics who did not finish high school is $6.6 billion. Interestingly, the disparity of income for a Hispanic person without a high school diploma compared to a Hispanic high-school graduate is lower compared to other
11 Lexington Institute 9 ethnicities. While Hispanic high-school graduates earn $4,743 more per year over their lifetimes, African-American high-school graduates earn $5,313 more, and Caucasian graduates earn an additional $6,034 per year. English Proficiency and High School Graduation The attainment of a higher level of education is widely linked by researchers to better jobs and higher earnings. Unfortunately, 42 percent of Spanish-speaking ELLs do not complete high school and only 9 percent have at least a college degree (see Figure 5). English language proficiency is a significant predictor of dropping out among Hispanics, especially if English proficiency is very low (10th percentile). It is a larger factor if the student is in the second generation in his/her family in this country (17 percent chance of causing dropout), and highest if he/she is in the third generation or higher (30 percent chance). 18 Nearly half of first generation students speak English with difficulty, compared with 20 percent of second-generation students and 5 percent of the third and higher generations. 19 High-school dropout rates for Hispanics are extremely high compared to any other ethnic group. A 2008 report by Russell Rumberger and Sun Ah Lim from the University of California, Santa Barbara analyzes the reasons why English learners drop out. 20 One possible reason can be attributed to immigration status, which is an important determinant of English literacy. Foreign-born students have a higher dropout rate than native-born students. Of Hispanic immigrants, second-generation students tend to have better English skills than their immigrant counterparts. Along with Adult, Spanish-speaking English learners lost approximately $3,000 per year in earnings as a direct result of poor English skills. better English skills, they often have more positivity and motivation than thirdgeneration students. A student s outside social influences, including family, school, and community, can positively or adversely affect his/her educational attainment as well.
12 10 The Value of English Proficiency to the United States Economy Figure 5 Educational Attainment by Spanish-Speaking Status Educational attainment Spanish Speaking ELLs Non-Spanish Speaking ELLs Still in high school 6 2 Less than/some high school GED/high school graduate Vocational/trade/business school 5 6 Some college 7 9 Associate s/2 year degree 7 13 College degree or above 9 33 Source: Wiley InterScience. Assessing the Literacy Skills of Adult Immigrants and Adult English Language Learners. Conclusion and Policy Implications Hispanics in the United States lose an estimated $37.7 billion in earnings each year as a result of inadequate English skills. It is extremely likely that this estimate underscores actual figures, due to the conservative assumptions described in this paper. It is also important to note that only Spanish-speaking English learners are considered in this figure. Census data indicates 73 percent of U.S. English learners are Spanish speakers, with Chinese (combined), Vietnamese and French/Haitian Creole accounting for the only other languages whose speakers comprise more than 2 percent of the total. 21 So while surely some wage penalty can be assigned to non-english speakers of languages other than Spanish, a variety of factors suggest there is insufficient basis to apply comparable wage penalties across different language groups. English language proficiency among parents is an important economic asset that is associated with increased workforce participation, significantly higher earnings, and economic mobility, and thus contributes to the amount of family resources available to invest in children. These projections mean, on average, working-age Spanish-speaking English learners lose just under $3,000 per year in earnings as a direct result of their poor English skills. Other factors, notably relative educational attainment, carry their own wage penalties.
13 Lexington Institute 11 While few, if any, would dispute that stronger English skills place anyone living in the U.S. in an advantageous position for employment and earnings, this pricetag indicates just how much of an advantage. Because most English learners are not immigrants, but in fact represent the second or third generations in their family to live in the United States, it is essential that education strategies focus on breaking these cycles of linguistic isolation. For example, while dozens of federal funding streams (in addition to state and local programs) provide resources for teaching English to adults who lack English skills, measures for evaluating the effectiveness of these programs are scarce. A 2009 report by the federal Government Accountability Office noted that of the 25 federal programs that provide funding for such functions, only two collected any data to indicate their effectiveness. Employer-based programs, in addition to faith-based and community-based nonprofit organizations, represent useful strategies with the ability to reach English learners. Identifying which of these are the most effective and targeting support to increase their reach should be essential strategies to leverage their effectiveness. Meanwhile, elementary and secondary education programs have made important gains refocusing programs for English learners with meaningful accountability. But progress nationally in reducing language gaps and improving English proficiency Figure 6 Percentage of children ages 5-17 who spoke a language other than English at home and percentage who spoke a language other than English at home and spoke English with difficulty: Selected years, Percent School Year Spoke a language other than English at home Spoke a language other than English at home and spoke English with difficulty Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Long Form Decennial Census, 1980, 1990, and 2000, and American Community Survey (ACS),
14 12 The Value of English Proficiency to the United States Economy skills, while improving, continues to vary widely and demonstrate the least growth in the high-poverty communities where strong English skills can be most important. Shortages of high-quality teachers with strong oral and written English and Spanish language skills continue to be reported in many of these same communities, especially in states including Arizona and Illinois where their work is particularly important. While current national trajectories are encouraging, progress must continue to improve at an accelerated pace. ENDNOTES 1 Educating English Language Learner: Building Teacher Capacity Roundtable Report, National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, 2008, p. 7, available at edu/files/uploads/3/educatingellsbuilding- TeacherCapacityVol1.pdf. 2 The Growing Numbers of English Learner Students, National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, 2011, available at gwu.edu/files/uploads/9/growinglep_0809.pdf. 3 The Condition of Education, U.S. Department of Education and IES National Center for Education Statistics, NCES , May pp Porter, Rosalie Pedalino and Kevin Clark, Language and Literacy for English Learners: Grades Sopris West Educational Services, 2004, pages Arrieta, Olivia, Language Use and Culture Among Hispanics in the United States, Handbook of Hispanic Cultures in the United States, Arte Publico Press, Ennis, Sharon, Merarys Rios-Vargas and Nora Albert, The Hispanic Population: 2010, United States Census Bureau, May 2011, available at c2010br-04.pdf Census Shows Nation s Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population, U.S. Census Bureau News, May 26, Ennis, p Ibid. 10 Household Language by Linguistic Isolation, American Community Survey 2009, U.S. Census Bureau Chart B Chiswick, B.R. and P.W. Miller, P.W. (2002). Immigrant Earnings: Language Skills, Linguistic Concentrations, and the Business Cycle, Journal of Population Economics, The Growing Numbers of English Learner Students. 13 Wrigley, Heide Spruck, Jing Chen, Sheida White, and Jaleh Soroui,. Assessing the Literacy Skills of Adult Immigrants and Adult English Language Learners, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2009, p Ibid. 15 Gonzalez, L., Nonparametric Bounds on the Returns of Language Skills, Journal of Applied Econometrics, 2005, pp
15 Lexington Institute United States Census Bureau. DataFerrett, U.S. Employment Specific Jobs English Proficiency Hispanics. (accessed 2012 April). 17 Education and Synthetic Work-Life Earnings Estimates United States Census Bureau. American Community Survey Reports, September 2011, p Fry, Richard and Felisa Gonzales, One-in-Five and Growing Fast: A Profile of Hispanic Public School Students, Pew Hispanic Center, August 26, Rumberger, Russell and Sun Ah Lim, Why Students Drop out of School: A Review of 25 Years of Research, University of California, Santa Barbara, California Dropout Research Project Report #15, October 2008, p Top Languages Spoken by English Language Learners Nationally and by State, Migration Policy Institute, ELL Information Center Fact Sheet No 3, Perreira K. M., K.M. Harris and D. Lee, Making it in America: High School Completion by Immigrant and Native Youth. Published by Springer on behalf of the Population Association of America, 2006, p. 532 Amber Schwartz is Adunct Fellow and Don Soifer is Executive Vice President of the Lexington Institute.
16 December Wilson Boulevard, #900 Arlington, VA Telephone: Fax: Web:
Auto Credit For many working families and individuals, owning a car or truck is critical to economic success. For most, a car or other vehicle is their primary means of transportation to work. For those
Nationally, about 1 in 15 teens ages 16 to 19 is a dropout. Fewer than two-thirds of 9 th graders in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana and Nevada graduate from high school within four years with a regular diploma.
FACT SHEET National Institute for Labor Relations Research 5211 Port Royal Road, Suite 510 i Springfield, VA 22151 i Phone: (703) 321-9606 i Fax: (703) 321-7342 i email@example.com i www.nilrr.org August
STATE CAPITAL SPENDING ON PK 12 SCHOOL FACILITIES NORTH CAROLINA NOVEMBER 2010 Authors Mary Filardo Stephanie Cheng Marni Allen Michelle Bar Jessie Ulsoy 21st Century School Fund (21CSF) Founded in 1994,
Reaching the Hispanic Market The Arbonne Hispanic Initiative Hispanic Initiative Overview 2002 Arbonne en Español Started 2006 Initiated Hispanic Initiative 2007 Market Study & Survey Field Support» Jael
36 37 POPULATION TRENDS Economy ECONOMY Like much of the country, suffered significant job losses during the Great Recession. Since bottoming out in the first quarter of 2010, however, the city has seen
The Demographic Wave: Rethinking Hispanic AP Trends Kelcey Edwards & Ellen Sawtell AP Annual Conference, Las Vegas, NV July 19, 2013 Exploring the Data Hispanic/Latino US public school graduates The Demographic
1 Trends in Tuition at Idaho s Public Colleges and Universities: Critical Context for the State s Education Goals June 2017 Idahoans have long valued public higher education, recognizing its importance
1 BUILDING CAPACITY FOR COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS: LESSONS LEARNED FROM NAEP ITEM ANALYSES Council of the Great City Schools 2 Overview This analysis explores national, state and district performance
on medicaid and the uninsured July 2012 How will the Medicaid Expansion for Impact Eligibility and Coverage? Key Findings in Brief Effective January 2014, the ACA establishes a new minimum Medicaid eligibility
University of New Hampshire Carsey School of Public Policy CARSEY RESEARCH National Issue Brief #116 Spring 2017 Involuntary Part-Time Employment A Slow and Uneven Economic Recovery Rebecca Glauber The
National Academies STEM Workforce Summit September 21-22, 2015 Irwin Kirsch Director, Center for Global Assessment PIAAC and Policy Research ETS Policy Research using PIAAC data America s Skills Challenge:
Welcome. Paulo Goes Dean, Welcome. Our region Outlook for Tucson Patricia Feeney Executive Director, Southern Arizona Market Chase George W. Hammond, Ph.D. Director, University of Arizona 1 Visit the award-winning
Iowa School District Profiles Overview This profile describes enrollment trends, student performance, income levels, population, and other characteristics of the public school district. The report utilizes
cover America s Private Public Schools Michael J. Petrilli and Janie Scull February 2010 contents introduction 3 national findings 5 state findings 6 metropolitan area findings 13 conclusion 18 about us
An Empirical Analysis of the Effects of Mexican American Studies Participation on Student Achievement within Tucson Unified School District Report Submitted June 20, 2012, to Willis D. Hawley, Ph.D., Special
Marquette University e-publications@marquette Accounting Faculty Research and Publications Business Administration, College of 8-1-2014 A Profile of Top Performers on the Uniform CPA Exam Michael D. Akers
Status of Women of Color in Science, Engineering, and Medicine The figures and tables below are based upon the latest publicly available data from AAMC, NSF, Department of Education and the US Census Bureau.
New York State Association for Bilingual Education Journal v9 p1-6, Summer 1994 EDUCATING TEACHERS FOR CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY: A MODEL FOR ALL TEACHERS JoAnn Parla Abstract: Given changing demographics,
Wilma Rudolph Student Athlete Achievement Award CRITERIA FOR NOMINATION The N4A Wilma Rudolph Student Athlete Achievement Award is intended to honor student athletes who have overcome great personal, academic,
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT By 2030, at least 60 percent of Texans ages 25 to 34 will have a postsecondary credential or degree. Target: Increase the percent of Texans ages 25 to 34 with a postsecondary credential.
An Analysis of the El Reno Area Labor Force Summary Report for the El Reno Industrial Development Corporation and Oklahoma Department of Commerce David A. Penn and Robert C. Dauffenbach Center for Economic
About The Study U VA SSESSMENT In 6, the University of Virginia Office of Institutional Assessment and Studies undertook a study to describe how first-year students have changed over the past four decades.
The Effect of Income on Educational Attainment: Evidence from State Earned Income Tax Credit Expansions Katherine Michelmore Policy Analysis and Management Cornell University firstname.lastname@example.org September
San Joaquin Valley Statistics http://pegasi.us/sjstats/ 1 of 2 6/12/2010 5:00 PM A Guide to Finding Statistics for Students CV Stats Home By Topic By Area About the Valley About this Site Population Agriculture
t 2017 National Clean Water Law Seminar and Water Enforcement Workshop Continuing Legal Education (CLE) Credits NACWA has applied to the states listed below for Continuing Legal Education (CLE) credits.
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview Section 11.515, Florida Statutes, was created by the 1996 Florida Legislature for the purpose of conducting performance reviews of school districts in Florida. The statute
National Autism Data Center Fact Sheet Series March 2016; Issue 7 Disciplinary action: special education and autism IDEA laws, zero tolerance in schools, and disciplinary action The Individuals with Disabilities
A Demographic and Socio-Economic Profile of Allen County, Indiana based on the 2010 Census and the American Community Survey Educational Attainment A Review of Census Data Related to the Educational Attainment
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) Q. How can we contact the DIGITAL EDUCATION PROJECT and the NATIONAL DIGITAL SCHOOLBOOK LIBRARY PROGRAM for additional information and questions? A. VISIT OUR WEBSITE at
LOW-INCOME EMPLOYEES IN THE UNITED STATES James T. Bond and Ellen Galinsky Families and Work Institute November 2012 This report is funded by the Ford Foundation as part of its efforts to understand and
and Their Participation in College: The Case of Indiana CAROLINA PELAEZ-MORALES Purdue University Spanish has become a widely used second language in the U.S. As the number of Spanish users (SUs) continues
ESTABLISHING A TRAINING ACADEMY ABSTRACT Betsy Redfern MWH Americas, Inc. 380 Interlocken Crescent, Suite 200 Broomfield, CO. 80021 In the current economic climate, the demands put upon a utility require
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT By 2030, at least 60 percent of Texans ages 25 to 34 will have a postsecondary credential or degree. Target: Increase the percent of Texans ages 25 to 34 with a postsecondary credential.
Dilemmas of Promoting Geoscience Workforce Growth in a Dynamically Changing Economy CHRISTOPHER M. KEANE AND MAEVE BOLAND American Geosciences Institute email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
A Guide to Adequate Yearly Progress Analyses in Nevada 2007 Nevada Department of Education Note: Additional information regarding AYP Results from 2003 through 2007 including a listing of each individual
Moving the Needle: Creating Better Career Opportunities and Workforce Readiness Austin ISD Progress Report 2013 A Letter to the Community Central Texas Job Openings More than 150 people move to the Austin
Building a Grad Nation Progress and Challenge in Ending the High School Dropout Epidemic Executive Summary Annual Update 2012 A report by Civic Enterprises Everyone Graduates Center at Johns Hopkins University
The Honorable Kevin Brady The Honorable Richard Neal Chairman Ranking Member Ways and Means Committee Ways and Means Committee United States House of Representatives United States House of Representatives
-6-525-2- HAZEL CREST SD 52-5 HAZEL CREST SD 52-5 HAZEL CREST, ILLINOIS and federal laws require public school districts to release report cards to the public each year. 2 7 ILLINOIS DISTRICT REPORT CARD
-6-525-2- Hazel Crest SD 52-5 Hazel Crest SD 52-5 Hazel Crest, ILLINOIS 2 8 ILLINOIS DISTRICT REPORT CARD and federal laws require public school districts to release report cards to the public each year.
Step Up to High School Chicago Public Schools Chicago, Illinois Summary of the Practice. Step Up to High School is a four-week transitional summer program for incoming ninth-graders in Chicago Public Schools.
Testimony to the U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions John White, Louisiana State Superintendent of Education October 3, 2017 Chairman Alexander, Senator Murray, members of the
2012 New England Regional Forum Boston, Massachusetts Wednesday, February 1, 2012 More Than a Test: The SAT and SAT Subject Tests 1 Presenters Chris Lucier Vice President for Enrollment Management, University
Wisconsin 4 th Grade Reading Results on the 2015 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Main takeaways from the 2015 NAEP 4 th grade reading exam: Wisconsin scores have been statistically flat
Critical Issues in Dental Education Effective Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Underrepresented Minority Students: Perspectives from Dental Students Naty Lopez, Ph.D.; Rose Wadenya, D.M.D., M.S.;
Rural Education in Oregon Overcoming the Challenges of Income and Distance ECONorthwest )'3231-'7 *-2%2') 40%22-2+ Cover photos courtesy of users Lars Plougmann, San José Library, Jared and Corin, U.S.Department
3 TRIAL URBAN DISTRICT ASSESSMENT (TUDA) RESULTS Achievement and Accountability Office December 3 NAEP: The Gold Standard The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is administered in reading
Australia s tertiary education sector TOM KARMEL NHI NGUYEN NATIONAL CENTRE FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Paper presented to the Centre for the Economics of Education and Training 7 th National Conference
The Achievement Gap in California: Context, Status, and Approaches for Improvement Eva L. Baker, EdD - University of California, Los Angeles, Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing
TACOMA HOUSING AUTHORITY CHILDREN s SAVINGS ACCOUNT for the CHILDREN of NEW SALISHAN, Tacoma, WA last revised July 10, 2014 1. SUMMARY The Tacoma Housing Authority (THA) plans to offer individual development
ANALYSIS: LABOUR MARKET SUCCESS OF VOCATIONAL AND HIGHER EDUCATION GRADUATES Authors: Ingrid Jaggo, Mart Reinhold & Aune Valk, Analysis Department of the Ministry of Education and Research I KEY CONCLUSIONS
Lesson M4 page 1 of 2 Miniature Gulf Coast Project Math TEKS Objectives 111.22 6b.1 (A) apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace; 6b.1 (C) select tools, including
Creating Collaborative Partnerships: The Success Stories and Challenges Community College Center of Excellence Building a World Class Workforce Through Community College Partnerships Cari Mallory National
MAINE Suggested Citation: Institute for Research on Higher Education. (2016). College Affordability Diagnosis: Maine. Philadelphia, PA: Institute for Research on Higher Education, Graduate School of Education,
Research Update Educational Migration and Non-return in Northern Ireland May 2008 The Equality Commission for Northern Ireland (hereafter the Commission ) in 2007 contracted the Employment Research Institute
Table of Contents Section Page Internship Requirements 3 4 Internship Checklist 5 Description of Proposed Internship Request Form 6 Student Agreement Form 7 Consent to Release Records Form 8 Internship
NASWA SURVEY ON PELL GRANTS AND APPROVED TRAINING FOR UI SUMMARY AND STATE-BY-STATE RESULTS FINAL: 3/22/2010 Contact: Yvette Chocolaad Director, Center for Employment Security Education and Research National
Upward Bound Math & Science Program A College-Prep Program sponsored by Northern Arizona University New for Program Year 2015-2016 Students participate year-round each year beginning in 2016 January May
Dr. Doug Bennett, Superintendent 718 N Main St London, KY 40741-1222 Document Generated On January 13, 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 1 Description of the School System 2 System's Purpose 4 Notable
Why Graduate School? Deborah M. Figart, Ph.D., Dean, School of Graduate and Continuing Studies Message from the Dean Prospective Graduate Students: As an economist, I want to relate how crucial it is for
Reading First in Massachusetts Review of Student Assessment Data Presented Online April 13, 2009 Jennifer R. Gordon, M.P.P. Research Manager Questions Addressed Today Have student assessment results in
San Mateo Community College District External Trends and Implications for Strategic Planning Demographic Trends United States It is estimated that by 2025, the number of Americans over 60 will increase
Chapter Six The Non-Monetary Benefits of Higher Education This Chapter addresses the third objective of the thesis. The purpose of this chapter is to document some of the non-monetary benefits associated
EDELINA M. BURCIAGA 3151 Social Science Plaza Irvine, CA 92697-5000 email@example.com EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE, Irvine, CA Doctoral candidate, Department of Sociology. Expected graduation
Dr. Jason Adkins, Superintendent 1710 Alabama Avenue Jasper, AL 35501 Document Generated On November 3, 2016 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 1 Description of the School System 2 System's Purpose 4 Notable
Serving Country and Community: A Study of Service in AmeriCorps Cambridge, MA Lexington, MA Hadley, MA Bethesda, MD Washington, DC Chicago, IL Cairo, Egypt Johannesburg, South Africa A Profile of AmeriCorps
Fostering Equity and Student Success in Higher Education Laura I Rendón Professor Emerita University of Texas-San Antonio Presentation at NTCC 22 nd Annual Fall Leadership Conference Gainsesville, TX September
Student Aid Policy Analysis FY2007 2-year and 3-year Cohort Default Rates by State and Level and Control of Institution Mark Kantrowitz Publisher of FinAid.org and FastWeb.com January 5, 2010 EXECUTIVE
Getting Ready for the Work Readiness Credential: A Guide for Trainers and Instructors of Jobseekers October 2005 Getting Ready for the Work Readiness Credential: A Guide for Trainers and Instructors of
Trends in College Pricing 2009 T R E N D S I N H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N S E R I E S T R E N D S I N H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N S E R I E S Highlights Published Tuition and Fee and Room and Board
TEAM Evaluation Model Overview Evaluation closely links with Common Core Student Readiness for Postsecondary Education and the Workforce WHY we teach Common Core State Standards provide a vision of excellence
Comprehensive Assessment and Accountability System Year 1999-2000 Hale`iwa Elementary Grades K-6 Focus on Description Context: Setting Student Community Process: Process: Certified Facilities Outcomes:
The Condition of College and Career Readiness This report looks at the progress of the 16 ACT -tested graduating class relative to college and career readiness. This year s report shows that 64% of students
Student Mobility and Stability in CT A Report by Christine Mwaturura, Research Assistant, Partnership for Strong Communities Definitions Contrary to what many people assume, the mobility rate and the stability
School: District: Kenai Peninsula Grades: K - 12 School Enrollment: 20 Title I School? No Title 1 Program: Accreditation: Report Card for 2008-2009 A Title 1 school receives federal money in support low-achieving
PSSA Accommodations Guidelines for English Language Learners (ELLs) [Arlen: Please format this page like the cover page for the PSSA Accommodations Guidelines for Students PSSA with IEPs and Students with
Shelters Elementary School August 2, 24 Dear Parents and Community Members: We are pleased to present you with the (AER) which provides key information on the 23-24 educational progress for the Shelters
CAMPUS PROFILE MEET OUR STUDENTS Freshmen are defined here as all domestic students entering in fall quarter from high school. These statistics include information drawn from records available at UC Davis.
212-213 Report Card for Glenville High School SCHOOL DISTRICT District results under review by the Ohio Department of Education based upon 211 findings by the Auditor of State. Achievement This grade combines
THE ACCT 2016 INVITATIONAL SYMPOSIUM: GETTING IN THE FAST LANE Ensuring Economic Security and Meeting the Workforce Needs of the Nation Discussion Papers 2016 Invitational Symposium LEARNING WHILE EARNING
BOOM FOR WHOM? How the resurgence of the Bronx is leaving residents behind JULY 2008 A report of the Northwest Bronx Community & Clergy Coalition and the Community Development Project of the Urban Justice
Is Open Access Community College a Bad Idea? The authors of the book Community Colleges and the Access Effect argue that low expectations and outside pressure to produce more graduates could doom community
CONFERENCE PAPER NCVER What has been happening to vocational education and training diplomas and advanced diplomas? TOM KARMEL NATIONAL CENTRE FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH Paper presented to the National
Attachment PROG 10 STATE BOARD OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES Curriculum Program Applications Fast Track for Action [FTFA*] Request: The State Board of Community Colleges is asked to approve the curriculum programs