1 A Demographic and Socio-Economic Profile of Allen County, Indiana based on the 2010 Census and the American Community Survey Educational Attainment A Review of Census Data Related to the Educational Attainment of Allen County, Indiana Residents Prepared by The at IPFW June 2011
2 Table of Contents Less Than a High School Diploma by Census Tract... 2 Bachelor s Degree or Higher by Census Tract... 6 Education Attainment by Age Comparison in Education Levels Over Time Education by Race and Hispanic Origin Education by Sex and Race Other Education Statistics: Current High School Graduation Rates SAT Program Financial support for this project is provided by the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation Fund held at the Community Foundation of Greater Fort Wayne. Without the support of the Foundation this study would not have been possible. The also wishes to thank Paul Spoelhof, Senior Planner with the City of Fort Wayne Community Development Division, for his assistance on this project.
3 Educational Attainment 1 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Note: Unless otherwise noted, all educational data applies to the population age 25 and older ACS data is used in this analysis. The 2010 Census did not include any questions regarding education. Key Points: A greater percentage of the Allen County population have the Associate s degree as the highest level of educational attainment than the state or nation, but Allen County is lagging behind the state and nation in the percentage of the population with Master s degrees and above. There has been no change in the percent of the county with a master s degree and above since There is a difference in educational attainment by race and Hispanic origin. Asians in Allen County have achieved a Bachelor s degree or above at twice the county rate (46.3 percent of Asians in Allen County have a Bachelor s degree or higher, compared to the county average of 24.7 percent). Hispanics in Allen County not only have the lowest rate of obtaining a Bachelor s degree, but also the highest rate of not graduating from high school. There are some notable differences in the educational attainment levels by race and Hispanic origin and by sex. In general, more males have Bachelor s degrees and above than females, and this is especially true among Asians and American Indian/Alaskan Natives. A larger percentage of Hispanic females have some college, including Associate s degrees, when compared to Hispanic males. When comparing this recent data to the 2000 Census, there has been a noticeable downward trend in education for Hispanic women, especially compared to Hispanic male educational attainment. There are correlations found in census track data which support the general statements concerning educational attainment and income, or lack of income. Data from the ACS indicates Allen County s percentage of the population age 25 and over with at least a high school diploma is 87.9 percent, and that 24.7 percent in Allen County adults had completed a Bachelor s degree. Allen County lags the state and nation in the percentage of the population with a master s degree or higher. Chart 3.1 Comparison of Highest Education Levels Attained: Age 25 and Over Allen County, Indiana, and United States, Percent Attainment Less than high school diploma High school diploma, GED, equiv. Some College Associate's Degree Bachelor's Degree Master's & above Allen County 12.1% 32.1% 21.8% 9.2% % Indiana 14.3% % 7.2% % United States 15.4% 29.3% 20.3% 7.4% 17.4% 10.1%
4 Educational Attainment 2 Less Than a High School Diploma by Census Tract Table 3.1 and Figure 3.1 show by census tract the location of the 27,059 persons who are age 25 and over who do not have a high school diploma or equivalent in this ACS time period. From Figure 3.2, it can be seen that lack of a high school diploma is not just an inner-city problem. Allen County has a number of rural areas that have a large number of individuals who do not have high school diplomas. At least two of these tracts (101 and 109) are populated by the Amish 1, an Anabaptist religious sect who do not educate their children past the eighth grade. There are a number of Amish who live in northeast Allen County and concentrations of Amish contribute to a high level of those in the tract without a high school diploma. As might be expected, there is a correlation between income and education. Of the 31 tracts which are in poverty 2 or extreme poverty areas, all but two of those are also above the average in terms of their populations not having the county average of attaining a high school diploma. There are also 11 tracts which are not in poverty areas which have high percentages of non-diploma attainment: 7.03, 8, 9, 26, 33.01, 37, 39.01, 101, , , and 109. In some respects, improvement can be seen since the 2000 Census. There are fewer people without a high school diploma, a smaller percentage of the population, and fewer census tracts with a concentrated population with less than high school diploma attainment. However, this is a change which is mainly manifesting itself by a changing cohort, as discussed in a following section. The following changes can be seen by referencing Figure 3.2 which graphically shows the changes since The estimates that at least 10 percent of the populations in these tracts are Amish. 2 Reference Poverty Chapter
5 Educational Attainment 3 Table 3.1 Adults with Less than a High School Diploma in Allen County By Census Tract, ACS Tract Number Percentage Tract Number Percentage % % % , % % % % , % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % , % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Note: Census Tract 42 is excluded from analysis. See Appendix D.
6 Educational Attainment 4 Figure 3.1
7 Educational Attainment 5 Figure 3.2 The map above compares the census tracts on the basis of whether they are above or below the county average of 12.1 percent of the population (age 25 and over) without a high school diploma. It also identifies whether the tracts are becoming more educated in terms of achieving a high school diploma since Of the 89 census tracts analyzed for changes between 2000 and , 40 tracts were consistent in their percentage of the population who did not have a high school diploma (the blue tracts). One tract (39.01-in red) met this criterion in 2010 but not in the last census (i.e., the population has become more uneducated). Thirty-three tracts were consistent in being
8 Educational Attainment 6 below this cut-off in both periods, and 15 tracts improved their position relative to the high school diploma attainment (green). Bachelor s degree or Higher by Census Tract Table 3.2 and Figure 3.3 show by census tract the location of the 55,262 persons who are age 25 and over who have a Bachelor s degree or higher in this ACS time period. This represents 24.7 percent of the population who are age 25 and over. Fifty-eight of the 89 tracts analyzed in Allen County have not met the average attainment level in achieving a bachelor s degree in either census period, and three more did not meet this average county-wide level in , although they did in These are the blue and red tracts in Figure 3.4. The tracts which had higher percentages of their population with a bachelor s degree are concentrated in the Aboite area and the mid-north areas of the county.
9 Educational Attainment 7 Table 3.2 Adults with Bachelor s degree or Better in Allen County By Census Tract, ACS Tract Number Percentage Tract Number Percentage , % , % , % % % , % , % % , % % , % % , % % % , % % % , % % , % % , % % , % % % % 32 1, % % % % % , % , % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % 109 1, % % % % % % % % Note: Census Tract 42 is excluded from analysis. See Appendix D.
10 Educational Attainment 8 Figure 3.3
11 Educational Attainment 9 Figure 3.4
12 Educational Attainment 10 Education Attainment by Age While data is available by census tract in the ACS for educational attainment by age, the margins of error are high and therefore census tract data will not be reported or analyzed. Data by age group for Allen County is shown in Table 3.3 as well as the comparison data for Indiana and the United States. Note that the ACS does provide data for the age group 18-24, but due to the age differences across the country for the age when children can begin school, this comparison is not helpful across different geographical areas. Table 3.3 Age Group Allen County Indiana US HS Diploma: % 87.4% 86.6% % 88.9% 87.2% % % 65 and over 78.3% 74.8% 74.2% Bachelor's Degree % 25.8% % 24.2% 30.2% % 22.6% and over 17.7% 14.2% 19.3% Source: ACS Would we have expected a higher percentage of Bachelor s degrees for those aged in Allen County since it is one of the larger urban areas in the state? Maybe this is indicative of the job mix in our area. When we look at the categories Some college, no degree and Associate s degree (Table 3.4), Allen County has a significantly higher percentage of its population age with those attainment levels. Some college, no degree includes many types of levels; for example, those who may just need a course, a one-year program of study, or a certification are included in this category in addition to those who do not complete their Associate s or Bachelor s degree. Table 3.4 Age Group Allen County Indiana US Some College, No Degree: 24.2% 22.1% 21.3% Associate s Degree: % 7.2% Comparison in Education Levels Over Time As was found with our 2003 report 3, the level of education has continued to rise as the older and less educated cohort is replaced by a younger and more educated group. For example, in 2009, almost 90 percent of Allen County high school seniors graduated within four years (see recent graduation rates later in this chapter). Add to this the fact that many of those who did not graduate eventually do obtain the GED and are then included among the ranks of those with a high school diploma or better. When we consider that in 1970, over 40 percent of Allen County s population who were age 25 and above had not achieved a high school diploma, we can see that as the younger cohort replaces these individuals, the high school attainment rate should remain at least in the range it is now. As school systems address the issue of graduation, this metric may indeed rise. As shown in Charts 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4, the percentage of the population achieving a Bachelor s degree has progressed steadily throughout the recent decades. 3 A Demographic Profile of Allen County. The. May 2003.
13 Educational Attainment 11 Highest Level Attained Education Levels: Age 25 and Over Using Data from 1980, 1990, 2000 Decennial Census and ACS Note that 1980 Census reported years of school completed, and we cannot confirm the actual completion of degrees, and therefore no data is given. Chart 3.2 Percent Attainment Chart 3.3 Percent Attainment Less than high school diploma High school diploma, GED, equiv. Associate's or Some College Bachelor's Degree Master's & above % 41.2% % % 12.1% 6.9% % 31.9% % % 32.1% % Less than high school diploma High school diploma, GED, equiv. Allen County Indiana Associate's or Some College % 41.7% 12.1% Bachelor's Degree Master's & above % 38.2% 21.9% 9.2% 6.4% % 37.2% % 7.2% % % % Chart 3.4 Percent Attainment Less than high school diploma High school diploma, GED, equiv. United States Associate's or Some College % 34.6% 15.7% Bachelor's Degree Master's & above % % 13.1% 7.2% % 28.6% 27.4% % % 29.3% 27.7% 17.4% 10.1%
14 Educational Attainment 12 An additional chart is provided for Allen County to show the break out for associate degrees. This break out was not available in censuses prior to Chart 3.5 Percent Attainment Less than high school diploma Allen County Education Levels: Age 25 and Over 1990, 2000, and High school diploma, GED, equiv. Some College Associate's Degree Bachelor's Degree Master's & above % % 8.4% 12.1% 6.9% % 31.9% 22.9% 8.1% % % 32.1% 21.8% 9.2% % Although Allen County still lags the nation in the percentage of population with a Bachelor s degree, it has improved its relative position to the nation (see charts above). Unfortunately, the reverse is true for advanced degrees: Allen County has increased from 6.9 percent to 7.7 percent while the US average is now at 10.1 percent, up from 7.2 percent in Perhaps the more telling observations lie with the comparison to our own state. Indiana s percent of population with a Bachelor s degree was 9.2 percent in The recent ACS data indicated that 14.0 percent of Hoosiers now have a Bachelor s degree a 5.2 point increase from 1990 and while still below the percentage in Allen County. While the percentage point gain is similar in Allen County, Allen County is a major urban center in Indiana. At the master s level and above, a more pronounced difference is seen. The state increased its percentage of highly educated individuals faster than Allen County-a gain of 1.5 percentage points since 1990 compared to Allen County s 0.8 percentage point increase. Changes at the national level still out-pace the state of Indiana and also the county (reference charts 3.2 to 3.4). Education by Race and Hispanic Origin There are two racial groups, along with those of Hispanic origin, in which high numbers of that race are not obtaining a high school diploma in the same proportion as other races in Allen County: Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander and Some other race. Chart 3.6 below presents this graphically 4. Additionally, over 41 percent of those of Hispanic origin had less than a high school diploma. The number of persons in Allen County reporting their 4 See Appendix B for explanations on race. Abbreviations used here include: AIAN=American Indian Alaskan Native; NHPI=Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; SOR=Some Other Race. Hispanic is not a race, and responses from those who indicated a Hispanic origin identify any of the races shown as best describes their race. The Census included the option Some other race for respondents who were unable to identify with the five Office of Management and Budget race categories. In 2000, the Census observed that frequent write-in entries included Moroccan, South African, or a Hispanic origin as some other race. (Reference Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin Census 2000 Brief issued March 2001).
15 Educational Attainment 13 race as Native Hawaiian is low, less than 0.1 percent and therefore we are not reporting any numbers associated with education beyond high school since the margins of error are so high. Some other race is chosen by those who feel their race is not identified as an option, has been shown (see Population Chapter, section on Hispanic) to have a high relationship to those of Hispanic origin, and given the very close response rates between Hispanic and Some other race, this may very well be the case in Allen County. Chart 3.6 Educational Attainment in Allen County By Race and Hispanic Origin, ACS 6 5 White Black AIAN Asian NHPI SOR See Footnote B in this section or Appendix B for race abbreviations and explanations. NHPI data for Some College or Associate Degree and Bachelor s or Above is not reported due to a high margin of error. A high percentage of Asians continue to obtain a Bachelor s degree or higher 5. The average in Allen County for this level is 24.7 percent; Asians almost double this at 46.3 percent attainment. The White race was slightly higher than average with 26.3 percent, and all other races and origin are closer to one half of the average, although American Indian is very low at 7.9 percent. Since 1980, changes can be seen in educational levels within races and Hispanic origin. This is summarized in Charts 3.7 to Due to the errors inherent with dealing with smaller populations, only the White, Black, and Asian races are reviewed, along with those of Hispanic origin. The White and Black races both have improved levels of the category less than a high school diploma, and both have increased their percentage of the population with a Bachelor s degree or above. While the percentage of Blacks with a bachelor s or above lags the White rate in obtaining a Bachelor s degree, the rate of change for the 2 or More White, non Hispanic Hispanic Less than HS diploma 10.2% 19.8% 14.3% 20.8% 52.6% 39.8% 13.9% 9.4% 41. HS diploma 31.9% 35.3% 48.2% 16.2% 28.9% 29.1% 46.4% 32.2% 27.9% Some college or associate degree 31.6% 32.9% 29.6% 16.6% 17.2% 27.2% 31.8% 20. Bachelor's or above 26.3% % 46.3% 13.9% % 10.1% 5 In 2000, 40 percent of the Asian population in Allen County had a bachelor s degree or higher.
16 Educational Attainment 14 Black population, from 8 percent in 1990 to 12 percent of the population in , has been changing faster than the White population during this period. Blacks have also increased their percentage of those with some college or an Associate s degree, while the change in the White race has been almost stagnant. Blacks still have twice the percentage of population without a high school diploma than Whites. Perhaps due to a changing population attributable to migration, the same observations cannot be made for the Asian and Hispanic populations. While the percent of Asians without a high school diploma is approximately that of the Black population (20 percent), it has not changed appreciably in twenty years. On the other hand, Asians have had the highest percentage of population with a bachelor s or higher degree, and that margin continues to grow. The educational attainment levels for Hispanics continue to be problematic. More than 40 percent of Allen County Hispanics do not have a high school diploma, and this has not changed much in the last 20 years; as a matter of fact, it is five percentage points worse in the period compared to The levels of high school completion and some college, including attaining an Associate s degree is below the county average and has not improved over time. HIGHEST EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT LEVELS Chart 3.7 Percent Attainment Chart 3.8 Percent Attainment Less than HS diploma Education Levels in Allen County: Age 25 and Over Race: White 1990, 2000, and HS Diploma Some College or Associate's Bachelor's & Above % 33.9% % 31.4% 24.2% % 31.9% 31.6% 26.3% Less than HS diploma Education Levels in Allen County: Age 25 and Over Race: Black 1990, 2000, and HS Diploma Some College or Associate's Bachelor's & Above % 26.9% % 30.8% 9.6% % 35.3% 32.9% 12.
17 Educational Attainment 15 Chart 3.9 Percent Attainment Less than HS diploma Education Levels in Allen County: Age 25 and Over Race: Asian 1990, 2000, and HS Diploma Some College or Associate's Bachelor's & Above % 19.8% 21.7% 35.8% % 18.9% 20.2% 39.8% % 16.2% 16.6% 46.3% Chart 3.10 Percent Attainment Less than HS diploma Education Levels in Allen County: Age 25 and Over Hispanic Origin 1990, 2000, and HS Diploma Some College or Associate's Bachelor's & Above % 26.8% 27.6% 9.6% % 27.1% 21.6% 7.8% % % Education by Sex and Race When educational attainment is broken down by sex and by race, there are significant differences between the sexes in almost every race. Only in the White race and in Some other race were the two sexes approximately equal in educational attainment. The data is summarized in charts Note that two averages are also supplied for each educational attainment: the overall average, i.e. the number of that sex meeting the definition/constraint/criterion to the total of that sex, and an average which excludes the white race since that race is so dominant it might obscure other observations. Example for chart interpretation: Chart 3.11: Of all males in Allen County over age 25, 12 percent did not have a high school diploma during this Census period. Of all Asian males, 20.9 percent did not have a high school diploma.
18 Educational Attainment 16 HIGHEST EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT LEVELS Chart AVG LESS THAN HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA BY SEX AND RACE AVG w/o white White Black AIAN Asian SOR 2 or More Hispanic Male % 17.1% 10.7% 20.9% 38.7% 17.8% 42.8% Female 12.3% 23.4% 10.2% 22.1% 17.6% 20.8% 41.3% 9.2% 39.9% Note that Native Hawaiian Other Pacific Islander is not included in the above chart. Although the error rate is high among this population due to its small numbers, indications are that the educational attainment of male NHPI in Allen County without a high school diploma is a very high proportion of that population (77.5 percent of male NHPI and 31.2 percent of females may not have a high school diploma). Chart High School Diploma by Sex and Race 5 AVG AVG w/o white White Black AIAN Asian NHPI SOR 2 or More Hispanic P Chart 3.13 Male % 40.2% 50.2% 10.2% % 48.3% 30. Female 31.7% % 46.4% % 25.2% AVG Some College, including Associate Degree, by Sex and Race AVG w/o white White Black AIAN Asian NHPI SOR 2 or More Hispanic Male % 29.8% 29.1% % 16.2% 22.7% 16.6% Female 32.9% 30.9% 33.3% % 14.4% 18.6% 32.7% 25.4% P NHPI data is not reported due to a high margin of error.
19 Educational Attainment 17 Chart Bachelor Degree or Higher by Sex and Race NHPI data is not reported due to a high margin of error. In general, males attained a bachelor degree or better at a higher rate than females. There was a slight advantage to females in the following races/ethnic origin groups: Some other race, Two or more, and Hispanic. The data for each sex, along with the two averages, is aggregated for a different view in the charts below. Chart 3.15 P 5 AVG AVG w/o white White Black AIAN Asian NHPI SOR 2 or More Hispanic Male % 28.1% 13.6% 13.6% 50.1% 13.2% 11.2% 10.1% Female 23.1% 15.2% % 2.7% 42.3% 14.8% 14.1% 10.2% Education Levels of Females in Allen County by Race/Origin Less than HS Diploma HS Diploma Some College, incl Assc. Degree Bachelor Degree or Higher AVG 12.3% 31.7% 32.9% 23.1% AVG w/o white 23.4% % 15.2% White 10.2% % 24. Black 22.1% 31.2% % AIAN 17.6% 46.4% 33.3% 2.7% Asian 20.8% % 42.3% NHPI 31.2% 34.4% SOR 41.3% 25.2% 18.6% 14.8% 2 or More 9.2% % 14.1% Hispanic 39.9% % 10.2%
20 Educational Attainment 18 Chart Education Levels of Males in Allen County by Race/Origin Less than HS Diploma HS Diploma Some College, incl Assc. Degree Bachelor Degree or Higher AVG AVG w/o white % 18.1% White 10.2% 31.9% 29.8% 28.1% Black 17.1% 40.2% 29.1% 13.6% AIAN 10.7% 50.2% % Asian 20.9% 10.2% 18.8% 50.1% NHPI SOR 38.7% 31.9% 16.2% 13.2% 2 or More 17.8% 48.3% 22.7% 11.2% Hispanic 42.8% % 10.1% NHPI data for Some College or associate degree and bachelor s or above is not reported due to a high margin of error. Since the 2000 Census, these have been some of the notable changes: Improving Educational Data: o Almost five percentage point increase in Black females with some college, including Associate s degree. o The Black race had a smaller percentage of males without a high school diploma, and an increase in the percentage of black males with a Bachelor s degree or better as well as a slight increase in the percentage of those with high school diploma. o Over 10 percentage point increase in the percentage of Asian females with a Bachelor s degree or higher. o For male Hispanics: a smaller percentage without a HS diploma, an improvement in the percentage of those with a HS diploma, and an increase in the percentage with a Bachelor s degree or better. o A slight decrease in both White males and females with less than a high school diploma Data which Indicates Allen County is sliding backwards in Educational Attainment: o More Hispanic females without a HS diploma and a smaller percentage with a HS diploma. There were not significant changes in either the white male or female attainment rates since Other races were not reviewed due to potentially large margins of errors.
21 Educational Attainment 19 Other Education Statistics: Current High School Graduation Rates Table 3.5 District High School Leo Jr./Sr. High School Heritage Jr./Sr. High School East Allen County Schools Paul Harding High School Woodlan Jr./Sr. High School New Haven High School Elmhurst High School North Side High School Fort Wayne Community Schools R. Nelson Snider High School South Side High School Wayne High School Northrop High School MSD Southwest Allen County Homestead Senior High School Northwest Allen County Schools Carroll High School Blackhawk Christian Jr-Sr HS Canterbury School Non-Public Schools Bishop Dwenger High School Bishop Luers High School Concordia Lutheran High School Allen County Average Indiana Average Statewide, graduation rates have been increasing in the past three years. Indiana did change its method of calculating high school grad rates 6, so these rates are not comparable to prior years. In terms of numbers, 3,449 Allen County students graduated within four years, and 474 did not in A small percentage of these nongraduates earned or will earn a Special Education Diploma. While a small percentage of those not graduating with their cohort group will get their GED within two years of what would have been their graduation year, it is not known what percentage eventually, i.e. at some point in their lives, get their GED. The Indiana Department of Education estimates that approximately one half of those who do not graduate with their cohort group will become drop-outs. 6 Indiana adopted the cohort rate methodology in 2003; therefore 2006 is the first year to reflect a graduation rate using this method.
22 Educational Attainment 20 SAT Program The SAT is one of the college entrance examinations offered nationwide. Most colleges and universities require that a student submit scores for either the SAT or the ACT, and the SAT is the more common entrance exam in Indiana. The score ranges from Non-public schools are not required to submit this information to the Indiana Department of Education and are therefore not reported. Table 3.6 District High School participation rate Leo Jr./Sr. High School % Heritage Jr./Sr. High School % East Allen County Schools Paul Harding High School Woodlan Jr./Sr. High School New Haven High School % Elmhurst High School % North Side High School % Fort Wayne Community Schools R. Nelson Snider High School South Side High School % Wayne High School % Northrop High School % MSD Southwest Allen County Homestead Senior High School % Northwest Allen County Schools Carroll High School % Indiana Average % US Average % Source: Indiana Dept. of Education To help put these scores into perspective, data is provided from four Indiana public universities regarding the scores for their entering Fall 2009 freshman class. The first number is the 25 th percentile and represents the number in which 25 percent of their students scored at or below, and the higher number is the 75 th percentile-that is, 25 percent of the students scored above this mark. Table 3.7 SAT Percentile Ranges for students entering Fall, 2009 IPFW Ball State Indiana University Purdue University Source: National Center for Education Statistics. Note: total range possible for SAT: