CVE301: Professional Skill and Ethics

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1 CVE301: Professional Skill and Ethics First Semester, October 2011 Lecture 8: Oral Presentation Prof. Sherif Ahmed Mourad

2 Steps of Delivering Oral Presentation 1. Initial planning 2. Preparation. 3. Practice. 4. Delivery. 5. After presentation.

3 1. Initial Planning The type of talk. The composition of the audience. The time allotted for the talk. Expectations concerning content.

4 Type of Talk Different talks have different purposes: Informal discussion. Seminar. Lecture. Conference/research paper. Job interview. The intent of a conference presentation is not the same as a presentation at a job interview. When in doubt, ask for guidance from your host.

5 Composition of the Audience The composition of the audience Students. Peers. Specialist. Seniors. Mixed. How many people will attend?

6 Audience action/reaction Conference audience will be specialized and knowledgeable, probably interested, can only act to adopt your idea or respond with suggestions. Funding audience may/may not be knowledgeable, definitely can act, likely to be skeptical. Thesis committee may not be knowledgeable or even interested, may be biased against topic, definitely can act (approve/disapprove). Public seminar: attendees did not come to hear technical details but to know how they will get affected by the project.

7 Time Allowed The time allotted for the talk: A long talk gives you more freedom to explore the topic. A short talk needs to be clear and concise.

8 Expectations of Content Is there a specific purpose for having you give a talk? Clarify expectations and address them during the presentation. Will you be presenting novel concepts to this audience, or building upon their prior knowledge? Either way, make sure you cover the basics clearly, and early in the talk, to avoid losing the audience.

9 2. Preparation Start preparing well in advance by thinking through what needs to be said. Develop a clear statement of the topic and its importance. Arrange material in a logical sequence (which may change as you develop the talk). Computer-based presentation programs (such as PowerPoint) can be wonderful timesavers.

10 2. Preparation Avoid using lists (First..., Second...); you may confuse listing systems. Determine transition elements which will help your audience to follow the link from one topic to the next. Run through the talk once, early. Go back and re-think the sequencing. Don't assume the audience will be familiar with basic concepts that form the foundation of your talk.

11 2. Preparation Attempt to identify problems or questions the audience may have and address them in the talk, before the audience has a chance to think of these things themselves. Determine which elements would benefit by being presented with visual aids. Proof-read your visuals! Do so while there is plenty of time to re-print any visual aids with errors. The earlier you start on the visuals, the better.

12 Four Simple Rules 1. Make it BIG 2. Make it SIMPLE 3. Make it CLEAR 4. Make it CONSISTENT

13 Make it Big Never prepare overheads directly from the text you wrote. If it looks right on the computer screen, it's probably too small. If it looks big, it's still too small.

14 Make it Big

15 Make it Simple Use no more than 6 lines of text per slide. Use no more than 7 words per line of text. Avoid using a number of text slides in a row during the presentation.

16 Make it Clear

17 Make it Clear

18 Make it Clear Verbal Support Examples. Stories. Statistics. Comparison. Citations.

19 Make it Clear Visuals Overhead Transparencies. Slides (35 mm film). Flip Charts. White/Chalk Board. Handouts. Data Show.

20 Working with graphics Don t assume the audience understands graphic. Explain key elements (symbols, axes, etc.). Explain the significance.

21 Quality of Visual Aids

22 Make it Consistent Provide a logical sequence and follow it. Use transitions to show how different stages are related. Do not vary the format (font, style, background, ).

23 Attention of Audience Almost everyone listens in the beginning. Halfway the attention may well have dropped to around 10-20%. At the end, many people start to listen again, particularly if you announce your conclusions, because they hope to take something away from the presentation

24 Attention of Audience The best approach is to divide your presentation in several parts, each ended by an intermediate conclusion. People in the audience who got distracted can always easily catch up with you, particularly if you outline the structure of your talk in the beginning

25 What Distracts Audience The speaker believes that all the background information needed to appreciate the meaning of his work is common knowledge The structure of the presentation is unclear, and consequently the line of reasoning is hard to follow. Visual aids (transparencies, slides) are inadequate, confusing, unreadable, too small, too crowded, etc

26 What Distracts Audience The speaker uses long, complicated sentences; he uses unnecessary jargon, abbreviations or difficult words. Even worse is when the speaker reads his speech from paper and forgets that written language is usually more formal and complicated than everyday conversations. Monotonous sentences, spoken either too fast or too slowly, lack of emphasis, unclear pronunciation, all make it difficult for the listeners to stay attentive.

27 3.Practice. Why Practice? To adjust your speech within the allowable time. To get familiar with the equipment. To be ready for questions.

28 3. Practice The most important preparation factor is to REHEARSE! Do so in private at first. Try the presentation in front of a few colleagues. Ask for feedback, then act on that information. If you start preparing early, you'll have plenty of time to refine the presentation based on your colleagues' feedback.

29 Practice makes perfect No matter how busy you are, make time for at least a few practice runs. A poorly presented talk reflects upon both you and your attitude towards the material and audience. Don't be fooled by people who claim to be able to throw together a talk at a moment's notice. Their talks are either disjointed and awkward, or talks that have had the rough edges removed by numerous prior presentations (i.e., dull and unexciting).

30 Hints for Good Practice Read through the text before you begin. Work at being relaxed. Breath slowly and deeply; project your voice. Practice making eye contact with your imaginary audience, but don't single out one individual. Your words will probably be different each time you practice, but try to stick to the general outline of your notes. Don't attempt to memorize your text.

31 Hints for Good Practice A tape recorder or videotape are useful tools. Look for variation in speed or tone, or for distracting fillers like 'um's (and 'like's and 'you know's). Avoid distracting mannerisms, e.g., don't pace or adjust your clothing. Make sure you are speaking to your audience, not to the floor, ceiling, or, especially, the projection screen. What you say should be readily understandable by the audience. Pay attention to diction; speak clearly and distinctly.

32 Jokes The set piece joke can work very well, but it can also lead to disaster. You must choose a joke which is apt, and one which will not offend any member of the audience. This advice tends to rule out all racist, sexist or generally rude jokes. Amusing asides are also useful in maintaining the attention of the audience, and for relieving the tension of the speech. If this comes naturally to you, then it is a useful tool for pacing your delivery to allow periods of relaxation in between your sign-posted major points.

33 Jokes

34 Jokes

35 The rule of Tell em o Tell em what you re going to tell em. o Tell em. o Tell em what you just told em.

36 Do not overload your presentation

37 4. Delivery Be well prepared. Contact with audience before presentation. Be enthusiastic. Mechanics (Body language). Speed. Encourage interaction/questions.

38 Presentation Mechanics Dress formal. You are the expert, do not read slides. Avoid Laser Light Shows. Learn to mask nerves.

39 Body Language Posture. Facial expressions. Hands. Voice. Eye Contact.

40 Speed Use a moderate natural rate of speech, not faster than 100 words per minute. No faster than one minute per slide. Feel free to skip some less important slides (details) instead of running out of time on conclusions.

41 Are you nervous? How to beat nervousness? remember that everyone in the audience are willing you to succeed. Relax: - deep breathing exercises. - visualizing a pleasant scene. - reliving a pleasant memory. - remembrance of Allah. -a cup of water might help.

42 Handouts If you provide the supplemental information during your presentation, then your audience will very likely read that information during your presentation, rather than listening to you. Hand out this information after you have completed your presentation. Or, hand it out at the beginning of your presentation and ask them not to read it until you have completed your presentation.

43 5. After Presentation Questions. Feedback.

44 Questions Always repeat each question so the entire audience knows what you've been asked. Before you answer, take a moment to reflect on the question. You show a degree of respect for the questioner, and you give yourself time to be sure you are answering the question that actually was asked.

45 Questions Wait for the questioner to finish asking the question before you begin your answer! The only exception is when it becomes necessary to break in on a vague, rambling question. If a question is asked during the talk, and it will clarify an ambiguity, answer it immediately. If you can't answer a question, just say so. You may offer to research an answer, then get back to the questioner later.

46 Post Presentation Evaluate your behavior. Take some notes. Ask others about your presentation.

47 The 10 Commandments for a bad talk I. Thou shalt not be neat. You shall not be neat II. Thou shalt not waste space. You shall not waste space. III. Thou shalt not covet brevity. You shall not try to be brief. IV. Thou shalt cover thy naked slides. You shall fill every part of the slide with information. V. Thou shalt not write large. You shall not write large.

48 The 10 Commandments for a bad talk VI. Thou shalt not use color. You shall not use color. VII. Thou shalt not illustrate. You shall not make use of visual aids. VIII. Thou shalt not make eye contact. You shall not look your audience in the eye. IX. Thou shalt not skip slides in a long talk. You shall not skip slides. X. Thou shalt not practice. You shall not practice.

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