2 Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Vision... 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Balanced Literacy... 3 Gradual Release of Responsibility... 9 Phonemic Awareness Phonics...13 Fluency...16 Vocabulary Comprehension Writing Content Area Literacy Glossary Professional References... 35
3 KINGS LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICT Introduction 1 The Kings Local School District has committed itself to ensuring that all students learn and grow academically. During the school year, a task force was assembled in order to focus efforts in the area of literacy, both within English Language Arts instruction and across the curriculum. This framework is the culmination of the efforts of this task force, as well as teachers, program coordinators, and administrators. The purpose of this framework is to guide and inform literacy instruction in every classroom within the district. In addition to careful examination of Ohio s Learning Standards, scientifically-based research representing the core components of literacy in the area of reading, writing, speaking, and listening was reviewed. The professional literature reviewed in the creation of this document is included in the references on the final page. The vision that grounds the contents of the framework is as follows: VISION In the Kings Local School District, we believe that teaching and promoting literacy is a shared responsibility. We understand and value the crucial role a family plays in supporting their child s literacy development. In order for all students to meet the threshold of college and career readiness, teachers must effectively and intentionally teach the literacy standards to each student. It is our collective responsibility to select rigorous teaching strategies and resources to provide opportunities for students to grow academically. Students need to have access to and read high quality informational and literature-based texts. In order to meet the demands of this task, regular high quality professional development is vital and will foster the necessary collaborative culture to prepare our students for various post-secondary options. Dedication to this vision of the teaching of literacy will contribute to making Kings Local School District one of the highest performing school districts in Ohio. A MULTI-TIERED SYSTEM OF SUPPORTS FRAMEWORK This framework represents Tier 1 instruction in Kings Local School District. Tiered instruction within a Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) model requires that instruction delivered to students varies on several dimensions that are related to the nature of student performance. At Tier 1, considered the key component of tiered instruction, all students receive instruction within an evidence-based, scientifically researched core program. The Tier 1 instructional program is synonymous with the core reading program and that is aligned with state standards. The intent of the core program is the delivery of a highquality instructional program in reading and writing. Although Ohio s Learning Standards designate WHAT is taught at each grade level and across the curriculum, this document outlines WHY specific components of literacy are prioritized, HOW the content is taught, and WHICH materials are utilized. The expectation is that if the Tier 1 program is
4 KINGS LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICT Introduction 2 implemented with a high degree of fidelity and by highly trained teachers, then up to 80% of the students receiving this instruction will show outcomes upon assessment that indicate a level of proficiency. All children receive Tier 1 instruction, but those children in need of supplemental intervention receive additional instruction and intervention at Tier 2 or Tier 3 within an MTSS framework. MATERIALS AND RESOURCES The Kings Local School District will use this as a guide for adopting materials and resources. Curriculum maps and assessment calendars should be referenced for adopted materials, the pacing of content, and dates for ongoing formative and summative assessments that will serve as additional guidance for instructional decisions.
5 Introduction A Balanced Literacy program is a balance between a whole language and phonics approach. The goal of a Balanced Literacy program is to include the strongest elements of each approach to literacy instruction. BALANCED LITERACY Purpose: 3 The overall purpose of balanced literacy instruction is to provide students with a differentiated instructional program which will support the reading and writing skill development of each individual. Students are taught to use Metacognitive Strategies including: Asking Questions Determining Text Importance Fix-Up Monitoring Making Connections Making Inferences Summarizing & Synthesizing Visualizing Students are also taught to use Comprehension Strategies including: Analyzing Character Analyzing Story Elements Analyzing Text Structure & Organization Comparing & Contrasting Distinguishing & Evaluating Fact & Opinion Drawing Conclusions Evaluating Author s Purpose Indentifying Cause & Eﬀect Indentifying Main Idea & Supporting Details Identifying Sequence of Events Interpreting Figurative Language Making Inferences Making Judgments Making Predictions Summarizing Information Using Graphic Features Using Text Freatures
6 BALANCED LITERACY Introduction Components: 1. Read Aloud - During read-aloud, the teacher reads text (book, poem, article) to the entire class. An effective Read Aloud has several instructional purposes including: To build book and print awareness in Kindergarten by modeling reading behaviors, such as handling a book and reading from top to bottom and left to right To develop phonological and phonemic awareness in Kindergarten and First Grade by choosing some books with rhyming or predictable patterns To model reading accuracy and fluency for all students by giving them the opportunity to hear the teacher read quickly, expressively, and with ease To develop all students listening and reading comprehension skills by asking questions and leading discussions about books before, during, and after reading and by exposing students to sophisticated vocabulary and sentence structure 2. Guided Reading - Guided Reading is a small group activity where more of the responsibility belongs to the student. Students read from leveled text. They use the skills directly taught during mini lessons, interactive read alouds and shared reading to increase their comprehension and fluency. The teacher is there to provide prompting and ask questions. Guided Reading allows for great differentiation in the classroom. Groups are created around instructional reading levels, and students move up when they note that the entire group is ready. During guided reading time the other students are engaged in reading workstations that reinforce various skills. They often work in pairs during this time. 3. Shared Reading - Shared Reading is when the students read from a shared text. Students and the teacher read aloud and share their thinking about the text. 4. Independent Reading - Independent Reading is exactly what it sounds like: students reading self-selected text independently. Students choose books based on interest and independent reading level. 5. Interactive Writing - Interactive Writing is a writing process used to teach (usually younger) students how to write. The process involves the sharing of a pen between the teacher and students. It can be done in a one-on-one private lesson with a student, or with a small group of students. 4
7 Introduction BALANCED LITERACY 6. Shared Writing - In Shared Writing, the teacher and students compose text together, with both contributing their thoughts and ideas to the process, while the teacher acts as scribe, writing the text as it is composed. Similar to Read Aloud, Shared Writing can cover a wide variety of forms, purposes, and genres Word Study - In Word Study, for emergent and early readers, the teacher plans and implements phonics based mini lessons. After the teacher explicitly teaches a phonemic element, students practice reading and/or writing other words following the same phonemic pattern. For advanced readers, the teacher focuses on the etymology of a word. Students who are reading at this stage are engaged in analyzing the patterns of word derivations, root words, prefixes and suffixes. Implementation: Balanced Literacy is implemented through the Reading and Writing Workshop Model. The teacher begins by modeling the reading/writing strategy that is the focus of the workshop during a mini-lesson. Then, students read leveled texts independently or write independently for an extended period of time as the teacher circulates amongst them to observe, record observations and confer. At the culmination of the workshop session, selected students share their strategies and work with the class. Reading Workshop - In Reading Workshops, skills are explicitly modeled during mini lessons. The mini lesson has four parts- the connection, the teach (demonstration), the active engagement and the link. The teacher chooses a skill and strategy that she believes her class needs based on assessments she has conducted in her classroom. During the connection she connects prior learning to the current skill she is teaching that day. She then states the teaching point or the skill and strategy she is going to teach. She then shows kids how to do the skill by modeling the strategy in a book the students are familiar with. She often uses a "think aloud" to show students what she is thinking. Students then try that work out in their own books or in her book during the active engagement. During the link she reminds students of all the strategies they can do while they are independently reading. Writing Workshop - Writing Workshop follows the same flow as the Reading Workshop. Students are explicitly taught skills and strategies for writing during a mini-lesson. Then they go off and write independently. They choose the skills they are trying out that day. The teacher comes around and confers with students to help them with their goals.
8 Introduction BALANCED LITERACY Direct Instruction of Word Study- In Word Study, students are explicitely taught skills and strategies for understanding spoken words and decoding words in print and encoding words used in writing. 6
9 Introduction BALANCED LITERACY CHARACTERISTICS OF BALANCED LITERACY IN KINGS LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICT In each classroom, students are taught explicitly, systematically, and consistently how to understand and use the structure of language and how to construct meaning from various texts. Students read alone, are read to, and read with others daily. A variety of language experiences help students develop their language development and connect oral and written language. A critical component of Balanced Literacy is direct/ explicit instruction, appropriate to grade and student performance level, in the essential elements of literacy, as originally defined by the National Reading Panel Report (2000). The Kings Local School District embraces the following essential elements of literacy: Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Writing Students also read both orally and silently and are read to from a variety of high-quality increasingly complex fiction and informational texts at both independent and instructional levels across the curriculum. Beginning readers practice fluency in predictable texts and decodable texts with phonetically regular patterns. Students read both teacherassigned and self-selected literature and texts. In Balanced Literacy, students write daily to support and extend their knowledge of the structure of language and construct meaning. Appropriate and adequate resources, including technology that are readily available for instruction to students, teachers, and parents, can assist in the successful implementation of Balanced Literacy. Formal and informal assessments allow teachers to intervene early with appropriate instruction with students who are not progressing and help teachers make instructional decisions. 7
10 Introduction BALANCED LITERACY Balanced Literacy requires students to receive direct instruction in reading and writing, as well as to actively engage in actual reading and writing as individuals or as part of a small group. Time devoted to literacy instruction must meet the following requirements throughout the district: 8 Kindergarten through 4th Grade..Minimum of 120* minutes daily 5th through 8th Grade...Minimum of 60* minutes daily High School...Minimum of 1* academic bell daily *District level teams will consult research and best instructional practice to determine appropriate time frames necessary to teach each component of the Kings Balanced. In taking time constraints into consideration, teachers should consider integrating other content literacy materials, when appropriate, as part of their literacy block of instruction. The use of such materials will support and encourage student literacy in expository or non-fiction texts and corresponding comprehension skills. Content area teachers in grades 6-12 also have a requirement to meet Ohio s Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects. Guidelines for 6-12 grade content area teachers are provided within a separate section of this document.
11 Introduction GRADUAL RELEASE OF RESPONSIBILITY GRADUAL RELEASE OF RESPONSIBILITY 9 An approach to scaffolding instruction termed A Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility (Fisher & Frey 2008) will be applied to Balanced Literacy in all classrooms. The important components of this model include a Focus Lesson ( I do it ), Guided Instruction ( We do it ), Collaborative Learning ( You do it together ), and Independent Tasks ( You do it alone ). Focus Lesson: The Focus Lesson is the first component in The Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility. Other names for this are modeling, direct instruction, explicit instruction, or teacher instructed mini-lessons. Guided Instruction: Guided Instruction is the second component in The Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility. The goal is to guide students toward using different skills, strategies and procedures independently. The student will assume more responsibility with less support from the teacher. Collaborative Learning: Collaborative Learning is the third component of The Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility where students work with partners or in groups on activities that allow them to deepen their understanding through application of the concept being learned. This stage of the framework is the beginning of the transfer of responsibility from the teacher to the students. Independent Tasks: Independent Tasks are included in the last component of The Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility. These tasks provide students with the opportunity to employ what they have learned in a new situation. Students can be given a variety of independent tasks, but the assignments should reflect the other components of The Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility.
12 Research PHONEMIC AWARENESS Phonemic Awareness is a component of Phonological Awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. Separating the spoken word "cat" into three distinct phonemes, /k/, /a/, and /t/, requires Phonemic Awareness. 10 Phonemic Awareness is the awareness that words are composed of sounds/phonemes and that those sounds/phonemes have distinct features. It also includes the ability to focus on and manipulate sounds/phonemes in spoken words. Students must be able to manipulate sounds/phonemes in order to become fluent readers. The goal of Phonemic Awareness instruction is to help students identify and manipualte the sounds they hear. This is purely an auditory skill. Standards Connection In Ohio, Phonemic Awaereness is a component of the Phonological Awareness Standards within the Foundational Skills strand. According to Ohio s Learning Standards, students in Kindergarten and First Grade will demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). The Ohio Learning Standards for Kindergarten state, students are expected to: a. Recognize and produce rhyming words. b. Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words. c. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words. d. Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words. e. Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words. The Ohio Learning Standards for First Grade state, students are expected to: a. Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words. b. Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends. c. Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words. d. Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).
13 Instructional Components PHONEMIC AWARENESS The Key Components of Phonemic Awareness include: 11 Concept of Spoken Word (PreK/K) Ryme REcognition (PreK/K) Rhyme Comletion (PreK/K) Rhyme Production (PreK/K) Alliteration Repetition (PreK/K) Alliteration Creation (PreK/K) Syllable Blending (K) Syllable Segmentation/Counting (K) Syllable Deletion (K) Phomene Isolation of Initial Sound (K) Phoneme Isolation of Final Sound (K/1st) Phoneme Blending ~ Onset and Rime (1st) Phoneme Blending ~ All Phonemes (1st) Phoneme Segmentation (1st) Phoneme Deletion of Initial Sound (1st) Phoneme Deletion of Final Sound (1st/2nd) Adding Phonemes (1st/2nd) Phoneme Substitution of Initial Sound (1st/2nd) Classroom Application What teachers are doing during Phonemic Awareness instruction: Teachers are using poems, songs, work centers, games, small group lessons, and whole group activities in the classroom to help teach and support Phonemic Awareness using a multi-sensory approach. What students are doing during Phonemic Awareness instruction: Students are actively listening, participating, and interacting with the teacher and peers in a variety of Phonemic Awareness activities.
14 Other Considerations PHONEMIC AWARENESS Phonemic Awareness should be taught daily to students in Kindergarten and First Grade. Based on individual student assessment data and progress monitoring of specific skills, some students will need additional or more intensive instruction in Phonemic Awareness. 12
15 Research PHONICS Phonics instruction is based on the belief that a strong foundation in understanding Phonics and the alphabetic principle teaches students the relationship between the letters of written language and the individual sounds of spoken language. The National Reading Panel states that the primary focus of phonics instruction is to help beginning readers understand how letters are linked to sounds (phonemes) to form letter-sound correspondences and spelling patterns and to help them learn how to apply this knowledge in their reading. Readers skilled in Phonics can sound out or decode words they haven t seen before, without first having to memorize them. The goal of Phonics instruction is to help students learn and use the alphabetic principle and understand that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken words. Since students possess varying phonics skills, instruction must be differentiated to meet the needs of each and every learner. Standards Connection The Ohio Learning Standards state students in Kindergarten through Fifth Grade must know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. This information is found within the Foundational Skills strand. Instructional Components Letter Recognition- Students discriminate between the shapes of different letters, identify letter names, and match lowercase and uppercase letter names. Letter-Sound Correspondence- Students give the sounds/phonemes represented by individual letters, identify the letters associated with individual sounds/phonemes, and blend these together to form simple words. Syllable Patterns- Students learn common rules for dividing syllables in order to read and spell multisyllabic words. Students will blend sounds and segment syllables words that include the following syllable patterns: closed, open, consonant-le, vowel-consonant-e, vowel team, and r-controlled. 13 Word Analysis- Students use phonics decoding skills through extensive practice and instruction that involves relatively simple relationships in simple words. As students become more skilled, they progress to increasingly complex patterns of letter sounds and words.
16 Classroom Application PHONICS What teachers are doing during Phonics instruction: 14 Using a variety of literature to explicitly note phonics patterns through modeling (nursery rhymes, songs, poetry, nonfiction texts, fiction texts) Using a variety of interactive approaches (movement, songs, games) Guiding students in applying phonics skills in reading and writing experiences to develop decoding skills Providing explicit skill instruction Facilitating opportunities for the use of technology to practice phonics skills Modeling the use of phonics manipulatives. Effective manipulatives include: letter tile boards, syllaboards, flash cards, word family card sets Teaching spelling by decomposing the word into syllables and then connecting those syllables to familiar sound patterns, rhyme, prefixes, suffixes, and root words Administering appropriate assessments to guide differentiated instruction What students are doing during Phonics instruction: Participating in songs, chants, and motions Exploring letters, words, and letter parts through interactive practice Engaging in individualized and/or small group instruction at their own pace while using manipulatives and leveled texts Completing independent practice to apply skills that were modeled by the teacher Identifying spelling patterns and connecting them to both reading and writing Using technology to practice phonics skills Manipulating letter tiles, syllaboards, flash cards and other hands-on materials Practicing spelling by applying spelling patterns in writing as they are introduced Engaging in phonics assessments adminis tered by the teacher
17 Other Considerations Spelling Patterns/Rules- In the early grades, spelling instruction, particularly the teaching of common spelling patterns and generalizations, is embedded within Phonics instruction and practiced and applied during Writing instruction. PHONICS Teachers in grades K-2 will provide systematic Phonics instruction daily through the direct teaching of letter sound relationships in a defined sequence, outlined in the curriculum materials and curriculum maps. A Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility begins with explicit instruction and moves students to independent use of a skill, particularly in the early primary years. 15 As students have mastered foundational phonics skills, instruction in grades 3-5 becomes based in word work within the literacy block and instruction begins to focus more on Word Analysis. Word Analysis instruction includes: word parts, compound words, prefixes, suffixes, and multi syllable words. A small percentage of students will need additional intervention within an MTSS framework.
18 Research Fluency includes reading rate (pace), automatic word recognition, and prosody, or the ability to read in expressive, rhythmic, and melodic patterns with phrasing. It is not just decoding, but also includes quickly processing larger language units. Repeated practice is the essential component of improving fluency. Students require explicit instruction, practice and support from peers and teachers to improve their fluency and aide in comprehension. Fluency develops over time and varies according to text difficulty and genre. Mastering fluency at grade level allows students to understand and comprehend what they read. FLUENCY There is little evidence to confirm that instructional time spent on silent, independent reading with minimal guidance and feedback improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement. For this reason, Fluency activities should be teacher guided and supported. Fluency practice is effective for readers of all ability levels and all grade levels. It is important to ensure that students have texts at appropriate reading levels. Students should be given opportunities to practice fluency with text on their independent reading level and, with teacher facilitation, on their instructional reading level. Guidelines are as follows: Independent Level: (95% or higher text accuracy) Instructional Level: (90-94% accuracy) Frustration Level: (89% or lower accuracy) Standards Connection The Ohio Learning Standards state students in Kindergarten through Fifth Grade must read with suﬃcient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. This information is found within the Foundational Skills strand. Although there are not designated standards for grades 6-12 in the area of Fluency, students that have not mastered grade level fluency will struggle with comprehension. For this reason, it is important that all students continue to practice Fluency. Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions in Fluency are also appropriate within a MTSS framework for students in grades The Common Core Standards initiative introduced the concept of text complexity. In order for students to become fluent readers of grade level text, they must be reading text at the
19 Standards Connection FLUENCY appropriate level of complexity. A three-part model for measuring text complexity includes: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Reader and Task considerations. (1) Qualitative Considerations - These are best measured or only measurable by an attentive human reader. Examples include: levels of meaning/purpose, structure, language conventionality, language clarity, and knowledge demands. (2) Quantitative Considerations - These are measured by word length or frequency, sentence length, and text cohesion, and are difficult if not impossible for a human reader to evaluate eﬃciently, especially in long texts. Today, Quantitative considerations are typically measured by computer software. (3) Reader and Task Considerations - These variables are specific to particular readers (such as motivation, background knowledge, and experiences) and to particular tasks (such as purpose and the complexity of the task assigned and the questions posed) must also be considered when determining whether a text is appropriate for a given student. Such assessments are best made by teachers employing their professional judgment, experience, and knowledge of their students and the subject. Instructional Components To build fluency, teachers will use a combination of the following strategies within Tier 1/Core instruction: Repeated Readings-Students read passages aloud several times and receive guidance and feedback from the teacher. Model or Echo Reading-The model reader reads the passage first using fluency and expression. Next the student reads it as quickly and accurately as they can without speed reading. 17
20 Instructional Components Choral Reading- Students preview a passage and make predictions about the passage. Then the teacher reads the passage aloud-first by him/herself and then with the class. Next the teacher fades his/her voice and allows the students to take the lead. Partner Reading- Students read and reread passages with classmates. Students continue taking turns until they complete the text. Recorded Readings- Students listen to books on tape, CDs, or computer-books read aloud. Students follow the text and read along. FLUENCY Readers Theater- Students rehearse the script from a book, play, short story, or poem on their instructional level until they are highly fluent and read with prosody (expression). Then they perform for a small group, class, or other audience. 18 Classroom Application What teachers are doing during Fluency instruction: Teaching students explicitly to engage in repeated readings, model/echo reading, choral reading, and reader s theater Facilitating students in partner reading activities Providing opportunities for students to engage in recorded readings and listen to read alouds Providing students with opportunities for repeated oral readings with explicit instruction that includes support and feedback Determining students reading levels and ensuring that texts are matched to reading levels Having students reread the same passage Applying systematic practices in classrooms to instruct and monitor student progress Modeling eﬀortless, expressive reading daily across the curriculum in all settings What students are doing during Fluency instruction: Engaging in activities/strategies including the following: -repeated readings -model or echo reading -choral reading -partner reading -recorded readings -reader s theater Listening to teachers read aloud, model ing fluent reading Completing fluency assessments adminis tered by the teacher Reading various genres in all content areas Practicing reading fluency with teacher and peer guidance Recognize examples of fluent reading models across the curriculum. Working in small group on fluency activities led by the teacher and/or other model readers
21 Other Considerations Students in Kindergarten and First Grade who are not yet reading connected text should begin to practice fluency by becoming fluent in naming letters and reading or sight words fluently. FLUENCY Monitoring progress in Fluency should occur on a regular basis and more often with struggling readers. 19
22 Research VOCABULARY The acquisition of vocabulary is taught both directly and indirectly (in context) with emphasis on depth of understanding. This is done through intentional instruction and interaction with Tier, 1, 2, and 3 vocabulary terms, as defined by the work of Isabel Beck. These categories of words are: Tier 1 Vocabulary: Basic words that commonly appear in spoken language Tier 2 Vocabulary: High frequency words used by mature users across several content areas Tier 3 Vocabulary: Words that are not frequently used except in specific content areas or domains In addition, students should be instructed in standards-based academic terminology using practices in alignment with Marzano and Pickering six step process, including: 1. Provide a description, explanation or example 2. Ask students to restate or re-explain meaning in their own words 3. Ask students to construct a picture, graphic, or symbol for each word 4. Engage students in activities to expand their word knowledge 5. Ask students to discuss vocabulary words with one another 6. Have student play games with the words This six step process enhances students abilities to read and understand subject-area content and ultimately help them build a bank of academic background knowledge for all content areas. Standards Connection The Ohio Learning Standards include standards related to vocabulary for students in grades K-12. These standards are located within the Language Strand of Ohio s Learning Standards. 20
23 Instructional Components Classroom instruction of Tier 1, 2, & 3 vocabulary should be INTENTIONAL rather than INCIDENTAL. VOCABULARY Vocabulary instruction includes: 21 Independent and Guided Reading to expand word knowledge Instruction in specific words to enhance comprehension of texts containing those words Instruction in independent word-learning strategies Word consciousness and word-play activities to motivate and enhance learning Classroom Application What teachers are doing during Vocabulary instruction: What students are doing during Vocabulary instruction: Direct and explicit teaching of vocabulary in the context of quality literature and informational text Exposing students to wide variety of words across the curriculum Designing and implementing vocabulary activities aligned with Marzona s six step process, utiliizing a multisensory approach Learning and using a wide variety of vocabulary Applying word knowledge to reading and writing activities (ie. sentence stems) Making explicit connections with background knowledge and word knowl edge to determine the meaning of unknown words Stating and re-explaining meaning of vocabulary in their own words Constructing pictures, graphics, or symbols for each word Taking notes and using graphic organizers Discussing vocabulary words with peers Playing games Using an increasingly more complex vocabulary daily in peer and teacher discussions
24 Other Considerations VOCABULARY In addition to the vocabulary words that are taught authentically and in context, teachers should refer to the Kings Local Curriculum Maps for specific lists of words and word parts to be addressed at each grade level. 22
25 COMPREHENSION Research Comprehension is the essence of reading. It involves active and intentional thinking in which meaning is constructed. Students must be taught to use varied Metacognitive Strategies, including predicting, analyzing stories with respect to story elements, asking questions, visualizing, summarizing & synthesizing, and more. Students should be encouraged to monitor their comprehension, noting explicitly whether the text makes sense. According to Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis research, true comprehension involves the reader s interaction with the text, going beyond simply literal understanding. In order for students to become thoughtful, insightful readers, they must extend their thinking beyond a superficial understanding of the text. In order to foster development of comprehension, teachers s use direct explanation, modeling, coaching, and scaffolding practices with an emphasis on collaborative discussion to help students understand and apply comprehension strategies (National Reading Panel, 2000). Current research supports teachers and students engaging in close reading experiences as a method for teaching and practicing comprehension. Standards Connection The Ohio Learning Standards include standards related to comprehension for students in grades K-12. These standards are located within the Language Strand of Ohio s Learning Standards in the Reading: Literature and Reading: Information Text strand. Instructional Components According to Stephanie Harvey, and other experts in the field, comprehension instruction should be explicitly taught at every grade level and account for instruction in the following comprehension strategies: 23 Metacognition - Thinking about thinking Activating and Connecting Background Knowledge - Use what I already know to understand Fix-Up Monitoring - Use strategies to clarify understanding when my comprehension breaks down
26 Instructional Components COMPREHENSION Visualizing - Creating images in my mind as I read Questioning - Ask questions to understand what I am reading Inferring - Using my own schema and clues to understand Determining Importance - Think about the main idea Summarizing - Identify key elements and condense important information into my own words Synthesizing - Bring ideas together to make a new idea 24 Classroom Application What teachers are doing during Comprehension instruction: What students are doing during Comprehension instruction: Facilitating and directly teaching a MINILESSON Pre-teaching vocabulary and concepts Explicitly teaching (through modeling) the identified reading metagognitive & comprehension strategies to the whole class Actively participating in a MINI-LESSON Facilitating GUIDED PRACTICE Guiding practice of the reading metacognitive & comprehension strategies Actively listening to students read Informally assessing students applica tion of skills and strategies and provid ing additional support and guidance when necessary Conferencing with individual or small groups of students and/or holding teacher-directed reading groups Engaging in GUIDED PRACTICE Applying the identified reading metacognitive & comprehension strategies with teacher guidance Working towards mastery of the identified reading metacognitive & comprehension strategies Monitoring student productivity and intervening during INDEPENDENT PRACTICE and ASSESSMENT Administering assessments and making observations of students work, which may include recording anecdotal records Completing INDEPENDENT PRACTICE and ASSESSMENT Reading independently Independently applying the identified reading metacognitive & comprehen sion strategies Actively listening and observing Taking notes
27 Classroom Application COMPREHENSION What teachers are doing during Comprehension instruction: 25 Reviewing student work/assessment data to drive instruction Developing a plan to support students who are not showing mastery of identified reading metacognitive & comprehension strategies What students are doing during Comprehension instruction: Showing mastery of the identified reading comprehension strategies and skills Other Considerations Students should be given opportunities to read and respond to text at their independent reading level and to read (or be read to) and respond to text at their appropriate grade level. Literary and Informational text selections should be balanced across content areas throughout the instructional day. Informational text should be more heavily weighted in the upper grades.
28 Research WRITING Writing instruction is based on the belief that writing is a process and has an integral relationship with reading, speaking, and listening. Providing explicit and intentional writing instruction that creates authentic writing opportunities for students resides in models described by Atwell, Calkins, Harvey, Marzano, Bomer, Tovani and others. These models center around three basic elements: student choice in reading materials and writing topics; pacing that allows increased blocks of time for independent, small group and one-to-one learning (with less time devoted to whole group activities); and the establishment of a student-centered community where students and teachers share and support each other as they actively engage in literate behavior on a daily basis. Students should engage in writing to learn and writing to demonstrate knowledge. Written response is an essential means of making understanding and thinking visible. Writing can be as simple as recording thoughts or questions on sticky notes, keeping a journal or reader s notebook, or participating in a form of online discussion. It can and should also be formalized by purpose, process, or product. For younger learners, drawing is also a useful comprehension/meaning-making tool, allowing children to express understanding long before they can do so with written words. At all grade levels, teachers should use mentor texts as models of writing in a particular genre. Standards Connection The Ohio Learning Standards focus instruction on three genres of writing: narrative, informational, and argumentative. 26
29 Instructional Components WRITING Students in every classroom will: write (formally and/or informally) every day. be provided authentic opportunities to write. study and write a variety of genres and formats. write about their own experiences. receive feedback. use proper grammar conventions through daily writing opportunities. utilize mentor texts to study the craft of writing. be given the opportunity to choose their own topics, genres, and formats. 27 Classroom Application What teachers are doing during Writing instruction: What students are doing during Writing instruction: Facilitating and directly teaching a MINILESSON Explicitly teaching a writing skill Using a mentor text Modeling writing Charting characteristics of mentor texts Actively participating in a MINI-LESSON Actively listening and observing Taking notes Charting characteristics of mentor texts Facilitating GUIDED PRACTICE & INDEPENDENT WRITING Conferring Intervening with individuals or small groups Writing (modeling) Status of the class Engaging in GUIDED PRACTICE & INDEPENDENT WRITING Writing (prewriting, revising, drafting, editing, publishing, and sharing) Peer conferring Student-teacher conferring Reading/Annotating mentor texts Participating in discussion groups DEBRIEF Bringing class back together Tracking which/what students share Monitoring day s learning DEBRIEF Sharing successes Sharing writing out loud Asking questions Synthesizing practice with instruction Active listening/speaking Oﬀering feedback lines
30 Other Considerations Not all writing has to be graded. Students should write more than the teacher can ever read and/or grade. Formative Assessments includes: conferences, drafts/outlines, peer/self-evaluations, entrance/exit slips, and annotations. Summative Assessments include: final products, rubrics, peer/self evaluations, and common assessments. WRITING By the end of high school, narrative writing should only account for 20% of all writing experiences across the curriculum. 28
31 CONTENT AREA LITERACY Research 29 Teaching and promoting literacy is a shared responsibility across all content areas. Content area teachers should authentically teach reading and writing within their content area. Research shows that teacher integration of literacy-related instructional strategies facilitates student learning across all content areas. With the use of content-specific information, it is through the literacy skills of reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing and presenting that students acquire and retain content knowledge and content-specific abilities. Ohio s Learning Standards in English Language Arts also include standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects for grades The strategies outlined in this document would be effective for content teachers to implement in order to facilitate the mastery of these standards. The three areas of literacy instruction that have been detailed throughout the Kings that must be meaningfully incorporated into content area instruction are Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Writing. Fluency should also be regularly practiced with informational text selections in all content areas, but will be specifically taught and emphasized in Language Arts classrooms, particularly in grades K-5. Daily opportunities for reading and writing with explicit teacher direction should be afforded to students in all content area courses. Standards Connection Ohio s Learning Standards: Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects for grades 6-12 can be referenced at the following site: Instructional Components The instructional strategies provided in this section are not exhaustive, they are only representative of innumerable effective strategies a teacher may choose to use. Variety is key. The instructional strategies are specific to instruction in comprehension, vocabulary, and writing. Although these strategies should occur in all content area classrooms, additional reading and writing strategies are encouraged. The classroom teacher must determine the most effective instructional strategy for her/his students.
32 CONTENT AREA LITERACY Instructional Components 30 Strategies for use in content area course include: Close Reading Read Aloud/Think Aloud Annotating Text Partner Reading Frayer Model 3-Column Notetaking Word Sorts Brainstorming Outlining Graphic Organizers Pre-Writing Before, During, and After lesson sequence Classroom Application What teachers are doing during instruction: What students are doing during instruction: Requiring students to READ and WRITE daily READING and WRITING daily Implement Before, During, and After segments of lessons involving reading and writing Participating in Before, During, and After segments of reading and writing lessons Providing explicit instruction and practice in the use of comprehension strategies, including: Metacognition: thinking about thinking Activating and Connecting Background Knowledge: using what is already known to understand Visualizing: creating images while reading Questioning: asking questions to understand Inferring: using prior knowledge to understand Synthesizing: bringing ideas together Actively listening, participating, and interacting with the teacher and peers and applying the comprehension strategies including: Metacognition Activating and Connecting Background Knowledge Visualizing Questioning Inferring Synthesizing
33 Classroom Application CONTENT AREA LITERACY What teachers are doing during instruction: 31 Modeling effective reading of content area text selections through Close Reading strategies including: Reading passages aloud and thinking aloud to model comprehension processes and strategies orally for students Projecting text on SmartBoard and modeling how to underline or highlight key information and annotate the text in the margins Explicitly teach text structures Model the use of graphic organizers Facilitating quality, sustained, and frequent discussions of reading content What students are doing during instruction: Developing an understanding of how to use Close Reading for comprehending informational text selections Using graphic organizers to document comprehension of content area text selections Participating in quality, sustained, and frequent discussions of content from reading selections with teacher and peer guidance Reading orally with and listening to others read in a small group or with a partner Learning new vocabulary through direct instruction prior to encountering new words Engaging students in partner or small group in content area text reading of content area text selections Increasing vocabulary knowledge through Pre-teaching difficult or unfamiliar use of the Frayer Model and word sorts vocabulary Taking notes using consistent and effective Explicitly teaching vocabulary using the note-taking strategies Frayer Model and word sorts Modeling effective note taking strategies Explicitly teaching students to use pre-writing strategies including: brainstorming making lists developing outlines Using pre-writing strategies including: brainstorming making lists developing outlines Writing extended responses to content area text Modeling and explicitly teaching students to Taking assessments that require reading content area text and writing to demonwrite extended responses to content area strate knowledge gained from text text Using rubrics to guide reading and writing Administering assessments that requires students to read content area text and write along with content mastery to demonstrate knowledge gained from text Using rubrics to assess student reading and writing along with content mastery
34 Glossary of Terminology Anchor/Mentor text - the primary selection (picture book, portion of a novel, short texts, etc.) for any unit that is read and discussed by an entire class and used as the foundation piece for the craft of writing Authentic writing - writing for real audiences and real purposes Central Idea/Theme - main idea, central message, lesson, moral, practical lesson contained in a fable, tale or experience GLOSSARY Close Reading - an interaction that involves observation and interpretation between the reader and a text which means rereading and reflecting to come to new conclusions and understandings about the ideas that a text sets out Conference (Conferring) - a brief face to face instructional strategy (student/teacher, student/student) to receive feedback Consonant digraphs - two-letter consonant combinations that represent phonemes not represented by single letters th, sh, ch, wh, ph, ng (sing), gh (cough) Derivational suffixes - a type of suffix that creates a new word; the new word is derived from the base word, e.g., adding -er to the word teach creates a new word teacher Domain-specific words and phrases - vocabulary specific to a particular field of study (domain), such as the human body. In the Standards, domain-specific words and phrases are analogous to Tier Three words. Editing - a part of writing and preparing presentations concerned chiefly with improving the clarity, organization, concision, and correctness of expression relative to task, purpose, and audience; compared to revising, a smaller-scale activity often associated with surface aspects of a text Emergent reader texts - texts consisting of short sentences comprised of learned sight words and CVC words Feedback lines - word for word line lifted from another student s writing and shared aloud 32
35 Glossary of Terminology General academic words and phrases - vocabulary common to written texts but not commonly a part of speech; in the Standards, general academic words and phrases are analogous to Tier Two words and phrases Grapheme - written symbol used to represent a phoneme Guided Practice - students work independently, in pairs, and small groups to construct meaning and share their thinking while the teacher facilitates and assesses GLOSSARY Inflectional ending - suffixes that indicate tense, plurality, comparison, or part of speech - s, es, d, ed, ing, y, ly, er, est, en Inferences - conclusions and unique interpretations drawn from using prior knowledge and textual clues Mini-lesson - a short (5-15 min) lesson with a narrow focus that provides instruction in a skill, concept, or craft that students will apply during guided practice Onset - one or more consonant letters which precede the vowel phoneme in a syllable Phoneme - smallest unit of sound which distinguishes one word from another Proficient(ly) a student performance that meets the criterion established in the Standards as measured by a teacher or assessment Read Aloud/Think Aloud - while reading a selection orally, verbalize strategies and thinking to model a skilled reader s comprehension Retell/Recount - tell again, to narrate in order Revising a part of writing and preparing presentations concerned chiefly with a reconsideration and reworking of the content of a text relative to task, purpose, and audience; compared to editing, a larger-scale activity often associated with the overall content and structure of a text 33 Rewriting a part of writing and preparing presentations that involves largely or wholly replacing a previous, unsatisfactory effort with a new effort, better aligned to task, purpose, and audience, on the same or a similar topic or theme
Florida Reading Endorsement Alignment Matrix Competency 1 Reading Endorsement Guiding Principle: Teachers will understand and teach reading as an ongoing strategic process resulting in students comprehending
Loveland Schools Literacy Framework K-6 Loveland Literacy Framework INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION The Loveland Literacy Framework has been designed to improve the reading, writing, and language skills of elementary
Program Requirements Competency 1: Foundations of Instruction 60 In-service Hours Teachers will develop substantive understanding of six components of reading as a process: comprehension, oral language,
ELA/ELD Correlation Matrix for ELD Materials Grade 1 Reading The English Language Arts (ELA) required for the one hour of English-Language Development (ELD) Materials are listed in Appendix 9-A, Matrix
Grade 4 Common Core Adoption Process (Unpacked Standards) Grade 4 Reading: Literature RL.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences
Fisk Street Primary School Literacy at Fisk Street Primary School is made up of the following components: Speaking and Listening Reading Writing Spelling Grammar Handwriting The Australian Curriculum specifies
1 st Grade Curriculum Map Common Core Standards Language Arts 2013 2014 1 st Quarter (September, October, November) August/September Strand Topic Standard Notes Reading for Literature Key Ideas and Details
Mercer County Schools PRIORITIZED CURRICULUM Reading/English Language Arts Content Maps Fourth Grade Mercer County Schools PRIORITIZED CURRICULUM The Mercer County Schools Prioritized Curriculum is composed
Test Blueprint Grade 3 Reading 2010 English Standards of Learning This revised test blueprint will be effective beginning with the spring 2017 test administration. Notice to Reader In accordance with the
1st Grade Implementing the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards A Teacher s Guide to the Common Core Standards: An Illinois Content Model Framework English Language Arts/Literacy Adapted from
First Grade Standards These are the standards for what is taught in first grade. It is the expectation that these skills will be reinforced after they have been taught. Taught Throughout the Year Foundational
Arizona s English Language Arts Standards 11-12th Grade ARIZONA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION HIGH ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR STUDENTS 11 th -12 th Grade Overview Arizona s English Language Arts Standards work together
By the End of Year 8 All Essential words lists 1-7 290 words Commonly Misspelt Words-55 working out more complex, irregular, and/or ambiguous words by using strategies such as inferring the unknown from
Houghton Mifflin Reading Correlation to the Standards for English Language Arts (Grade1) 8.3 JOHNNY APPLESEED Biography TARGET SKILLS: 8.3 Johnny Appleseed Phonemic Awareness Phonics Comprehension Vocabulary
Grade 2 Unit 2 Working Together Content Area: Language Arts Course(s): Time Period: Generic Time Period Length: November 13-January 26 Status: Published Stage 1: Desired Results Students will be able to
KEY: Editions (TE), Extra Support (EX), Amazing Words (AW), Think, Talk, and Write (TTW) SECTION 1: PROGRAM DESCRIPTION All instructional material submissions must meet the requirements of this program
1 Procedures and Expectations for Guided Writing Procedures Context: Students write a brief response to the story they read during guided reading. At emergent levels, use dictated sentences that include
English Teaching Cycle The English curriculum at Wardley CE Primary is based upon the National Curriculum. Our English is taught through a text based curriculum as we believe this is the best way to develop
New York Grade 7 Core Performance Indicators Grades 7 8: common to all four ELA standards Throughout grades 7 and 8, students demonstrate the following core performance indicators in the key ideas of reading,
Program 2: / Arts English Development Basic Program, K-8 Grade Level(s): K 3 SECTIO 1: PROGRAM DESCRIPTIO All instructional material submissions must meet the requirements of this program description section,
South Carolina English Language Arts A S O F J U N E 2 0, 2 0 1 0, T H I S S TAT E H A D A D O P T E D T H E CO M M O N CO R E S TAT E S TA N DA R D S. DOCUMENTS REVIEWED South Carolina Academic Content
Missouri GLE FIRST GRADE Communication Arts Grade Level Expectations and Glossary 1 Missouri GLE This document contains grade level expectations and glossary terms specific to first grade. It is simply
Table of Contents Introduction.... 4 How to Use This Book.....................5 Correlation to TESOL Standards... 6 ESL Terms.... 8 Levels of English Language Proficiency... 9 The Four Language Domains.............
Common Core Georgia Performance Standards Grade 4 English Language Arts Andria Bunner Sallie Mills ELA Program Specialists 1 Welcome Today s Agenda 4 th Grade ELA CCGPS Overview Organizational Comparisons
21st Century Community Learning Center Grant Overview This Request for Proposal (RFP) is designed to distribute funds to qualified applicants pursuant to Title IV, Part B, of the Elementary and Secondary
A Correlation of Keystone Book D 2013 To the Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Grades 6-12 Introduction This document
1 Desired Results Developmental Profile (2015) [DRDP (2015)] Correspondence to California Foundations: Language and Development (LLD) and the Foundations (PLF) The Language and Development (LLD) domain
Revised: December 2010 Colorado Academic Standards in Reading, Writing, and Communicating and The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and
3rd Grade- 1st Nine Weeks R3.8 understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understand R3.8A sequence and
UNIT PLANNING TEMPLATE GRADE K/Unit # 1 Duration of Unit: Focus Standards for Unit: LANGUAGE: CC.K.L.1.a Print many upper- and lowercase letters. CC.K.L.1.b Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs. CC.K.L.5.a
MARK¹² Reading II (Adaptive Remediation) Scope & Sequence : Scope & Sequence documents describe what is covered in a course (the scope) and also the order in which topics are covered (the sequence). These
Considerations for Aligning Early Grades Curriculum with the Common Core Diane Schilder, EdD and Melissa Dahlin, MA May 2013 INFORMATION REQUEST This state s department of education requested assistance
Grade level: 3 rd Grade Content: Reading NJCCCS: STANDARD 3.1Reading All students will understand and apply the knowledge of sounds, letters,and words in written english to become independent and fluent
Assessment Alignment of GOLD Objectives for Development & Learning: Birth Through Third Grade WITH , Birth Through Third Grade aligned to Arizona Early Learning Standards Grade: Ages 3-5 - Adopted: 2013
Beginning readers in the USA Stages of Literacy Ros Lugg Looked at predictors of reading success or failure Pre-readers readers aged 3-53 5 yrs Looked at variety of abilities IQ Speech and language abilities
Large Kindergarten Centers Icons To view and print each center icon, with CCSD objectives, please click on the corresponding thumbnail icon below. ABC / Word Study Read the Room Big Book Write the Room
Course Description: The fundamental piece to learning, thinking, communicating, and reflecting is language. Language A seeks to further develop six key skill areas: listening, speaking, reading, writing,
MARK 12 Reading II (Adaptive Remediation) The MARK 12 (Mastery. Acceleration. Remediation. K 12.) courses are for students in the third to fifth grades who are struggling readers. MARK 12 Reading II gives
Facing our Fears: Reading and Writing about Characters in Literary Text by Barbara Goggans Students in 6th grade have been reading and analyzing characters in short stories such as "The Ravine," by Graham
The Effect of Close Reading on Reading Comprehension Scores of Fifth Grade Students with Specific Learning Disabilities By Erica Blouin Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
q r s Kindergarten Core Knowledge Language Arts New York Edition Skills Strand a b c d Unit 9 x y z a b c d e Teacher Guide a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m
Grade 7 Prentice Hall Literature, The Penguin Edition, Grade 7 2007 C O R R E L A T E D T O Grade 7 Read or demonstrate progress toward reading at an independent and instructional reading level appropriate
Primary English Curriculum Framework Primary English Curriculum Framework This curriculum framework document is based on the primary National Curriculum and the National Literacy Strategy that have been
NEW HANOVER TOWNSHIP ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS SECOND GRADE Prepared by: Heather Schill Initial Board approval: August 23, 2012 Revisions approved : Unit Overview Content Area: English Language Arts Reading
Grade 6 ELA CCLS: Reading Standards for Literature Column : In preparation for the IEP meeting, check the standards the student has already met. Column : In preparation for the IEP meeting, check the standards
LITERACY-6 ESSENTIAL UNIT 1 (E01) (Foundations of Reading and Writing) Reading: Foundations of Reading Writing: Foundations of Writing (July 2015) Unit Statement: The teacher will use this unit to establish
A Correlation of Keystone Book F 2013 To the Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Grades 6-12 Introduction This document
A Correlation of, 2017 To the Redesigned SAT Introduction This document demonstrates how myperspectives English Language Arts meets the Reading, Writing and Language and Essay Domains of Redesigned SAT.
Chapter 5 The Components of Language and Reading Instruction Multiple references have been made in preceding chapters to the use of balanced reading instruction in studies of reading instruction. Prior
The Common Core State Standards and the Social Studies: Preparing Young Students for College, Career, and Citizenship Common Core Exemplar for English Language Arts and Social Studies: Why We Need Rules
C a l i f o r n i a N o n c r e d i t a n d A d u l t E d u c a t i o n E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e M o d e l C u r r i c u l u m S t a n d a r d s a n d A s s e s s m e n t G u i d
Literacy THE KEYS TO SUCCESS Tips for Elementary School Parents (grades K-2) Randi Weingarten president Lorretta Johnson secretary-treasurer Mary Cathryn Ricker executive vice president OUR MISSION The
Triolearn General Programmes adapt the standards and the Qualifications of Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and Cambridge ESOL. It is designed to be compatible to the local and the regional
TN Ready Domains Foundational Skills Writing Standards to Emphasize in Various Lessons throughout the Entire Year State TN Ready Standards I Can Statement Assessment Information RF.4.3 : Know and apply
Instructional Accommodations and Curricular Modifications Bringing Learning Within the Reach of Every Student PROGRESS MONITORING FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES Participant Materials 2007, Stetson Online
California Treasures Combination Classrooms A How-to Guide with Weekly Lesson Planners Combination Classes: The Challenge Teaching combination classes is a formidable challenge. The need to teach two curriculums
DRA 2 2006 Correlated to 2007 Connecticut English Language Arts Curriculum Standards Grade 4 GRADE 4: READING Students comprehend and respond in literal, critical and evaluative ways to various texts that
Tier 2 Literacy: Matching Instruction & Intervention to Student Needs Stephanie Spadorcia, Ph.D. Lesley University Michael McSheehan University of New Hampshire Stephanie Spadorcia, Ph. D. Associate Professor
Weave the Critical Literacy Strands and Build Student Confidence to Read! Part 2 Jenny W. Hamilton firstname.lastname@example.org VSLWebinars@voyagersopris.com www.voyagersopriswebinars.com www.facebook.com/voyagersopris
GUIDED READING REPORT A Pumpkin Grows Written by Linda D. Bullock and illustrated by Debby Fisher KEY IDEA This nonfiction text traces the stages a pumpkin goes through as it grows from a seed to become
Achievement Level Descriptors for American Literature and Composition Georgia Department of Education September 2015 All Rights Reserved Achievement Levels and Achievement Level Descriptors With the implementation
Grade 11 Language Arts (2 Semester Course) CURRICULUM Course Description ENGLISH 11 (2 Semester Course) Duration: 2 Semesters Prerequisite: None Through the integrated study of literature, composition,
This document is designed to help North Carolina educators teach the Common Core and Essential Standards (Standard Course of Study). NCDPI staff are continually updating and improving these tools to better
English Highlighting and Annotation Tips Foundation Lesson About this Lesson Annotating a text can be a permanent record of the reader s intellectual conversation with a text. Annotation can help a reader
Philosophy of Literacy Education Becoming literate is a complex step by step process that begins at birth. The National Association for Young Children explains, Even in the first few months of life, children
4 th Grade Language Arts Scope and Sequence 1 st Nine Weeks Instructional Units Reading Unit 1 & 2 Language Arts Unit 1& 2 Assessments Placement Test Running Records DIBELS Reading Unit 1 Language Arts
Section 1: Goal, Critical Principles, and Overview Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language
Language Acquisition Chart This chart was designed to help teachers better understand the process of second language acquisition. Please use this chart as a resource for learning more about the way people
RED 3313 Language and Literacy Development course syllabus Dr. Nancy Marshall Associate Professor Reading and Elementary Education Table of Contents Curriculum Background...5 Catalog Description of Course...5
TABE 9&10 Revised 8/2013- with reference to College and Career Readiness Standards LEVEL E Test 1: Reading Name Class E01- INTERPRET GRAPHIC INFORMATION Signs Maps Graphs Consumer Materials Forms Dictionary
SLINGERLAND: A Multisensory Structured Language Instructional Approach email@example.com Lexicon Reading Center Dubai Teaching Reading IS Rocket Science 5% will learn to read on their own. 20-30%
2008 Intermediate Level Skills Workbook Group 2 Groups 1 & 2 The ABCs of O-G The Flynn System by Emi Flynn Lesson Plans for Teaching The Orton-Gillingham Approach in Reading and Spelling The ABCs of O-G
Reading Standards for Literature 6-12 Grade 9-10 Students: 1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 2.
A Correlation of, 2017 To the Missouri Learning Standards Introduction This document demonstrates how myperspectives meets the objectives of 6-12. Correlation page references are to the Student Edition
Correlation of Literature and the Language Arts Experiencing Literature Grade 9 2 nd edition to the Nebraska Reading/Writing Standards EMC/Paradigm Publishing 875 Montreal Way St. Paul, Minnesota 55102
Organizing Comprehensive Assessment: How to Get Started September 9 & 16, 2009 Questions to Consider How do you design individualized, comprehensive instruction? How can you determine where to begin instruction?
Phonemic Awareness Jennifer Gondek Instructional Specialist for Inclusive Education TST BOCES firstname.lastname@example.org Participants will: Understand the importance of phonemic awareness in early literacy development.
2 Defining Essential Learnings How do I find clarity in a sea of standards? For students truly to be able to take responsibility for their learning, both teacher and students need to be very clear about
A Correlation of Prentice Hall Literature Common Core Edition, 2012 To the New Jersey Model Curriculum A Correlation of Prentice Hall Literature Common Core Edition, 2012 Introduction This document demonstrates
GRADE 5/Unit # 4 Focus Standards for Unit: KENTUCKY COGNIT IVE LIT ERACY MODEL UNIT PLANNING TEMPLATE Duration of Unit: LANGUAGE CC.5.L.3.a Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener
A Correlation of, To A Correlation of myperspectives, to Introduction This document demonstrates how myperspectives English Language Arts meets the objectives of. Correlation page references are to the