# Machine Learning (Decision Trees and Intro to Neural Nets) CSCI 3202, Fall 2010

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1 Machine Learning (Decision Trees and Intro to Neural Nets) CSCI 3202, Fall 2010

2 Assignments To read this week: Chapter 18, sections 1-4 and 7 Problem Set 3 due next week!

3 Learning a Decision Tree We look at someone making classification decisions, and try to infer the rule that they are using.(e.g., we might look at someone choosing videos and try to predict whether they think a particular title is a good video or not.) We assume that their rule can be written as a tree in which each node represents a local decision based on an attribute.

4

5 Some Attributes for Mike s Video Choices Do things blow up? (Tends to be good.) Is the title written in script? (Tends to be bad.) Is it a sequel? (Tends to be bad.) Is there a monster? (Tends to be good.) Is it based on a TV show? (Tends to be bad.)

6 A Training Set of Examples: We Watch Mike Make Lots of Video Choices Blowup? Script? Sequel? Monster? TV? Y Yes No Yes Yes No Y Yes Yes No Yes No N Yes Yes Yes No Yes and others

7 Building a Tree from Our Examples Suppose we have 12 attributes, and 200 examples of Mike s video choices:100 positive and 100 negative. Now, the crucial question: which attribute is most important to Mike?

8 Which is More Important? Attribute A divides the set as follows: (70 yes, 30 no) for A true (30 yes, 70 no) for A false Attribute B divides the set as follows: (100 yes, 90 no) for B true (0 yes, 10 no) for B false

9 Information as a Criterion for Attribute Values: Information value for a set of probabilities: Σ(- P i )log 2 (P i ) So, for a standard coin flip, the information is 2* (-1/2) (log 1/2) = 1 bit

10 Attribute A Information at start: -1/2 * log(1/2) + -1/2 * log (1/2) = 1 Information after Attribute A: Choice 1, weighted by 0.5: -0.7*log(0.7) *(log 0.3) Choice 2, weighted by *log(0.3) *(log 0.7) Total information: = 0.881

11 Attribute B Choice 1, weighted by /19 * (log 10/19) + -9/19(log 9/19) Choice 2, weighted by * (log 0) + -1 (log 1) Total information value: The change in information by using Attribute A is greater, so A is the more informative attribute.

12 Splitting Examples into Training and Test Sets Given our initial set of examples, split it into a (randomly-chosen) training set and a test set. Once the algorithm has generated a tree for the training set, use the test set to gauge the accuracy of the tree (measure the percent of the test set that is correctly classified). For sufficiently large and sufficiently representative training sets we converge on a high accuracy for the test set.

13 Things We ve Swept Under the Rug Doesn t this strategy lead to attributes with many possibilities? (E.g., day of the year?) Are we sure that all new examples will be completely classified? Aren t there some functions that are hard to express using decision trees?

14 A Bad Concept for Decision Trees to Learn Majority function (classified as true whenever the majority of the attributes are positive, false otherwise) Each attribute is equally important, and none are very effective at dividing the set

15

16 Neural Networks: Some First Concepts Each neural element is loosely based on the structure of neurons A neural net is a collection of neural elements connected by weighted links We think of some set of neurons as input elements ; these are linked to output elements which can be interpreted as a classification of the input pattern Standard formats: perceptrons and multilayer feedforward networks

17 Structure of an (artificial) neuron Think of this as a very simple computational element: it receives numeric input values, sums those values, and compares them to a threshold. If the sum of the inputs is greater than the threshold, the neuron outputs a 1; otherwise it outputs a zero. The output of this neuron is connected (as usual, via weighted links) to subsequent neurons in the net.

18 Perceptrons: the Simplest Neural Network Perceptrons are two-layer networks: one layer of inputs directly connected to a layer of outputs. For simplicity, we can look at a perceptron with a single output node

19 Training a Perceptron by Adjusting its Weights Overall error is the (squared) value of the difference between what we wanted and what we got from our perceptron. Once we see that our perceptron is in error, we can adjust each of the weights leading to the output node. We ll adjust each weight in such a way as to make the error value smaller.

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