EARLY In every level, you will To order Level H: Language Power

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1 H LANGUAGE POWER NOW

2 Table of Contents Work with Vocabulary Section Opener Use a Similar Word: Synonyms Use the Opposite Word: Antonyms Choose the Correct Spelling: Homophones Recognize Independent and Subordinate Clauses Combine Sentences: Complex Sentences Recognize Clauses: Adjective Clauses Recognize Clauses: Adverb Clauses Expand Your Vocabulary: Root Words Edit Sentences: Sentence Fragments Understand Word Beginnings: Prefixes Edit Sentences: Comma Splices Understand Word Endings: Suffixes Section Review Combine Two Words: Contractions Create a Tone: Denotation and Connotation Use Concrete Nouns and Active Verbs Avoid Clichés: Formal and Informal Language Use Variety: Literary Devices Know Capitalization and Punctuation Section Opener Use Capitals: A Variety of Capitalization Shorten Terms: Acronyms and Initialisms Section Review Understand Revision Comments: Abbreviations Build Sentences 33. Use Commas Correctly Section Opener Punctuate Dialogue: Quotation Marks Use Variety: Types of Sentences Show Possession: Apostrophes Use Variety: Varying Sentence Lengths Join and Transition: Semicolons Combine Sentences: Compound Sentences Introduce a List or Quotation: Colons Use Prepositional Phrases: Adding Details Edit Sentences: Run-On Sentences Add Less Important Information: Parentheses Guide Readers: A Variety of Punctuation Know Complete Subjects and Predicates Section Review Identify Who or What: Simple Subjects Grasp Grammar and Usage 19. Identify the Action: Simple Predicates Section Opener Identify Who or What: Compound Subjects Name the Person, Place, or Thing: Nouns Identify the Action: Compound Predicates Show Ownership: Singular Possessive Nouns Combine Sentences: Compound Subjects and Predicates Show Group Ownership: Plural Possessive Nouns Identify Sentence Parts: Direct and Indirect Objects Make Irregular Plural Nouns Possessive Use Concrete and Abstract Nouns

3 45. Identify a Variety of Verbs Provide More Information: Verb Phrases Show When an Action Happens: Verb Tenses Make the Past Tense: Irregular Verbs Choose Your Details: Purpose and Audience Formulate a Thesis: Effective Theses Create a Cause-and-Effect Diagram: Organizing Ideas Use Present Perfect and Past Perfect Tenses Lead with an Argument Summary: Strong Openings Match the Numbers: Subject-Verb Agreement Provide Proof: Supporting Details Match the Subject: Linking Verbs Understand Active and Passive Voice Replace Subject Nouns: Subject Pronouns Replace Object Nouns: Object Pronouns Show Ownership: Possessive Pronouns Use Indefinite Pronouns A Variety of Pronouns Make Pronouns and Antecedents Agree Use a Variety of Pronouns and Antecedents Write Descriptive Words: Adjectives Make Comparisons with Adjectives Describe Actions: Adverbs Write Descriptively: Adjectives and Adverbs Describe Emotions: Writing Details Compare and Contrast: Arranging Details Add Emotion and Realism: Writing Dialogue Make Language Precise: Specific Terminology Summarize Your Analysis: Strong Conclusions Catch Your Readers Attention: Effective Titles Check Your Organization: Revising Correct All Errors: Editing Section Review Section Opener Decide What to Research: Inquiry Questions Show Relationships: Prepositions Improve Your Vocabulary: Researching Words Describe a Noun: Prepositional Phrases Conduct Online Research: Keywords Describe a Noun: Participle Phrases Be Clear: Misplaced Modifiers Perspective in Primary and Secondary Sources Be Clear: Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers Research Online: Evaluating Websites Use Joining Words: Conjunctions Express Emotions: Interjections Protect Your Information: Financial Information Online Avoid Double Negatives Understand Copyright: Plagiarism Section Review Citation Styles: Citing Research Track Your Sources: Research Notes Craft and Compose Section Opener Formulate an Inquiry Question: Choosing a Topic Table of Contents 95. Paraphrasing, Summarizing, and Quoting Section Review Index

4 Sample Lesson: Level H (Grade 10) LESSON 9 USE RESEARCH: PARAPHRASING, QUOTING, AND GIVING CREDIT When you do research, you may wish to share someone else s written ideas. You must be careful when you do this, and follow these guidelines: Key terms are bolded and explained with examples. Paraphrase when you wish to provide your audience with most, or all, of the information provided in the original source. Use your own words to share the information in a new way, instead of copying the text. Use quotes when you use the exact wording of the author. Use only a small section of text, and write the text word for word. Make sure to include quotation marks and proper punctuation. Use quotes sparingly: most of the work should be in your own words. Remember to give credit to each author whose ideas you paraphrase or quote. Always use the citation style and format recommended by the teacher of your course. A. Read the following sentences. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: paraphrase, credit, quote. 1. To avoid plagiarism, you must credit 2. To share a lot of information from a text, you should 3. To help you defend your opinion, you may wish to expert on the topic. As the exercises progress, students are required to apply their learning in short and longer form writing practice. each author whose ideas you borrow. paraphrase quote the original ideas. an author who is an B. Explain why is it important to include a proper citation whenever you paraphrase or summarize someone else s ideas, even though you use your own words. I think it s important to include proper citations in your work, even when you paraphrase, because it credits the person (or people) who created the ideas you are using. As a writer, you may not know certain facts, and it s cheating to pretend like you do. C. Read the following quote about success. Write a short paragraph using that quote. Wayne Gretzky, one of Canada s most famous hockey players, said, You miss 100 percent of the shots you don t take. I believe that success isn t about winning every single time. Legendary hockey player Wayne Gretzky has said, You miss 100 percent of the shots you don t take. I think he is right. Success is about trying, even if you fail. You see, if you don t at least try, you won t ever succeed. I also think having the bravery to try, makes you a success. You can also learn a lot from failure, which can lead you to success, when you take the next shot. 14

5 D. Read the following paragraph and, on the lines provided, write point form notes in your own words. In August 1927, The Famous Five, a group of five women from Alberta, asked the Supreme Court of Canada (S.C.C.) to decide whether the words qualified persons in the British North America Act included females. The section of the Act in question outlined who could be appointed to the Senate, and government officials had consistently interpreted qualified persons as men only. In their 1928 decision, the S.C.C. held to tradition, ruling that women were not considered qualified persons. The Famous Five appealed to the highest court authority for Canada at the time, the Privy Council in England, which ruled that women were qualified persons eligible for appointment. This was a huge victory for women s rights. - The Famous Five -- five women from Alberta. - August 1927, ask Supreme Court of Canada (S.C.C.) if qualified persons includes women - in British North America Act, in section that talks about the senate and who can be in it. - government says qualified persons means men only - so only men can be in senate SCC decides women aren t qualified persons For some topics that students regularly struggle with, exercises provide for longer form writing so that students can demonstrate authentic learning. These longer form exercises allow for formative assessment opportunities, including self and peer assessment. - so Famous Five go to Privy Council in England, highest court authority - Privy council says women are qualified persons - they can become senators - huge victory for women E. Keep the paragraph in Exercise D covered up. Use your notes to paraphrase the information. The Famous Five are five women from Alberta who fought for women s rights. In the early 1900 s, the British North America Act said that only qualified persons could be appointed to senate. At this time, women were not considered qualified persons, and senators were men only. The Famous Five fought this definition. First, in 1927, they asked the Supreme Court of Canada if women could be included in the definition. Shockingly, in 1928, the S.C.C. said no. The Famous Five did not give up. Next, they went to the Privy Council in England, the highest court authority. Success! The Privy Council ruled that women were qualified persons and that they could become senators. The Famous Five won a huge victory for women s rights. G. Exchange your answers to Exercises D and E with a partner. Compare the notes you both took and the paragraphs you wrote. How are your paragraphs similar and different? Why? Application exercises encourage students to use real-world texts, their peers, and their own portfolios to deepen their learning. 15

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