# Overview COEN 296 Topics in Computer Engineering Introduction to Pattern Recognition and Data Mining Course Goals Syllabus

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1 Overview COEN 296 Topics in Computer Engineering to Pattern Recognition and Data Mining Instructor: Dr. Giovanni Seni Department of Computer Engineering Santa Clara University Course Goals & Syllabus Pattern Recognition Features Classification Generalization System components Related Fields: ML & DM Design Cycle Computational Complexity The R Language G.Seni Q1/04 2 Course Goals Syllabus Convey excitement about an immensely useful field Large increase in digital data (barcode scanners, e-commerce, etc.) Moore s Law Provide foundation for further study/research Expose to real data Introduce you to toolbox of methods Jan 6 Jan 13 Jan 20 Jan 27 Feb 3 Feb 10 Feb 17 Feb 24 Mar 2 Mar 9 Bayesian Decision Theory ( , 2.9) Parameter Estimation ( ; see also 4.5 HMS) Linear Discriminant Functions (3.8.2, ) Neural Networks ( ) Neural Networks (6.6, 6.8) Clustering (10.6, 10.7; see also HMS) Clustering (10.9) Non-metric: Association Rules (5.3.2 HMS) Text Retrieval ( HMS) G.Seni Q1/04 3 G.Seni Q1/04 4

2 Pattern Recognition The act of taking in raw data and taking an action based on the category of the pattern Sorting incoming Fish on a conveyor according to species using optical sensing Useful applications Speech recognition Word & Character Recognition OCR (Optical Character Recognition) Fingerprint identification ( biometrics ) DNA sequence identification ( bioinformatics ) Fraud detection etc. category-1: sea bass category-2: salmon G.Seni Q1/04 5 G.Seni Q1/04 6 Feature Extraction Representation in which patterns that lead to same action are close to one another, yet far" from those that demand a different action i.e., discriminative Data reduction Initial model: sea bass is generally longer and lighter than salmon Histograms on training samples Features to explore Length, Lightness, Width, Number and shape of fins, Position of the mouth, etc ID Class length lightness G.Seni Q1/04 7 G.Seni Q1/04 8

3 Feature Space Classification Fish X = x1 = lightness x2 = width Separate feature space into regions corresponding to the classes The separating boundary is called the decision boundary Perfect classification is often impossible use probability framework Easy to incorporate priors and misclassification costs G.Seni Q1/04 9 G.Seni Q1/04 10 Generalization Ability to correctly classify novel input Tradeoff between decision model complexity and generalization performance Pattern Recognition System input sensing segmentation feature extraction decision Post-processing classification complex lower training error higher test error simpler higher training error lower test error Sensing converts physical inputs into signal data Bandwidth, resolution, sensitivity, distortion of transducer imposes limitations on system Segmentation - isolates objects from background or other objects Post-processing account for context and cost of errors G.Seni Q1/04 11 G.Seni Q1/04 12

4 Related Disciplines Data Mining produce insight and understanding about the structure of large observational datasets e.g., Find interesting relationships Summarize the data in new ways that are understandable and actionable Machine Learning how to construct computer programs that automatically improve with experience (Mitchell) Theory and algorithms Other Statistics, information theory, etc. Related Disciplines (2) Data Mining Algorithm Components Task: visualization, classification, clustering, regression, rule discovery Structure: functional form of the model we are fitting to the data (e.g., linear, hierarchical) Score function: goodness-of-fit function we are using to judge the quality of our fitted model on observed data Search/optimization method: computational procedure used to find the maximum (or minimum) of the score function for a particular model Data management technique: location and manner in which data is accessed G.Seni Q1/04 13 G.Seni Q1/04 14 Design Cycle Design Cycle (2) Representative set of examples for training and testing the system Can account for large part of the development cost Data matrix: n d ID Age 54?? 29 Sex Male Female Male Marital Status Education Income Married High school Married High school Married Some college G.Seni Q1/04 15 Feature choice useful for discriminating Easy to extract Invariant to irrelevant transformations Insensitive to noise Type Quantitative measured on a numerical scale Categorical: nominal and ordinal (possessing a natural order) G.Seni Q1/04 16

5 Design Cycle (3) Design Cycle (4) Predictive Modeling the value of one variable is predicted from the known values of other variables (classification, regression) E.g., a nonlinear model Y = ax 2 + bx + c Descriptive Modeling clustering and segmentation, depency modeling, probability density estimation Training using training patterns to learn or estimate the parameters of the model (supervised or unsupervised) Score Function: quantifies how well model fits a given data set E.g., likelihood, sum of square errors, misclassification rate Optimization (or Search) Method: determine the parameter values that achieve a minimum (or maximum) of the score function E.g., gradient descent G.Seni Q1/04 17 G.Seni Q1/04 18 Design Cycle (5) Evaluation measure performance and adjust components appropriately Train vs. Test Error Overfitting Bias-variance tradeoff Dimensionality Classification accuracy deps upon the dimensionality and the amount of training data Theoretically, error rate can be reduced by introducing new, indepent features Need features that help separate the class pairs most frequently confused (e.g., distance between class means) G.Seni Q1/04 19 G.Seni Q1/04 20

6 Dimensionality (2) Practical paradox: beyond a certain point, the inclusion of additional features leads to worse performance Source of difficulty Wrong model E.g., Gaussian assumption Indepence assumption Inadequate number of training samples Distributions are not estimated accurately Computational Complexity Time/space considerations are of considerable practical importance at each stage A table lookup might result in error-free recognition but impractical Scalability as a function of: Number of features (d) Number of patterns (n) Cumber of classes (c) Learning vs. decision-making time G.Seni Q1/04 21 G.Seni Q1/04 22 The R Language An open source version of S a language and environment for data analysis Library provides many datasets Sample commands: > x <- read.table( mydata.txt", header = TRUE) > dim(x) [1] > x[5, 7:9] P S K > hist(x[,7], breaks=100, xlab="amount", main= P") The R Language (2) Other useful functions: Input/Output: read.table, read.delim, scan, write, write.table Extraction: which, apply Names: row.names, colnames, names Plots: hist, plot, points, lines, pdf, dev.off Error catching: stop, warning Sizes: dim, nrow, ncol, length Math: sum, mean, cor, log, max, min, range Casts: as.matrix, as.vector, as.numeric Type test: is.matrix, is.vector, is.numeric, is.data.frame Ordering: sort, order Help:?command G.Seni Q1/04 23 G.Seni Q1/04 24

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