Death penalty is not the answer, but police and prosecutorial reform are

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1 1 Date: How to stop rapes Death penalty is not the answer, but police and prosecutorial reform are Baijayant 'Jay' Panda, (Author is a BJD Lok Sabha MP After another spate of horrific rapes of minors, some involving gruesome violence and murder, the Union government last month finally issued an ordinance incorporating the death sentence for rapes of minor girls. This had been a long-standing demand of many agitated citizens, though there are also sceptics who doubt it will halt the epidemic. His column last month (11 April, ) had dealt with India s penchant for compensating the lack of enforcement of various laws by introducing ever stiffer penalties in those laws. The new ordinance is the latest example of this, though it is oddly not gender neutral, considering that boys too get raped. In any case, the brutality of some of the recent assaults undoubtedly qualifies as rarest of rare, the Supreme Court (SC) yardstick for awarding death sentences. Sometimes those additional penalties are summary, such as mandatory arrest based on an accusation alone, even without prima facie evidence. That is the crux of an ongoing controversy after the SC stipulated due process criteria for arrests under the SC/ST Act. Of course the death penalty proviso in the new ordinance is not summary, it does require conviction by a court. But convictions in India, as the proverb goes, are rarer than hen s teeth. Through a triple whammy of deterioration in policing, shambolic prosecutions, and abysmal backlogs in courts, the odds are so low of justice being delivered that it is a miracle survivors and families of victims bother to report the attacks at all. Yet, report they do, and at a rapidly rising pace. Whether you attribute the increased reporting to an actual increase in such heinous crimes some of it surely is! or to increased societal confidence and assertiveness, the end result remains unacceptable for any civilised society. For not only are convictions far lower than in developed democracies, the reasons in India delays and witnesses turning hostile are disheartening. Ironically, the number of convictions in such cases has risen in recent years, but the far sharper increase in the number of crimes reported has meant the percentage of convictions has fallen. In 2016, convictions for crimes against women stood at 18%, and those for crimes against children were only marginally better at just under 30%. Some sceptics of the new death penalty believe it can perversely lead to child rapists killing their targets more often, to reduce their chances of being caught, and because the punishments are now the same anyway. But unless most cases are speedily adjudicated, it is largely a moot point. Curbing the impunity with which such assaults are happening will require delivering swift justice. Of the three areas that need overhauling for that to happen, this column has earlier touched upon judicial and prosecutorial reform, and will now cover police reforms.

2 2 The hurdles against tackling crime begin with the police having long been politicised, and the reluctance of state governments to rectify that malaise. A recent Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative study concluded that not a single Indian state has fully complied with a 2006 SC judgment issuing seven directives for police reform. Those SC directives included appointing Directors General (DG) of police in a merit-based, transparent manner; minimum tenures for senior officers; forming Police Establishment Boards (PEBs) for appointments, transfers, and promotions; separating investigations from law and order; a board to hear public complaints against police; and most importantly, forming State Security Commissions (SSCs) to prevent political interference. Even states which established the all-important SSC, have done so without incorporating stipulated checks and balances, such as having the leader of the opposition be a member, have other independent members, and make its recommendations binding. Such truculence leads to disastrous outcomes. For instance Odisha, which along with Jammu & Kashmir has not bothered to set up an SSC, saw much higher increase of crimes against children between 2014 and 2016 (50% vs 19% nationally). Contrasting that with two examples from democracies with which we have shared systemic roots, the UK and Canada, is instructive. With its 2002 Police Reform Act the UK distributed powers between the Home Office, the local police administration, and the Chief Constable of the force, in order to create a buffer between the police and the state. Similarly, Canada s police system has two striking features that, if implemented here, would revolutionise India s crimefighting. First, instead of one monolithic force, it has police forces for municipal, provincial and federal levels, with differentiated, escalating powers. Second, based on a fundamental premise that civilians must exercise oversight and control over the police, it has supervisory boards and commissions comprising of civilians. These aim to shield the police from being influenced by partisan politics and to involve community members to help improve police administration. Police reform in India needs much else besides these, but most other steps require very large allocations of funds. For example, raising India s woefully low ratio of police personnel from today s 137 per lakh of population to the UN recommended 222 would increase states expenditure by tens of thousands of crores. That is a worthwhile investment and political resolve must be garnered to commit such funds. But meantime, the reforms in police administration discussed here can achieve a dramatic turnaround, with little cost other than to political egos. Date: उफनत त ल पर फसलत पए क मह ग असर स प दक य

3 IMPORTANT NEWSCLIPPINGSS (09-May-18) 3 ड लर क म क बल पए क गरत क मत स ब च न प द ह न व भ वक ह और जब इसक प छ अ तरर ट र य क रण ह त हम र ट र य तर पर य द क छ कर भ नह सकत फरवर 2017 क ब द पहल ब र ऐस ह आ ह क ड लर क म क बल पए क भ व तक गय ह अम रक र ट रप त ड न ड ट र प क ईर न पर प ब द लग न क ऐल न क ब द यह और भ गर सकत ह ट र प म गलव र क ह ईर न क स थ ह ए न भक य समझ त क र द कर उस पर प ब द लग न व ल ह उस फ सल क ए ल न क ब द ड लर क मजब त बढ़न ह ह अम रक प ब द क स ध असर त ल उ प दन पर ह त ह एक तरफ त ल क द म बढ़त ह त द सर तरफ ड लर मजब त ह त ह क च त ल क द म 75 ड लर प र त ब रल ह त द ख त तल क प नय न ड लर इक ठ करन श कर दए और इसस ड लर क म ग बढ़त ज रह ह क च त ल क द म म यह बढ़ तर तकर बन च र स ल ब द ह रह ह और उसक वजह ईर न पर लगन व ल प ब द क स थ ह व न ज एल क त ल उ प दन म आई कम भ ह ड लर क म क बल पए क यह गर वट न सफर और ह ग ब क इसक क छ और दन ठहरन क उ म द ह ऐस स भ वन न सफर भ रत क आ थर क म मल क स चव स भ ष च द र गगर न जत ई ह ब क ड यश ब क, ड ब एस ब क, ब क ऑफ अम रक, यश ब क, आईएफए ग ल बल भ ऐस ह स च रह ह उनक त यह तक अन म न ह क ड लर क म क बल पए क क मत 70 तक ज न व ल ह इस गर वट स जह नय र तक क च द ह वह आय तक क स सत ह बड़ दक कत च ल ख त क घ ट क तर पर ह न व ल ह और प टत वह बढ़ ग जब त तल आय त मह ग ह ग त घर ल ब ज र म त ल क पहल स बढ़ ह ए द म और भ बढ़ ग जब त ल क द म बढ़ ग त फल-स ज और ख न -प न क च ज क द म क बढ़न व भ वक ह ऐस स म न ज आय तत उपकरण स बनत ह ज स क क र, क य टर, म टर फ न व सब मह ग ह ज ए ग श द य ह क इस म सम म पए क म य गरन स गहन क द म बढ़ ह और उनक म ग म द स च र प र तशत क गर वट आई ह घर ल म द र क अवम यन ह न स क छ ल भ भ ह त ह और वह नय र त करन व ल स चन प र य गक और फ म र क प नय क ह स म ज एग ऐस म अगर ल ग ज त य भ वन ओ स अलग हट कर स च ग त इसक असर र जन त पर भ पड़ ग Date: एक पहल भर स त नह ह ग स य क त र ट र म स ध र ड य प एस स द, (प र फ सर, य य कर य नव सर ट ) स य क त र ट र मह स चव ए ट नय ग ट रस न ब त म चर म मह सभ क स मन ज प र त व रख थ, वह दरअसल स गठन क प स ऐ ड सक य रट पलर य न द नय भर म श त बन ए रखन व श त-प र क रय स ज ड़ स य क त र ट र क

4 4 र जन तक वभ ग क नय प द न क ल प र ट ह इस य जन क च र म ख य ल य ह - पहल, स घष क र कथ म क प र थ मकत द न और श त बन ए रखन द सर, श त प र क रय ओ व वश ष र जन तक अ भय न क अ धक स अ धक अन क ल व प रभ व बन न त सर, पलर क स स गत, च त और प रभ व बन न और च थ, वक स और म नव अ धक र पर क म करन व ल वभ ग स इस पलर क ज ड़न य जन स क र ह ई, त स य क त र ट र क सद य द श क वद श, रक ष और वक स म त र लय क एक स पर म त र लय स ज ड़ ज एग स य क त र ट र क श त और स रक ष स रचन म स ध र क प रय स इसक गठन क स थ ह श ह गए थ, ज मल -ज ल नत ज क स थ आज भ ज र ह श आत स ध र म ल प स अ तरर ट र य वक स, ग ल म म क क आज द कर न और स गठन क सद यत बढ़ न क ल कर थ श त- यव थ बरकर र रखन क जस च टर सक स ऐ ड द ह फ क ब त क ज त ह, वह अवध रण 1950 क दशक क म य आई, क य क प स क प ग य न श त बन ए रखन व ल श द स य क त र ट र क च टर र म ह ह नह द सर मह स चव ड ग ह मर क ज ड न प स क प ग क ब त करत ह ए इस च टर र क च टर सक स ऐ ड ह फ क ह स बत य थ इस तरह, श त-य द ध क ब द जब र ट र म म ल- मल प बढ़ और श त समझ त ह न लग, त श त बन ए रखन व ल अ भय न क स च लत करन व ल वभ ग डप टर म ट ऑफ प स क प ग ऑपर श स य न ड प क ओ क गठन क र ह बन ब द क वष म म हल ओ, श त व स रक ष पर स रक ष प रषद क प र त व 1325 भ आय और नरस ह र, य द ध अपर ध, न ल ह स व म नवत क खल फ अपर ध क र कन क लए स य क त र ट र न स रक षण क ज म द र (आर2प ) भ व क र क इन तम म स ध र क नत ज मल -ज ल रह ह और त और, अभ ह ल म ह स य क त र ट र क एक वत त र प नल ह ई-ल वल इ डप ड ट प नल ऑन प स क प ग ऑपर श स (एचआईप प ओ) न भ अपन रप टर म स य क त र ट र श त अ भय न क प र त बढ़त उ म द क द खत ह ए इसक कमज रय त क ल द त करन क ज रत बत ई ह स य क त र ट र क स ध र क ल ग करन क लए सद य द श, स चव लय और अ तरर ट र य तर पर स क रय न ग रक सम ज य न स वल स स इट ज स त व ज म द र ह त ह, ल कन हक कत म इनम मतभ द ह मसलन, स य क त र ट र क बजट म बड़ य गद न द न व ल द श और श त अ भय न म अ धक स ख य म स नक भ जन व ल य इन अ भय न स अ धक ल भ ल न व ल द श क ब च क मतभ द य मतभ द पहल क स ध र क हव नक ल च क ह इस लए सबस पहल च न त त द नय क द क षण ह स क उन द श, वश षकर स घषर क व दन स ग जरन व ल म क स प र प न क ह, ज श त व स रक ष क वक स व म नव धक र स ज ड़न व ल प रय स क ल कर ख स सतकर रहत ह इन बदल व क स न चत करन क लए आ थर क स स धन ज ट न ह, ज कह अ धक द ह क म ह ग ट रस न ज र यह व द कय ह क स गठन क क ल बजट म क ई त द ल नह ह ग, मगर जस तरह अम रक र ट रप त अम रक फ ट क ओर बढ़ रह ह, वह स क त ह क व श गटन स य क त र ट र क बजट म ह स द र घट सकत ह इतन ह नह, स चव लय पर पकड़ रखन व ल द श, स य क त र ट र क म ज द ब लन क र और अप क ष क त अप रदश र ढ च बन ए रखन म अपन र जन तक हत द ख रह ह ग वर ध उनक तरफ स भ आएग एक अ य र जन तक सम य यह भ ह क भल ह नए प रय स स श त व स रक ष म स ध र ह त दख, पर व स य क त र ट र क दश तय करन व ल ढ च क द स त नह करत स रक ष प रषद म य पक स ध र क मसल ठ क ऐस ह ह, ज द भ र ग य स मह स चव क एज ड स द र ह

5 IMPORTANT NEWSCLIPPINGSS (09-May-18) 5 Date: सर हन य फ फसल स प दक य स प र म क टर न अहम फ सल म कह ह क वय क ज ड़ श द क बन भ स थ रह सकत ह अद लत न कह, लव-इन क स सद क म यत ह यह भ कह क द वय क अपन मज र स श द क बन भ स थ ज दग ग ज र सकत ह अद लत न क रल ह ईक टर क उस फ सल क पलटत ह ए श द र करत ह ए लड़क क पत क स प दर कर दय थ प ठ न कह क अद लत कस भ तरह स परर अ भभ वक न बन 20 अप र ल 2017 क त ष र (19) व न दक म र(20) न श द कर ल थ लड़क क पत क य चक पर क टर न लड़क क उम र श द य ग य नह बत कर लड़क क उसक प न नह म नत ह ए श द र कर द थ ब च क श द क ल कर अपन सम ज म प रव रर ब हद स व दनश ल ह त ह व अपन वय क ब च क च न व क व क रन म हचकत ह और मज र क ज वनस थ लगभगग जबरन थ पत ह ह ल क उक त म मल म द न न ब क यद श द क थ अपन सम ज म अभ भ आध स अ धक श दय प रव र व र ब लग ह न स प वर ह कर द ज त ह वर ध भ स यह ह क जब ब च अपन मज र स ज वनस थ च नत ह त अ भभ वक अद लत चल ज त ह ब र-ब र यह सव ल प वर म उठत रह ह क ब लग ह न और वव ह क उम र तय करन म क ई सम नत ह ब लग ह त ह सरक र च नन क अ धक र प र त ह ज त ह, जब क ज वन स थ क च न व य ग य नह ह त रह ब त, लव-इन क त अभ हम इतन प रपक व सम ज नह ह, जह त र क श चत क प म न स परखन म क ई बदल व आ रह ह लव-इन क स र ख मय ज अक ल त र क प ल पड़त ह प रव र क च न त द कर वह अपन मज र स कस प ष क स थ रहन क आज द त ह, पर रत इस स ब ध म आई खट स उसक लए खतरन क स बत ह सकत ह ख सकर, द न क क ई स त न ह ई त उसक प लन-प षण क ल कर ख स दक कत आ सकत ह द सर पक ष यह भ ह क अ भभ वक क मज र ढ न क लए वय क ब च क मजब र भ नह कय ज सकत हक कत यह ह क प रव र क च न ह ए र त भ ट टत ह प रव र अद लत व क रत ह क स ब ध व छ द ह न व ल द प य म अम मन अर ज म रज ह ह त ह स खद द प य क क ई तय फ म ल नह ह त यह आपस सहम त स ह चलत ह Date: New Indo-Pacificc axis

6 6 India-France-Australia are well placed to share data to form a common operating picture of the Indian Ocean. C Raja Mohan, Rory Medcalf, Bruno Tertrais, (Raja Mohan is director, Carnegie India; Medcalf is head, national security college at the Australian National University; Tertrais is the deputy director and master of research, Foundation for Strategic Research, Paris. They are the coconveners of the 1.5 track India-France-Australia Strategic Dialogue which met for the first time in Delhi in January) Amid concerns about Chinese assertiveness and the volatility of American policies, the quadrilateral dialogue of the United States, Japan, India and Australia can t be the only effort at a new strategic arrangement for stability and balance. It s time for India, France and Australia to join forces. This innovative security triangle is no flight of think tank fancy, but an ambition now being considered at the highest levels of policy. It was the key message of a far-reaching speech delivered last week by French President Emmanuel Macron at a naval base in Sydney. President Macron said that what he termed the Paris-Delhi-Canberra axis should become an established regional structure, reflecting an Indo-Pacific geo-strategic reality in the making. Along with Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, he agreed to together define a joint strategy for the Indo-Pacific, with a concrete roadmap of objectives and actions. Moreover, President Macron said he wanted to share these ideas with India and introduce regular trilateral discussions involving external affairs and defence ministers. India, France and Australia have a striking convergence of security interests, defence capabilities and maritime geography. These three democracies are also drawn together by values. All three respect a rules-based order informed by the sovereign equality of nations and the need to guard against coercion and interference, whether from states or from terrorism. France has substantial equities in the Indian Ocean, with territory and force presence. The bilateral military logistic cooperation agreement signed during President Macron s recent visit to India is a sign of how rapidly a partnership can evolve when there is will. France is not only an Indian Ocean player: It has an appreciation of the wider Indo-Pacific as the global centre of gravity. France has territory in the Pacific and a naval role in both oceans. It has 85 per cent of its huge maritime economic exclusive zone in the Indo-Pacific, along with 8,000 defence personnel and 1.6 million citizens. France is thus the European country most engaged and most capable of contributing to a balanced and layered diplomatic architecture to reduce tensions in this most global of regions. It can do so as a leader in the European Union, a compelling voice in the liberal democratic order globally, and an enduring strategic power in its own right. The Indo-Pacific is crucial to the future of all powers. It is made for multipolarity: Too vast for hegemony to be sustained or successful. Yet that does not mean that the region s shifting game of power and influence will avoid what Macron has cautioned as hegemonic temptations, involving frictions, risks and unipolar encroachments on others independence. Notably, China is extending its interests and influence across the Indian Ocean and also now in the South Pacific. The geoeconomic overlay of its Belt and Road infrastructure will bring naval access and military presence, whether or not this is Beijing s grand strategy. That raises great anxieties, just when others are uncertain about the trajectory of American power under President Donald Trump and beyond. This, therefore, is the age of a networked Indo-Pacific security architecture. It involves a strategy of diversified

7 7 special partnerships, identified in Australia s 2017 Foreign Policy White Paper and endorsed by President Macron as consistent with the recent French Strategic Review. These links are not exclusively among America s allies and established partners. Countries like India, Japan and Australia have strengthened ties with each other, while cultivating South East Asian friends such as Vietnam, Indonesia and Singapore. This layered approach involves mutually-reinforcing roles for bilaterals, the quadrilateral and inclusive multilateralism centred on ASEAN. But three-way dialogues have a certain strength, sometimes without America. India, Australia and Japan share candid assessments among senior officials. There is a robust India-Japan-US trilateral. And Australia s long-established trilateral with Tokyo and Washington goes further, involving military exercises, interoperability, logistics and intelligence. India and Australia are pivotal to this strategy, as President Macron noted. Their bilateral relations have fundamentally improved over the past decade, allowing them to collaborate at the core of emerging middle power coalitions. New opportunity is posed by their parallel ties with France. This involves deep technology cooperation, such as Australia s historic deal with France to build 12 next-generation submarines. But much more can be done, in capability, defence exercises and managing environmental risks. This agenda was identified in a ground-breaking trilateral forum among more than 50 experts and officials, convened quietly in January on the sidelines of the Raisina Dialogue. Those discussions have helped inform the policy thinking leading up to President Macron s productive visits to India and Australia. The three countries are ideally placed to share data to form a common operating picture of the Indian Ocean, watching for environmental stresses, illegal fishing and other and maritime crimes. This could build on existing cooperation between France and Australia in the Pacific. In time, they could formalise three-way information sharing on seaborne traffic of all kinds. Between their island territories France s Reunion and Mayotte, Australia s Cocos and Christmas islands and India s Andaman and Nicobar islands they possess a triangle of some of the most strategic maritime surveillance real estate in the Indian Ocean. As President Macron said in Australia, it is in everyone s interests for other countries to form a partnership of equals with China, informed by principles such as freedom of navigation and overflight and the independence of all nations. This is not about rejecting China s rise but about engaging it in a system of rules and mutual respect. New trust and cooperation among the other powers of the Indo- Pacific will help provide them what Macron has called the means to do so.

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