ह द स ख! Hindi Sikho!

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1 ह द स ख! Hindi Sikho! by Shashank Rao

2 Section 1: Introduction to Hindi In order to learn Hindi, you first have to understand its history and structure. Hindi is descended from an Indo-Aryan language known as Sanskrit, a classical language of India. Several countries across the world contain a significant population of Hindi speakers, including India, being its official language, Fiji, and the United States. It contains a significant amount Sanskrit vocabulary, but also borrows some words from Farsi and Arabic, having been occupied by the Muslim Mughal Empire for a significant period of time. Urdu, Hindi s sister language, is distinct from Hindi in this respect, borrowing almost exclusively from Farsi and Arabic vocabulary. The Hindi-Urdu language family constitutes one of the world s richest literary and musical traditions. Like most Indian languages, Hindi has its own script, as does Urdu. Hindi s script is derived from the alphabet used in Sanskrit, also known as Dēvanāgari. Urdu uses a modified form of the Nastaliq script used to write Arabic. The chart below shows the Dēvanāgari alphabet used to write Hindi-Urdu in India.

3 You ll notice that each letter has an innate vowel: a. Each letter in a Hindi word is its own syllable. The way writing in Hindi works is that depending on the syllable you want to write, you add a diacritic mark to change the vowel. Consonant diacritics are formed by removing the ascending bar, and attaching them to next letter. The bottom of the vowel chart shows some common conjunct consonants that you should know. Below is a vowel chart that shows all the vowels in their complete and diacritic forms. As for its structure, Hindi is an SOV language. This means a sentence is typically structured as Subject-Object-Verb. Look at the example. Ex. म च वल ख रह ह Maiṃ chāval khā-rahā-hūṃ. I am eating rice. I is the subject, rice is the object, and eating is the verb.

4 Some useful terms to remember for reading this text include object (as in nouns that receive the actions of verbs, whether directly or indirectly), transitive (a verb that takes an object), and intransitive (a verb that doesn t take an object). Words will be first given in Hindi, then the romanized forms (written as pronounced, rather than the official romanized form), and then in English. Also, you should be aware that while you don t need to know how to read Hindi to learn from this text, it can be extremely helpful, especially if you re in a place where most things are written in Hindi. It should be noted that some words are not said how they are written, at least, not by everyone. For example, the word पहल is pronounced pehele, rather than pahale. Another thing to remember about Hindi is that unchanged consonants are sometimes pronounced without the final vowel. This is always true at the end of words, and only sometimes true for other positions; the pronunciation will be noted in the romanization. Long vowels will be indicated by the use of macron bars, and other romanization diacritics will be used to indicate special sounds. Aspiration will be marked like so: Aspirated k = kh Now, let s go over pronunciation in Hindi. Only difficult or peculiar sounds will be explained. ट (ṭ) VS त (t) - The former is pronounced like t at the center of the roof of your mouth, or near the lump on the roof of your mouth. The second sound is pronounced like t touching your teeth and the roof of your mouth at same time. Similar to the th in the beginning of thought, whereas ṭ is the t at the end of the word. ड (ḍ) VS द (d) - The first one is pronounced like ṭ only it s a d sound, like the d in dead, whereas the second one is pronounced similar to the th in the. Aspirated consonants - This one might be a little confusing, because in English we do it a lot without realizing it. Say any consonant against your hand, and if you feel air coming out, it s aspirated.. The only consonants that have aspirated and non-aspirated forms are क (k), ग (g), च (ch), ज (j), ट (ṭ), ड (ḍ), त (t), द (d), प (p), and ब (b). Nasal consonants - There are three unfamiliar nasal sounds in Hindi that you need to know. These are ङ (ṅ), ञ (ñ), ण (ṇ). The first is pronounced nga, like at the end of the word going. The second is pronounced nya. The third is a bit difficult for non-indian language speakers. It s pronounced like n, but you move the tip of your tongue to the center of the roof of your mouth. ऋ (ṛ) - This sound is pretty strange to most non-hindi speakers, since it s listed as a vowel. The truth is that in Sanskrit, this letter used to represent a very short [ɯ] sound, which sounds kind of like a hiccup. But because this vowel was basically only ever used for r in Sanskrit, the two sounds were consolidated. The letter ऋ is pronounced tightly and shortly.

5 Arabic/Farsi sounds - These sounds are ones borrowed to pronounce words that are loaned from Arabic and Farsi, and can instantly recognized as such. They re much more common in Urdu, but they come up occasionally in Hindi. These are ड़ (rh), ढ़ (rhh), ख़ (ẖ), क़ (q), and ग़ (ġ). The ड़ sound is made by moving the end of your tongue to the back of the roof of your mouth, and then breathing. Thankfully, it s pretty rare in Hindi, but a little more common at the end of syllables in Urdu. This sound is somewhat difficult to pronounce, and many Hindi speakers pronounce it like ड instead. The ढ़ sound is the aspirated version of ड़. ख़ is somewhat like the sound when clearing your throat, but softer. The क़ sound is a little more difficult, because you have to shape your mouth like you re about to make the k sound, but then you lower your tongue from the roof of your mouth and breathing. Do the same with the g sound to try and get ग़. A note about vocabulary in Hindi-Urdu: many Hindi-Urdu speakers, especially those who are affluent, will (in varying extents) borrow words from other languages, particularly English. So, while nearly every word here exists in Hindi-Urdu dictionaries, keep in mind that not all Hindi- Urdu speakers will use them. A good rule of thumb is that technical terms and longer words are avoided in conversation, and it is appropriate to substitute English words. Vocabulary: The Home घर - ghar - house/home क रस - kursī - chair अलम र - almāri - shelf बस तर - bistar - bed म ज़ - mez - table दरव ज़ - darvāzā - door खडक - khiḍakī - window प ख - pankhā - fan कमर - kamrā - room स ड अ - sīḍīaṃ - stairs बत त - battī - light फ़शर - farś - floor द व र - dīvār - wall Vocabulary: Basic Food Vocabulary इडल - iḍlī - rice dumpling द स - dosā - dosa (crepe made from fermented rice batter)

6 इडल - idli - idli (steamed rice dumpling) रसम - rasam - broth/soup served with rice र ट - roṭī - unleavened bread च वल - chāval - rice आल - ālū - potato टम टर - tamāṭar - tomato भनड - bhinḍī - okra स ग - sāg - spinach ग भ - gobhī - cauliflower ग जर - gājar - carrot छलक - chhilka - peel ब ज - bīj - seed प य ज़ - pyāz - onion ग ब - gobī - cauliflower न न - nān - leavened bread र ट - roṭi - unleavened bread पर ठ - paraṃṭha - stuffed unleavened bread सब ज - sabzī - curry/vegetable ग श त - gośt - meat Basic Phrases: त मह र न म क य ह? - Tumhārā nām kyā hai? - What is your name? म र न म ह - Merā nām hai. - My name is नमस त - Namaste - Hello (usually accompanied by a folded hand gesture for first time meetings) फर/ फ़र मल ग - phir/fir milenge - See you later अल वद /ख़ द ह फ़ज़ - alvidā/ẖudā hafiz - Goodbye (Urdu) आपस मल कर ख़ श ह ई - Āpse milkar ẖuśī hūī. - Pleased to meet you. धन यव द/श क रय - dhanyavād/shukriyā - Thank you क पय - kṛpayā - please (rare) क ई ब त नह - koī bāt nahīṃ - no problem ज़र र - zarūr - sure/of course कह ह? - kahāṃ hai? - Where is? यह ह - Yahāṃ hai. - It is here. यह क य ह? - Ye kyā hai? - What is this?

7 त म/आप (क स /क स )/क स ह /ह? - Tum/Āap (kaisā/kaisī))/kaise ho/haiṃ? - How are you? (non-polite (m/f)/polite)) म ठ क ह - Maiṃ ṭhīk hūṃ. - I m fine क मतलब क य ह? - kā matlab kyā hai? - What does mean? म झ पस द ह - Mujhe pasand hai. - I like *(noun) च हए - ( ) chāhie - I want *(verb) च हए - ( ) chāhie - I must/need to यह/वह ह - Yah/Vah hai. - This is... (ज ) ह - jī hāṃ - yes (ज makes it polite) (ज ) नह - jī nahīṃ - no (ज makes it polite) *You use oblique + क form subject nouns and pronouns with these expressions; take note of these for later use. Numbers: You should read this article to learn the numbers in Hindi. Numbers. Hindi numbers tend to be irregular, considering that numbers 1-20 are all unique, and then every 10th number after that is also unique. The numbers below are the ones that are the most necessary for basic stuff in Hindi. Most native Hindi speakers know all their numbers, but many Hindi-Urdu speakers do use English numbers. श न य/ सफ र - śunya/sifr - 0-० एक - ek - 1-१ द - do - 2-२ त न - tīn - 3-३ च र - chaar - 4-४ प च - pāṃc - 5-५ छ - chhe - 6-६ स त - saat - 7-७ आठ - āṭh - 8-८ न - nau - 9-९ दस - das - 10-१० ग य रह - gyārah - 11-११ ब रह - bārah - 12-१२ त रह - terah - 13-१३ च दह - caudah - 14-१४ प द रह - pandrah - 15-१५

8 स लह - solah - 16-१६ सत रह - satrah - 17-१७ अट ठ र - aṭṭhārah - 18-१८ उ न नस - unnīs - 19-१९ इक क स - ikkīs - 20-२० त स - tīs - 30-३० च ल स - calīs - 40-४० पच स - pacās - 50-५० स ठ - sāṭh - 60-६० सत तर - sattar - 70-७० अस स - assī - 80-८० नब ब - nabbe - 90-९० स - sau १०० हज़ र - hazār १००० ल ख - lākh - 100,000-१००,००० कर ड़ - karoḍ - 10,000,000-१०,०००,००० अरब - arab - 1,000,000,0000-१,०००,०००,००० Days and Seasons दन - din - day घ ट - ghanṭa - hour मनट - minaṭ - minute हफ़त - haftā - week वषर /स ल - varṣ/sāl - year (H/U) मह न /म स - mahīnā/mās - month (H/U) स ब ह - subāh - morning द पहर - dopahar - afternoon श म - śām - evening र त - rāt - night स मव र - somvār - Monday म गलव र - mangalvār - Tuesday ब धव र - budhvār - Wednesday ब हस प तव र - bṛhaspativār - Thursday श करव र - shukravār - Friday श नव र - shanivār - Saturday

9 र वव र - ravivār - Sunday ऋत /म सम - ṛtu/mausam - season (H/U) (latter is masculine) वस त/बस त - vasant/basant - spring गरम - garmī - heat/warmth/summer शरद - śarad - fall श शर - śiśir - winter Note: The names of months are the same as they are in English. Telling Time Telling time in Hindi-Urdu is very straight forward. For the most basic form, all you need to do is take the number of the hour, and add the expression ब ज ह (baje haiṃ), and add any time qualifiers you need, such as in the night or in the afternoon. However, if the hour is 1, then you change the expression to बज ह (bajā hai). Below are some other expressions you can use. सव - savā - 1 quarter ड ड - ḍeḍ - 1:30 (Only use) ढ ई - ḍhāī - 2:30 (Only use) स ड़ - sāṛe - half past प न - paune - 3 quarters past/quarter till Ex. र त क स ड़ स त ह Rāt ke sāṛe sāt. It is half past seven (7:30) in the night. स ब ह क ढ ई ह Subāh ke ḍhāī hai. It is 2:30 in the morning. आठ बज ह Āṭh baje haiṃ. It s eight o clock. एक बज और दस मनट ह Ek baje aur das minaṭ hai. It s 1:10.

10 Note: Some Hindi-Urdu speakers, especially affluent ones, may use English time-telling. Exercises A. To practice writing Hindi letters, take each individual letter, and write 2-3 lines of each character, in groups of 5. After you finish each group of 5, write all the sets you ve done so far. You should be able to reproduce the entire alphabet (vowels and consonants) from memory after you ve reached the final set. For vowel and consonant diacritics, practice by using them on different characters repeatedly. Note: use computer software to type Hindi letters first to see what they look like with their diacritics; several conjunct letters do not undergo obvious changes to their shapes when diacritics are attached. B. Practice writing the following words after completing the first exercise. 1. seb 2. pūjā 3. divār 4. aurat 5. aur 6. rām 7. raitā 8. garbā 9. ṛsī 10. riyāz 11. panjābī 12. uṭhānā 13. rakt 14. tez 15. vijñān 16. rānī 17. nīlī 18. svachchh 19. kālā 20. āṃkh

11 Section 2: Cuisine and Nutrition Vocabulary: Food रस ई - rasoī - kitchen म ग़र य /म ग़र - murġiyāṃ/murġ - poultry ग म स - gomāṃs - beef स आर क म स - sūar ka māṃs - pork मछल क म स - machhali ka māṃs - fish (the food) मछल - machhali - fish (the animal) म ग़र - murġ - chicken अ ड - anḍā - egg अखर ट - akhroṭ - nut म गफल - mūṃgphalī - peanut ब द म - bādām - almond क ज - kājū - cashew क ल - kela - banana फल - phal - fruit स ब - seb - apple स तर - santrā - orange आम - ām - mango ग जर - gājar - carrot प न - pānī - water द ध - dūdh - milk च य - chay - tea क फ़ - kaufi - coffee (pronounced like coffee in English) आमल - āmlā - gooseberry मस ल - masālā - spice (mixture) न मक - namak - salt मचर - mirch - pepper/chili ल ल मचर - lāl mirch - red pepper क ल मचर - kālā mirch - black pepper अज व न - ajvain - carom क सर/ज़फ़र न - kesar/zafrān - saffron हल द - haldi - turmeric लस - lasūṃ - garlic

12 अदरक - adrak - ginger इल यच /एल च - ilayachī/elaichī - cardamom इमल - imlī - tamarind तल - til - sesame प द न - pudīna - mint च न - chīnī - sugar स फ़ - saunf - fennel seed ह ग - hing - asafoetida त लस - tulsi - basil त जपत त - tejpatta - bay leaf र ई - rāi - black mustard seed सरस - sarsoṃ - big mustard seed ज र - jīra - cumin ध नय - dhāniya - coriander लव ग/ल ग - lavang/laung - clove द लच न - dālcīnī - cinnamon (not sweet!) न र यल - nāriyal - fresh coconut स ख न र यल - sukhā nāriyal - dried coconut नम ब - nīmbū - lemon स ब द न - sābūdānā - tapioca दह - dahī - yogurt अच र - achār - pickle थ ल - thāli - plate छ र क ट - chhurī kāṃṭa - knife चमच - chamach - spoon कड़ छ - kaḍachhī - serving ladle क ट - kāṃṭa - fork त ल - tel - oil मक खन - makkhan - butter घ - ghī - clarified butter लकड़ - lakadī - wood चमड़ - chamrhā - leather बतर न - bartan - vessel/pot तव - tavā - griddle for making roti त द र - tandūrī - stone oven ख न - khānā - meal/food (used to refer to all meals)

13 कल व - kaleva - breakfast (rare) प रस द - prasād - holy offering of food भ जन - bhojan - cuisine/cookery न सख़ - nusḥā - recipe मठ ई - miṭhāī - generic sweets श क ह र - shākāhārī - vegetarian म सह र - māṃsahāri - non-vegetarian बम र - bīmārī - sickness ओशध /दव ई - auśadhī/davāī - medicine ज़ ख़ म - zuḥām - cold ब ख र - bukhār - fever/flu ख स - khāṃsi - cough आर म - ārām - rest Body Parts: दल - dil - heart छ त - chhāti - chest बदन - badan - body चमड़ - chamrhi - skin ल श/शव - lāś/śav - corpse सर - sir - head च हर - chehra - face ब ल - bāl - hair आ ख - āṃkh - eye क न - kān - ear न क - nāk - nose म ह - muṃh - mouth ज भ/ज़ ब न - jībh/zubān - tongue (H/U) ह ठ - hoṃṭhoṃ - lips गरदन - gardan - neck क ठ/गल - kanṭh/galā - throat द त - dāṃt - teeth भ ह - bhauṃheṃ - eyebrow म स तष क/ दम ग़ - mastiṣk/dimāġ - brain क ध - kandhā - shoulder

14 क हन - kohnī - elbow प ठ/कमर - pīṭh/kamar - back फ फड़ - phepharha - lungs प र/प व - pair/pāṃv - foot अ ग ल - āṃgulī - toe तखन - takhnā - ankle एड़ - erhī - heel कल ई - kalāī - wrist प ट - peṭ - stomach/belly न ख न - nākhūn - nail ह थ - hāth - hand ऊ गल - ūṃglī - finger ट ग - ṭāng - leg बज़ - bazū - arm ख़ न - ḥūn - blood Verbs: ख न - khānā - to eat खलवन - khilvāna - to feed प न - pīnā - to drink पल न - pilāna - to cause to/make drink स न - sonā - to sleep ल टन - leṭna - to lie down ज गन - jāgnā - to wake up गरन - girnā - to fall *पक न - pakānā - to cook क टन - kāṭnā - to cut छलन - chhilnā - to peel रखन - rakhnā - to put (as in place) करन - karnā - to do बनन - banana - to become (often pronounced बन न ) ब त बन न - to turn out/work out *बन न - banānā - to make उपय ग करन - upayog karnā - to use द न - denā - to give

15 स फ़ करन - sāf karnā - to clean चहन - chahna - to want ध न - dhonā - to wash ड लन - ḍālnā - to put/serve (food, medicine, etc.) नह न - nahānā - to bathe छ कन - chhiṃknā - to sneeze अलस न - alsānā - to be lethargic/inactive त ड़न - toṛnā - to break आन - ānā - to come ज न - jānā - to go *These two verbs can be interchanged when conveying that someone is making/cooking food, though पक न is more specific and not as common, and ख न बन न is more along the lines of make dinner. Useful Connecting Words: और/एव /व/तथ - aur/evaṃ/va/tathā - and इस लए/उस लए - islie/uslie - because of this/that य /अथव - yā/athvā - or मगर/ल कन - magar/lekin - but अगर/य द - agar/yadi - if Grammatical Gender in Hindi The grammatical gender of nouns in Hindi can be sometimes difficult to determine, since the rules are not 100% consistent. Roughly 75% of all nouns in Hindi follow the rule that ending in - ā or consonant is masculine, and ending in -ī is feminine. Nearly all foreign words, such as those of Arabic and Farsi origin, are automatically considered feminine, with a few exceptions, such as some from English. Arabic and Farsi loans will be noted with an U, standing for Urdu, because most of the vocabulary in Urdu is from Arabic and Farsi. The gender of ambiguous nouns as well as exceptions will be also be noted with m. or f.. Some words for animals have separate masculine and feminine forms, usually those for which such distinctions are important (ex. bull vs cow and horse vs mare). There are also other odd, but pertinent rules for grammatical gender determination. Trees, cereals, and grains are typically masculine, and minerals, gemstones, planets, and days of the week are always masculine. River names, languages, as well as nearly all spices are invariably feminine. Small things tend to be feminine and large things tend to masculine as well.

16 With that, here are some rules for how to make nouns plural: 1. Masculine nouns ending in -ā change the ending to -e in the plural. 2. Masculine nouns ending in consonants do not change the ending in the plural. 3. Feminine nouns ending in consonants add -eṃ to the end in the plural. 4. Nouns ending in -ī add -yāṃ to the end in the plural. 5. Many feminine Urdu words, such as प य ज़, in colloquial speech, don t change in the plural. Adjectives Adjectives in Hindi more ore less behave like in English. However, it should be known that adjectives will have a gender if they end in a vowel, for the most part, but if it ends in -ī by default, it is invariable. The adjectives will change according to gender as nouns do, simply changing -ā to -ī when the noun is feminine. However, they do not change according to number. All adjectives will be given in their default masculine form. Adjectives: अच छ - achchhā - good/well घ ण जनक - ghrṇājnak - disgusting ख़र ब - ḥarāb - bad (as in gone bad or spoiled) पक क - pakkā - ripe गरम - garam - hot ठ ड - ṭhanḍā - cold स व दष ट - svādiśṭ - tasty खट ट - khaṭṭa - sour म ठ - mīṭha - sweet तख - tikhā - spicy कड़व - karhavā - bitter नमक न - namkīn - salty ठ क - ṭhīk - good/fine ख ल - khālā - empty ग ल - gīla - wet स ख - sūkha - dry (without moisture) स ग धत - sugandhit - fragrant/pleasant-smelling द गर न धत - durgandhit - fetid/bad-smelling स वस थ यकर - svasthyakar - healthy अस व स थ यकर - asvāsthyakar - unhealthy

17 श ष क - śuṣk - boring/dry/uninteresting ब स व द - besvād - bland/tasteless Pronouns and Verbs In Hindi, the infinitive ends in -न (-nā), for every verb. Like in many Indo-European languages, such as Spanish, Italian, or Portuguese, verbs inflect according to person, tense, and grammatical mood. We ll go into moods as they re introduced. But first, you need to know the pronouns. म - maiṃ - I त म - tum - you (non-polite) यह/वह - yah/vah - he/she/it* हम - ham - we आप - āp - you (polite) य /व - ye/ve - they *यह/वह are pronounced ye and vo in vernacular Hindi-Urdu. Hindi makes a distinction between third person references to things that are near the speaker and far from the speaker. यह/वह and य /व are also demonstrative pronouns meaning, this/that and these/those, respectively. Thus, they can also mean this person here and that person there. There is also another second person pronoun: त (tū), which indicates low respect, and is generally used to talk to young children by significantly older relatives and people, between close friends, to talk with disdain, and oddly enough, to address one s mother and God. It uses all verb conjugations associated with the third person rather than the second person. The degrees of politeness go down from आप to त म to त. Be very careful with त, because it can come across as confrontational and rude, especially with someone whose relationship with you may not be particularly clear-cut. It is best to use त म nearly all the time for friends, but आप is best reserved for those much older than one s self or higher in status. In the social hierarchies of most Indian languages, it is considered inappropriate to ask to use a lesser pronoun, and it is more polite to wait until one is given permission, but it s still polite to refuse the offer. There is also the plural marker ल ग (log), which literally means people. It can be attached to त म, हम, and अ प to indicate plurality. So, त म ल ग (tum log) would mean you people in a nonpolite way, and अ प ल ग (āp log) would mean you people in a polite way. Both of these only use the plural conjugations shared with य /व and हम. हम ल ग (ham log) is a bit of a different case, and it doesn t have different conjugations. हम ल ग can be used to emphasize the plurality of हम

18 (like we all ). It is used to mean we, in areas where हम is used to mean I, rather than म. This practice, in other areas, is understood to mean the royal we. Verb Classes There are three categories of verbs in Hindi. It often helps to categorize verbs and nouns, because your brain understands things better when sorted according to a system. Verbs from the first class are called strong vowel infinitives (SVI). An SVI is an infinitive whose stem ends in a strong vowel. A strong vowel is अ (a), आ (ā), ए (e), ऐ (ai), ओ (o), औ (au). So, the verb ख न (khānā) is an SVI, because the verb stem is ख (khā). आ is the strong vowel. The second class, weak vowel infinitives (WVIs), are named so because the stems end in weak vowels, which are इ (i), ई (ī), उ (u), and ऊ (ū). An example is प न (pīnā), whose stem is pī, ending with the weak vowel ई. The verbs from the third class are called terminal consonant infinitives (TCIs). The stems of verbs from this group end in consonants. One such verb is करन (karnā), whose stem is कर (kar). The terminal consonant is र. New Verb Tense: The Present This verb tense is self-explanatory, used to make statements in the present. Below is the conjugation table for karnā (to do). All verbs in Hindi are conjugated the same way in the present tense, and also change according to gender and number as shown. The -ī endings are feminine, -ā endings are masculine, and -e endings are neuter or plural. म करत ( ) ह - maiṃ kartā(ī) hūṃ - I do त म करत ( ) ह - tum karte(ī) ho - you (nonpolite) do यह/वह करत ( ) ह - yah/vah kartā(ī) hai - he/ she/it does हम करत ह - ham karte haiṃ - we do *आप (ल ग) करत ( ) ह - āp (log) karte(ī) haiṃ - you (polite) you (all) do य /व करत ह - ye/ve karte haiṃ - they do *The gender changing rule does not apply to आप ल ग; just use करत ह. Remember the part that comes before the conjugation of ह न is called the imperfect aspect. This will be important for later down the road.

19 As you can see, each conjugation incorporates the verb ह न (hona - to be), one of Hindi-Urdu s only consistently irregular verb. It is conjugated irregularly in most tenses. This verb can mean several things, including notions such as there is, and verbs such as to be and to happen. Below is a table detailing the present tense conjugations of this verb. म ह - maiṃ hūṃ त म ह - tum ho यह/वह ह - yah/vah hai हम ह - ham haiṃ आप ह - āp haiṃ य /व ह - ye/ve haiṃ You can adjust the pronoun and conjugation of ह न as needed. It should also be fairly evident that because some of the conjugations are the same, and therefore, subjects usually are not omissible. Below are examples of the present tense in use. Ex. म र द द ज घर प ज त ह Mere dādājī ghar pe jāte haiṃ. My grandfather goes home. क य ख त ह त म? Kyā khāte ho tum? What do you eat/are you eating? ह न (honā) as the Main Verb Complete sentences in Hindi-Urdu require a predicate, or a main verb. Ordinarily, you can use ह न s normal forms to express something is or isn t, but when used as the predicate, it has a slightly different meaning. ह न as the main verb abstracts generalizations from things that are true most of the time, regardless of whether they are true all the time. Look at the example. Ex. ब द ध श त स वभ व क ह त ह Bauddh śānt svbhāv ke hote haiṃ. Buddhists are of a calm/peaceful disposition (in general/as a fact). Just treat ह न like normal verb, using the imperfect aspect and the irregular conjugations of ह न.

20 Exercises A. Conjugate the following verbs in the present tense for the given pronouns. 1. I (male), ख न 2. She, नह न 3. They, त रन 4. We, प न 5. You (male, polite), ल न 6. You (female, polite), बन न 7. You (female, non-polite), द न 8. You all, जगन 9. I (female), पड़न 10. You (male, rude), ज न B. Pluralize the following singular nouns. 1. अ ड 2. चमड़ 3. ग भ 4. क हन 5. क म 6. लकड़ 7. अच र 8. च हर 9. छ त 10. बदन C. Translate the following sentences into Hindi. 1. I (male) eat the apple. 2. He takes a bath. 3. They wash fruits. 4. Do you (male, polite) cook? 5. She cuts lemons. 6. You (female, non-polite) sleep. 7. You (male, rude) make dinner. 8. You all peel mangoes. 9. We sleep.

21 10. You (female, rude) lie down.

22 Section 3: Family Vocabulary: Family Members प रव र - parivār - family म त ज /अम म /अम म /मम म /म - mātājī/ammī/ammā/mummy/māṃ - mother पत ज /अब ब /अप प /प प - pitājī/abbā/appā/pāpā - father ब प - bāp - dad (pejorative) म त पत /म ब प - mātā pitā/māṃ bāp - parents (informal) पत - patī - husband पतन - patnī - wife आदम - ādmī - man औरत - aurat - woman बच च ( ) - bachchā(ī) - child भ ई(य ) - bhāī(yā) - older brother छ ट भ ई(य ) - chhoṭa bhāī(yā) - younger brother द द - dīdī - older sister ब हन - behen - younger sister ब ट ( ) - beṭa(ī) - son/daughter त ऊ - tāū - father s older brother त ई - tāī - father s older brother s wife च च - chāchā - father s younger brother च च - chāchī - father s younger brother s wife फ़ फ़ - fūfa - father s sister s husband ब अ - būa - father s sister म स /ख़ ल - mausā/ḥālā - mother s sister s husband (H/U) म स /ख़ ल - mausī/ḥālī - mother s sister (H/U) म म - māmā - mother s brother म म - māmī- mother brother s wife द द - dādā - paternal grandfather द द - dādī - paternal grandmother न न - nānā - maternal grandfather न न - nānī - maternal grandmother भत ज ( ) - bhatījā(ī) - brother s son/daughter भ ज ( ) - bhānjā(ī) - sister s son/daughter भ भ - bhābhī - brother s wife

23 ज ज - jījā - sister s husband सस र - sasur - father-in-law स स - sās - mother-in-law द म द - dāmād/jamai - son-in-law बह - bahū - daughter-in-law ज ठ - jeṭh - older brother-in-law ज ठ न - jeṭhānī - older brother-in-law s wife द वर - devar - younger brother-in-law द वर न - devrānī - younger brother-in-law s wife *स ल ( ) - sālā(ī) - wife s brother/sister ननद - nanad - husband s sister स त ल - sautela - a prefix indicating step (as in stepparents) (मन ष य/म नव)/इनस न - (manuṣy/mānav)/insān - human being (H/U) ज़नदग - zindagi - life **( नधन/म त य )/म त - (nidhan/mṛtyu)/maut - death (म त can also mean bereavement/grief) उमर - umr/umar - age (different pronunciations) द प त - daṃpati - married couple स प त त - sampatti - property वव ह - vivāh - marriage (the concept) श द - śādī - wedding (the ceremony) पर पर - paramparā - tradition/heritage म यक - māykā - married woman s parental home *Note that these words, in slang, can be somewhat rude. It suggests over-familiarity, especially when in actuality, the people are not that close at all. **It is considered inappropriate, rude, and even insensitive to discuss death or the dead in public. It is especially rude to discuss death or the dead in the presence or earshot of the elderly, as it can be suggestive of their own passings. Note: Adding the suffix -ज (-ji) conveys respect to the person, and can also be used as a word on its own, meaning roughly ma am or sir. The words for mother, father, and grandparents are all subtly different. अम म (ammī) and अब ब (abba) are exclusively used among Muslim Hindi speakers. अम म (ammā) and अप प (appā) are used mostly among South Indian Hindi speakers. The latter pair, (म म म ) mammī and प प (pāpā), are used among North Indian Hindi speakers. Be aware that different parts of India speak different languages, and may use their own terms for various relatives as well as common words.

24 Adjectives: सबस अच छ /प रप णर - sabse achchhā(ī)/paripūrṇ - perfect अ त उत तम - ati uttam - excellent ग़र ब - ġarīb - poor धनव न/अम र - dhanvān/amīr (H/U) - rich/wealthy बढ़ - baḍā(ī) - large/big छ ट - chhoṭā(ī) - small ब र - burā - bad ल ब - laṃbā - tall/long नट - naṭā - short न क - neka - noble (as in righteous or good-hearted) उच च - uccha - noble (as in of noble/superior blood) ख़म - ḥām - important प रन/प न य - pāran/puṇya - holy भद द - bhaddā - ugly स नदर/ख़ बस रत - sundar/ḥūbsūrat - beautiful/handsome प र न - purānā - old (of things) ब ढ़ - burhhā - old (of people नय - nayā - new/inexperienced महत वप णर /गमभ र - mehetvapūrṇ/gambhīr - important अक ल - akelā - alone वह - vahī - same सच च /सह - sacchā/sahī - true ग़लत/झ ठ - ġalat/jhūṭhā - false/untrue शष ट/भद र/ वनम र - śiṣṭ/bhadr/vinamr - courteous/polite स खद य - sukhdāyi - nice (ब द धम न/समझद र)/अक़लम द - (buddhimān/samajhdār)/aqalmand - intelligent/smart (H/U) क मच र - kāmchor - lazy र ख /उग र - rūkha/ugr - rude/unkind न समझ - nāsamajh - stupid श त - śānt - calm/peaceful मलनस र - milansār - social/sociable भयभ त - bhaybhīt - scared अक खड़/घम ड - akkharh/ghamandi - arrogant भ र /वज़न - bhārī/vaznī - heavy

25 हलक - halkā - light द र - dūr - far बलव न/मज़ब त - balvān/mazbūt - strong (H/U) ठ स/घन ब त - ṭhos/ghanībūt - solid म ट /म सल - moṭa/māṃsal - fat स क ष म - sūkṣm - fine (as in thickness) द बल /पतल /मह न - dubla/patla/mahīn - thin Verbs: द ड़न - dauḍnā - to run चलन - chalnā - to walk ब लन - bolnā - to speak लखन - likhnā - to write करन - karnā - to do ख लन - khelnā - to play ब त करन - bāt karnā - to talk पत ह न - patā honā - to know (a fact) (third person only) ज नन - jānana - to know (a person) or be familiar with (often pronounced ज न न ) रहन - rehnā - to live (as in to reside) मरन - marna - to die प य र करन - pyār-karnā - to love बहस करन - bahas karnā - to argue नफ रत - nafrat karnā - to hate Possessive Pronouns In Hindi, possessive pronouns are also adjectives that ascribe ownership to a noun. Depending on the context, they can be either pronouns or adjectives. As in some other languages, possessive pronouns in Hindi possess a gender. You must match the pronoun to the gender of the noun it describes. However, in Hindi, these adjectives do not change with plurality. merā - my tumhārā/terā - your uskā - his/her hamārā - our āpkā - your unkā - their

26 Ex. त मह र स इ कल प ल ह क य? नह, म र ल ल ह Tumhārī saikil pīlī hai? Nahīṃ, merī lāl hai. Is your bike yellow? No, mine is red. उसक घर य ह ह Uskā ghar yahāṃ hai. His/her house is here. र ध क थ ल स फ़ नह ह Rādhā kī thālī sāf nahīṃ hai. Radha s plate is not clean. म र * म ख न बन रह ह Mere* māṃ khānā banā rahī haiṃ. My mom is making dinner. *Note that when possessive adjectives are used in conjunction with nouns that indicate people of higher status, or worthy of respect, you must change the ending of the possessive adjective to -e. Notice in the second and third examples example the word क (kā). This particle denotes possession, much like s in English. It agrees with gender and number. In the feminine singular, it is क (kī), and in the neuter singular and plural for all forms it is क. You can also switch the possession of the possessive clause for the same meaning: Ex. यह क घर र ध क ह Yahāṃ kā ghar Rādhā kā hai. The house here is Radha s. It should be noted, however, that there is another pronoun: अपन ( ) (apnā(ī)). This means, one s own. This is used to clarify situations in which the person who possesses a noun or performs an action on a noun is not necessarily evident. Ex. म (म र ) अपन स इ कल चल र ह ह Maiṃ (merā) apnā sāikil chalā rahā hūṃ. I am riding my (own) bike.

27 It is largely implied that अपन is referring to म. If you consider this sentence without अपन, it may not be clear that the bicycle you re riding is yours. In some contexts, this sentence might refer to an arbitrary bicycle, that may not be yours. Also, some people, for this sentence, might include merā before apnā, which in some cases is redundant, but can also be emphatic. It can also be used with any pronoun or possessive to clarify possession. Also, by itself, it can imply the possession simply from context. Possessive Clauses A possessive clause is a sentence that explains ownership of a noun by a person or people. These kinds of phrases use a neuter version of the possessive pronouns. To use these pronouns, you combine them with the form: + क प स + 3rd person singular/plural form of ह न. म र - mere त मह र /त र - tumhare/tere इसक /उसक - iske/uske हम र - hamāre अ पक - āpke इनक /उसक - inke/unke Ex. हम र प स फ ल ह Hamāre pās phūl hain. We have flowers. आप क प स थ ल ह Āp ke pās thāli hai. You (polite) have a plate. Question Words and Phrases Question words and phrases are those that fall into the category of words such as who, why, when, and the like. Note that whenever you make a question without a question word, you have to include क य by default, either at the beginning of the sentence or at the end. Below is a list of these words. क य - kyā - what/question particle क य - kyōṃ - why क स - kaisā(ī) - how क न - kaun - who ( कस is the oblique form of क न)

28 क इ नह - koī nahīṃ - no one क छ (नह ) - kuchh (nahīṃ) - anything/nothing (क छ can also mean some ) कब - kab - when कह / कधर - kahāṃ - where क नस ( ) - kaunsā(ī) - which/what kind कतन ( ) - kitnā(ī) - how many कतन बज ह? - kitne baje haiṃ? - What time is it? Colors: र ग - raṃg - color सफ़ द - safed - white क ल - kālā - black ल ल - lāl - red न ल - nīlā - blue प ल - pīlā - yellow हर - harā - green न र ग - nārangī - orange (invariable) ब गन - baiṃganī - purple (invariable) ग ल ब - gulābi - rose/pink (invariable) Comparatives: To make a comparative, you add ज य द (zyādā) before the adjective to make the comparison, when the other member of the comparison is not mentioned in the sentence. However, when the other member is present, then you add स (se) to the end of the name or pronoun of said member. Look at the example below. Ex. न दन ज य द ल ब ह Nandinī zyādā laṃbī hai. Nandini is taller. म म र द द स स दर ह Maiṃ merī dīdī se sundar hai. My sister is more beautiful than me.

29 Exercises: A. Translate the following sentences or phrases into Hindi-Urdu. 1. (this) his sister 2. I have three children. 3. my table 4. Do we have a tradition? 5. Is that (that) their daughter-in-law? 6. (that) her mother-in-law 7. This is (this) his father. 8. (this) their family 9. Is that your (non-polite) mother? 10. your (polite) father

30 Section 4: Location and Conditions Vocabulary: Postpositions पर/प - par/pe - to/on/at/by (as in by car) स - se - from/in the manner of (can also be used to indicate association)* क - ko - object pronoun प स/बग़ल म - pās/baġal meṃ - beside/near तरफ़ - taraf - side (uses क ) न च - nīche - under तल - tal - bottom स मन - sāmne - in front प छ - pīchhe - behind/back/ago ऊपर - ūpar - on top/upon/above/up/upstairs द र - dūr - far/distant यह -वह - yahāṃ-vahāṃ - around (adverb) इधर-उधर - sutta - around (preposition) वह -तह - vahāṃ-tahāṃ - strewn/scattered about अ स-प स - ās-pās - in the surrounding vicinity अ दर/भ तर - andar/bhītar - inside ब हर - bāhar - outside प वर /पहल - pūrv/pahale - before ब द - bād - after तक - tak - until/till (doesn t use क ) स थ - sāth - with बन / बन - binā - without ( बन doesn t use क ) वषय/ब र म - viṣay/bāre meṃ - about/concerning लगभग - lagbhag - approximately/around (in quantity) ब च म - bīch meṃ - between ब त - bāt - a matter/question of (uses क ) लए - lie - for *Ex. पत ज स तम ज़ स ब त करत ह Pitājī se tamīz se bāt karte haiṃ. He/She talks to their father with respect.

31 The स here indicates that the action is associated with the father s presence, in a because of kind of way. You could even translate this as From/Because of their father, they talk with respect. Vocabulary: Conditions and States थकन /(थक/ऊब) ज न - thakna/(thak/ūb) jāna - tired (H/(H/U)) बम र - bimār - sick वमन/क़ ह न - vaman/qai hōna - to feel sick/unwell (H/U) ख़ श - ḥuṣi - happy उद स/ग़म - udās/ġam - sad/grieving व यस त - vyast - occupied/busy स वच छ/स फ़ - svachchh/sāf - clean (H/U) म ल /ग द - mailā/gandā - dirty जल द - jaldī - quick ध र - dhīre - slow प रव ण - pravīṇ - talented स म न य/औसत - sāmāny/ausat - ordinary (H/U) म म ल - māmūlī - mediocre स हस - sāhasī - daring दक ष/ह शय र - dakṣa/hośiyār - capable/clever कष टकर - kaṣṭkar - annoying प णर - pūrṇ - full ख़ ल - ḥāli - empty स भव - saṃbhav - possible Vocabulary: Animals ज नवर - jānvar - animal बल ल - billī - cat क त त - kutta - dog स अर - sūar - pig/swine ग य - gāy - cow म रग़ - murġ - chicken च ड़य - chirhiyā - bird हरन - hiran - deer भल - bhalū - bear

32 उल ल - ullū - owl ख़रग श - ḥargoś - rabbit गलहर - gilharī - squirrel च ह - chūha - mouse/rat बन दर - bandar - monkey ह स - haṃs - swan स ह/श र - siṃh/sher - lion बतख़ - bataḥ - duck श र - sher - tiger ल मड़ - lomarhī - fox स प - sāṃp - snake गज /ह त - gaja/hātī - elephant (H/U) भ ड़ - bherh - sheep घ ड़ - ghorhā - horse क ट - kīṭ - insect/bug मकड़ - makarhī - spider तत य - tataiya - wasp ततल - titli butterfly मक ख - makkhī - fly Additional Vocabulary: Natural Phenomena म सम - mausam - weather (masculine) वक त - vaqt - time लमह - lamhā - moment अ क श/अ सम न - ākāśa/āsmān - sky स थल/ज़म न - sthal/zamīn - earth स रज - sūraj - sun च द/च द रम - chāṃd/chandrama - moon (common/poetic) त र - tāra - star ग रह - grah - planet ब दल - bādal - cloud गदल - gadlā - cloudy व य /हव - vāyu/havā - wind (H/U) त फ़ न - tufān - storm क ह स - kuhāsa - mist

33 क हर - kohra - fog सम र/बय र - samīr/bayār - breeze बजल /त ड़त - bijalī/tarhit - lightning (H/U) गरज/कड़क - garj/karhak - thunder (H/U) गम र - garmī - heat त प - tāp - temperature हम/बफ़र - him/barf - ice/snow (H/U) ब रश - bāriś - rain Grammatical Case in Hindi-Urdu In Hindi-Urdu, pronouns change form when put into different grammatical cases, which are used for different grammatical functions. There are three cases: nominative, vocative, and oblique. The nominative is the base form of all nouns, and the vocative is a form used to address nouns, which means saying things like Oh God! or Oh child, what have you done? The third form is known as the oblique form, which receives all postpositions. Some pronouns have distinct oblique forms, whereas other nouns follow a pattern. Below are the oblique forms of the pronouns, given after their nominative forms. म - म झ (mujh) त म/त - त म/त झ (tujh) यह/वह - इस/उस (is/us) हम - हम (ham) आप - अ प (āp) य /व - इन/उन (in/un) However, not all forms simply add certain postpositions to the end and fit neatly. Some have special forms that must be remembered. Take क, for example: म - म झ /म झक /म र क (mujhe/mujhko/mereko) त म/त - [त म /त मक ]/त झ ([tumeṃ/tumko]/tujhe) यह/वह - (इस /इसक )/(उस /उसक ) (ise/isko)/(use/ usko) हम - हम /हमक (hameṃ/hamko) आप - अ पक (āpko) य /व - (इनह /इनक )/(उनह /उनक ) (inheṃ/inko)/ (unheṃ/unko) The first given form for each pronoun is the one that you should use, but be aware that these other versions exist. They can pop up in different areas of the Hindi-speaking world, but stick with the first ones, since they are ones found most often. Be careful with इस /उस (ise/use) versus इसस /उसस (isse/usse)! These are different words that mean very different things and are also

34 pronounced differently! The latter is the attachment of स, so remember that the latter pair is pronounced with a stressed s sound. For other nouns, there are few convenient rules you can memorize to remember how to decline them in each case. Vocative Case 1. All nouns do not change form in the vocative singular, except masculine nouns ending in -ā, which change the ending to -ē in the vocative singular and -o in the vocative plural. 2. Nouns that end in consonants simply add -o to the end in oblique plural. 3. Nouns that end in -ī add -yo to the end in the oblique plural. Oblique Case 1. All nouns do not change form in the oblique singular, except for masculine nouns ending in -ā, which change the ending to -e in the singular and -oṃ in the plural 2. Nouns that end in consonants simply add -oṃ to the end in oblique plural. 3. Nouns that end in -ī add -yoṃ to the end in the oblique plural. Below are some examples of how to use the different cases: Ex. हमस दव ई ल ल Hamse davāī le lo. Take medicine from us. हम र घर क स मन एक वद य लय ह Hamārā ghar ke sāmne ek vidyālay hai. In front of our house is a school. म झ च य च हए Mujhe chāy chāhie. I want tea. हमक ज न च हए Hamko jānā chāhie. We need to/must go.

35 Notice in the last example the use of क as opposed to क /क (or nothing at all). This is a special neuter form of क, used only with certain prepositions, usually of physical location. The following postpositions use क before them and use oblique form pronouns. न च - nīche - under तल - tal - bottom स मन - sāmne - in front प छ - pīchhe - behind/back/ago ऊपर - ūpar - on top/upon/above/up/upstairs वह -तह - vahāṃ-tahāṃ - strewn/scattered about अ स-प स - ās-pās - in the surrounding vicinity अ दर/भ तर - andar/bhītar - inside ब हर - bāhar - outside ब द - bād - after स थ - sāth - with बन - binā - without वषय/ब र म - viṣay/bāre meṃ - about/concerning ब च म - bīch meṃ - between लए - lie - for Remember that if you use a noun as a subject such as girl that have no specific names, you have to use इस/उस and इन/उन in order to frame with postpositions. Ex. इस बच च क बन (Is bachcha ke binā - Without this child). The Present Progressive The present progressive is a tense distinct from the present tense because it describes an action that is taking place and continuing to take place in the present moment. It s the difference between I eat and I am eating. The former is a factual statement, or something that is independent of time. The second implies that it is going on right now, and is still going on. To use this tense, combine the stem (drop the न from the infinitive) and the perfective aspect of रहन (to stay/be located). The table below shows the conjugations. म रह ( ) ह - maiṃ rahā(ī) hūṃ त म रह ( ) ह - tum rahe(ī) ho यह/वह रह ( ) ह - yah/vah rahā(ī) hai हम रह ह - ham rahe haiṃ आप रह ( ) ह - āp rahe(ī) haiṃ य /व रह ह - ye/ve rahe haiṃ

36 Ex. म र बहन द ड़ रह ह Merī behen daurh rahī hai. My sister is running. हम घर प /पर ज रह ह Ham ghar pe/par jā rahe haiṃ. We are going home. When you get to later chapters, you will learn the imperfect past of ह न, which can replace the present tense forms in the present progressive to make the past progressive, which would talk about a moment that is taking place at a time in the past and continuing from there. Ex. ग त और उसक द द द ड़ रह थ Gītā aur uskī dīdī daurh rahī thīṃ. Gita and her older sister were running (at some point in time and continued). The future progressive would indicate something similar in the future: य ह ग न कतन य ग चलत रह ग? Yah gānā kitne yugoṃ caltā rahega? How many ages will this song continue? Exercises A. Translate the following phrases or sentences into Hindi. 1. For Gitā 2. From me, to you (non-polite) 3. From the earth to the sky (hint: use तक) 4. Inside the house 5. To the school 6. It is far from (this) her. 7. You (male, polite) give us food. 8. (That) They are on that planet. 9. Are we behind (this) him? 10. (That) She s under the table?

37 B. Conjugate the following verbs in the present progressive tense for the given pronouns. 1. I (male), ख न 2. She, नह न 3. They, त रन 4. We, प न 5. You (male, polite), ल न 6. You (female, polite), बन न 7. You (female, non-polite), द न 8. You all, जगन 9. I (female), पड़न 10. You (male, rude), ज न

38 Section 5: School Vocabulary: Nouns क़लम - qalam - pen थ ल /झ ल - thailā/jhelā - bag क च - kaiṃchī - scissors प स तक/ कत ब - pustak/kitāb - book (H/U) क गज़ - kāgaz - paper अख़ब र - aḥbār - newspaper ख़बर - ḥabar - news टप पण - ṭippaṇi - note/comment प रकलन य त र - parikalan yantr - calculator वद य लय/स क ल/प ठश ल - vidyālay - school प ठ - pāṭh - lesson प र थ मक (श ल ) - prāthamik - primary/elementary school (often K-8 in India) उच च वद य लय/म ध य मक (श ल ) - uchch vidyālay/mādhyamik (śālā) - high school वभ ग/श ख - vibhāg/śākhā - department/branch मह वद य लय - mahāvidyālay - university/college जम - jim - gym प स तक लय - pustakālay - library प रय गश ल - prayōgālay - laboratory घर/मक न - ghar/makān - house (H/U) नव सस थ न - nivāsasthān - residence कक ष /दज र - kakśā/darjā - grade/class/standard (H/U) वस त /च ज़ - vastu/chīz - thing (H/U) ब त - bāt - words/talk/matter (as in concerning something) वषय - viṣay - subject (as in school) शब द/लफ ज - shabd/lafz - word (H/U) वद य थ र - vidyārthī - student शकशक( )/अध य पक - śikśak(ī)/adhyāpak - teacher ग र - guru - mentor/teacher (not necessarily academic) व य क त - vyakti - person लड़क ( ) - larhkā(ī) - boy/girl (D/S) श र म न/श र म त - śrīmān/śrīmatī - Mr./Mrs. (often shortened to श र in writing for men) क म र - kumāri - miss (shortened to क म in writing)

39 स हब/स हब - sāhib/sāhiba - Mr./Mrs. (used in predominantly Muslim areas, not just Muslims) पर क ष - parīkṣā - exam/test य जन - yōjna - plan नब ध - nibandh - essay द ख़ल - dāḥila - admission दस त व ज़ - dastāvez - document/certificate पहच न पत र - pehchān patr - ID card अ क - aṅk - score/grade/marks/digit/mathematical figure अ तर ल - antrāl - break अवक श - raja - vacation छ ट ट - chhuṭṭī - holiday वद य - vidyā - knowledge ग णत श स त र - gaṇit śāstr - mathematics कलन श स त र - kalan śāstr - calculus ब जग णत - bījgaṇit - algebra अ कग णत - aṅkgaṇit - arithmetic अन स ध न - anusandhān - research स ख य - sankhyā - number (as in quantities and calculations) अ क - aṅk - numeral/digit (as in a phone number) स ख यक - sankhyikī - statistics (the subject) आ कड़ - āṃkaḍe - statistics (as in data) ल ख - lēkh - composition/article ग त/पद - gīt/pad - lyrics वज ञ न - vijñān - science रस यन वज ञ न - rasāyan vijñān - chemistry भ तक /भ तक वज ञ न - bhaut vijñāna - physics ज व वज ञ न - jīv vijñān - biology अभ य स - abhyās - practice/study रय ज़ - riyāz - practice/training इ तह स - itihās - history भ ष - bhāṣā - language अ ग र ज़ - angrezī - English र जन त - rājnītī - politics क म - kām - work ख ल-क द - khel-kūd - sports कल - kalā - art

40 स ग त - saṅgīt - music भ ग ल (श स त र) - bhūgol (śāstr) - geography सगर म - sargam - the musical scale/melody दक कत - dikktā - difficulty नश न - nishān - mark भ वन - bhāvnā - feeling/emotion आदत - ādat - habit श क - śauk - hobby Classroom Objects: जगह - jagah - place पट ट - paṭṭ - board (like a blackboard) चश म /ऐनक - chaśmā - glasses दव र - divār - wall खडक - khiḍakī - window दरव ज़ - darvāzā - door झ ड /ध वज - jhanḍā/dhvajā - flag ड लच /ट कर - ḍolchī/tokrī - basket घड़ - gharhī - clock क ल डर - kailanḍar - calendar च ब - chābī - key Verbs: श र करन - śurū karnā - to start ख़त म/ख़तम करन - ḥatm/ḥatam karnā - to finish उध ययन करन - udhyayan karnā - to attend/study at a university पढ़न - parhhnā - to read/study प छन - pūchhna - to ask समझन - samajhnā - to understand स खन - sīkhnā - to learn श ख न - sikhānā - to teach लखन - likhnā - to write ब ठन - baiṭhnā - to sit स चन - sochnā - to think स न न - sunnā - to listen

41 उत तर द न - uttar denā - to answer/respond/reply द खन - dekhnā - to look ख लन - khelnā - to play त रन - tairna - to swim ल न - lenā - to take चलन - chalnā - to walk चल न - chalānā - to drive मलन - milna - to meet/find/receive ख लन - kholna - to open/turn on ब द करन - band karnā - to close/turn off ढ ढन - ḍhūnḍhna - to look for सकन - saknā - to be able प न - pānā - to be possible ग न - gānā - to sing (oblique form) + क (पसनद ह न /अच छ लगन ) - ( ) + ko pasand honā/achchha lagnā - to like लग न - lagānā - to put/set इश र करन - iśārā karnā - to gesture/signal/wave व यक त करन - vyakt karnā - to express oneself लगन - lagna - to feel/seem कलपन करन - kalpnā karnā - to imagine (verb stem + ne) + क आदत - ( ) + kī ādat - to be in habit of (verb) (verb stem + ne) + क श क - ( ) + kī + śauk - to be fond of (verb) तल शन /(noun) क तल श करन - talāśnā/( ) kī talāś karnā - to search for (noun) (noun) क इनत ज़ र करन - kā intezār karnā - to wait for (noun) (noun) क ध य न करन - kā dhyān karnā - to take care of (noun) Notice that there are many useful verbs in Hindi that use karnā as an auxiliary verb. Often, the word before karnā is the noun form of the verb. For example in kalpnā karnā, kalpnā means, imagination, which is why the verb means, to imagine. Adjectives: उतस क - utsuk - excited कठ - kaṭhi - difficult आस न - āsān - easy श र - śor - noisy (can also be a noun) श त - śānt - quiet/peaceful

42 कमर ठ - karmaṭh - diligent सब - sab - all अन क/क ई - anek/kāī - many च द - chand - few Adverbs: कल - kal - yesterday/tomorrow (contextual clues are required) आज - āj - today अब - ab - now हम श - hameśa - always कभ नह - kabhī nahīṃ - never शयद - śayad - sometimes/maybe शयद ह कभ - śayad hī kabhī - once in a while अकसर - aksar - often अ ख़र - āḥir - finally दन र त - din rāt - day and night र ज़ - roz - every day एकदम - ekdam - suddenly/absolutely सचम च - sacmuc - really/truly अभ - abhī - right now जब - jab - when (in reference to a particular instant in time; Ex. When I was a child...) तब - tab - then (as in When you come home, then we shall eat. ) आज (क ) र त - āj (kī) rāt - tonight (Here, क is primarily used in emphatic or poetic contexts) यह - yahāṃ - here वह - vahāṃ - there हर जग - har jagā - everywhere हर - har - every कह (भ /नह ) - kahiṃ (bhi/nahiṃ) - anywhere/nowhere बह त स र - bahut (sāre) - very/many थ ड - thoḍā(ī) - little सव र - savere - soon जलद स - jaldī se - quickly/early ध र स - dhīre se - slowly द र स - der se - late ध य न/ग़ र स - dhyān se - carefully/attentively

43 ल परव ह स - lāparvahī se - carelessly प रश रम /म हनत( ) - pariśramī/mehnat(ī) - diligent/hardworking -प रवक - -pūrvak - Makes any noun, particularly abstract nouns, into adverbs एक एक/अच नक - achānak - suddenly New Mood: The Imperative So far, only the indicative mood has been discussed, which conveys general, factual, or absolute statements. The new mood we will learn now is the imperative mood, which, as its name may suggest, is used to issue commands. In Hindi-Urdu, we have learned there are three levels of politeness from the different pronouns we have learned. These are tū (rude), tum (non-polite), and āp (polite). You can also issue commands to groups, such as tum log (informal plural, which is conjugated like āp log), āp log, or ham (Ex. Let s go!). Look at the table below details this. Pronoun SVIs WVIs TCIs त - tū ख - khā प - pī ब ल - bol त म - tum ख ओ - khāo प ओ - pīo ब ल - bolo आप - āp ख इए - khāie प जए - pījie ब लए - bolie plural pronouns ख ए - khāeṃ प ए - pīeṃ ब ल - boleṃ *आप - āp (honorific) ख इएग - khāiega प जएग - pījiega ब लएग - boliega *This form is actually based off a future tense form, but is commonly used as an even more polite version of the imperative form for आप. It is meant to used as a question, which you can see in the examples below. Ex. ब ट त र क म कर Beṭa, tera kām kar. Son, do your homework. कह मत ज ओ Kahīm mat-jāo. Don t go anywhere.

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