1 State of play of EQF implementation in Montenegro Zora Bogicevic, Ministry of Education Rajko Kosovic, VET Center XXV meeting of the EQF Advisory Group 4-6 June 2014, Brussels
2 MONTENEGRIN QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK An instrument governing the entire system of qualifications at all educational levels in Montenegro, through qualification standards that are based on learning outcomes and aligned with needs of the labour market and entire society. MQF allows placement, comparison and development of qualifications, their interconnection and clear overview of different paths for attaining qualifications.
4 MONTENEGRIN QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT Phase 1 Concept definition Montenegrin Qualifications Framework Development Phase 2 Support to MQF establishment /2008 Strategy for Establishment of the Montenegrin Qualifications Framework ( ), Government of Montenegro, October / IPA 2007 project MQF and Quality Assurance in Higher Education support to initial establishment and development of MQF
5 MONTENEGRIN QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT Phase 3 NQF establishment 4. Adoption of the National Qualifications Framework Act, Parliament of Montenegro, December Setting up of the Qualifications Council Government of Montenegro, April / 2012 Adoption of methodology related documents, adoption of rulebooks, setting up of sectoral commissions, establishment of Qualifications Department within the Ministry of Education (NCP) and on - putting regulations into practice and development of qualifications is under way
6 THE NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK ACT (Official Gazette of Montenegro 80/2010) Principles: - Learning outcomes are articulated through knowledge, skills and competence - Placement of qualifications into levels and sub-levels - Credit transferability - Comparability with the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) - Quality assurance during qualifications attainment and development process - Cooperation of all stakeholders - Transparency
7 FRAMEWORK CHARACTER AND SCOPE Philosophy: Framework for reforms and modernisation of qualifications system Comprehensive Framework: from qualifications with the lowest complexity level to the most complex ones Purpose: - To improve availability and quality of qualifications, in line with the needs of the labour market and entire society - To enhance transparency of qualifications in Montenegro, recognition of non-formal and informal learning - To support lifelong learning - To link and align qualifications subsystems in Montenegro
8 THE NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK ACT Structure Levels of qualifications Level descriptors I - VIII knowledge, skills and competence Qualifications based on learning outcomes Types of qualifications Educational qualifications Vocational qualifications Additional qualifications Qualification volume qualification credit value
9 THE NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK ACT Types of qualifications 1. Educational qualifications: obtained after successfully completing publicly approved formal educational programmes 2. National vocational qualifications: obtained after direct assessment (certification) of non formal and infomal learning, or assessment after completing a part of programme (a module, a course). 3. Additional qualifications: A supplement to the existing qualification, generally required by an employer and enabling the employee to be licensed for a particular profession.
10 VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS In accordance with the Act on National Vocational Qualifications (2008), a national vocational qualification is an officially recognised qualification, based on an occupational standard. Obtained through: Assessment after completed training programmes Direct assessment of previously acquired knowledge, skills and competence, regardless of the manner they are acquired The Examination Centre conducts this type of assessment Procedures for three vocational qualifications have been established and put into practice (40 certificates have been awarded so far)
11 THE NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK ACT Qualification volume Qualification volume is determined with number of credits Credits depend on the student s workload in order to achieve learning outcomes Students workload includes all learning activities, including contact hours and supported and non-supported learning
12 THE REFERENCING REPORT Government Conclusion /3 Set up a Working Group to draft the Referencing Report (27 September 2012) Members: representatives of the universities, Employment Agency of Montenegro, MoLSW, Chamber of Commerce, Employers Association, trade unions, MoE, VET Center, Bureau for Educational Services, Examination Centre, National Council for Education, Higher Education Council. One integral report: Is intended to link levels from the Montenegrin Qualifications Framework to the levels from EQF-a and QF-EHEA and verify compatibility of NQF with EQF and QF-EHEA Provides an explanation of fulfilment and answers to the EQF and QF-EHEA criteria, procedures and common quality assurance principles Describes the educational system and qualifications system in Montenegro, as well as development and implementation of the Montenegrin Qualifications Framework
13 CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR PLACEMENT OF QUALIFICATIONS IN THE FRAMEWORK a) The condition to place educational qualifications in the Framework is that they are developed by: - Public institutions licensed by the Ministry of Education to implement educational programmes. Each programme needs to be adopted by the National Council. Levels are defined for each qualifications in accordance with MQF level descriptors; - Higher education institution licensed by the Ministry of Education to implement study programmes, accredited by the Higher Education Council. Levels are defined in line with the Bologna Declaration and in accordance with MQF level descriptors.
14 CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR PLACEMENT OF QUALIFICATIONS IN THE FRAMEWORK b) The condition to place vocational qualifications in the Framework is that they are developed by relevant institutions, in accordance with the law, and adopted by relevant council. Levels are defined for each qualification in accordance with MQF level descriptors. The qualifications registry, maintained by the EQF NCP, includes all details on new qualifications.
15 METHODOLOGY OF COMPARING MQF AND EQF LEVELS Structural and conceptual comparison of EQF and MQF Frameworks are comparable, share similar structure, include qualifications of all complexity levels. Qualifications are placed in 8 levels in MQF and sub-levels observe specific characteristics of qualifications in Montenegro; Each level is based on the learning outcome concept. Descriptors are set by the Rulebook. Learning outcomes are articulated through knowledge (theoretical, factual), skills (manual, cognitive) and competence (independence, responsibility). Level descriptors from EQF and MQF are comparable. EQF and MQF emphasize the objectives of mobility of an individual and linking qualifications to the labour market.
16 COMPARISON OF MQF LEVEL DESCRIPTORS TO THE EQF LEVEL (EXAMPLE) Level III of the MQF 1) Knowledge: basic general and professional knowledge, along with knowledge of facts, principles and processes in the field of work or discipline; Level III of EQF 1) Knowledge: Knowledge of facts, principles, processes and general concepts, in a field of work or study; 2) Skills: Cognitive and practical skills that allow handling familiar and less familiar situations; moderately demanding, less standardised and relatively clear tasks and activities, involving different materials, tools, equipment and devices in production and services 3) Competence: Ability to perform tasks and activities that are not always defined beforehand, with a higher degree of responsibility and independence; work is conducted in line with general instructions; plan, prepare, organise and evaluate own performance and performance of individuals and a smaller group, within the authorities given in advance as well as within own scope of work 2) Skills: A range of cognitive and practical skills required to accomplish tasks and solve problems by selecting and applying basic methods, tools, materials and information; 3) Competence: Take responsibility for completion of tasks in work or study; Adapt own behaviour to circumstances in solving problems
17 COMPARISON OF MQF AND EQF LEVELS MQF EQF VIII 8 VII2 VII1 7 VI 6 V 5 IV2 4 IV1 III 3 II 2 I2 1 I1
18 Comparison of the MQF levels with QF-EHEA MQF VI VII1 VII2 VIII EHEA First cycle Second cycle Third cycle
19 QUALITY ASSURANCE IN THE MQF Only qualifications accredited by the Council can be placed in the MQF So far, the following qualification types have been placed in the Framework: - Educational qualifications, attained through formal education - Vocational qualifications, attained outside the formal education Additional qualifications have not been placed in the Framework yet. Procedures for their development are being drafted. Procedures and processes for qualifications development are defined by relevant laws, rulebooks and methodologies.
20 QUALITY ASSURANCE IN THE MQF 1. Input level (entry into the system): Procedures, defined by regulations, for licensing education providers, accreditation of programmes and qualifications, and licensing of teachers and examiners for vocational qualifications. 2. Process level: Assessment of the performance quality of institutions where qualifications are attained is external, with mandatory selfevaluation. Procedures for assessing quality in VET and general education are defined at the national level. 3. Output level (exit from the system): External national testing at the end of primary education, general and four-year education. The higher education evaluation and self-evaluation system has been developed and it follows European standards and guidelines.
21 INVOLVEMENT OF PARTNERS Various partners have been involved as members of working groups, councils, committees, and commissions in defining the Framework concept, setting procedures and responsibilities for development of qualifications that are part of the Framework, drafting regulations, as well as in drafting the Report. The Qualifications Council, as a body responsible for development and placement of qualifications in the Framework and improvement of the qualifications system, is composed on the basis of partnership principle. Sectoral commissions are also composed on the basis of partnership principle. National Council for Education and Higher Education Council have been set up on the basis of partnership principle.
22 INVOLVEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL EXPERTS Elido Bandelj, Slovenia Dr Mile Dželalija, Croatia Mr Eduard Staudecker, Austria Dr Olav Aarna, Estonia With their suggestions, experts made it possible to have transparent answers to issues from the draft Report and make the process comprehensible. They indicated the need to provide clear information on the national qualifications system, quality assurance, learning outcomes, challenges and appropriate examples, to allow international understanding of the Framework and its development phases.
23 CHALLENGES Framework based on learning outcomes, full implementation requires time: Improve cooperation with partners Improve capacities of sectoral commissions and the Council, in order to adequately articulate labour market needs Enable individualized learning paths Improve quality assurance of assessment of learning outcomes Further development of qualifications of different types and levels in different sectors
24 NEXT STEPS - Prepare the Draft Report - EQF AG (October 2014) - Through IPA IV, transfer and disseminate experience and knowledge gained through qualifications development in tourism and agriculture sectors to other sectors - Develop qualifications of different types and levels, based on learning outcomes
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