# Objectives. Chapter 2: The Representation of Knowledge. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition

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1 Chapter 2: The Representation of Knowledge Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition Objectives Introduce the study of logic Learn the difference between formal logic and informal logic Learn the meaning of knowledge and how it can be represented Learn about semantic nets Learn about object-attribute-value triples Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 2

2 Objectives Continued See how semantic nets can be translated into Prolog Explore the limitations of semantic nets Learn about schemas Learn about frames and their limitations Learn how to use logic and set symbols to represent knowledge Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 3 Objectives Continued Learn about propositional and first order predicate logic Learn about quantifiers Explore the limitations of propositional and predicate logic Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 4

3 What is the study of logic? Logic is the study of making inferences given a set of facts, we attempt to reach a true conclusion. An example of informal logic is a courtroom setting where lawyers make a series of inferences hoping to convince a jury / judge. Formal logic (symbolic logic) is a more rigorous approach to proving a conclusion to be true / false. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 5 Why is Logic Important We use logic in our everyday lives should I buy this car, should I seek medical attention. People are not very good at reasoning because they often fail to separate word meanings with the reasoning process itself. Semantics refers to the meanings we give to symbols. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 6

4 The Goal of Expert Systems We need to be able to separate the actual meanings of words with the reasoning process itself. We need to make inferences w/o relying on semantics. We need to reach valid conclusions based on facts only. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 7 Knowledge in Expert Systems Knowledge representation is key to the success of expert systems. Expert systems are designed for knowledge representation based on rules of logic called inferences. Knowledge affects the development, efficiency, speed, and maintenance of the system. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 8

5 Definitions of Knowledge a) b) (1) the fact or condition of knowing something with familiarity gained through experience or association (2)acquaintance with or understanding of a science, art, or technique (1) the fact or condition of being aware of something (2) the range of one's information or understanding c) the circumstance or condition of apprehending truth or fact through reasoning : cognition d) the fact or condition of having information or of being learned Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 9 Epistemology Epistemology is the formal study of knowledge. Concerned with nature, structure, and origins of knowledge. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 10

6 Categories of Epistemology Philosophy A priori A posteriori Procedural Declarative Tacit Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 11 A Priori Knowledge Also called theoretical knowledge That which precedes Independent of the senses Universally true Cannot be denied without contradiction e.g., coin flips will give 50% heads and 50% tails Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 12

7 A Posteriori Knowledge Also called empirical knowledge That which follows Derived from the senses Now always reliable Deniable on the basis of new knowledge w/o the necessity of contradiction E.g., 100 coin flips give only 39 heads what can you conclude? Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 13 Procedural Knowledge Knowing how to do something: Fix a watch Install a window Brush your teeth Ride a bicycle Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 14

8 Declarative Knowledge Knowledge that something is true or false Usually associated with declarative statements E.g., Don t touch that hot wire. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 15 Tacit Knowledge Unconscious knowledge Cannot be expressed by language E.g., knowing how to walk, breath, etc. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 16

9 Knowledge in Rule-Based Systems Knowledge is part of a hierarchy. Knowledge refers to rules that are activated by facts or other rules. Activated rules produce new facts or conclusions. Conclusions are the end-product of inferences when done according to formal rules. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 17 Knowledge in Rule-Based Systems II Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 18

10 Expert Systems vs. ANS ANS does not make inferences but searches for underlying patterns. Expert systems o Draw inferences using facts o Separate data from noise o Transform data into information o Transform information into knowledge Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 19 Metaknowledge Metaknowledge is knowledge about knowledge and expertise. Most successful expert systems are restricted to as small a domain as possible. In an expert system, an ontology is the metaknowledge that describes everything known about the problem domain. Wisdom is the metaknowledge of determining the best goals of life and how to obtain them. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 20

11 Figure 2.2 The Pyramid of Knowledge Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 21 Knowledge Representation Methods A number of knowledge-representation techniques have been devised: Production Rules Semantic nets Frames Scripts Logic Conceptual graphs Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 22

12 Production Rules Frequently used to formulate the knowledge in expert systems. A formal variation is Backus-Naur form (BNF) metalanguage for the definition of language syntax a grammar is a complete, unambiguous set of production rules for a specific language a parse tree is a graphic representation of a sentence in that language provides only a syntactic description of the language not all sentences make sense Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 23 Example: Production Rules Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 24

13 Example: Parse Tree of a Sentence Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 25 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 26

14 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 27 Advantages and Disadvantages of Production Rules Advantages: simple and easy to understand straightforward implementation formal foundations for some variants Disadvantages: simple implementations are very inefficient some types of knowledge are not easily expressed in such rules large sets of rules become difficult to understand and maintain Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 28

15 Semantic Nets A classic representation technique for propositional information (sometimes called propositional net) Propositions a form of declarative knowledge, stating facts (true/false) Propositions are called atoms cannot be further subdivided. Semantic nets consist of nodes (objects, concepts, situations) and arcs or links (relationships between them). For nodes Labels indicate the name Nodes can be instances (individual objects) or classes (generic nodes) Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 29 Links-Semantic Nets Links represent relationships The relationships contain the structural information of the knowledge to be represented The label indicates the type of the relationship Common types of links: IS-A relates an instance or individual to a generic class A-KIND-OF relates generic nodes to generic nodes Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 30

16 Figure 2.4 Two Types of Nets Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 31 Semantic Net Example Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 32

17 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 33 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 34

18 Figure 2.6: General Organization of a PROLOG System Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 35 PROLOG and Semantic Nets In PROLOG, predicate expressions consist of the predicate name, followed by zero or more arguments enclosed in parentheses, separated by commas. Example: mother(becky,heather) means that becky is the mother of heather Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 36

19 PROLOG Continued Programs consist of facts and rules in the general form of goals. General form: p:- p1, p2,, pn p is called the rule s head and the p i represents the subgoals Example: spouse(x,y) :- wife(x,y) x is the spouse of y if x is the wife of y Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 37 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 38

20 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 39 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 40

21 Object-Attribute-Value Triple One problem with semantic nets is lack of standard definitions for link names (IS-A, AKO, etc.). The OAV triplet can be used to characterize all the knowledge in a semantic net. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 41 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 42

22 Problems with Semantic Nets To represent definitive knowledge, the link and node names must be rigorously defined. A solution to this is extensible markup language (XML) and ontologies. Problems also include combinatorial explosion of searching nodes, inability to define knowledge the way logic can, and heuristic inadequacy. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 43 Problems with Semantic Nets II Disadvantages of semantic nets could be classified as: Expressiveness no internal structure of nodes relationships between multiple nodes no easy way to represent heuristic information extensions are possible, but cumbersome best suited for binary relationships Efficiency may result in large sets of nodes and links search may lead to combinatorial explosion especially for queries with negative results Usability lack of standards for link types naming of nodes classes, instances Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 44

23 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 45 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 46

24 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 47 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 48

25 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 49 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 50

26 Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 51 Schemata Knowledge Structure an ordered collection of knowledge not just data. Semantic Nets are shallow knowledge structures all knowledge is contained in nodes and links. Schema is a more complex knowledge structure than a semantic net. In a schema, a node is like a record which may contain data, records, and/or pointers to nodes. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 52

27 Frames One type of schema is a frame (or script timeordered sequence of frames). Frames are useful for simulating commonsense knowledge. Semantic nets provide 2-dimensional knowledge; frames provide 3-dimensional. Frames represent related knowledge about narrow subjects having much default knowledge. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 53 Frames Continued A frame is a group of slots and fillers that defines a stereotypical object that is used to represent generic / specific knowledge. Commonsense knowledge is knowledge that is generally known. Prototypes are objects possessing all typical characteristics of whatever is being modeled. Problems with frames include allowing unrestrained alteration / cancellation of slots. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 54

28 Logic and Sets Knowledge can also be represented by symbols of logic. Logic is the study of rules of exact reasoning inferring conclusions from premises. Automated reasoning logic programming in the context of expert systems. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 55 Figure 2.8 A Car Frame Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 56

29 Forms of Logic Earliest form of logic was based on the syllogism developed by Aristotle. Syllogisms have two premises that provide evidence to support a conclusion. Example: Premise: All cats are climbers. Premise: Garfield is a cat. Conclusion: Garfield is a climber. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 57 Venn Diagrams Venn diagrams can be used to represent knowledge. Universal set is the topic of discussion. Subsets, proper subsets, intersection, union, contained in, and complement are all familiar terms related to sets. An empty set (null set) has no elements. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 58

30 Figure 2.13 Venn Diagrams Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 59 Propositional Logic Formal logic is concerned with syntax of statements, not semantics. Syllogism: All goons are loons. Zadok is a goon. Zadok is a loon. The words may be nonsense, but the form is correct this is a valid argument. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 60

31 Boolean vs. Aristotelian Logic Existential import states that the subject of the argument must have existence. All elves wear pointed shoes. not allowed under Aristotelian view since there are no elves. Boolean view relaxes this by permitting reasoning about empty sets. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 61 Figure 2.14 Intersecting Sets Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 62

32 Boolean Logic Defines a set of axioms consisting of symbols to represent objects / classes. Defines a set of algebraic expressions to manipulate those symbols. Using axioms, theorems can be constructed. A theorem can be proved by showing how it is derived from a set of axioms. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 63 Other Pioneers of Formal Logic Whitehead and Russell published Principia Mathematica, which showed a formal logic as the basis of mathematics. Gödel proved that formal systems based on axioms could not always be proved internally consistent and free from contradictions. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 64

33 Features of Propositional Logic Concerned with the subset of declarative sentences that can be classified as true or false. We call these sentences statements or propositions. Paradoxes statements that cannot be classified as true or false. Open sentences statements that cannot be answered absolutely. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 65 Features Continued Compound statements formed by using logical connectives (e.g., AND, OR, NOT, conditional, and biconditional) on individual statements. Material implication p q states that if p is true, it must follow that q is true. Biconditional p q states that p implies q and q implies p. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 66

34 Features Continued Tautology a statement that is true for all possible cases. Contradiction a statement that is false for all possible cases. Contingent statement a statement that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 67 Truth Tables Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 68

35 Universal Quantifier The universal quantifier, represented by the symbol means for every or for all. ( x) (x is a rectangle x has four sides) The existential quantifier, represented by the symbol means there exists. ( x) (x 3 = 5) Limitations of predicate logic most quantifier. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 69 Summary We have discussed: Elements of knowledge Knowledge representation Some methods of representing knowledge Fallacies may result from confusion between form of knowledge and semantics. It is necessary to specify formal rules for expert systems to be able to reach valid conclusions. Different problems require different tools. Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, Fourth Edition 70

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