# Proof Theory for Syntacticians

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1 Department of Linguistics Ohio State University Syntax 2 (Linguistics ) January 5, 2012

2 Logics for Linguistics Many different kinds of logic are directly applicable to formalizing theories in syntax (and semantics, formal pragmatics, and computational linguistics). This course will make use of: linear logic (LL) positive intuitionistic propositional logic (PIPL) typed lambda calculus (TLC) higher order logic (HOL) To explain these, we first introduce a kind of proof theory called (sequent-style) natural deduction, ND for short.

3 What is Proof Theory? Proof theory is the part of logic concerned with purely syntactic methods for determining whether a formula is deducible from a collection of formulas. Here syntactic means that we are only concerned with the form of the formulas, not their semantic interpretation. (The part of logic concerned with that is model theory). What counts as a formula varies from one proof theory to the next. Usually they are certain strings of symbols. What counts as a collection also varies from one proof theory to the next. In some proof theories, collections are taken to be sets; in others, strings. In the proof theory we will be concerned with, they will be taken to be finite multisets.

4 Finite Multisets Roughly speaking, finite multisets are a sort of compromise between strings and finite sets: They are stringlike because repetitions matter. But they are setlike because order does not matter. Technically, for any set S, a finite S-multiset is an equivalence class of S-strings, where two strings count as equivalent if they are permutations of each other. Alternatively, we can think of a finite S-multiset as a function from a finite subset of S to ω \ {0}. So if we indicate multisets between square brackets, then [A] is a different multiset from [A, A], but [A, B] and [B, A] are the same multiset.

5 Formulas To define a proof theory, we first need a recursively defined set of formulas. The base of the recursion specifies some basic formulas. Then the recursion clauses tell how to get additional formulas using connectives.

6 Example: Formulas in Linear Logic (LL) The set of LL formulas is defined as follows: 1. Any basic formula is a formula. 2. If A and B are formulas, then so is A B. 3. Nothing else is a formula. The connective is called linear implication (informally called lollipop ). We adopt the convention that associates to the right, e.g. A B C abbbreviates A (B C), not (A B) C. As we ll see, works much like the implication of ordinary propositional logic, but with fewer options. Note: Actually, there are many linear logics. The one we describe here, whose only connective is, is implicative intuitionistic linear propositional logic.

7 Application: Tectogrammar (1/4) LL is used in linear grammar (LG) frameworks, such as λ-grammar and abstract categorial grammar (ACG), to analyze natural-language tectogrammatical structure, also called abstract syntax or syntactic combinatorics. In LG, tectogrammatical structure ( tectogrammar or simply tecto for short) drives semantic composition. Tecto is distinguished from phenogrammatical structure, also called concrete syntax. Phenogrammatical structure ( phenostructure or simply pheno ) is concerned with superficial matters of realization, such as word order and intonation.

8 Application: Tectogrammar (2/4) In the context of LG, the LL formulas are called tectotypes, or abstract syntactic types. The role played by the tectotypes in LG is analogous to the role of nonterminals in CFG: they can be thought of as names of syntactic categories of linguistic expressions. As we ll see, a LG requires many fewer rules than a CFG, because the combinatory potential of a linguistic expression is encoded in its tectotype.

9 Application: Tectogrammar (3/4) In a simple LG of English (ignoring details such as case, agreement, and verb inflectional form), we might take the basic tectotypes to be: S: sentences S: that-sentences NP: noun phrases, such as names It: dummy pronoun it N: common nouns

10 Application: Tectogrammar (4/4) Some nonbasic tectotypes: N NP: determiners N N: attributive adjectives S S: complementizer that NP S: intransitive verbs NP NP S: transitive verbs NP NP NP S: ditransitive verbs NP S S: sentential-complement verbs

11 Contexts A finite multiset of formulas is called a context. Careful: this is a distinct usage from the notion of context as linguistically relevant features of the situation in which an expression is uttered. We use capital Greek letters (usually Γ or ) as metavariables ranging over contexts.

12 Sequents An ordered pair Γ, A of a context and a formula is called a sequent. Γ is called the context of the sequent and A is called the statement of the sequent. The formula occurences in the context of a sequent are called its hypotheses or assumptions.

13 What the Proof Theory Does The proof theory recursively defines a set of sequents. That is, it recursively defines a relation between contexts and formulas. The relation defined by the proof theory is called deducibility, derivability, or provability, and is denoted by (read deduces, derives, or proves ).

14 Sequent Terminology The metalanguage assertion that Γ, A is usually written Γ A. Such an assertion is called a judgment. The symbol that occurs between the context and the statment of a judgment is called turnstile. If Γ is empty, we usually just write A. If Γ is the singleton multiset with one occurrence of B, we write B A. Commas in contexts represent multiset union, e.g. if Γ = A, B and = B, then Γ, = A, B, B.

15 Proof Theory Terminology The proof theory itself is a recursive definition. The base clauses of the proof theory are called axioms, and the recursion clauses are called (inference) rules. Axioms are just certain judgments. Rules are metalanguage conditional statements, whose antecedents are conjunctions of judgments and whose consequent is a judgment. The judgments in the antecedent of a rule are called the premisses of the rule, and the consequent is called the conclusion of the rule. Rules are notated by a horizontal line with the premisses above and the conclusion below.

16 Axioms of (Pure) Linear Logic The proof theory for (pure) LL has one schema of axioms, and two schemas of rules. The axiom schema, variously called Refl (Reflexive Axioms), Hyp (Hypotheses), or simply Ax (Axioms) looks like this: A A To call this an axiom schema is just to say that upon replacing the metavariable A by any (not necessarily basic) formula, we get an axiom, such as NP NP Note: In LG, hypotheses play a role analogous to that of traces in frameworks such as GB and HPSG.

17 Rules of Linear Logic Modus Ponens, also called -Elimination: Γ A B A E Γ, B Hypothetical Proof, also called -Introduction: Γ, A B I Γ A B Notice that Modus Ponens eliminates the connective, in the sense that there is an occurrence of in one of the premisses (called the major premiss; the other premiss is called the minor premiss). Whereas, Hypothetical Proof introduces, in the sense that there is an occurrence of in the conclusion but not in the (single) premiss. Pairs of rules that eliminate and introduce connectives are characteristic of the natural-deduction style of proof theory.

18 Theorems of a Proof Theory If in fact Γ A, then we call the sequent Γ, A a theorem (in the present case, of linear logic). It is not hard to see that Γ A if and only if there is a proof tree whose root is labelled with the sequent Γ, A. Here, by a proof tree we mean an ordered tree whose nodes are labelled by sequents, such that the label of each leaf node is the sequent of an axiom; and the label of each nonleaf node is the sequent of the conclusion of a rule such that the sequents of the premisses of the rule are the labels of the node s daughters.

19 Proof Tree Notation In displaying a proof tree, the root appears at the bottom and the leaves at the top (so from a logician s point of view, linguist s trees are upside down). Even though technically the labels are sequents, we conventionally write the corresponding judgments (metalanguage assertions that the sequents are deducible). Instead of edges connecting mothers to daughters as in linguist s trees, we write horizontal lines with the label of the mother below and the labels of the daughters above (just as in inference rules). Sometimes as a mnemonic we label the horizontal line with the name of the rule schema that was instantiated there.

20 The Simplest Proof Tree The simplest possible proof tree in linear logic has just one leaf, which is also the root. In this case the only option is for the node to be labelled by a Hypothesis, e.g.: NP NP Intuitively, this can be thought of as: suppose you had an NP; then, sure enough, you d have an NP. Don t worry if this doesn t seem to make any sense yet; it will become clear what this means when we use an elaborated form of Hypothesis (namely, trace) in a linguistic analysis.

21 A (Very) Slightly Less Trivial Proof Tree NP NP NP NP I

22 Another Proof Tree (Type Raising) NP NP NP S NP S E NP, NP S S I NP (NP S) S I NP (NP S) S Note: Type Raising plays an important role in the analysis of quantificational noun phrases, topicalization, focus constructions, etc.

23 Positive Intuitionistic Propositional Logic (PIPL) PIPL is like LL but with more connectives and rules. The only connectives of PIPL are The 0-ary connective T (read true ), and the two binary connectives (intuitionistic implication) and (conjunction). PIPL underlies the type systems of typed lambda calculus (TLC) and higher order logic (HOL), which are used for notating both pheno and semantics in linear grammar.

24 Axioms of (Pure) PIPL Like LL, PIPL has the Hypothesis schema A A In addition, it has the True axiom T Intuitively, T is usually thought of corresponding to an arbitrary necessary truth.

25 Rules of PIPL Introduction and elimination rules for implication Introduction and elimination rules for conjunction Two structural rules, Weakening and Contraction, which affect only the contexts of sequents

26 PIPL Rules for Implication These are the same as for LL, but with replaced by : Modus Ponens, also called -Elimination: Γ A B A E Γ, B Hypothetical Proof, also called -Introduction: Γ, A B I Γ A B

27 PIPL Rules for Conjunction The rules for conjunction include two elimination rules (for eliminating the left and right conjunct respectively): -Elimination 1: -Elimination 2: Γ A B E1 Γ A Γ A B E2 Γ B -Introduction: Γ A B I Γ, A B

28 PIPL Structural Rules Weakening: Γ A Γ, B A Intuitively: if we can prove something from certain assumptions, we can also prove it with more assumptions. Contraction: W Γ, B, B A C Γ, B A Intuitively: repeated assumptions can be eliminated. These may seem too obvious to be worth stating, but in fact they must be stated, because in some logics (such as LL) they are not available!

29 Extensions of PIPL By adding still more connectives (disjunction), F (false), and (negation) and corresponding rules/axioms to PIPL we get full intutionistic propositional logic (IPL). With the addition of one more rule we get classical propositional logic (CPL). And with the addition of rules for (universal and existential) quantification, we get (classical) first-order logic (FOL).

30 IPL Rules for Disjunction The rules for disjunction include two introduction rules (for introducing the left and right conjunct respectively): -Elimination: Γ A B A, C B, Θ C E1 Γ,, Θ C -Introduction 1: -Introduction 2: Γ A Γ A B Γ B Γ A B I1 I2

31 The IPL Axiom for False (F) The False Axiom F A is traditionally called EFQ (ex falso quodlibet). Intuitively, F is usually thought of corresponding to an arbitrary impossibility (necessary falsehood). EFQ is easily shown to be equivalent to the following rule: F-Elimination: Γ F FE Γ A

32 IPL Rules for Negation If we think of A as shorthand for A F, then these rules are just special cases of Modus Ponens and Hypothetical Proof: -Elimination: Γ A A E Γ, F -Introduction, or Proof by Contradiction Γ, A F I Γ A Another name for E is Indirect Proof. There are reasons (related to natural language semantics) to regard negation as a connective in its own right rather than as an abbreviatory convention.

33 Classical Propositional Logic (CPL) CPL is obtained from IPL by the addition of any one of the following, which can be shown to be equivalent: Reductio ad Absurdum: Double Negation Elimination: Γ, A F RAA Γ A Γ ( A) DNE Γ A Law of Excluded Middle (LEM): A A

34 Rules for Quantifiers The following rules can be thought of as counterparts of those for and where, instead of just two juncts, there is one for each individual in the domain of quantification. These rules can be added to either IPL or CPL to obtain either intuitionistic or classical versions of FOL.

35 Rules for the Universal Quantifier -Elimination, or Universal Instantiation (UI): Γ xa Γ A[x/t] Note: here A[x/t] is the formula resulting from replacing all free occurrences of x in A by the term t. This is only permitted if t is free for x in A, i.e. the replacement does not cause any of the free variables of t to become bound. E -Introduction, or Universal Generalization (UG) Γ A Γ xa Note: here the variable x is not permitted to be free in any of the hypotheses in Γ. I

36 Rules for the Existential Quantifier -Elimination: Γ xa, A[x/y] C E Γ, C Note: here y must be free for x in A and not free in A. -Introduction, or Existential Generalization (EG): Γ A[x/t] I Γ xa Note: here t must be free for x in A.

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