Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

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2 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

3 Conceptuaization Eementary Education & Literacy Bureau- MHRD Text Dr. Anupriya Chadha- Sr. Consutant, IE : SSA Typing Assistance Ms. Deepika Masand Contributions IE Units of SSA State Mission Societies Photographs SSA State Mission Societies & IE Unit, TSG Design, Layout & Printing Chandu Press D-97, Shakarpur Deh Juy 2006

4 FOREWORD The Government of India has aunched Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan for Universaization of Eementary Education. The programme aims at providing usefu and reevant eementary education in the age group of 6-14 years by This goa cannot be accompished without incuding Chidren With Specia Needs (CWSN). SSA has adopted a more pragmatic approach to impementing the programme of incusive education. SSA framework ceary states that SSA wi ensure that every chid with specia needs, irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disabiity, is provided education in an appropriate environment. SSA wi adopt zero rejection poicy so that no chid is eft out of the education system. It wi aso support a wide range of approaches, options and strategies for education of chidren with specia needs Incusive Education in SSA is a more expansive concept, wherein the stress is to provide education to CWSN in an environment most appropriate to their earning needs. These options vary from a reguar schoo to EGS Centres, bridge courses to prepare CWSN for schoos and home-based education aimed mainy to either prepare CWSN for schoos or for ife. This document is an effort to capture and record the initiatives being undertaken by States to impart home-based education to CWSN in SSA, mainy to enhance reach to chidren with specia educationa needs. It describes the objectives, processes and the impact of home-based education. States have adopted different ways to provide home-based support to CWSN. States ike Himacha-Pradesh and West- Benga are using NGOs for this purpose, whereas States ike Haryana and Keraa have appointed resource teachers who visit the homes of CWSN to provide them basic functiona skis. Parenta counseing and training is aso an important part of the entire home-based instruction programme. Other States ike Tami- Nadu are using specia schoos as resource centers to provide short-time or part-time hep to individua chidren with specia needs and their parents. I hope that this document wi prove to be beneficia to the panners and impementers of Incusive Education in SSA and woud provide some usefu guidance to the States in chaking out a strategy for home-based education for CWSN. 7 th Juy 2006 (CHAMPAK CHATTERJI)

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6 CONTENTS S. No. Tite Pg. No. 1. Home-based Education: An Introduction Home-based Education Programme in Haryana Bridging the Gap through Home-based Education in Himacha Pradesh A Beginning of Home-based Education in Jharkhand Providing Home-based Education through IERTs in Karnataka Pioting Home-based Education for CWSN in Keraa Expanding the Reach through Home-based Practices for CWSN in Tami Nadu Reaching the Un-Reached through Home-based Education in Uttarancha Opening New Doors for CWSN through HBE in West Benga A Fina Word References Annexes I Assessment/ Evauation Checkist Deveoped by Haryana for HBE II TOR for Convergence with NGOs for CWSN Covered under HBE Programme Himacha Pradesh a. Proforma for Seection of NGOs b. Proforma for Out-of-Schoo CWSN c. Monthy Progress Proforma III a. Guideines for Curricuum for HBE Karnataka b. Individua Educationa Pan Format for HBE IV Format for Basic information on CWSN - West Benga Gossary 73-75

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8 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 1 Home-based Education: An Introduction A chidren can earn, but not on the same day and in the same way Any discussion about incusion generay revoves around severa important questions ike: Do we vaue a chidren equay? Is incusion a cuturay reevant process? Are there some chidren for whom incusion into reguar schoos might be inappropriate? There are different views as to what incusion is a about. Some view incusion as a poicy driven by the conviction that a students have a right to be in a reguar schoo. And thus, try to mainstream a chidren into the incusion mod, which can be just as coercive and discriminatory as trying to force a Chidren With Specia Needs (CWSN) into the mod of a specia education cass/specia schoo or any other aternative pacement setting. At the other end of the spectrum are those who beieve that a students have the right to be in an educationa setting where their earning potentia is optimized to the fuest. Incusion, at this stage, is in a phase, where it coud be best determined by the needs of the chid. There are chidren who with minima support or some support accommodate we in the reguar education cassrooms, whereas there are others who need some pre-integration skis before they can be mainstreamed in a cassroom and there are sti others who need intensive speciaized support, for which currenty the reguar schoos woud sti have to prepare for. Incusion, as a way of integrating chidren with specia needs into reguar schoos, gained prominence in India in the 1970s, when the Scheme of Integrated Education of the Disabed Chidren-IEDC was aunched in The Scheme of IEDC aims to provide educationa Learning Together in an Incusive Setting opportunities for the disabed chidren in common schoos, to faciitate their retention in the schoo system and aso to pace in common schoos such chidren aready paced in specia schoos after they acquire the communication and daiy iving skis at the functiona eve. So far, the Scheme has integrated 2.03 akh disabed chidren in neary 85,000 schoos. The increased awareness and need to educate CWSN has been refected in the Nationa Poicy on Education- NPE (1986) and the subsequent Pan of Action- POA (1992), which ceary advocated the approach of providing integrated education for the midy handicapped and of specia education for the severey handicapped chidren. The incusion of a section on Education of the Disabed in the NPE and POA ed to a series of experiments on integrated education in India, some fu fedged ike The Project Integrated Education for the Disabed (PIED) and the others as a part of the fagship programmes aiming to achieve Universaization of Eementary Education ike The District Primary Education Programme and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. A

9 2 Discovering New Paths in Incusion these programmes have emphasized the need to pace CWSN in reguar schoos, giving due importance to evove a broad spectrum of educationa modes for chidren with different specia needs taior made to their needs. Initia Experiments on Integrated Education in India The eary attempts to incude CWSN in reguar schoos were through Project Integrated Education for the Disabed (PIED) and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP). Project Integrated Education for the Disabed (PIED) The first piot project on integrated education in India came in the form of Project Integrated Education for the Disabed (PIED). PIED, aunched in 1987, was a joint venture of MHRD and UNICEF. This project was impemented in one administrative bock each in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaand, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tami Nadu, Haryana, Mizoram, Dehi Municipa Corporation and Baroda Municipa Corporation. In these ten bocks, 5800 chidren with specia needs were integrated in reguar schoos. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) The success of PIED ed to the incusion of the component of Integrated Education of the Disabed (IED) in DPEP, a scheme aunched by the Government of India for the deveopment of eementary education. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP), a muti-faceted decentraized programme was aunched in 1994 as a centray sponsored scheme of the Government of India. It started as a hoistic programme for primary education deveopment in some of the most backward districts of the country. DPEP provided an idea setting for promoting integration of CWSN as it provided for the foowing: Phased impementation Loca specific approach An opportunity for schoo restructuring/ reform Community/ schoo mobiization Convergence of a reated programmes Fexibiity for panning. The approach to impementation of IED varied from State to State depending upon the oca circumstances. Some States engaged NGOs for tota or partia impementation of IED, retaining with them the roe of monitoring and evauation of the programme. Sti others adopted a combined/ convergence approach, where some initiatives in IED were taken up directy by DPEP Societies and for other areas some convergence with NGOs, Nationa Institutes, vountary organizations and other such agencies was made. Convergence was aso made with other government schemes of the Centra or the State government. The principe of convergence was adopted by neary a the States. Some States estabished convergence with the IEDC scheme of Department of Secondary Education of MHRD, whereas other States converged with the ADIP scheme of Ministry of Socia Justice & Empowerment. Nationa Institutes were utiized for providing materia, teacher training, aids and appiances and conducting assessment camps. The roe of the Rehabiitation Counci of India was mainy confined to training teachers on the cassroom management of CWSN. Simiary, States deveoped their own modes on impementation. The most common modes used were: Resource teacher/ itinerant teacher mode Dua teaching Aternative schooing NGO approach Training of master trainers

10 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 3 Long-term training of teachers Sensitization of genera teachers. At its peak, DPEP mainstreamed approximatey 6.21 akh chidren with specia needs in 242 districts of 18 States in reguar schoos with adequate support services. DPEP aso raised some concerns regarding the education of CWSN. In fact, one of the major essons earnt from DPEP was to evove a broad spectrum of educationa modes for chidren with different specia needs taior-made to their needs. This meant defining incusion in a broader context honouring the continuum of pacement options, as mentioned in Section 26 (a) of Chapter V of Persons With Disabiities (Equa Opportunities, Fu Participation, Protection of Rights) Act, 1995, which deas with Education. It ceary states that: The appropriate Governments and the oca authorities sha (a) Ensure that every chid with a disabiity has access to free education in an appropriate environment ti he attains the age of eighteen years. Thus, the aw of the and does aso require other appropriate educationa aternatives when the reguar cassroom might not be a very appropriate setting. Thus the need for a continuum of pacement options, ranging from the reguar cassrooms to specia schoos. The Draft Bi on Free and Compusory Education aso ceary mentions that: Every chid who has attained the age of 6 years sha have the right to participate in fu time eementary education and to compete it, and towards that end sha have the right to: Be admitted to a neighbourhood schoo, and Be provided free and compusory education in such schoo, in the manner provided in this Act. Provided that a chid who, due to his/her severe or profound disabiity, cannot be provided eementary education in a neighbourhood schoo, sha have the right to be provided education in an appropriate aternative environment as may be prescribed. This approach has been adopted by Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), a programme to universaize eementary education. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) An initiative of the Government of India to Universaize Eementary Education is Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). SSA is a response to the demand for quaity basic education a over the country. However, UEE cannot be achieved uness chidren with specia needs are aso provided access to quaity education. Hence, education of CWSN is an essentia part of the SSA framework. Learning from DPEP, SSA has adopted a more pragmatic approach to impementing the programme of incusive education. SSA framework ceary states that; SSA wi ensure that every chid with specia needs, irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disabiity, is provided education in an appropriate environment. SSA wi adopt zero rejection poicy so that no chid is eft out of the education system. Further the thrust of SSA wi be on providing integrated and incusive education to a chidren with specia needs in genera schoos. It wi aso support a wide range of approaches, options and strategies for education of chidren with specia needs. This incudes education through open earning system and open schoos, non forma and aternative schooing, distance education and earning, specia schoos, wherever necessary, home based education, itinerant teacher mode,

11 4 Discovering New Paths in Incusion Box-1: SSA Modes of Incusive Education Reguar schoos Resource room in a BRC/CRC Aternative and Innovative Education EGS Centres Home-based Education Referra to Specia Schoos, wherever required. remedia teaching, part time casses, community based rehabiitations (CBR) and vocationa education and cooperative programmes. So far in SSA, 1.70 miion CWSN have been enroed in reguar schoos. The States of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Haryana, Jharkhand, Keraa, Maharasthra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tami Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarancha, West Benga and Dehi have aso enroed CWSN in EGS/AIE. States of Chhatisgarh, Haryana, Himacha Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Keraa, Orissa, Tami Nadu, Uttarancha and West Benga have covered CWSN through home-based programmes (Tabe-I). No. Name of the State CWSN Enroed in CWSN provided Home EGS Centres Based Education 1. Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh - 5. Haryana Himacha-Pradesh Jharkhand Karnataka Keraa Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tami- Nadu Uttar-Pradesh Uttarancha West Benga Dehi Tota

12 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 5 What is Home-based Education Generay home-based education is defined as the education of chidren with severe inteectua/ physica disabiities, who can be educated in the combination of home-based and aternate educationa settings to enabe them to achieve independent iving skis. Home-based education aims at schoo preparedness and preparation for ife. Aternate educationa settings provide opportunities for earning of socia skis, vocationa skis and impementation of ife skis. A severey inteectuay disabed chid wi be a chid who woud not be abe to perform two or more of the foowing functions independenty, which a non-disabed chid of that age group coud do: Chid being Assessed by a Resource Teacher Toieting Feeding Communication Motor Skis Basic socia skis Sef grooming Why Home-based Education? accommodated in a reguar cassroom setting. There are chidren who, at some point in their ives, may need a specia education programme that is competey outside the purview of the reguar cassroom. Here are the reasons: Some disabed chidren need highy speciaized skis taught by speciay trained teachers Some disabed chidren might never respond to the demands of an academic curricuum and wi require aternatives Some disabed chidren coud participate in an academic curricuum but woud require an inordinate amount of time and attention from a reguar cass teacher, such that it woud be inequitabe for the other chidren in the cass Some disabed chidren need the support of a peer group that is more ike they are, rather than being pushed out into the mainstream Recent surveys and studies have aso shown that a arge proportion of CWSN are out-of-schoo, owing to the severe nature of their disabiities, which at this point in time might not be

13 6 Discovering New Paths in Incusion Some disabed chidren might experience schoo faiure without a specia education curricuum taiored to their needs Some disabed chidren have greater opportunities to success in an aternative setting because there is a greater emphasis on parenta partnerships, parenta cooperation, and active parenta participation in the education of the chid. Some disabed chidren might not succeed in a reguar cassroom, as they might not respond to the dictates of a standardized curricuum. Advantages of Home-based Programmes Athough, no evauation/impact assessment studies are avaiabe to gauge the efficacy of home-based education programmes, research highights the foowing advantages of homebased programmes: Parents become effective teachers CWSN show progress in their overa deveopment, incuding cognitive and anguage domain Progress of CWSN can be evauated through a carefuy designed individuaized programme CWSN improve degree of eye-contact, expressive anguage and comprehension of instructions and communication skis Disruptive behaviours on the part of CWSN are reduced Parent - expert partnership buids mutua trust and sharing Home-based eary intervention for CWSN improves the quaity of ife for the whoe famiy Foow-up on the progress of CWSN is done on a reguar basis. Some other advantages of home-based education are given in Box-2. This brief document is an effort to capture and record the initiatives being undertaken by the States to provide home-based education to CWSN as a part of the incusive education programme in SSA. It attempts to capture the processes and impementation strategies that evoved in the States in the pursuit to provide home-based programmes to CWSN. Box-2: Common Merits of a Home-based Programme for CWSN Famiies are fu participants in a aspects of the panning, deivery, and evauation of services Increased emphasis on eary identification and intervention services Chidren and famiies have access to a comprehensive and we-coordinated array of services that address the chid and famiies physica, emotiona, socia, and specia needs Once a chid deveops the basic Activities of Daiy Living- ADL, services coud be extended to the reguar schoos Services shoud be integrated with a other chid-serving programmes, agencies, and systems Services are provided keeping in mind the inguistic needs, socio-cutura norms and vaues of each chid and famiy.

14 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 7 Home-based Education Programme in Haryana Under the programme of IE in SSA- Haryana, CWSN have been identified and have been enroed. In ine with the Persons With the Disabiities Act (Equa Opportunities, Protection of Rights & Fu Participation) 1995, a muti-option mode has been adopted for impementation of the programme of IE. The State has started home-based education programme for severey affected CWSN. The home-based education programme in Haryana is being imparted to CWSN through mode incusive schoos. These schoos are mode in the sense that they are equipped with a faciities to support the needs of CWSN. They are incusive as they are reguar schoos with a high strength of non-disabed chidren. The State of Haryana started with 4 mode schoos in the districts of Gurgaon, Panchkua, Hissar and Rohtak. These schoos were then opened in 7 more districts of Sirsa, Bhiwani, Mahendergarh, Yamunanagar, Fatehabad, Faridabad and Kaitha. In these schoos, 1200 CWSN are being provided education. Besides, 380 CWSN are being provided home-based education. The main purpose of home-based education is to provide individuaized support to CWSN and to create awareness in the parents about the needs and potentia of these chidren. Strategies for Home-based Education The main strategies adopted for home-based education are as foows: Identification of CWSN Forma and functiona assessment of the CWSN in the catchment area Informing parents about the strengths and potentia of their chidren A Chid being Assessed Invoving parents in ascertaining the functioning eve of the chid Estabishing primary earning goas for the chid in consutation with the parents Providing ski based training to the parents of chidren with specia needs. Areas Seected for Home-based Education Home-based education has been started in those areas where there is no schoo, or where the CWSN are found in scattered and remote habitations. If due to some reason, a chid with specia needs is not abe to access the reguar schoo, his/her needs are met through homebased education. Hence, the home-based education is carried out in areas where: Transportation is a probem for CWSN The schoos and the other organizations present are unabe to meet the needs of severe CWSN The incidence of overage CWSN with ow menta abiity is high Providing individuaized need based support (requiring more time) to CWSN might not be possibe in reguar schoos

15 8 Discovering New Paths in Incusion The teaching goas of CWSN are focused more on Activities of Daiy Living (ADL) to begin with, rather than the 3 R s. Process for Home-based Education Home-based education is being imparted by the teachers of mode incusive schoos. An innovation aunched by the State has been to open mode incusive schoos in a the bocks of the State. The project aims at covering a the districts. CWSN are given education aong with norma chidren in these schoos. Initiay four districts namey Panchkua, Hisar, Rohtak and Gurgaon have been taken up. Schoos with spacious accommodation and approachabiity have been identified at the district headquarters. Now Mode IE schoos are functioning in 10 districts, which cover neary 2200 chidren. Seected teachers have been imparted eight days specia training on concepts, objectives, goas and impementation strategies of the programme. Camps for CWSN and their parents were organized in a the four districts for medica check up and counseing. Specia materia and equipments was provided to these specia schoos. The foowing faciities have been made avaiabe in the schoos: Transport faciities to the chidren to enabe them to attend schoos Specia equipments and earning materia Speciay trained staff Specia monitoring and supervision of the schoo activities Incentives ike books, uniforms, textbooks with the hep of NGO, specia furniture, dining tabes and utensis Aids and appiances. Besides, these mode schoos aso provide for the foowing: Specia educators for each category of disabiity. Providing Speech Therapy to a HI Chid Part time staff for deveoping inherent taent of CWSN. Starting of hobby casses, computer education etc. Fu time attendant for the severey and profoundy CWSN, based on the medica assessment report. Faciities for various sports and games. Six more mode IE schoos have been set up in the districts of Sirsa, Fatehabad, Jind, Kaitha, Bhiwani and Mahendergarh. The goa is to estabish IE Mode schoos in each bock so that the chidren do not have to cover ong distances and requisite faciities are avaiabe at the door of the CWSN. HBE has begun ony in the 4 districts of Gurgaon, Rohtak, Panchkua and Hissar. The teachers of the mode incusive schoos visit the homes of CWSN once in 15 days to provide the requisite remedia support. No forma parenta training has been organized by the State on home-based education. However, when the teachers visit the homes, they conduct intensive counseing sessions with the parents regarding the probems and the progress of their chid. The parents are provided reevant information reating to the

16 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 9 needs of their chid. These sessions aso comprised apprising the parents on the activities of daiy iving (eating, dressing, toiet training, ceaniness and hygiene), behaviour management and sef-hep skis. Besides, the parents are aso guided on how to evauate their chid on various activities at reguar intervas of time based on a checkist (provided at Annex-I). Whie teaching ADL and sef-hep skis to CWSN, the teachers adopt the effective principes of teaching such as teaching from simpe to compex, from known to unknown and from whoe to the parts. The main objective here is to start with those activities that are simper and which the chid woud be abe to perform without much difficuty. Once the chid achieves success in the simpe activities, s/he is encouraged to perform compex activities. A chid s current eve of functioning is considered to be the most important indicator before starting any teaching process. Therefore, before teaching any ski to the chid, the chid s eve of understanding of that particuar concept/ ski is taken to be the starting point from where to impart further training to the chid. Teaching Strategies The foowing strategies are used by the teachers to impart any particuar ski to the chid: Modeing In modeing, students earn appropriate behaviours by observing and imitating others. When they observe one of their peers being rewarded for desirabe behaviour, they tend to foow the exampe of the mode. Thus, they earn behaviours that have positive consequences. Likewise, unacceptabe behaviour might be discouraged when students watch others receive punishment for such behaviour. In addition, the teacher can ca attention to behaviour that shoud be emuated. In using modeing to infuence a specific behaviour, the foowing steps are hepfu: Seect the behaviour Seect the mode Give the mode and the observer directions concerning their roes Reinforce the mode for exhibiting the behaviour Reinforce the observer for imitating the behaviour. Chidren are naturay incined to earn by imitation. Modeing invoves imitation and therefore is an effective behaviour modification technique. Task Anaysis The teacher can choose a earning task appropriate for the chid to master and the termina objective shoud be stated in behavioura terms. The termina goa is broken down into incrementa steps, arranged in order of compexity, with each item being a pre-requisite for the subsequent one unti the termina goa is reached. Shaping Shaping is a technique of graduay buiding a desired behaviour by reinforcing each sma step toward the target behaviour. To use the

17 10 Discovering New Paths in Incusion shaping technique, the teacher must first break the target behaviour down into a sequence of sma steps. The chid receives a reinforcer for a behaviour he or she can aready do, then reinforcers are provided for each step coser to the target behaviour. This procedure is sometimes caed successive approximations. For exampe, if the target behaviour is for Anita to sit in her seat and work for 15 minutes, at first Anita is reinforced for being near her seat. Later, she is reinforced for kneeing at her desk, then for sitting in her seat for 1 minute. The time she must spend in her seat before receiving a reinforcer is graduay increased unti she sits in her seat, doing her work for 15 minutes. Chaining The steps that are obtained through task anaysis are taught separatey. These steps can then be inked sequentiay together ti the whoe behaviour is earnt. This process is caed chaining. Chaining can be done in two ways: Prompting Forward chaining proceeding from the first step to ast step Backward chaining here the ast step is taught first and steps are taught sequentiay ti the first step is reached. Just as a chidren require guidance and assistance whie earning new activities, chidren with severe earning difficuties aso require hep. The procedure of providing active assistance to hep chidren to earn a specific target behaviour is caed prompting. There are three types of prompts- physica prompts, verba prompts and cueing. Physica prompt: Here the chid requires manua assistance ike hoding his or her hand and drawing. Fading Heping a Chid through Physica Prompts Physica prompts are usuay needed when teaching a new behaviour. This shoud be combined with verba prompts. Verba prompts: Some chidren may need ony verba statements describing every step of the behaviour to be performed. For exampe, when teaching the chid to sharpen a penci the teacher may have to say pick up sharpener and penci.. put end of penci in sharpener.. and so on. Cueing: Some chidren may need ony verba hints. For exampe, when showing picture of a banana, the teacher may say Baa.. as a hint for the chid to name it correcty. This is process of gradua decrease in the active assistance given by the teacher to the chid, as the chid sowy earns and masters the ski being taught. This heps the chid perform more independenty. These techniques aong with the cose coordination of parents and resource teachers have borne fruitfu resuts. Impact of Home-based Education The foowing have been the key outcomes of home-based education:

18 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 11 Parents have become aware of the needs and potentia of their chidren as it appears in natura situation/ environment Since parents are cosey invoved in the earning of their chidren, the entire teaching earning process becomes easier and sustainabe Parents and chidren are provided one-onone training/instruction, which is more rea Providing education and sef-hep skis to the chid becomes a shared responsibiity, rather than a burden for one person Above a, the parents and the sibings are cosey invoved in the entire process of home-based support to CWSN.

19 12 Discovering New Paths in Incusion Bridging the Gap through Home-based Education in Himacha Pradesh SSA is being impemented in the State in 115 education bocks of tweve districts of the State. The iteracy rate of the State 77.13%. The State has a network of educationa institutions at eementary eve, which cater to the educationa needs of chidren. The State aso pans to provide education to out-ofschoo chidren through 138 Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) centres and 13 mobie schoos. The State has aso opened 2906 Eary Chid Care and Education (ECCE) centres in convergence with Integrated Chid Deveopment Scheme (ICDS). SSA aso aims to bridge a gender and socia gaps. It ays specia emphasis on the disadvantaged group, which incude CWSN. The key focus is on incusion and participation of CWSN. It encourages every chid to be incuded in forma schoo. With the mandate of providing education to every CWSN irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disabiity, in an appropriate environment, the intervention of incusive education was taken up. The tota number of CWSN identified under SSA is 29,122, which is 2.87% of tota schoo going chidren at eementary eve. At present, 26,906 CWSN have been integrated in forma schoos and 2216 are out-of-schoo (Tabe II). Different strategies have been adopted to bring the out-of-schoo CWSN in to the educationa system. A district wise number of out-of-schoo CWSN is shown beow: Besides, the IEDC Scheme of the Department of Higher & Secondary Education is aso strengthening the incusive education initiative in the State. Home-based programme is the major activity under the incusive education programme of SSA. Universaization of Eementary Education (UEE) necessitates that chidren with disabiities must get an equa opportunity to receive education in a supportive environment. Tabe II: Category-wise Number of CWSN Identified Category Enroed CWSN Out-of-Schoo CWSN Tota VI HI OI LD MR MD SI

20 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 13 and the remaining have been covered through day care centres, respite care centres and specia schoos. 20 CWSN have been aocated to each NGO, identified in different districts. Medica assessment camps are organized by the NGOs to assess the needs of CWSN. After assessment, aids and appiances are provided to the needy CWSN. There are 10 NGOs in the seven districts (Tabe- III) of Himacha Pradesh working in the homebased education programme for CWSN. This task has been entrusted to the NGOs because of their reach to the poor community in the remote areas. Each NGO has adopted 20 CWSN (as shown beow) under home-based programme. Three day care centres have been estabished in the districts of Shima, Mandi and Kangra under SSA. Moreover, the NGOs are aso fexibe in adapting and responding to oca situations and needs. Out of the 2216 CWSN, 200 have been adopted by the NGOs in the various districts Appointments of RCI trained teachers are made by NGOs, as per the TOR provided by the SPO (given at Annex-II). The pupi teacher ratio is 1:10. Each CWSN is visited by the teacher once in 15 days. These visits are monitored by the parents of CWSN. IEPs and ITPs are prepared by the teacher in consutation with parents of the CWSN. The roe of the resource teachers/ specia educators is given beow. Roe of Specia Educators in Home-based Education 1. Panning and organizing medica assessment camps to assess the severity of disabiities of CWSN Tabe III: NGO Invovement in IE No. District Name of the Name of the Area of Monitoring NGO Bock Assistance undertaking by 1. Shima Udaan Kotkhai and Rohru MR & OH Abhi Kasumpti & Shima MR Disha Mashobra MR & OH 2. Mandi Sahyog Mandi & Sundernagar MR 3. Biaspur Chetna Biaspur Sadar & Khumarvi MR & OH 4. Hamirpur Deepshikha Hmr & Nadaun edu. Bock MR & OH 5. Una Prem Ashram Una MR 6. Sirmour Sidhi Astha Dadahu Sura & Naha MR & OH MR & HI 7. Soan Indian Association Soan Muscuar of Muscuar Dystrophy Dystrophy DIETs/ State Project Office

21 14 Discovering New Paths in Incusion CWSN to rehabiitate them in community based ocaized vocations. TLM, specia books, stationery, toys, charts, coours etc. have been provided by the NGO to the CWSN. Co-curricuar activities undertaken for CWSN are outings/picnics, ba meas at district eve, sports etc. Reease of Funds A Specia Educator heping a HI Chid 2. Coordinating the provision of aids and appiances in convergence with aready schemes sponsored by the State Centra Government 3. Preparation and updating of IEPs in consutation with parents 4. Imparting training to the parents of out-ofschoo CWSN on mobiity training, speech training, auditory training and ADL (activities of daiy iving skis) etc. at home 5. Periodic home visits 6. Providing vocationa education to out-ofschoo CWSN. Preferaby community based ocaized vocations have to be identified and eigibe out-of-schoo CWSN, rehabiitated 7. Deveopment of need-based TLM 8. Organizing recreationa activities for CWSN, i.e. picnics, excursions, outings etc. Specia therapies ike occupationa therapy and physiotherapy are provided to each CWSN as per their need and they visit the home of the chid at east twice a month. Various training ike mobiity training, and activities for daiy iving skis have been imparted to the parents of CWSN through guidance and counseing. Various efforts have been made for eigibe Grants to the Vountary Agencies for running home based programme are reeased in instaments. Before the reease of first instament, representatives of the District SSA Society visit the NGOs to assess their organizationa abiity and to verify their caims in the education/ training of CWSN. After approva of a project and receipt of intimation from the NGO regarding commencement of the project, every month the NGO has to submit the utiization certificate of expenditure incurred towards admissibe items aong with the progress (on prescribed format) made during the month to the District Project Officer (SSA) before 7 th of the succeeding month. DPO scrutinizes the entire report and payment is made before 15 th of the same month. It is ensured that the NGO provides the caendar of activities in the beginning of month. NGOs may aso be asked to furnish quartery expenditure statements. Annua Utiization Certificate must be countersigned by a Chartered Accountant. For reease of first grant in initia and subsequent years, the Vountary Agency/NGO has to provide the foowing documents: Audited accounts which shoud consist of (i) utiization certificate (ii) baance sheet (iii) receipt and payment (iv) income and expenditure as we as auditor report Annua Progress Report Detais of a income and expenditure shoud be mentioned in the income and

22 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 15 expenditure statement on accrua basis and receipt and payment statement on actua basis Expenditure incurred on assets shoud be indicated in the receipt and payment statement. Monitoring Mechanism Beside the NGO impementing agency, the SSA officias at the State, district and bock eve monitor the impementation of the programme. NGO impementing agency submit their monthy progress report on the prescribed format to the district by 7 th or every month. The impementation of home-based programmes are reviewed periodicay by the State Project Office, which suggests suitabe modification for the successfu impementation of the programme from time to time. Besides reguar monitoring of the programme by the State and district officias, team seected by the SRG may be formed to assess the achievement eves/progress of the disabed chidren periodicay. The report of the team is paced in SRG meeting for review and foow up action. The home-based education strategy adopted by the State is an exampe showing the active invovement of NGOs in taking education to the doorstep of those CWSN for whom education in any form was earier a distant dream.

23 16 Discovering New Paths in Incusion A Beginning of Home-based Education in Jharkhand Providing home-based education to chidren with severe disabiities is a reativey new concept. The programme is being impemented in Khunti, Murhu and Namkom bocks of Ranchi district with the hep of Theodori Rura Deveopment Project, a oca NGO. Home-based education was initiated to impart socia and functiona skis to severey disabed chidren. The aim was to provide an educationa programme, taiored to the needs of these chidren, mainy comprising activities beyond the purview of a reguar cassroom. As most of the CWSN require referra and subsequent rehabiitation programmes, this intervention was taken up. The utimate objective of this programme is to prepare CWSN for their subsequent incusion into reguar schoos. The strategy adopted to provide home-based education incuded identification, pre-integration training, provision of assistive devices and an Individuaized Educationa Programme. The Process Identification of chidren with disabiity was carried out by invoving community and oca peope. Viage eve ist of CWSN was prepared through home visits by the resource teachers provided by the NGO. Screening of the identified chidren was done at custer eve. Those surveyors, who were wiing to take up homebased education programme for CWSN, were trained for integration and education of chidren with disabiities. Assessment of the chidren was carried out by a team of doctors and experienced resource persons on various disabiity categories. In these camps, decision regarding the education pacement of CWSN was made according to the age group, abiity/disabiity and famiy condition. Chidren with visua impairment, hearing impairment, menta retardation and mutipe Mobiity Training disabiities are given home based interventions in pay groups to deveop their physica, socia and cognitive abiities. They were provided training in Pre-integration Learning Centres (PLICs) for schoo preparedness, wherever feasibe. Other chidren who coud not come to PLICs because of access reated probems, received interventions at their home. These chidren foowed an individua educationa programme aimed mainy at ensuring sef care deveopment, sociaization, pre writing skis, earning pre math concept and other interventions, according to the particuar needs arising from the disabiity - e.g. ip reading, speech therapy for chidren with hearing impairment. Mobiity Training Using a Parae Bar

24 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 17 Once the basic skis necessary for mainstreaming were deveoped, arrangements were made for their admission in schoos. For the chidren who had severe disabiities and mobiity probems, home eve interventions continued so as to deveop their skis and abiities in the best possibe way. Parenta and Community Support One of the key factors behind the success of the home based programme was the direct invovement of the community and parents right from its inception. Parents invovement is fet essentia for the success of the programme. Parenta invovement was aso ensured through home visits by the resource persons. These visits were carried out to foow up on the use and maintenance of aids and appiances, ensuring the sustenance of speciaized support and updation of IEPs. The interventions at the community eve mainy incuded interactions with viage eaders, women s groups, Anganwari workers on reguar basis to create positive attitudes towards the parent s efforts and to provide encouragement to the chidren. Support for CWSN To ensure continued support to CWSN, a oneday sensitization programme was hed for teachers and peers. This was done to prepare teachers and students to enro these chidren into their cassrooms. Integration activities with chidren/parents were conducted. Learning support was provided to chidren through resource teachers. Community & Parenta Training The foowing activities were carried out to effectivey invove parents: Home eve interaction with parents and famiy members Monthy review of CWSN in the presence of their parents at custer eve Preparation of IEPs with the hep of parents according to the identified needs and Assigning specific task to the parents of CWSN Individua counseing to parents regarding their chid s probems, care and management and progress. Foow Up Father Teaching his Daughter Constant foow up was ensured at the fied eve through: Interaction with parents and chidren Monitoring

25 18 Discovering New Paths in Incusion Training of teaching staff Foow up of CWSN who were mainstreamed Review of the chidren s progress in schoo after being mainstreamed. A very important part of this entire process was a constant foow up on the medica intervention provided to CWSN through corrective surgery. Constraints For the State, home-based education programme is sti in the infancy stage. So far, the State has covered 71 physicay disabed, 45 mentay retarded and 80 chidren with speech and hearing probems. The progress on homebased education programme is aso impeded due to the foowing constraints in the State: Lack of oca rehabiitation professionas Lack of speciaized doctors/professionas e.g. ophthamoogists, ENT speciaists and cinica psychoogists in viages Lack of specific curricuum for CWSN in mainstreamed schoos. However, in spite of these constraints, the overa impact of home-based education programme has been positive. Impact of the Home-based Education The most significant impact of this intervention has been on the behaviour of CWSN. The marked improvement on the behavioura aspects is mainy perceived in areas of persona grooming, sociaization, academic earning and occupationa independence. Some CWSN have aso shown reduction in their disruptive behaviour after this form of support. Concusion The State has made a modest beginning by covering 196 CWSN so far through home-based education. Speciaized skis are being taught to these chidren by speciay trained teachers. The success of this programme ies in active parenta partnership, cooperation and participation. Another reated factor is the avaiabiity of the continuum of services, which has to be preserved for these chidren if their wide range of needs is to be met.

26 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 19 Providing Home-based Education through IERTs in Karnataka In the context of UEE to bring a the chidren in the age group of 6-14 to schoo, different programmes are panned and impemented in Karnataka. The experiences of different States revea that incusion cannot be achieved without providing adequate resource support to CWSN. Most of the States are endeavouring to provide this support at the bock eve. In this direction, the Department of Pubic Instruction in Karnataka, for the first time, panned to create a permanent structure at the bock eve by depoying 3 reguar teachers who had undergone training of 90-days/ 42-days specia training on IE. These teachers were depoyed as Incusive Education Resource Teachers (IERT) from the Department itsef. The activities initiated and impemented under IE are: Depoyment of IERTs- 3 teachers in each bock, who have undergone 90 days/42 days training or any specific course in the fied have been identified Each IERT has been assigned a specific number of schoos Specia Educator demonstrating Physio-therapy to Mother of a CWSN To estabish one resource centre in a BRC s Empowerment programmes ike workshops, fied visits, trainings to buid the capacities of IERT s Home-based education for those CWSN who cannot attend the schoo due to severe disabiity. Detais on coverage by IERTS is shown beow. Coverage by IERT s S. Districts No. of Bocks No. of No. of Homes assigned No. IERTs to Each IERTs 1 Bangaore (U) Bangaore (R) Begaum Bagakot Bijapur Gubarga Bidar Raichur Koppa

27 20 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 10 Gadag Dharwad Haveri U.Kannada Beary Chitradurga Davenagere Shimoga D. Kannada Kodagu Mysore C. Nagar Hassan C. Magaore Udupti Mandya Koar Tumkur Tota The activity of home-based education for CWSN was initiay taken up under the intervention out-of-schoo chidren. But it has now been panned to continue the programme under the component of IE. The core principe of providing equa opportunity to a the chidren incuding CWSN is the base for initiating the activity of home-based education. The objectives of this programme are to provide schoo access to those CWSN who cannot attend schoo for specific reasons ike severe menta retardation, cerebra-pasy and mutipe disabiities. Universa coverage is thereby achieved either by enroing a CWSN in nearby schoos or by providing education to them at home. The key objectives of the home-based education are to provide: Access Equa opportunity Universa coverage. Universa retention of CWSN in the educationa process woud require providing need-based education to each chid with a specia need as per his/her requirement. It is aso envisaged that home-based education woud create awareness in the peer group/parents/ schoo/ community on the importance of equity, equaity and enroment of a chidren in schoos. Further it is fet that the community wi become aware of the causes of disabiities and train them to take remedia actions. The guideines for curricuum designed by the State for home-based education are given at Annex-III. Process Home-based education is carried out by IERT/ vounteers (the job chart of IERT & vounteers provided in Box-3&4). The State first identifies vounteers from the NGOs or oca educated youth to provide remedia support to CWSN. These vounteers are seected by the IERTs or bock eve officers. In case trained vounteers are

28 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 21 not avaiabe, interested youth are seected for this purpose. Preference is given to trained youth. In the absence of trained youth, interested educated youth are given preference to carry out the activities of HBE. The identification of vounteers is done from NGO s or oca educated youth to provide required support to the chidren as per IEP. After identification, IERTs/ vounteers/ oca youths jointy conduct a case study of a chid with specia needs. Based on the Box-3: IERTs roe in HBE (Job Chart) Preparation of bock eve action pan Identify the chidren for home-based education Interact with the famiy members regarding the supporting activities ike ife skis, socia skis, educationa activities, physiotherapy etc. Visit the schoo and interact with the teacher and headmaster regarding the chid Recording the progress of a CWSN in the schoo Deveoping incusive activities for the CWSN being provided HBE Identify the NGOs working in the area of IE and prepare an action pan for HBE by utiizing the services of NGOs Identify the vounteers with the hep of NGOs Preparing the chid profie, case study and IEP with the hep of parents, vounteers and NGOs Providing training to teachers, vounteers and parents Interacting with teachers, parents and SDMCs Panning for medica camps and awareness programmes Creating IE friendy atmosphere in home, schoo and community Act as an ambassador of IE. IERT and Vounteer discussing Case Study of a CWSN medica reports and interactions with parents and famiies, an Individua Education Pan of each chid is deveoped. These IEPs record the support provided to a chid in the form of physiotherapy, speech therapy, medica rehabiitation, remedia teaching etc. Visits made by the IERT/vounteers are aso recorded. Format for IEP is given at Annex-III (a). Box-4 : Roe of Vounteers Conduct the activity as per the IEP, records the progress of the chid Visit the house two days in a week and provide educationa activities to the chidren. Ski-based training to the parents Meet the teachers of the schoos and share the progress of these chidren and record in the IEP and chid profie Conduct periodic heath camps for these chidren and pan for medica rehabiitation of these chidren. The IERT or vounteer spends a minimum of 4 hours during the visit to the chid, which incudes educationa activity, interaction with parents and community and required therapy. The progress and suggestions of the parents, teachers and vounteers are recorded in the chid s profie.

29 22 Discovering New Paths in Incusion The chidren identified are enroed in the near-by schoos and the IEP is being maintained by parents, IERTs/ vounteers. The State aso pans to conduct monthy sharing meetings of IERT s and vounteers at bock eve. Evauation of achievement eves of CWSN is aso panned as is in practice for the non-disabed chidren. Monthy Sharing Meetings In the monthy sharing meetings of teachers, a time sot is reserved for IERTs to share the experiences. The IERTs recount their experiences of schoo and home visits in connection with the incusive education. The teachers are aso given opportunities to narrate their experiences in this regard. The BRP and other resource persons aso have discussions on how to make incusive education more effective. The vounteers aso participate in these meetings. It is proposed to have district eve sharing meetings of these IERTs every month to make incusive education more effective and meaningfu. the specific goa of each chid, it is proposed to prepare supportive charts pertaining to the chid and dispay these in the chid s home. This wi guide the parents on the needs of the chid and what exacty needs to be done. The IEP of the chid wi aso be kept at home. This wi provide some information to the supervisory staff and the BRC/CRC when they visit the homes of the CWSN. The State of Karnataka is panning many nove initiatives to be taken up under the home-based education programme. Some exampes of these initiatives are: setting up of a resource room in a BRCs, deveopment of guidebooks/supporting charts to guide parents and teachers, district eve sharing meetings etc. These, no doubt, wi go a ong way in improving the quaity of services being provided to CWSN. So far the State has covered 6255 CWSN with the hep of NGOs as shown in Tabe-IV. The Way Ahead The State pans to conduct intensive awareness programmes. The process of preparation of handbook (guide) and tips to home-based education at the State eve is under progress. Depending on the case study and the IEP, stating Training of Parents at the Custer Leve

30 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 23 Tabe IV: Coverage of CWSN through Home-based Education S. Districts Chidren covered NGOs invoved in HBE No. under HBE 1 Bangaore (U) 152 Ramana Maharshi Academy for the Bind, Seva in Action 2 Bangaore (R) 281 Grameena Abhyudhay Seva Samsthe, D.B. Pura, Seva in Action 3 Begaum Bagakot Bijapur Gubarga Bidar Raichur Koppa Gadag Dharwad Haveri 119 Loca NGOs 13 U.Kannada Beary Chitradurga Davenagere Shimoga D. Kannada Kodagu Mysore C. Nagar Hassan C. Magaore Udupti Mandya 320 Ramana Maharshi Academy for the Bind 26 Koar 324 Skanda Education & Medica Seva Trust, Gajaanam Edn. Trust, Antaragange Vidya Samste, Koar 27 Tumkur 277 Skanda Education & Medica Seva Trust Tota 6255

31 24 Discovering New Paths in Incusion Pioting Home-based Education for CWSN in Keraa Being a DPEP State, the State of Keraa has undertaken many activities for CWSN to bring them into the fod of mainstream education. Some of these initiatives incude behaviour modification programme, earner achievement programme and Sayantana Vedi Camps for CWSN. The same have aso been extended to SSA. Every year, SSA conducts annua surveys to identify the CWSN with the hep of specia educators, resource teachers, cass teachers, Anganwadi Workers, Gram Panchayat members etc. Medica camps at BRC are conducted to ascertain the type, nature and degree of disabiity of each identified chid. Teachers are given training in methodoogy of deaing with CWSN in genera cassrooms. Parents are aso given guidance and counseing by the specia educators and doctors in a resource room at every BRC. Remedia teaching programmes are aso hed. A these activities are steps to provide suitabe education to this group of chidren. Athough such activities are being undertaken by SSA, a sma percentage of CWSN are sti not enroed in the cassrooms because of their disabiity. Hence, to rehabiitate and educate these chidren, the schoo reaches their homes through the home-based education programme. Whie recognizing the need for increasing access, enroment and retention of a chidren, SSA aso ays stress on improving the quaity of eementary education for a, incuding CWSN. It proposes a hoistic and comprehensive approach to the issue of quaity by encouraging decentraization and giving an active roe to the community in the schoo management and impementation of interventions. It is accepted that panning of interventions and their impementation, focusing on improvement of quaity in eementary education, go hand in hand with a simutaneous effort to increase enroment and retention of CWSN. SSA framework ceary states that CWSN, irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disabiity, are provided quaity education in an appropriate environment. SSA supports a wide range of approaches, options and strategies for education of chidren with specia needs, incuding eary identification, forma and surgica intervention, provision of assistive aids, home-based education, support of resource teachers, remedia teaching, part-time casses, therapeutic services, community based rehabiitation, vocationa education etc. Athough the enroment of chidren in the State is high, a marginaized section is unabe to attend reguar schoos, due to severa reasons. Those CWSN with severe handicaps, especiay those with ocomotor probems, menta retardation, spasticity, autism, etc and those with mutipe probems constitute this group. Incusive education is sti in the process of addressing the needs of these CWSN who do not/cannot attend schoos. Universaization of education is possibe if equa educationa opportunities are provided to these chidren too. Home-based Education: A Piot Project in Keraa SSA Keraa has been impementing a systematic home-based education programme on a piot basis in 152 bocks for 800 CWSN, who are unabe to attend genera cassrooms, specia schoos, MGLC etc., due to the severity of the disabiity. The home-based education programme was started in October 2005 in the State. Based on the preiminary survey, SSA identified 2000 CWSN who were not provided education in any form. These severe-profound CWSN with menta retardation, spasticity, orthopeadicay probems etc. beow the age 14 years were being denied education due to mobiity reated probems, ow inteigence etc.

32 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 25 Chid being taught by a RT in Resource Centre Considering the inabiity of the present education system to address these chidren s educationa needs, SSA pans to provide support to these CWSN and their famiies. As a piot project, 800 CWSN are given training through home-based education programme by the specia educators, who are working as resource teachers in BRC. The resource teachers in the State have been entrusted the responsibiity of attending to these CWSN by visiting their homes. Each resource teacher has to visit the homes of two chidren in a week. They visit the homes of the CWSN and give training to them in academic subjects with the hep of famiy members (parents or sibings). During the visit they teach pre-skis to each chid. S/he convinces the parents on the need of educating the chid and offers a possibe hep and assistance. The initia task of the resource teacher is to recognize his/her roe towards CWSN and their parents. This is the most crucia step, as if s/he fais to convince the parents, their invovement might not be possibe in this entire process. In achieving this, the resource teachers has to be very patient, positive and empathetic in their approach. Deveopment of Individuaized Education Programme (IEP) for Each Chid Deveopment of Individuaized Educationa Programme (IEP) for each CWSN is important if appropriate education and training is to be provided. This depends on the need of the particuar chid. It is necessary to formuate specific individuaized objectives. This is done by assessing the chid s current eve of performance. The major component of IEP are: Genera background information about the chid Current eve of performance, in specific areas Short-term goas and objectives Procedure, teaching method and materias required to achieve the objective Duration of services Personne invoved Evauation to assess progress on the objective. An IEP is panned with the hep of speciaists/ teachers who aso provide the required services to the chid. For exampe, the IEP of a chid with cerebra pasy must contain programmes in physiotherapy, speech therapy, use of a communication board and behaviour management. Hence, a good IEP is evoved with the effort of a team of speciaists, with the resource teacher coordinating the programme. The majority of the chidren seected for homebased education are either chidren with cerebra pasy or menta retardation. Most of these chidren are not abe to foow the usua curricuum. Thus, the activities panned for these chidren incude: Activities of daiy iving skis Orientation and mobiity Physiotherapy Occupationa therapy Curricuum focusing on functiona academics Speech therapy etc. Behaviour modification and teaching daiy iving skis are the two major areas addressed through task anaysis, modeing, shaping, chaining, prompting and fading. These are methods used to bring about behaviour modification. Some of these are described in Box-5.

33 26 Discovering New Paths in Incusion Box-5: Strategies for Behaviour Modification Task Anaysis Instead of teaching a behavioura objective in one big step, the resource teachers spits it into severa sma steps. Each step is taught one at a time unti the chid reaches the specified behavioura objective as a whoe. Task anaysis is the procedure of teaching a behavioura objective in sma and simpe steps to the chid, and is usefu in simpifying teaching of daiy iving activities ike brushing, bathing, toieting, eating, drinking, dressing grooming etc. The chid with inteectua impairment need to be taught a these activities. An exampe of task anaysis is provided beow. Step I: Identify the target behaviour Step II: Break up the behavioura object into simpe sma steps or units Step III: Arrange the identified steps in sequentia orders (but simpe steps before difficut ones). For exampe if a chid requires intensive toiet training, the steps are taught one by one, to make it easy for the chid to teach her/him to use the toiet. The resource teacher notes the frequency of bowe and badder movements of the chid and notes it down on a chart. The resource teacher aso instructs the parent to note down the number of times, their chid wets or defecates. Step I Observe the chid at east for a week or ten days to get an idea of the number of times s/he needs to urinate and or pass stoos. Step II If the chid passes urine in every one hour, take him/her to the toiet seat every hour. Other steps ike pouring water, ceaning hands and dressing, etc are aso to be broken into sma tasks. Shaping: Shaping is a process of rewarding the chid at every step that takes the chid coser to the target behaviour. Chaining; Chaining is the process of teaching steps in a sequence required to attain behavioura objective. Each step shoud be inked to the prior one. Prompting: Prompting is the method of giving cue to the chid to hep attain the desired behaviour. Physica prompts incude actuay providing physica assistance to the chid whie teaching the target behaviour. Verba prompting means giving verba directions to the chid at every step. Fading: This is a process of gradua decrease of assistance to the chid in order to make him/her independent. Initiay, the teacher is more invoved whie performing the task, but graduay, with practice, the chid takes over. The resource teacher pans and demonstrates these techniques to the parents/ sibings/ neighbours etc. of the chid and assigns them tasks, considering the eve of the chid. S/he then monitors the chid s progress every week or in a fortnight, depending upon the need of the chid and then pans or re-designs the strategy, if required. Progress on each and every step is carefuy monitored by the resource teacher. Probems at any step are discussed with the parents. If the parents are not abe to understand any step, the resource teacher heps them. Thus, in this way, the chid is taught a the other skis using task anaysis.

34 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 27 The resource teacher invoves the parents the other members of the famiy of the CWSN in the home management. They are invoved in setting and achieving goas, preparation of IEP and behaviour management. The resource teacher assigns various other tasks to them. In this process, the neighbours, teachers from neighbouring schoos, socia workers, etc are aso invoved in the process. The home-based education cum training programme is of immense reevance to those CWSN who otherwise might not be given any opportunity for education. However, further refinement of the programme woud require more resource teachers, avaiabiity of adapted furniture, Techniques being Demonstrated by a RT to the Parent of a CWSN more toos and TLM. But above a, a mutidiscipinary team needs to be in pace to monitor the progress of these chidren at reguar intervas.

35 28 Discovering New Paths in Incusion Expanding the Reach through Home-based Practices for CWSN in Tami Nadu The State of Tami Nadu has been impementing the IE programme through NGOs. 30 NGOs are invoved in a the districts of the State. The State has adopted a very comprehensive mode of IE, providing education to CWSN through various modes viz. viz. reguar schoos, AIE centres, ECCE centres, home-based education and specia schoos. The number of CWSN being covered in the State through various interventions is given beow: S. No. Intervention No. of CWSN 1 Reguar schoos Specia schoos ECCE centres Home based training AIE Centres 1400 This chapter wi focus on the home-based mode deveoped by the State for CWSN. There are basicay two modes of home-based education in the State: rura and urban. Both these modes are being impemented through the NGOs. The support services provided to CWSN in both the Teaching Appropriate Positioning to a Chid with Cerebra Pasy Tabe V: District-wise Coverage of CWSN under Home-based Education S. Name of the No. of CWSN No. District Covered under HBE 1 Chennai Coimbatore Cuddaore Dharmapuri Dindigu Erode Kancheepuram Kanyakumari Karur Krishnagiri Madurai Nagapattinam Nammaka Perambaur Pudukottai Ramnad Saem Sivagangai Thanjavur The Nigiris Theni Thiruchirappai Thirunevei Thiruvaur Thiruvannamaai Thiruvarur Thoothukudi Veore Viupuram Virdhunagar 594 Tota 16718

36 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 29 modes are the same, incuding the components and techniques used for home-based education. However, in the rura home-based education mode, the resource teachers from the NGOs visit the homes of the CWSN and carry out the programme, whereas in the urban mode, the specia schoo/ngo becomes the noda point for a support and services to be provided to the CWSN. This mode is being impemented in the State through NGOs such as SPASTN, Vidya Sagar, and Litte Fower Convent Schoo for the Deaf & Bind etc. So far, the State has covered CWSN through home-based education programmes. The district-wise coverage of CWSN is given in Tabe-V beow. Detais about both the modes are provided in the text that foows. The Rura Mode Incusion is when a chidren, with or without disabiities, earn together in genera schoos and community educationa settings with appropriate support services. The thrust of the Government s poicy on Incusive Education impies that chidren with disabiities need to be enroed into mainstream institutions and not depend soey on speciaist institutions. This cas for changes and enhancement not ony in physica infrastructure and in the avaiabiity of resources, but aso in mind set and attitudes. Many chidren with disabiities are sti denied any form of education. There are others who are enroed in schoos but are deprived of appropriate education aong with their age mates in reguar schoos. The need and the vaue of incusion of chidren with severe and mutipe disabiities is yet to be fuy recognized. Home-based education is one of the options for educating chidren with severe disabiities. This is carried out in two ways. One is to train the chidren with severe menta retardation and cerebra pasy for their day-to-day communication and functiona independence. The

37 30 Discovering New Paths in Incusion other is to prepare a chid with severe orthopaedic condition, but with good cognitive skis for academic intervention. There are some chidren with severe menta retardation and cerebra pasy, who cannot even express their basic needs. Parents and other famiy members do not even reaize that such chidren have a need to communicate. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan provides an opportunity to teach and train these chidren through home-based training. Objectives of Home-based Education The key objectives of home-based education are as foows: To train parents in appropriate adaptations for proper positioning and mobiity To train parents on appropriate therapeutica interventions To enhance communication skis of the chid To provide the chid with the skis necessary for functiona academics To emphasize importance of pay activities To prepare the chid with a disabiity to deveop necessary prerequisite skis for mainstreaming To promote rights through concessions/ schemes. Need for Home-based Education The need for home-based education was fet due to the immobiity of severey disabed chidren and ignorance of parents. These chidren were unabe to attend reguar schoos and so needed home-based education. Hence, it was this group of chidren that had to be prepared for independent iving by giving the required therapy and exercises. These chidren are generay overage and do not have the requisite schoo readiness skis. Moreover, these chidren aso do not have any access to a specia schoos or any other aternative setting. The scope of home-based rehabiitation education programme incudes: Provision of a Specia Seat to a CWSN Chidren with mutipe disabiities such as cerebra pasy with menta retardation, sensory probems, severe orthopaedic conditions, such as arthrogryposis (britte bones) or chidren with severe menta retardation Severey disabed chidren for whom access to resources and faciities in their viages are imited (transport, hospitas, rehabiitation services etc). Box 6: Essentia Ingredients of Homebased Education Home visits by resource teachers Interviewing and counseing of the parents/ caretakers and neighbours Observation and screening exercises Assessment to decide the specific pan of action for Physiotherapy, communication therapy, sensory integration therapy, assistive devices, functiona academics and other academic input Invoving famiy members grand parents, parents, sibings and aso the community members.

38 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 31 For home-based education, a common venue in the community is identified which is accessibe and disabed-friendy e.g., community paces, ICDS centre or individua homes. Strategy for Home-based Education This comprises the foowing four basic eements: Visits by the resource teachers Provision of aids and appiances Deveopment of ow cost/no cost TLM Parenta training. The essentia ingredients of home-based education are given in Box-6. Visits by the Resource Teachers Home-based education incudes not ony chidren with severe menta handicap and cerebra pasy, but aso chidren with tota bindness and profound hearing oss. The aim is to prepare them for schoo. In paces where there are no specia schoos to admit chidren with tota visua and hearing disabiities, the resource teachers trains them under home-based programme, before mainstreaming them into reguar schoos. For a chid with tota vision oss, the resource teacher trains the chid on orientation and mobiity, identification of objects (using mutisensory approach) and activities of daiy iving. Thee activities are aso taught to the parents. Further, the parents aso practice with the chid the activities demonstrated by the resource teacher, to make him/her independent in communication and mobiity. This preparatory stage takes at east six months to equip the chid with basic needs to bring them to schoo. The resource teacher provides home-based education to a kinds of chidren with specia needs. Likewise, for a chid with profound hearing oss, the aim is to deveop anguage skis mainy to enabe the chid to interact with others. The resource teachers visit the homes of the such chidren who are not attending schoo. The first and the foremost step is to estabish rapport with the famiy members and the chid. As the chid and the famiy graduay become famiiar with the resource teacher, a thorough assessment is done of the chid s interests and needs. Interaction with the famiy members aso heps in identifying the eve of comprehension or the functiona eve of the chid. Based on the assessment detais, the resource teacher sets a goa and deveops a teaching procedure for the chid through a series of visits. Initiay the resource teachers visit the home more frequenty i.e. 2 to 3 times in a week. S/he prepares the parents or sibing and expains to them the importance of proper positioning, seating and providing opportunity to the chid to interact with others. S/he demonstrates some activities to enhance the communication skis of the chid and et the parents observe those activities. The chid may be communicating with varied vocaization or eye movement, body anguage or facia movement. Whichever way the chid tends to communicate, s/he heps the parents to transform the movements into meaningfu expressive skis. To eicit this kind of communication, s/he uses ocay avaiabe materias. The resource teachers are aso trained at periodic intervas by the NGOs that impement the homebased education programme in the Sate. The NGOs aso monitor the work of the specia teachers at bock eve by conducting visits to the intervention sites. These visits are undertaken twice a month. Provision of Aids and Appiances With the cooperation and coordination of the Heath and Rehabiitation Department, medica assessment camps are being conducted. The NGOs have made arrangements to provide assistive devices through convergence with the

39 32 Discovering New Paths in Incusion Tabe VI: Exampes of Low Cost/ No Cost Materia being used for HBE Name of the Appiance Prone Wedge Boster Standing Frame Corner Chair / Modified Chair Posterior Spint Parae Bar Baance Board Swings Tactie Materias Communication Board Wooden Ramp ADL Materias Used Bricks, Mud, Water Straw, Gunny bags, waste coth Bricks, Mud, Water, Bamboos Bricks, Water, Mud APT Bamboo Sticks, Trees Tyres and Wood Tyres, Rope Home mats, coir, cotton, sik woo, jute, feather Cardboard, pywood with pictures, fash cards Wooden Pegs, boards and stones Buit up handes, shirt button, soap hoders, for dressing etc. Government as we as various other schemes of Government of India and pubic donations. Deveopment of Low Cost/ No Cost Aids and Appiances Assistive technoogy is used to support the process of rehabiitation, to assist CWSN to achieve greater independence, using materias and skis that are avaiabe in their particuar situations/ environment. Box 7: Uses of Low-Cost Technoogy Materias avaiabe ocay Prevents deformities Faciitates independent mobiity/speech therapy/ ADL Acts as teaching aids in education/ mobiity aids Provides aternative modes for communication. Based on the need of the chid, different kinds of materia are deveoped for CWSN using ow cost/no cost materia. The ow cost materia incude waste paper, mud, bricks, wood used tyres etc. From this, are deveoped TLM s, corner chairs standing frames, wedges etc. More exampes are provided in Tabe- VI. Cooured beads, cay stones, bocks, spoon are used to deveop eye- hand coordination. Parae bars made of bamboo or PVC pipe, which act as a support for the disabed chidren, hep them wak and maintain body baance. The use of ow cost technoogies is given as Box-7. Parenta Training To create awareness, training workshops are conducted for the parents. Parents, in turn, share ideas and views among themseves in these workshops. This training is of great hep to them, whie handing their chidren. During the visit, the resource teacher demonstrates some activities according to the need of the chid. The resource teacher, after 4-5 visits, asks the parents to do the activities on their own. The resource teacher trains the chidren and the parents in the foowing areas: Activities of daiy iving (with minima hep and with appropriate adaptation) Day-to-day communication using aternative augmentative communication

40 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 33 Functiona iteracy and numeracy (to read their name as we as their famiy members, to identify the coins and currencies using fash cards etc). The parents are aso trained on the hygiene issues and how to maintain a cean and a safe environment at home. They are aso advised to treat their specia chidren at par with their nondisabed chidren. The neighbourhood and the peers are aso sensitized about the chid s need and the ways to hep. The chidren in the neighbourhood aso visit the chid s home and pay and interact with the chid. The Urban Mode of Home-based Education understand the chid and hep incude him/her in the mainstream. This is done through specific individuaized training programmes covering a the needs of the chid education, physiotherapy, communication, occupationa therapy, pay, etc. Students who access this programme come from different age groups, across disabiities and from different economic backgrounds. This programme does not cater ony for the profoundy disabed chid, but is aso for students who attend a mainstream schoo and need periodica speciaized inputs. In the urban mode, chidren and their famiies access the programme by visiting the NGO/ specia schoo at reguar intervas, varying from once-a-week to once-a-month or even onger, depending on the needs of the famiy and the chid. The resource teachers do a detaied assessment of the chid. This incudes coecting information on the chid s background, medica detais, diet, daiy routine, strengths and needs in areas ike earning, physica/ motor, pay, communication, socia- emotiona skis etc. Parenta Counseing in Progress in a Referra Cinic In the urban mode of home-based education, a specia schoo is the noda agency/point to provide famiy based rehabiitation programme. In other words, since there are a number of specia schoos in an urban city/town, the chid and his/her famiy member are provided training on home-based education in the specia schoo itsef. In Tami Nadu, the urban home -based education programme under SSA is being deivered by SPASTN and Vidya Sagar. The Urban Famiy based Rehabiitation programme aims at empowering the famiy to

41 34 Discovering New Paths in Incusion The resource teachers then deveop an intervention programme with the famiy. This programme is carried out at home by the parents, unti the next review visit. Most chidren aso receive, at east, one home visit during the term by the resource teacher. The purpose of this visit is to survey the home environment to get some idea about the routine of famiy and chid and suggest required aids and adaptations. The resource teacher aso surveys suitabe mainstream schoos near the chid s house for admission. Low Cost or No Cost Aids and Appiances The aids and adaptations are designed according to the socio economic background of the famiy and the avaiabe resources. Some exampes are: The corner of the room being used for seating a chid who has poor sitting baance instead of a corner chair Using window bars for supported standing Using bucket fied with water as support whie chid squats in the toiet Using a wooden scae or pantain stem section as arm bands and knee gaiters. Making neck coars out of coth fied with thermoco bas Using a roed up towe/ banket/ mat/ mother s eg instead of a boster for positioning a young infant Making auditory /visua toys out of kitchen equipment and baoons and streamers Using househod objects for teaching concepts ike big/ sma, coours, numbers, shapes etc. Making adapted spoons and cups with handes made of cyce bar handes, wood, ropes, pastic etc. For faciitating adduction- Ø Singe eg of trouser is used to insert both the chid s egs; Ø Strip of used coth is tied in 8 Formation around the egs. Using tree trunk and pank of wood as a standing aid. Many more such ow cost/no cost aids are deveoped using avaiabe materias. Many parents have been trained through the Famiy Based Rehabiitation Programmes. In fact, some mothers have been so motivated that they have undergone training in the Specia Education programme, to become teachers of

42 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 35 CWSN. A number of workshops are conducted for the parents on a reguar basis. The main objectives of the urban home-based education mode is to work on strategies, which wi enabe parents of chidren with neuroogica impairments to be empowered to incude their chidren within their homes and to support their incusion in the community. The goa of the Famiy Based Rehabiitation Programme is to empower the famiies of CWSN to understand their chid and to integrate them into society. The programme enabes parents to understand the chid hoisticay. Athough the chid attends the specia schoo ony once a week, the programme is continued at home during the rest of the week, thus giving the chid a the required inputs. A part of this programme aso gets integrated into the famiy routine, increasing the chid s participation as a member of the famiy aiming at his/her independence. In the Famiy Based Rehabiitation Programme, a number of parents meet and interact with each other during sessions. They form their own support groups, which hep them to share their feeings and ideas. These have further evoved as sef hep groups. It is generay seen that after the training and visits by the resource teachers, parents gain sefconfidence. They become hopefu of their chidren s progress as the severey disabed chidren show progress (athough gradua in a few cases) after frequent visits by physiotherapists and resource teachers. Home-based education has made a prominent impact on the chidren with specia needs. There is no formua or bueprint for starting a home-based rehabiitation programme. If rehabiitation is to reach the severey disabed, it must take pace in the home, with the famiy members as the primary rehabiitation workers. Success wi depend on various factors: the number of CWSN, severity of disabiities encountered, the interests and commitment of parents, famiy members, community and the resources avaiabe.

43 36 Discovering New Paths in Incusion Reaching the Un-reached through Home-based Education in Uttarancha The Incusive Education programme in Uttarancha started in 2002 with DPEP, wherein the State undertook severa initiatives for mainstreaming CWSN in reguar schoos. These initiatives incuded training of a BRCC s/ CRCC s through the 90-day foundation course, conducting community mobiization camps for awareness on IE, training of ECCE workers on eary detection of CWSN, deveoping a profie for each chid with a disabiity and a training package for teachers. In each DIET, a disabiity management and counseing Unit has been estabished with the purpose of providing parenta counseing. This Unit acts as a resource centre providing information on the faciities and resource avaiabe for CWSN. Besides, the State has aso deveoped earning corners and activity bank in schoos where CWSN are enroed. These initiatives are briefy described beow. Resource Support through DIETs To provide resource support to the programme of IE, the State has strengthened its DIETs by estabishing a Disabiity Management and Counseing Unit to offer technica support. The support comes in the form of deveopment of suitabe training modues for different target groups, preparation of IEPs, training to master trainers and a continued support to BRCCs/ CRCCs on IE. Two ecturers from each DIET have aso been imparted a Dipoma Course in Specia Education. Learning Corners Learning corners are those sites in the genera cassroom where materias are organized to support the deveopment of curricuum. It is a designated area where instructiona materias in major curricuum areas are ocated and organized. Learning corners have materias of many eves and activities that accommodate a variety of individua needs. Learning centres offer foow-up to the teacher s instruction and provide an opportunity to practice specific skis; thus these centres may be very hepfu to students with earning probems. The State is providing such a earning corner in the schoos where CWSN are enroed. Learning corners are being equipped with materia reating to a-round deveopment of CWSN. The materias are rea and concrete stuff, educationa toys and games ow cost teaching aids, (ike objects made of paper), materia prepared by the students, themseves printed materia and manufactured materia (maps & gobes). In these sites, students aso carry out some activities using these materias. This gives them the experience required to earn by themseves. These earning corners aso act as interest centres schoos in the State have been provided with earning corners. Activity Oriented Camps Reaizing the importance of using need based TLM for CWSN, the State has organized TLM workshops in each district with the twin objective of assessing the extent of use of TLM by CWSN and to refine it further to enhance earning for a chidren. Through these workshops, hard spots in different subjects were identified with the hep of experts. Various activities were grouped and modified, keeping in mind the pace of earning of each chid. The main outcome of these workshops are activity oriented camps hed in every district to improve the achievement eve of CWSN through remedia practices. These camps are residentia in nature and aong with CWSN,

44 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 37 the non-disabed peers and their parents aso take part in these camps. These camps are basicay organized to conduct various activities aiming to foster cognitive, socia emotiona and anguage deveopment and gross motor and fine motor skis. Teaching toos are designed by DIET facuty and there is an active use of techniques such as peer tutoring, cooperative earning and muti-sensory approach. So far, the State has organized 45 such camps. Painting and Poster Competitions To provide opportunity for CWSN to participate in extra curricuar activities, poster and painting competitions have been organized in every district. This heps the teacher to identify the specia skis that a chid with a specia need might be endowed with. Integrated sports and cutura meet are organized at the sub-district eve. A poster competition was organized at the State eve with the theme What can we do for the prevention of disabiity? The best poster has been printed and disseminated. Under SSA, the State so far has enroed CWSN in schoos, out of the CWSN identified chidren with disabiities are aso being covered through EGS and 527 through home-based education. Need for Home-based Education The number of CWSN out-of-schoo in the State is ess than a thousand. However, providing equitabe educationa opportunity to these CWSN was a big chaenge. Unike most of other States, where chidren with severe/ profound disabiities are being reached out through home-based education, in the State of Uttarancha even chidren with mobiity probems are aso being covered through homebased education. The hiy terrain of the State prevents such chidren to reach the schoo, even if appropriate assistive devices are provided. A few exampes given in Box-8. wi make this point cear. Area Seected for Home-based Education In Uttarancha, every district has an IE coordinator in pace who is accorded the duty of identifying such CWSN who are out-of-schoo. The chidren are identified by coecting information through househod survey resuts. Besides, district/bock coordinator aso make visits to the viages/schoos to get an estimate of the number of CWSN who woud require support through home based interventions. Through visits and interactions with parents and Nyaya Panchayats, the district and bock eve Box 8: Cases of CWSN being provided Home-Based Education Shai Baa, a 9 year od gir of Rudra Prayag district of Jakhani bock is a severey disabed gir without any egs. Because of her disabiity, she coud not go to schoo as she coud move ony on her knees. Her mobiity is imited ony to her home as it was impossibe for her father to carry her to schoo on his shouders everyday. Wheechair in her case was of imited use because of the uneven terrain. Thus, the soution for her education came in the form of homebased education, wherein a trained vounteer is heping her read, write and aso earn art and craft. Mohan, a 7 year od chid is poio stricken and cannot sit and stand on his own. The chid was entirey bedridden ti such time that a vounteer identified his case and counseed his parents. Today Mohan can move on his own and is graduay becoming independent in doing a his daiy routine work.

45 38 Discovering New Paths in Incusion coordinators compied a ist of such CWSN. The home-based education programme was undertaken with the hep of vounteers who were trained as care givers. The State undertook the first piot experimentation of home-based education in the district of Bagheshwar. This was then repicated in the districts of Haridwar, Nainita, Uttarkashi, Dehradun and Udham Singh Nagar. Assessment of chidren s disabiities Daiy iving skis deveopment Incucating a positive attitude towards CWSN. An attempt has been made to make the entire process of home-based education fuy chid centred and famiy focused. A very systematic approach was foowed for this. The initia step was to identify the CWSN. Some of these chidren had aready been identified in the composite identification camps organized in the State. This was foowed by seection of vounteers by the district IE coordinators. Ony those vounteers who were ready to educate at east five such chidren were seected. The seected personne aso had to visit the home of the identified CWSN thrice a week. There was no specific curricuum that was foowed, as the needs of every chid were very different and so were their abiities and strengths. The vounteers drew up an individua pan for every chid. Through persona interactions with the chidren and their parents, the vounteer tried to understand the deveopmenta needs and characteristics of these chidren. The vounteers are trained for 10 days through organizations recognized by the Nationa Trust. In the State, two organizations have this recognition. These are Raphae Riders, Cheshire Home and UNICESS Society. The vounteers are exposed to the foowing through this training package: Identification of CWSN Strengths and educationa needs Roe of parents in assisting their CWSN to achieve the identified goas A Father teaching his Daughter the Use of an Assistive Device Besides teaching CWSN ADL, those activities that ead to their cognitive deveopment and promotes their independence are aso used. Vocationa education is an important part of the home-based education imparted to CWSN. Another aspect of home-based education is the parenta training. The training is mainy done to counse parents to understand that their chid aso has strengths and the specia need of their chid shoud be taken up as a chaenge. CWSN aso need an opportunity to grow and earn. For this, they have to be empowered to be sef-reiant. Parents were provided orientation for 2-days. To begin with, they were not equipped to hande the chid s emotiona, inteectua and physica needs. The vounteers sensitized the parents in this direction. They were aso tod about the services that are avaiabe for their CWSN. Athough the parents are trained for two days, the counseing is a continuing process. Parents are encouraged to ask questions so that they gain confidence in handing their CWSN. The parents

46 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 39 are asked to make a specific mention of their chid s needs and the vounteers pay the faciitators roe and enhance the parents understanding of their chid s needs by providing constructive suggestions. Impact of home-based Education The impact of home-based education has been three fod: Ø Ø The parents have reaized the vaue and worth of CWSN and are paying a key roe in empowering their CWSN The vounteers, aready trained, are graduay emerging as master trainers and Ø orient the new vounteers/ parents/ community on the need, importance and purpose of home-based education Finay, the most important beneficiaries are CWSN, who are graduay moving towards sef-reiance. There is a marked improvement in the sef-esteem of these chidren. For them, earning is beyond the 3R s and more reated to ife skis. Athough the chaenges faced by the State are many in imparting home-based education to CWSN, yet it is un-finched in its determination to provide meaningfu education to a CWSN, to achieve the goa of UEE. A CWSN taking part in a Painting Competition Teaching Vocationa Skis to Girs

47 40 Discovering New Paths in Incusion Opening New Doors for CWSN through HBE in West Benga The State of West Benga has identified CWSN through assessment and screening camps. Out of this, a tota of CWSN have been enroed in forma schoos CWSN are sti out of schoo. With in this, out-of-schoo CWSN popuation there are a good number of CWSN with severe disabiities. To address the zero rejection poicy of SSA as we as to address the specia needs of these severe CWSN, homebased education is being impemented. The need of home-based education programme has been fet by the State to provide the required support services to the foowing categories of chidren with severe disabiities: Goa Enroed CWSN, who need remedia teaching and CWSN requiring eary intervention as schoo readiness support towards forma schooing. The main goa of this initiative is to create opportunities for a CWSN to participate and earn educationa and socia skis, to maximize their potentia within environment most suited to their needs. Objectives of home-based Education To train parents in proper positioning and mobiity of CWSN To train parents on giving physiotherapy/ speech therapy intervention To make education more affordabe and fexibe To promote remedia teaching for those enroed CWSN with poor performance Specia Educator of a DLRO Visiting Home of a CWSN eve as we as to hep them to earn Braie propery and proper use of provided aids and appiances To provide appropriate services for hearing aid repair To provide a referra services To promote community participation in panning, impementation and monitoring. The home-based education programme is being impemented in the State entirey through the NGOs. These NGOs are working as District Leve Resource Organizations. Trained specia educators from these NGOs visit the homes of CWSN requiring home based intervention, based on a tour programme/schedue, drawn up at the district eve. The schedue is approved by the Circe Project Co-ordinator and the District IE Coordinator. Strategies Empoyed The strategies used for home-based education are given in Box-9.

48 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 41 Box 9: Strategies for Home-based Education Counseing of famiy members to remove misconceptions Training of KRPF (Key Resource Person from the Famiy) members, caregivers and specia educators in required skis Individuaized goa setting for the chid and roe to be payed by parents/ famiy Assessing and modifying skis of caregivers, KRPF members and specia educators Reguar home visits Reporting and documentation of home visits. Counseing of new mothers incuding information on breast feeding, proper immunization, nutrition and appropriate referras. Demonstration of story teing pictures and to ensure their proper use by the parents to improve speech of CWSN. Counseing of Famiy Members to Remove Misconceptions Initiay at Gram Panchayet eve, one-day sensitization programme is organized on severa issues reated to incusive education. Specia Educators (those working under DLROs) visit the home of the concerned chid and initiate a diaogue with the parents and maintain the continuity. Interactions/diaogues with CWSN and their parents are faciitated through reguar home visits by the specia educators. Through these visits and interactions, the specia educators coect basic information based on a checkist provided as Annex IV. Training of KRPF (Key Resource Person from the Famiy) Members, Caregivers and Specia Educators in required Skis This is another strategy being empoyed by the State for home-based education. Under this, a famiy member of a chid with specia needs is identified and provided orientation on how to hande CWSN at home. The KRPFs are trained on needs of CWSN, rights of CWSN, disabiity specific care and management, educationa interventions and roe of famiy and community. A training package (contents of the package given in Box-10) has aso been deveoped for KRPF KRPFs have been oriented so far. Individuaized Goa setting for the Chid and Roe to be payed by Parents/Famiy Depending upon the specific requirements of the chidren with specia needs, specific goas are targeted to be achieved within a speciaized time period. The specific roe and responsibiities of the parent towards that goa are expained by the Specia Educators or other rehabiitation professionas ti the next home visit.

49 42 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 1. Concept and emotiona aspects Box 10: Components for KRPF Training Modue Understanding disabiities and reaistic expectations emerging from various SEN Basic course in first aid and prevention of disabiity Understanding parenta needs with regard to the disabed chid Understanding the parenta adaptation cyce Understanding the right of the disabed chidren Deveoping enhanced acceptabiity and eadership Deveoping teamwork skis 2. Assessment and remedia measures Primary assessment and community observation Disabiity specific basic management and educationa intervention 3. Assessment of acceptance with regard to The famiy The community Support group Parent of non-disabed chidren VEC members Teachers/ schoo staffs 4. Strategies of improving acceptance 5. Assigning responsibiity to the famiy and community 6. Benefits and concessions from various agencies. Assessing and modifying Skis of Caregivers, KRPF Members and Specia Educators Rehabiitation professionas who are extending their rehabiitation service to the CWSN in their homes inform their day to day activities to the District IE coordinator through the concerned DLROs. At district eve, monthy review meeting is organized by DPO, DIEDC, responsibe DRG members and a specia educators to evauate the on going programme. Depending upon the report of the day-to-day activities of the specia educators, District Project Office is informed about the acunae in the programme so that further initiatives coud be undertaken accordingy. Counseing of New Mothers During their home visit specia educators aso make the mothers aware on the prevention of disabiity and referra services avaiabe. They are aso apprised on the need for proper immunization/ nutrition etc.

50 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 43 Schoo Readiness Programme In coaboration with Nationa Institute of Hearing Handicapped (NIHH), and WEBEL, few story-teing pictures have been deveoped. These pictures and associated story narration have been deveoped as per the menta maturity of the chid. The sentences vary from simpe to compex depending on the eve of comprehension of the chid. The specia educators use these story-teing pictures during their home visit to provide speech therapy to the chidren. Demonstrations and their use are aso shown to the parents so that they are a part of this process. Copies of these story teing pictures are aso provided to the parents. A identified CWSN who require support service by the rehabiitation professionas/ specia educators have been categorized into two groups, namey Frequent Service requiring Group (FSRG) and Periodic Service Requiring Group (PSRG). Trainings Different target groups are trained under homebased education with different objectives. Trainings are arranged for parents, KRPF, specia educators, CWSN, caregivers, community and ICDS workers, as shown beow in Tabe-VII. Tabe-VII : Trainings for Various Target Groups on HBE Target Group Parent training Training of CWSN. Famiy members Community members Training of caregivers Training of specia educators ICDS worker Contents of Training Home training on specific modifications and proper use of assisted devices. Academic and functiona foow up and minor repairing of assistive devices and therapeutic aspect. One day sensitization on severa category of disabiities Specia educators foow the approved tentative periodic timetabe for the home and schoo visits. This pan is chaked out by the specia educators on the basis of the number of CWSN in each of the categories found in the catchment area assigned to them. This pattern heps to provide more need-based support to more severe CWSN and referra services to ess severe CWSN. Specia educators provide resource support to CWSN in schoos as we as at homes. Each specia educator visits two primary schoos (ocated nearby, as per the approved tentative tour programme) and two homes every day.

51 44 Discovering New Paths in Incusion Coverage Around CWSN are being covered through home-based education/interventions being provided through DLROs (detaied provided in Tabe-VIII) CWSN, with severe disabiities, are being provided home-based education due to their inabiity to attend schoo reguary CWSN are being provided remedia teaching through home-based support, to hep them achieve a earning eve at par with the non-disabed chidren of their age and grade. Teaching Braie to a VI Chid Impact of Home-based Education on CWSN Home-based education programme has been very effective in providing need based support to the CWSN with severe eve of disabiity, as we as for those CWSN, who require speciaized attention in the area of functiona academics, communication, pay/ co-curricuar activities, Braie training, ip reading, speech therapy etc. Requisites for Successfu HBE For home-based education to be effective, parents need to be given appropriate information, encouragement and assistance. Aso need-based support of rehabiitation and medica services are aso essentia. The success of the home-based programme rests on engaging more rehabiitation professionas and specia educators. Wider coverage can ony be possibe if more trained manpower is made avaiabe to reach out to the arge number of CWSN actuay requiring this kind of support. Tabe-VIII: Coverage by DLROs for HBE S. Name of District Name of DLROs Number No. of Bocks covered 1 Birbhum Bangia Saksharata Prosar Samity 19 Joyprokash Institute for Socia Change Rampurhat Spastic and Handicapped Society Organization for Protection for Environment and Consumers (O.P.E.C) Vivekananda Adibasi Kayan Samity 2 Bankura Dr. Saien Mukherjee Muk o Bodhir Vidyaaya. 22 Bikash Society, Kenduadihi Barjora Ashar Ao Bivekananda Adibasi Kayan Samity 3 N-24 Parganas Karunamayee Parents Organization 22 Nava Barakpur Siksha Samaj

52 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 45 S. Name of District Name of DLROs Number No. of Bocks covered Barakpur Ramkrishna Vivekananda Mission North 24 Parganas Disabed Persons Association Basirhat Reief Handicapped Wefare Society 4 Purba Midnapur Pratibondhi Sahayak Samity 4 5 S-24 Parganas Paschimbanga Rajya Protibondhi Sambiani 29 Sanchar Sarishapay Unnayan Samity Durbachati Sundarbone Rura Deveopment Society. 6 Hooghy Sheter 6 Paschimbanga Rajya Protibondhi Sambiani Grahambe Centre for the Deaf. Bikash Bharati Wefare Society 7 Kokata Bangia Saksharata Prosar Samity 1 Care and Counseing Centre Bikash Bharati Wefare Society Behaa Bodhayan 8 Murshidabad Chatra Physicay Handicapped and Socia Wefare Institute 26 Y.M.C. Vocationa Training Centre Institute of Socia Wefare Education and Rehabiitation Berahampur Nabadisha Aokendu Bodh Niketan 9 Coochbehar Spastic Society of Coochbihar 12 Akrahat Dishari Wefare Organisation Vekrapu Netaji Cub Jnan deep Schoo and Training Centre 10 Howrah Anand Bhavan Deaf and Bind Schoo 5 Anandabhavan Education cum Training Centre Howrah South Point 11 Uttar Dinajpur Sent Johns Ambuance 9 Raiganj Debinagar Wefare Education Centre Isampur Ramkrishnapay Rura Wefare Society Ramendra Mahiam Samity Raiganj Chittaranjan Suchetana Society Uday Nagar Chetana 12 Dakshin Dinajpur Suchetana Abasik Protibondhi Vidyapith 7 Indian Red Cross Society

53 46 Discovering New Paths in Incusion S. Name of District Name of DLROs Number No. of Bocks covered Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Specia Guruya Pratibondhi Kayan Samity 13 Burdwan Swayambhar 13 Burdwan Bind Academy Sreema Protibondhi Kayan Kendra Baidyapur Bikash Bharati pratibondhi Bikash Kendra Indian Redcross Society Aniket 14 Japaiguri Japaiguri Wefare Organisation 13 Latagury Socia Wefare Organization Torsa Kajani Socia Wefare Society Paschimbanga Rajya Protibondhi Sambiani Ma Socia Wefare Organisation Aipurduar Wefare Organisation 15 Puruia Majhihira Nationa Basic Educationa Institution 6 Piasoe Sabyasachi Puruia Protibondhi Kayan Samity 16 Mada Nari Kayan Samity 11 Mada Dishari Mission Mada Sahayogita Samity R. P.Roy Memoria Bind schoo Mada Physicay Handicapped Management Society Miky Kutir Shipa Unnayan Samity 17 Siigury North Benga Handicapped Rehabiitation Society 3 North Benga Counci for the Disabed 18 Darjeeing Darjeeing Hope Brahmosamaj BLDG. 1 Darjeeing Sparsh Shamrock 19 Paschim Midnapur Bhagabati Devi Nari Kayan Samiti 8 Nimbark Math Seva Samity Trust MRCC 20 Nadia Jatiya Bayaska Siksha Prasar Samity 6 Karimpur Socia Wefare Society Ranaghat Cutura Unit Snehanir Heen Keer Institute for the Bind, Krishnanagar Aranghata Protibondhi Manabik Muyan Samity Tota 223

54 Discovering New Paths in Incusion 47 A Fina Word... This document is an attempt to capture homebased practices being carried out by different States to reach out to CWSN. In ine with the 86 th Constitutiona Amendment and Persons With Disabiities (Fu Participation, Equa Opportunities and Protection of Rights) Act, 1995, both of which in their own ways give every chid a right to free and compusory education, home-based education is offered as one of the educationa options for chidren with severe disabiities under SSA. The home-based programme, being offered under SSA, is a combination of both basic iteracy and ife skis. It incudes aspects of both preparation for schoo and preparation for ife. Another important facet of this intervention is deaing with the behavioura needs/probems of CWSN. This can be ceary inferred from the home-based practices adopted by the States of Jharkhand, Keraa and West Benga. The home-based education programme described proved usefu both for the parents and CWSN. To Parents The programme: Offered carefuy designed individuaized programme Empowered them to deveop rues and structures that heped their CWSN to better socia adjustment Targeted mosty in fostering and organizing their own efforts so that they woud hep their chidren s deveopment in the best possibe ways Heped parents pay a more active roe in their chidren s educationa pan Provided opportunities to discuss with the experts a probems and issues regarding their chid s progress Gave access to information concerning the organizations/ agencies, community services etc. To CWSN Improvement in cognitive domain, anguage deveopment and basic communication skis Parent Training in the Home Management Significant reduction in the disruptive behaviours. Besides, the programme aso created partnerships between the parents and the interventionists. It ed to enhance awareness on the part of the parents about their chid s schoo and socia incusion. Nevertheess, it shoud be borne in mind that the processes described here mark a beginning to

55 48 Discovering New Paths in Incusion provide for those groups of CWSN, which ti now have been more marginaized as compared to chidren who have mider forms of specia educationa needs. The use of home-based education as a service deivery mechanism under SSA is predicated on two things: the needs of the individua chid and the probabiity that the intervention requires a specia set of circumstances that are unavaiabe in reguar cassroom settings. Thus, the meaning of homebased education in SSA is inked to meeting those needs that are aso non-academic in nature. The chaenge now is to effectivey prepare schoos for mainstreaming those CWSN into reguar schoos who have been trained through home-based support. This woud mean examining the chid s overa educationa experience in the mainstreamed environment and baancing the benefits of both reguar and speciaized instruction for each individua chid. Schoos woud utimatey have to become providers of the continuum of services and be responsive to each chid s needs. Ti such time this happens, the range of options of support services for CWSN might have to be preserved outside the reguar cassroom. Peer Group Escorting a CWSN to a Schoo after being provided HBE Ceebrating Incusion

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