CHAPTER ONE COMPREHENSION SHOULDN T BE SILENT

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1 COMPREHENSION SHOULDN T BE SILENT CHAPTER ONE Overview of the Metacognitive Teaching Framework 1. You introduce a strategy by first modeling its use 2. There are four phases: a. think-aloud, b. refining strategy use, c. letting strategy use gel, d. self-assessment and goal setting. The focus is on six cognitive strategies: clarifying, predicting, making connections, questioning, visualizing, and summarizing. (11) 3. Each cognitive strategy is launched during a think-aloud, where the teacher stops to identify the mental strategies that are used as he/she reads. Gradually, in whole group lessons, the responsibility is passed from teacher to student. 4. Once strategy use has begun to gel, the majority of the mental work shifts to the students, with you and peers serving as coaches during book clubs and our structured independent reading block, called Read, Relax, Reflect, Respond, and Rap (R5).

2 The Metacognitive Teaching Framework Think-Aloud Interactive Read-Aloud Shared Reading Refining Strategy Use Small-Group Whole-Group Cooperative Think-Alouds R5 Self-Assessment and Goal Setting Book Club R5 Independent Reading Letting Strategy Use Gel Content Area Studies Book Club R5 Independent Reading 2

3 Strategy Components Each strategy is taught over the course of a unit, and each unit can last up to six weeks or sometimes longer. A. Think-aloud B. Shared Reading and Cooperative Think-Aloud C. Read-Aloud D. Interactive Read-Aloud E. Guided Reading F. Student-Led book Clubs: Literature Circles and Textbook Circles G. R5 H. Learning Centers 3

4 The Importance of the Classroom Environment Effective teachers know their students, create a supportive climate, and establish relationships that enhance learning. Teachers who create opportunities for social interaction cultivate a positive, caring learning environment (Good & Brophy, 1997). Engaging students in purposeful talk within a nurturing environment builds trust and respect. Teachers who demonstrate enthusiasm for learning contribute to student motivation and promote student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000). The Classroom layout is very important: The physical layout of a classroom should be inviting. You want a designated area for coming together as a community of readers and writers. Students should feel relaxed and comfortable enough to enjoy reading. Bean bag chairs, mats, umbrellas and beach chairs, colorful surroundings, rugs, posters should be used to entice readers to use the area to read. 4

5 The Classroom Library You should have titles per students The books should include fiction and non-fiction, e- books, and informational text. The books should range in levels and genres. Include titles from the most loved children s and young adult authors, classics, favorites, etc. Make your classroom library appealing and wellorganized, kept at eye level, and categorized by author, genre, series, or reading levels. Let the class have a say on how the library is organized to instill a sense of ownership in their classroom library. 5

6 Chapter Two: Laying the Foundation for the Metacognitive Teaching Framework 1. The Metacognitive Teaching Framework (MTF) addresses many critical areas of literacy instruction, and the first sample daily schedule shows how to incorporate writer s workshop and direct instruction in fluency and spelling/phonics with the MTF to provide a comprehensive reading program. 2. Specific skills like inferring, determining the author s purpose, and cause and effect are embedded within the framework, as is vocabulary development. 3. Chapter Two provides yearly, daily, and weekly schedules for implementing the MTF. It also includes an Interest and Wide Reading Inventory and activities that launch the MTF. 4. Part II: Digging Deeper in Book Clubs teaches the R5: Read, Relax, Reflect, Respond, and Rap that are used to coach, monitor, and facilitate students independent use of strategies. 6

7 Chapter 3: Cultivating Conversations with Student-Led Book Clubs Discussion fits into the MTF because it is a vital factor at every stage from teacher led discussions to small guided reading groups, to the Rap portion of Read, Relax, Reflect, Respond, and Rap. The goal is to have fully engaged student discussion. In order for high-quality, genuine discussions to occur, we need to train students how to engage in them. 7

8 Think, turn, talk! Think back to the last time you had a deep discussion with a friend or peer. What made it a good discussion? What are some elements of a good discussion? Why is discussion important to teaching and comprehension? How can you prepare students for having meaningful discussions? What techniques could you use to teach students to discuss? 8

9 Problems with Student-Led Book Clubs Seven of the problems include: 1. Students aren t prepared and don t know how to prepare for the discussion. 2. Students don t know how to participate in a discussion. 3. Students conversations are superficial or contrived. 4. Students find the reading material unappealing. 5. Students may not be involved in the conversations. 6. Students digress and get off topic. 7. Students are off task. 9

10 Think, turn, talk! Can you relate specifically to any of these problems with student-led book clubs? Choose one of these issues and reflect on what you can do to help eliminate this problem. Make a workable plan to thwart the problem. 10

11 Assessment: Pros, Cons, Suggestions In our assessment-crazed culture, it s tempting to try to take a grade on every activity we have kids perform remember [that] our goals [are] to have students read and enjoy a good book and then have a meaningful discussion about the text Teachers need to remember that assessment should help [them] reach these goals (78). 11

12 Meaningful Discussion Scale:3.1 (63) Level 4: Prepared, completed reading, well-thought out, took notes, participated by listening, asking questions, clarifying, linking, and building on other people s comments, supported ideas with information and background knowledge, used precise words to explain my thoughts, spoke clearly, loud enough and at an understandable pace, summarized different people s ideas from the discussion and drew conclusions based on the evidence provided. 12

13 Meaningful Discussion Scale Level 3: Prepared, completed reading, well-thought out, took notes, participated by listening, asking questions, clarifying, linking, and building on other people s comments, supported ideas with information (no background knowledge), spoke clearly, loud enough and at an understandable pace, summarized important ideas from the discussion and drew conclusions based on what was talked about. 13

14 Meaningful Discussion Scale Level 2: Prepared, completed most of reading, made some notes to remember what was read, participated by asking questions, and linking my comments to other people s comments, tried to explain thoughts, spoke clearly and at an understandable pace. 14

15 Meaningful Discussion Scale Level 1: Not prepared, did not participate much or allow everyone else to participate, did not explain my thoughts clearly, spoke too quietly or too fast for people to hear and understand me. 15

16 Chapter 4: Promoting Engagement in Reading Through R5 Engaged readers read because they re interested in a particular topic, want to learn about something, want to get lost in a story, and for a multitude of other reasons. R5 ( Read, Relax, Reflect, Respond, and Rap) can help support all types of readers 16

17 CONTINUUM OF ENGAGEMENT Bookworms Stuck in a Genre or Series Readers I can but don t want to (even though I enjoy it) Readers Does Nonfiction Count? Readers Compliant Readers Unrealistic or Wannabe Readers Challenged Readers Fake Readers 17

18 Independent Reading in Classrooms Researchers have found that the amount of time students spend reading is the best predictor of reading achievement (82). 18

19 Effective Independent Reading Programs 1. Access to a variety of appealing books at various reading levels 2. Guided choice reading 3. Comfortable/conducive environment that welcomes students to engage 4. Encouragement/feedback (e.g., guidance with book selection, monitoring and commenting on student progress, goal setting) 5. Not a graded time in terms of a letter grade or quota of books or pages read 6. Follow-up activities (e.g., discussion with peers and/or the teacher) 7. A consistent time to read 8. Part of the reading block (therefore connected to the direct instruction in the classroom) 19

20 How does R5 fit into today s classrooms? A goal of the MTF (Metacognitive Teaching Framework) is to develop students strategies to the point where they can independently apply them with ease. 20

21 R5: Read, Relax, Reflect, Respond, and Rap 1. Increases students reading proficiency and stamina through engaged reading, leading them up the ladder of text complexity 2. Enhances students metacognitive awareness by scaffolding and promoting the use of comprehension strategies (especially those being taught), building capacity for close reading 3. Supports wide reading by allowing students choice of fiction or informational texts, which helps students analyze similar themes, structures, and vocabulary across texts 4. Engages students in social interaction through discussion, improving oral presentation skills and encouraging active listening 5. Requires students to summarize and reflect on what they have read daily, which helps them determine central themes, assess point of view and purpose, and determine relevance of evidence in texts 6. Builds student motivation to read, which may be the most critical piece of all! 21

22 The Nuts and Bolts of R5: The three rules Rule 1: Students must have self-selected reading materials in their desks prior to the start of the R5 period Rule 2: Students may not get up during Read and Relax Rule 3: Students may not talk unless they re in a teacher conference or it s time for Rap 22

23 RAP! Rap enhances students listening skills and auditory memory because it requires active listening; students cannot participate in the whole-class share unless they know what their partner during pair-share The structure of Rap Parts 1 and 2 necessitates meaningful talk because student thinking is grounded in the text or related thoughts. When students converse, they clarify ideas and articulate their thoughts. Because each partner has time to share, they want to listen to each other and they value each other s thoughts. All students read, and all students share; therefore, they feel like they re part of a group of avid readers. This talk is integral to creating a literate community (Langer & Close, 2001; Marshall, 2002). 23

24 Rap Part 1: Pair-Share 1. Conversation between students last from three to five minutes 2. Strategically pair students to improve quality of discussion and eliminate possible off-task behavior. Do not pair students with their best friend or their worst enemy. 3. Changing partners every few months gives kids the opportunity to hear a new perspective and enlivens conversations. 24

25 Rap Part 2: Whole-class Share 1. In the whole-class share, students explain what their pair-share partner described. This can take anywhere from 5 to 15 minutes. 2. Knowing that they will have to recall what their partner said helps students focus and engage in Rap Part 1 so they can meaningfully contribute in the whole-class share. 25

26 What has R5 meant to our fake readers? 1. Many disengaged readers say that R5 was the key to helping them really enjoy what they read. 2. During R5, students share book titles and describe pieces of their books three times a week, which entices many fake readers. R5 creates a pervasive culture of avid readers. (101) 26

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