1 INTRODUCTION Improving Conceptual Understanding of Physics with Technology Heidi Jackman Research Experience for Undergraduates, 1999 Michigan State University Advisors: Edwin Kashy and Michael Thoennessen A deficiency in conceptual learning in introductory calculus based physics courses is evident. Several changes can be made to the course structure and focus to improve on this. Technology can be a useful tool for doing this, as is demonstrated by CAPA, a computer assignment system used at Michigan State University. A frequently stated primary goal of introductory physics courses is for students to learn and be able to apply the major concepts and principles of physics. Despite this, many factors indicate that this goal is not accomplished in the majority of physics classrooms. Therefore it is important to re-examine the product of physics classes as they are now, the methods by which it is produced, and measures that can be taken to improve the overall quality of physics education. Many of these problems can be solved or improved upon by adding an aspect of technology to enhance the educational process. Technology can improve the quality of education while also making it more efficient. An example of this is a computer assisted personalized approach (CAPA), a computer system developed and used at Michigan State University. CAPA has attributes that may be a step in relieving some of the difficulties in physics education. SIGNS AND CAUSES OF PROBLEMS Several things are occurring within the physics education system that should be taken as warning signs by physics professors. The first would be a loss of students in courses. Of the students that initially enroll in a two semester, calculus based, introductory physics course, the national trend has been that approximately half have dropped the class by the end of the second semester. These students leave the course out of frustration, citing the course to be too hard. Second, the number of physics majors is declining. A very small percentage of the students in these courses actually continue taking physics classes or major in physics. Finally, students do not appear to gain as much out of their courses as is necessary. The students who do complete the course leave without having much ability to reason qualitatively about the processes of physics and do not retain much of what they have learned for any significant period of time. Additionally, a vast difference exists between what professors believe they taught their students and what the students felt they actually learned. These problems that have surfaced in physics education may find their roots in various sources. One is the lecture method used by many professors. This method involves the professor lecturing for a straight hour without any feedback or interaction from the students. This then adds the assumption that the students will accept and be able to understand the material exactly as it is presented. Also, it makes the students be passive learners, who write down what they are told, but do not really think about it. Additionally, the main focus of what is taught tends towards the mathematical side. New principles generally are taught through a mathematical representation instead of a conceptual idea. Most introductory physics students will not be able to make a strong connection between this equation and the physical situation associated with it. The information also is not presented in any sort of coherent structure that will help the students tie all ideas together. Students are rarely given a foundation of basic conceptual physics to build the rest of their knowledge upon. They are given individual details and then left to discover the big picture on their own. Also adding to the problem is the nature of the homework problems that the students are given. The vast majority of homework questions are numerical and can be done with a formula strategy, often referred to as plug and chug. Students scan the problem for the given and unknown variables, find an equation that uses those variables, and then solve for the unknown. This method is successful in that it leads quickly to the correct answer. However, it is simply manipulation of equations and rarely forces the student to actually consider any physics principles. Students who do not pick up on the concepts during class are not likely to pick them up this way either. Another
2 disadvantage to these numerical problems is the ease with which students can copy each other s work. The shortcomings of these homework assignments continue with the way in which they are graded. By the time the students homework assignments are returned, the students will not remember where they had trouble and their basic train of thought throughout the assignment. Therefore, they will not be able to pinpoint exactly where something went wrong, and also are not likely to put much effort into correcting their mistakes, since they cannot regain the points. Conceptual understanding is neglected both in work done inside and outside class. Instead, the focus is on the numerical applications of concepts. However, this easily turns into mathematical manipulation with little attention paid to the fact that there are concepts behind these applications. Therefore, students who enter the class with some misconceptions about the way the physical world works may leave the class with the same misconceptions since students are so rarely force to put their conceptual knowledge to the test. NECESSARY IMPROVEMENTS Robert Milikan once stated that it cannot be too strongly emphasized that it is grasp of principles, not skill in manipulation, which should be the primary objective of General Physics courses. Changes that need to be made in physics education should be done with this goal in mind. Two major changes need to be made in the way class time is spent. First, lectures should be less one sided, allowing interaction both among students and between the professor and the students. If the professor spends time answering the students questions and posing questions to them, it is more likely that the professor will become aware of areas that the students find challenging. Having students work together in class to solve problems with the new material can also be beneficial, for they will realize immediately if they do not understand it. Secondly, the information that is taught needs more structure, starting with the basic foundation and working up to the details. Even the most carefully explained details will be useless to the student who does not see the big picture. Therefore, for each topic that is taught, the conceptual foundation needs to be laid before the students are taught how to deal with it mathematically. Teaching students by giving them an equation does not help much. For example, Newton s second law is commonly taught as force equals mass times acceleration. That just gives the students an equation. Perhaps a better way to explain this law would be something along the lines of the acceleration of an object due to an external force acting on it is proportional to its mass. This description is wordier and may seem more complicated, but it has a better chance of helping the students visualize the physical situation and understand where it comes into play. When students are taught the mathematical representations of a concept, the connection between the formula and idea needs to be stressed. Students also need to see the connections between the topics they are taught. Therefore, the conceptual foundation which students should be given needs to be broad enough to encompass many concepts. A second set of changes needs to occur in the students homework. The plug and chug method is not sufficient in reinforcing concepts covered in class. It only teaches students to manipulate equations, which essentially is math. Therefore, the students need to see situations on their homework where formulas are useless. They will only know if their conceptual knowledge is present and correct if it is tested. Along the lines of homework, professors need to develop methods of grading the students homework problems immediately. Students need to be made aware of mistakes when the assignment is still fresh in their minds. Students usually have some interest in learning the material while working on the assignments. However, they will never learn unless they know what they do not know. These changes in homework may work well but would be difficult for a professor to make on his own. It is here that some form of technology can to be introduced to the system to make the assignments more efficient and beneficial. CAPA: FINDING A SOLUTION WITH TECHNOLOGY A computer assisted personalized approach (CAPA) for assignments is a technological tool used at Michigan State University to accomplish some of the goals mentioned above. CAPA was developed in 1993 by a team of professors as a system for creating individualized assignments. These professors had five principle goals for the program. (1) to provide timely feedback on problem solving
3 (2) to minimize judging and ranking of students during the learning process (3) to reward diligent work and encourage students to work together (4) to reduce the impersonal nature of a large college class (5) produce a system without tedious grading for large classes The assignments created on CAPA can be completed by the students entirely through the computer system. Students can enter their answers to the problems either with a web browser or in a telnet session. As soon as a student enters an answer, the system tells them whether it is right or wrong. Students are given a multiple number of tries to get a problem right, as specified by the professor. Students getting a correct answer on the first try receive no more credit than students getting the correct answer on the last possible try do. CAPA consists of three components for the professor to use, Quizzer, Grader, and Manager. Quizzer is the program in which professors write problems and arrange problem sets. Problems can be written from scratch, in a code that is specially designed, but very logical and user friendly. There are also a number of templates available for various styles of problems, which have the framework for a problem and need only the text of the new problem to be entered. Most of these are in the form of having multiple parts or choices and are tailored towards conceptual questions, which will be discussed later. The problems are saved as text files, and then can be imported into quiz files, which basically are files created as sets of problems. These problem sets can then be printed from Quizzer for each student. Grader serves as an online grade record book for the professor. After the students have completed an assigned problem set, the teacher can create a grade report for the entire class or section. The teacher can also view statistics for individual students through this. Grader does not show what answers have been entered or how many attempts were made; it simply produces a score for each student. It also gives the option of writing questions to be hand graded. The teacher can grade these online and the grade entered is factored automatically in with the computer-graded scores. Grader can also compile records for the number of logins and time spent logged in for a particular student. CAPA s third component, Manager, provides more detailed information about the students work on homework, quizzes, and tests. One aspect is capastat, which gives data and graphs relating to the difficulty of problems, based on how many students got them right and how many attempts were made at them. Summaries of an individual student s work, records of submitted answers, and exam result analysis are also functions of Manager. Individual problems can be analyzed, as well as any correlation between performance on any two problems. The information generated in Manager can tell a professor which topics students understand fairly well and which topics need special attention during class. Figure 1 Two students versions of the same problem A main benefit of CAPA is that it produces individualized assignments. Therefore, it is unlikely for any two students in a large class to receive the identical set of 20 problems. This is attributed to the fact that many aspects of the problems can be made random. All numerical problems can be varied by having any variables be chosen as random numbers. The computer then uses these variables in a function for the solution. Therefore, coding a problem this way takes no more time than coding a problem with fixed constants. Any problem with multiple choices or multiple parts can easily be coded so that the order of the parts is completely random. In fact, most of the templates already have this function built into them. If all of the choices are identical for each student, it is still fairly easy to copy, but it would take slightly more effort. Each statement in a multiple
4 choice or part problem can have variations. The problem can be coded such that the variation used for each student can be random. All variations will deal with the same concept and have the same level of difficulty but will help in making each student s problem slightly different. Another powerful tool for this is the random labeling template, which can make problems almost impossible to copy. Specific locations where the labels on a figure should be are fixed by entering in the coordinates into the template. The labels themselves are randomly placed in these locations and referred to as such in the problem. If labels are A, B, C, D, E, they will be mapped to lb1, lb2, lb3, lb4, and lb5, whose locations are fixed. An example of this is the pulley problem shown in figure 1. The components on the figures for the two students are labeled differently, making the text of the problem appear to be asking entirely different questions. Thus, to be able to copy a neighbor s work, a student must have a fairly complete understanding of the physics it is testing. CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS IN CAPA Numerical problems are fairly simple to write in CAPA. CAPA also lends itself to conceptual problems, especially with the templates. With the templates already coded, the teacher only needs to replace the dummy text with the actual physics content. Conceptual questions written in CAPA tend to have multiple parts or choices, forcing the students to look at a concept from many different angles. With the multiple choice, it is possible for anywhere from zero to all possibilities to be correct, so each choice has to be analyzed separately. Misconceptions are less likely to slip past these styles Problem A Problem B Figure 2 Comparison of conceptual and numerical problems dealing with the same topic of conceptual questions than they are the numerical questions. It is not uncommon for students to come up with the right answer for the wrong reasons, especially when dealing with the typical numerical problem, where only one or two questions involving numbers are asked on the same topic. The student could make enough balanced mistakes to somehow find the right answer, or simply choose the right equations from a list, but not actually know what they did. For a student to arrive at the correct answer for a conceptual CAPA question without any grasp of the concept, he would need incredible luck. It is likely and possible to guess right once, but to do it consistently on the same topic is unlikely. In general, all conceptual problems have advantages over numerical problems. When students encounter numerical problems, they manipulate equations to isolate the unknown but don t look at the concepts. If they are given a problem without numbers, there are no equations for them to manipulate. Therefore they must look at the big picture and see how the whole system works. Then they are forced to interact with the material, which they will remember and therefore will retain some physics knowledge from it. Figure 2 shows two problems written in CAPA that deal with the same basic idea: if one component of a circuit is changed, how will this affect the current through another component? In the numerical question, B, the student only needs to find equations relating to electrical circuits and plug the given numbers into them. However, A, the conceptual question, requires the student to think about how each change will affect the current of the whole circuit and then how this current is distributed through the circuit s newly arranged components. A requires the student to see the big picture of how circuits work, while B allows the student to isolate only the relevant details.
5 To help students break away from the mold of seeing each physics topic as a completely isolated entity, conceptual questions should be written that deal with two or more of the major areas of physics. This type of question can be done in CAPA as easily as a problem covering only one concept. Figure 3 is an example of one such question. By charging an oscillating pendulum and placing it in an electric field, this problem forces the student to consider how mechanical and electrical forces relate and contribute to the behavior of the pendulum. Problems such as this one will help students to have a broader understanding of how all parts of the physical world work together. A new idea for CAPA has been to add a conceptual aspect to numerical problems. This idea grew out of the concern of one professor that his students do not have a good idea of what they have done when they arrive at the correct answer. This can be done in two templates. One would be the concept list and the other would be a question asking which concepts from the list were used to solve the problem. Both of these files can be edited to fit the specific assignment and question. For any straight numerical Figure 3 Conceptual question covering more than one area of physics problems, the student could then be asked as a separate problem which concepts needed to be used. Whether this question would be weighted similarly to the numerical problem or used as a source of extra credit has not yet been determined. This could help solve the problem of students reaching the correct answer with no idea of what they did. If nothing else, it should make them realize that there is a connection between the equations they are so accustomed to using and the concepts they hear about in class. This has not yet been used in any assignments and isn t formally created yet, but an example of how this might work is shown in figure 4. Figure 4 Tool to combine numerical and conceptual questions OBSERVATIONS OF CAPA In 1996, an asynchronous learning network (ALN) was introduced in a calculus based engineering physics class. CAPA was one of the two tools in this network, which allowed students to work on and study concepts at any time. The second tool was a bulletin board and conference system where students could post and answer questions. The goal of this network was to overcome some of the problems in physics education mentioned above. After two years, the results indicated that this network had been successful. The distribution of grades shifted from being a typical bell curve to having a higher concentration of grades in the 2.5 and above range. In addition, daily attendance improved and the dropout rate decreased. These improvements are attributed to the fact that students spent more time working, received instant feedback on their assignments, and were given the chance to correct their mistakes; all of these changes were made possible by the use of technology in the classroom.
6 For the first two weeks of my summer research experience, I worked with a program for gifted junior high school students called Dimensions. The course covered a wide area of physics, taught mainly with demonstrations and basic concepts, but very little math. I took ideas from worksheets used in previous years and wrote CAPA questions using the same concepts. Once the students realized this was not a test, but an in-class interactive activity, they responded fairly positively to it. In the computer lab, there was a great deal of discussion and collaboration, as well as students asking for hints and clarification. However, I rarely heard a student ask directly for an answer. They realized fairly quickly that they could not simply copy each other s answers. More frequently, they would try to remember the physical concepts taught in class and work through the problem applying what they knew. The next six weeks were devoted to writing conceptual problems for college students in introductory physics classes. A set of twenty of these questions was given to the other students participating in the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program at Michigan State. This set consisted of fourteen conceptual and six numerical questions. I had two main purposes in doing this. The first was to see the students reactions to the problems and observe them to an extent as they worked. Secondly, I wanted to compare performances on the conceptual and numerical questions using statistics generated with Manager. As my fellow REU students worked on these problems, CAPA problems soon became a common topic at lunch and dinner, as well as in the offices. CAPA seems to inspire collaboration and discussion among students. However, due to the randomizing nature of CAPA, this collaboration cannot really turn into copying. As one student pointed out, the physics of the whole problem must be worked out and understood before one student can use the answers of another, and even then they can only be used as a guide. Another student mentioned that the conceptual questions forced them to sit down and actually figure out the physics. The fact that the conceptual problems will condition students better than the plug and chug questions was also noted. The statistics produced in Manager indicated that the conceptual problems gave the students more of a challenge. Two of the statistics produced by Manager are the degree of difficulty of each problem and the average number of tries on each problem. Graphs of these are shown in Figure 5. The blue bars correspond to the conceptual problems. One specific comparison can be made with the problems in figure 2. The degree of difficulty of question A was 1.8, while question B had a degree of difficulty of 7.1. While these statistics do agree with the idea that conceptual questions are more challenging, and therefore test physics better, several things must be taken into consideration when looking at them. First, only 14 students participated in this quiz, too small of a sample to draw any strong conclusions from. Secondly, these problems are intended for students in calculus based introductory physics courses, while the REU students are all rising junior and senior physics majors. However, the data is still valid and is typical of performance on conceptual versus numerical questions. Difficulty Average tries Degree of Difficulty Problem Number Average Tries Problem Number Conceptual Questions Numerical Questions Conceptual Problems Numerical Problems Figure 5 Statistics from Manager on the REU CAPA quiz
7 CONCLUSIONS Calculus based introductory physics classes are in need of help and improvement. While quantitative skills are a significant part of learning physics, conceptual understanding should be the foundation that these courses lay down. Only when students have a full understanding of concepts will they be able to confidently use the mathematical representations. Teaching qualitative understanding is a difficult task, especially in large lecture courses. It is evident that technology similar to CAPA is a beneficial tool in guiding the students to improve their qualitative understanding of the basic concepts in physics. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The National Science Foundation and Michigan State University supported my participation in this project. I would like to thank Dr. Kashy and Dr. Thoennessen for guiding me in this project. Guy Albertelli, Felicia Berryman, and the other workers in the CAPA office were very helpful in teaching me how to use CAPA. Dan Magestro also earns thanks for the hours he spent helping me write and proofread the problems for the REU student quiz. Finally, I thank my fellow REU students very much for taking time out of their busy schedules in the last week of the program to do introductory physics problems. REFERENCES Kashy, E., et al., CAPA, an integrated computer assisted personalized assignment system, Am. J. Phys., 61 (12), (1993). Kashy, E., et al., Conceptual questions in computer assisted assignments, Am. J. Phys., 63 (11), (1995). Kashy, E., M. Thoennessen, Y. Tsai, N.E. Davis, S.L. Wolfe, Using Networked Tools to Promote Student Success in Large Classes, Journal of Engineering Education, 87 (3), (1998). Laws, Priscilla W., Calculus Based Physics without Lectures, Physics Today, 44 (12), (1991). Leonard, W.J., R.J. Durfresne, and J.P. Mestre, Using qualitative problem-solving strategies to highlight the role of conceptual knowledge in solving problems, Am. J. Phys., 64 (12), (1996). Pride, T. O., S. Vokos, and L.C. McDermott, The challenge of matching learning assessments to teaching goals: An example from the work-energy and impulse-momentum theorems, Am. J. Phys., 66 (2), (1998). Redish, Edward F, Milikan Lecture 1998: Building a Science of Teaching Physics, American Journal of Physics, 67 (7), (1999). Van Heuvelen, A., Learning to think like a physicist, Am. J. Phys., 59 (10), (1991). Van Heuvelen, A., Overview, case study physics, Am. J. Phys., 59 (10), (1991).
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Principal vacancies and appointments 2009 10 Sally Robertson New Zealand Council for Educational Research NEW ZEALAND COUNCIL FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH TE RŪNANGA O AOTEAROA MŌ TE RANGAHAU I TE MĀTAURANGA
Group Assignment: Software Evaluation Model Team BinJack Adam Binet Aaron Jackson Education 531 Assessment of Software and Information Technology Applications Submitted to: David Lloyd Cape Breton University
community rhythms Community Rhythms Purpose/Overview To understand the stages of community life and the strategic implications for moving communities forward. NOTES 5.2 #librariestransform Community Rhythms
Wisconsin 4 th Grade Reading Results on the 2015 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Main takeaways from the 2015 NAEP 4 th grade reading exam: Wisconsin scores have been statistically flat
WORK OF LEADERS GROUP REPORT ASSESSMENT TO ACTION. Sample Report (9 People) Thursday, February 0, 016 This report is provided by: Your Company 13 Main Street Smithtown, MN 531 www.yourcompany.com INTRODUCTION
Putting It All Together: Middle School Examples 7 th Grade Math 7 th Grade Science SAM REHEARD, DC 99 7th Grade Math DIFFERENTATION AROUND THE WORLD My first teaching experience was actually not as a Teach
DEVELOPING A PROTOTYPE OF SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL FOR VOCABULARY FOR THE THIRD GRADERS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Dian Lailaningrum and Sri Rachmajanti State University of Malang Email: firstname.lastname@example.org