1 Poverty, Conservation and Biodiversity Godber Tumushabe Executive Director/Policy Analyst Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment STEPS TO EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY UPCLG Advocacy Capacity Building and Media Clinic Silver Springs Hotel, Kampala February 20-22, 2013
2 The Concept of Policy Advocacy Advocacy is both a science and an art; As a science, successful advocacy campaigns require systematic planning; Planning for advocacy involve, inter alia: framing issues, setting advocacy goals and measurable objectives, developing compelling messages, etc
3 The Concept of Advocacy As an art, successful advocates: are able to articulate issues in ways that inspire others and motivate them to take action; Have a keen sense of timing & are able to recognize and act as opportunities present themselves; Are skilled negotiators & consensus builders who look for opportunities to win modest but strategic policy gains while creating still other opportunities for larger victories; Artful advocates incorporate creativity, style, and even humor in their advocacy events in order to draw public and media attention to their cause
4 Basic Steps in the Advocacy Process Identify the problem and set the advocacy goal and objectives Getting the facts building support through coalitions and networks. Developing and advocacy strategy. Communicating your message Measuring success
5 Step 1: Identify the Problem & set the Goal and Objectives The problem What is the problem? Who is affected or is being hurt? How widespread is the problem? Who is benefiting from the status quo? What can be done about the problem? Why does it matter that the problem be addressed?
6 Step 1: Identify the Problem & set the Goal and Objectives Exercise 1: Identify the problem 5 discussion groups of five persons each answer the above questions. One problem will be selected to be used during the entire training.
7 Step 1: Identify the Problem, Goal & set Objectives The advocacy goal: A goal is a general statement of what an advocacy campaign hopes to achieve in the long-term; On the other hand, the advocacy objective describes short-term, specific, measurable achievements that contribute to the advocacy goal;
8 Step 1: Identify the Problem & set the Goal and Objectives The advocacy objective What do you want to change? Who will make the change; by how much and by when? Is the objective achievable? Is the objective easy to understand? Does the objective have a clear time frame that is realistic?
9 Criteria for setting an advocacy objective Advocacy objective is the short-term target (1-3 years) and action steps to solve the identified policy problem. An advocacy objective aims to change the policies, programs or positions of governments, institutions or organizations. Incremental activities will assist in reaching ones advocacy objective. The advocacy objective must focus on a specific action that a decision maker can take.
10 Step 1: Identify the Problem & set the Goal and Objectives Exercise 2: Identify the advocacy objective Discussion groups to take the identified problem and develop an advocacy objective by answering the following: What do you want to change? Who will make the change By how much and by when
11 Step 2: Getting the Facts Fact-finding is a process of using research, interviews, questionnaires, sampling, and other techniques to collect information. Collect information and data about the problem. Use relevant facts to describe the issues to policy and decision makers. Data can be used to set advocacy objectives, set advocacy targets, directly influence policy makers, and inform the media and the public about the importance of your advocacy agenda.
12 Step 2: Getting the Facts Data can also be used to: Support an existing advocacy position Counter oppositional positions and arguments Alter the perceptions about an issue or problem Challenge deep-seated myth and assumptions Confirm policy actions and interventions that work Reconsider strategies that work based on evidence.
13 Step 2: Getting the Facts Qualitative Data Seeks to answer the reasons why Uses small, purposive samples Encourages in-depth probing Enables the researcher to study selected issues, cases, or events in depth and to gather information through direct quotation, interaction, and observation Records participants emotions, language, feelings, perceptions, attitudes, and what motivates them Focuses on process
14 Step 2: Getting the Facts Qualitative Data Examples: Ethnography Focus group Observational studies Key informant interviews Intercept interviews
15 Step 2: Getting the Facts Quantitative Data Seeks to establish how many and the relationship between variables Uses large, random samples Allows for broad generalizations of findings to larger populations Documents how norms, skills beliefs, and attitudes are linked to particular behaviors Facilitates the use of statistics for aggregating, summarizing, describing, and comparing data Focuses on process
16 Step 2: Getting the Facts Quantitative Data Examples: Sample surveys Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Beliefs (KABB) surveys Baseline studies Demographic health surveys Census
17 Exercise 3: Seek It Out In groups of 5 identify a problem and objective. Based on your problem and objective, where would you access the data to find the facts?
18 Step 3 Identify Your Target Audience
19 Step 3: Identify you target audience The primary target audience includes the decision makers who have the authority to bring about the desired policy change; The secondary target audience includes persons who have access to and are able to influence the primary audience; Advocacy organizations must identify individuals in the target audience, their positions and relative power base and determine whether they support/oppose or are neutral to the issue
20 Step 4 Building SUPPORT through Coalition
21 Build Support for the Advocacy Campaign Build a constituency for the advocacy campaign; The support could include other NGOs, donors, civic groups, professional organizations, etc; Talk to the various actors, organize meetings such as seminars, advocacy platforms and bilateral discussions.
22 What Makes Up A Coalition? Groups of organizations and individuals working together to achieve changes Members have at least one thing in common Members work towards a common goal Everyone belongs to one or more: Personal or professional Formal or informal Temporary or ongoing
23 Coalition Advantages... Enlarge your base of support Protect members who may not be able to take action alone Pool existing resources Increase financial and programmatic resources Enhance the credibility and influence of advocacy efforts Help develop new leadership Assist in individual and organizational networking
24 Coalition Challenges... Can take too much time away from regular tasks May require you to compromise your position on issues or tactics Power is not always distributed equally among coalition members Individuals may not always get credit for their work If the coalition process breaks down it can harm everyone s advocacy by damaging members credibility
25 Forming the Coalition How do you define the coalition? What is the objective of the coalition? Which organizations or individuals share the identified objective? How many organizations would you invite to help form the coalition? What type of commitment are they willing to make?
26 Coalition Structure How will decisions be made? How will all members stay informed? How will consensus be reached? How will you maintain a balance of power? How will conflicts be managed/resolved? How will members develop a plan of action? How will activities be coordinated? How will tasks be assigned? How will network activities be documented?
27 Assessing Membership Skills Facilitation Skills Word Processing Database Policy Analysis Fundraising Management Media Training Financial Management Public Speaking Graphic Design Legal/Regulatory Issues Grassroots Organizing Languages Spoken
28 Organizations Assets Member/Organization Resources E mail Computer Fax Copier Printer Scanner Office Space Meeting Room Internet Web Page Vehicle Membership List
29 Exercise 4: Mapping your SUPPORT In small group discussions, map out the key actors that you would like to participate in your campaign and the strength each one of them brings into the coalition.
30 Step 5 Making a PLAN
31 Making a PLAN What is the issue/problem? What is your objective to address the problem? What are the facts about the problem? What resources are needed? Who are the decision-makers? What are the places where decisions are made? What are the action steps?
32 Step 6 Communicating your MESSAGE
33 Communicating your MESSAGE What are the elements of an effective message? How do you create an effective message? How do you deliver an effective message?
34 Elements of Message Content/ideas: central idea of the message. What is the main point you want to communicate to your audience? Language: the words you choose for communicating your message. Is the language appropriate for your target audience? Messenger/source: person or people delivering the message. Is the messenger credible to your target audience? Format/medium: the communication channel you choose for delivering the message. What is the most compelling format to reach your target audience?
35 Characteristics of Effective Messages Simple Concise Persuasive Tone and language consistent with the message and appropriate to the audience Accurate and relevant fact Important problem/issue Simple and compelling story based on common values
36 Non-Persuasive vs. Persuasive Communication Non-Persuasive Non-utilization of family planning among males is 49% Of men who are not using family planning and do not intend to use it: 26% report they want planning more children 10% report they lack knowledge 10% report disapproving of family planning Persuasive Almost half of all men do not currently use family planning Almost half of those men who are not using family because they want more children, don t know about family planning, or don t approve of family planning
37 Delivering your MESSAGE Look for common ground Win them over, don t place blame Link objective to social and economic costs Deliver a consistent message Deliver through a variety of channels over an extended period of time Deliver through a credible source
38 Select Channels of Communication Selection of the most appropriate medium for advocacy messages depends on the target audience. The choice of medium varies for reaching the general public, influencing decision makers, educating the media, generating support for the issue among like-minded organizations/networks, etc.
39 Step 6: MEASURING Success
40 Defining Success Data Collection Data collection is an ongoing activity for the duration of the advocacy campaign Monitoring The process of routinely gathering information on all aspects of an advocacy campaign and using the information in network management and decision making Evaluation Evaluation can be thought of as an assessment at a critical period or a process for looking at impacts or achievements
41 Data Collection How did using data and research enhance your effort? Were data presented clearly and persuasively? How could your presentation be improved? Did your advocacy effort raise new research questions? Are more data needed to support your advocacy objective? If so, are the data available elsewhere or do you need to conduct the research?
42 Monitoring Progress How was your coalition successful in gaining attention to the issue and building support for the advocacy objective? Was information distributed to coalition members in a timely fashion? How could information dissemination be improved? Are there any unresolved conflicts in the coalition? How can these be addressed and resolved? Is there a high level of cooperation and information exchange among coalition members?
43 Evaluation Accomplishment Questions: What key audiences did your message reach? Which messages worked and why? Which delivery formats worked well? Who provided media/press coverage? Improvement Questions: Other audiences targeted to receive the message Did you alter ineffective messages? How? Are there other delivery formats that could be used? Was the media helpful? Could relations be improved?
44 Sustaining the Coalition How could internal coalition relations be enhanced? Did the coalition gain or lose any members? How can you enlist new members and/or prevent members from leaving? Does the coalition provide opportunities for leadership development among members? How was your network helpful to your advocacy? How can you expand your network?
DIFFERENT APPROACHES FOR ADVOCACY GROUPS BEFORE you think about which advocacy approach(es) to use, you should: Have a clear Mission statement. Determine your goals/objectives to accomplish your mission.
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