Mandarin Lexical Tone Recognition: The Gating Paradigm

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Mandarin Lexical Tone Recognition: The Gating Paradigm"

Transcription

1 Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 0 (008), p. 8 Abstract Mandarin Lexical Tone Recognition: The Gating Paradigm Yuwen Lai and Jie Zhang University of Kansas Research on spoken word recognition in Indo-European languages often does not incorporate prosody. In Mandarin Chinese, however, lexical prosody is used extensively and has been shown to affect word processing in previous studies. The present study uses the gating paradigm to investigate the processing of the four Mandarin tones as well as the role of the initial segment in processing. Duration-blocked gates generated from eight monosyllabic quadruplets with matching frequencies of occurrence were used as stimuli. To evaluate the effect of the initial segment, the initial consonant of each syllable always formed the first gate, with later gates formed by 0ms increments. Results showed that Tone has a significantly earlier Isolation Point (IP) than Tone, which has an earlier IP than Tones and. Sonorant-initial syllables have an earlier IP than obstruent-initial syllables, but further analyses of covariance indicated that IP covariates with the duration of the initial consonant. The tone responses proposed by the participants before reaching the IP were cross-examined with the acoustic features of the four tones. The results indicated that high register cues are more prominent than low register cues, as high tones were never misidentified as low tones. Moreover, contour information outweighs low register cues, as low-onset tones were sometimes misidentified as high-onset tones with which they share similar contours. These results provide more detailed temporal information about tone processing for Mandarin.. Introduction As a phonemic feature, tone plays an important role in lexical processing in Mandarin. When listeners hear a word, they need to process both the segmental composition and tone in order to perceive the word correctly. Tones therefore play an important role in isolating the target token from possible segmental homophones. Previous research has shown that the most important acoustic cues for Mandarin tones are F0 height, F0 shape, and F0 differences between the onset and turning point of the tone (especially for Tone and Tone ). Duration cues such as the overall tone duration as well as the timing of the turning point have also been shown to affect the perception of tones. Given the acoustic differences between the four Mandarin tones, it is necessary to determine how much and what kind of acoustic information is required for listeners to perceive the tones correctly... The gating paradigm In gating experiments, participants are presented with a spoken language stimulus (phone, syllable, word, phrase, or sentence, etc.) in segments of increasing duration, and are then asked to propose the word presented and give a confidence rating (Grosjean, 996). The increment size is consistent across the stimuli (usually between 0-00ms, or a fixed percentage of an individual word). Three sets of data are usually collected in this type of study. ) Isolation point (IP) the size of the segment needed to correctly identify the stimulus without further changes. )

2 Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 0 (008), p. 8 Confidence rating the rating at each segment. ) Proposed responses subjects responses at each gate before the isolation point. This paradigm allows for precise controls of the acousticphonetic information of the stimuli presented to the subjects. As a result, it can examine the moment-to-moment recognition process and evaluate the amount of acoustic-phonetic information required to identify the stimulus... Acoustic correlates of Mandarin tones The F0 contours of the four Mandarin tones produced in isolation are provided in Figure. Tones are transcribed as moving within a pitch range from low, numerically denoted as, to high, denoted as 5. Tone is transcribed as 55 (high-level), Tone as (low-rising), Tone as (low-dipping) and Tone as 5 (high-falling). Research by Gandour (98) has shown that five aspects are relevant for tone perception: ) average F0/F0 height; ) F0 contour; ) F0 slope; ) extreme endpoints; and 5) tone duration. Previous research has shown that the primary acoustic parameters of Mandarin tones are F0 height and contour shape (Howie, 976). Duration also differs among the four tones: Tone and Tone are the longest, while Tone is the shortest (Nordenhake and Svantesson, 98). Moore and Jongman (997) have also shown that Tone has an earlier turning point and a smaller F0 change between the onset and turning point than Tone Tone Tone Tone Tone 60 F0 (Hz) Time Figure. Four Mandarin lexical tones on the syllable ma produced by a male native speaker... Previous gating studies on Mandarin tones Lee (000) used the gating paradigm to explore the lexical competition between different types of syllables by comparing: ) syllables with tonal minimal pairs to those without; ) syllables with different numbers of tonal minimal pairs; ) syllables with similar tones (i.e, Tones and ) to those with dissimilar tones (i.e, Tones and ); and ) syllables with sonorant

3 Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 0 (008), p. 85 onsets to those with obstruent onsets. Three sets of data were collected: the tone isolation point the point at which the target tone was correctly identified without further changes; the word isolation point the point at which the target syllable was correctly identified without further changes; and the word recognition point the point at which the target syllable was correctly identified and the confidence rating reached at least 8 on a 0-point scale. Twenty native speakers participated in the experiments. They were asked to propose (in writing) what word, based on the segment presented to them, they thought they had heard, and give a confidence rating for their answer. Lee (000) s results indicated that tone isolation, word isolation and word recognition points were all earlier for words without tonal minimal pairs. However, no differences were found across stimuli with one, two, and three tonal minimal pairs. In terms of tone similarity, the tone isolation point was consistently earlier for words without tonally similar minimal pairs, but no differences were found in word isolation point or word recognition point. The accuracy rate for tone identification in the initial gate formed by the onset consonant was higher for sonorant onset than obstruent onset. Wu and Shu (00) also adopted the gating paradigm in their work on Mandarin tone processing. 0 Mandarin monosyllables were tested on 7 subjects. The gates were constructed with 0ms increments and were presented in a duration-blocked format. The subjects had to write down the character and give a confidence rating for the judgment on a piece of paper. They analyzed the isolation point (IP) of all stimuli, the IP of each tone, and the errors generated by onset, rime and tone. Their results showed that the IP is the longest for Tone ; no difference was found between Tones,, or. They also analyzed errors and distinguished errors as coming from either the onset, rime, or tone. It was shown that after the fifth gate (00ms), participants could correctly identify the entire target syllable. They also showed that Tone and Tone were most likely to be mistaken for each other. However, Tone and Tone, which have been shown to be similar to each other acoustically (Moore and Jongman, 997), were not easily mistaken for each other. There are two methodological problems in Wu and Shu (00) s study. First, they did not control for the frequencies of occurrence of the target syllables across different tones in their stimuli. Second, they did not use tone quadruplets to control the segmental composition of the stimuli. Therefore, their result on the processing of different tones might have been confounded with the frequency effects as well as effects from the segmental composition of the stimuli... The current study The present study proposes a revised methodology that provides a better control of frequency of occurrence and segmental composition. Our goal is to investigate the amount of tonal information needed to correctly identify the target tone. This includes the tone duration required from the onset of the token as well as the acoustic cues the listeners adopt during processing. In the meantime, it will also allow us to systematically investigate the effect of sonorancy of the initial consonant on tonal identification. Figure simulates the hypothesized process of Mandarin tone identification. As shown in the figure, we hypothesize that the four tones will first be distinguished as two groups based on onset tone height. Between the two tones that start with a high register, Tone can be identified earlier than Tone, as contour shapes require longer duration to be perceived (Black, 970;

4 Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 0 (008), p. 86 Greenberg and Zee, 979). For tones that start with a low register, Tone, which has an earlier turning point and a smaller F0 change between the tone onset and the turning point, is predicted to require a shorter duration to identify than Tone. Figure. Hypothesized process for Mandarin tone recognition. In addition, we hypothesize that a sonorant initial can provide acoustic information and subsequently trigger an earlier isolation point as compared to an obstruent initial.. Methodology.. Stimuli The stimuli consist of 8 tone quadruplets, each containing the same segmental composition but different tones. The stimulus list is given in Figure. Four quadruplets have a CV structure, while the other four have a CVN structure. The frequencies of occurrence were matched across the four different tones using Da (007) s corpus. The design includes two within-subject factors: Tone (,, and ) and Initial consonant (sonorant and obstruent). Figure. Stimuli- two initial consonant types (sonorant and obstruent). Construction of the stimuli for Mandarin tone gating is not an easy task. Ideally the frequencies of occurrence for the syllables used in each quadruplet need to be matched. In addition, each syllable in Chinese usually has a number of homophones, each of which has a unique character. For example 郁 [y ]- the first syllable of the first author s given name, has 07 homophones. Consequently, syllable frequency, instead of character frequency was used for frequency control. This is because when the stimuli are presented to the subjects auditorily, it is not apparent which character will be activated. This is based on the assumption that when the subjects listen to the stimuli, all homophones will be activated for that pronunciation.

5 Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 0 (008), p. 87 The stimuli were recorded in an anechoic chamber at the University of Kansas by a male native Mandarin speaker. The recording was then transferred to PRAAT for editing in the Phonetics and Psycholinguistics Laboratory at the University of Kansas. The initial consonant of each syllable always formed the first gate. The following gates were formed in 0ms increments starting from the onset of the rime in each syllable. Figure illustrates the complete gating sequence for the Mandarin word husband [fu ]. gate gate gate gate gate 5 gate 6 gate 7 gate 8 gate 9 gate 0 gate gate Time (s) Figure. The gating sequence, illustrated by the word [fu ] husband. The first gate includes only the onset consonant. Following gates were constructed in 0ms increments. The last gate always contains the entire syllable... Participants Twenty-eight adult native Mandarin speakers from Beijing were tested at Peking University. They were paid for their participation... Experimental procedure The subjects were tested individually in a quiet room using the SuperLab program (Cedrus). The experiment began with an instruction (recorded by the same speaker who recorded the stimuli), which explained to the subjects that their task was to identify the tone for each gated stimulus and provide a confidence rating on a scale of to 7 for their response by pressing the corresponding buttons on a keyboard. The stimuli were presented in a duration-blocked format, in which subjects heard the first gates of all stimuli, then the second gates, etc... Data processing The following data were collected from the subjects responses: ) isolation point (IP) the point at which the target tone was correctly identified without further changes; ) proposed responses before reaching the IP for each tone.

6 Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 0 (008), p. 88. Results.. Isolation Point (IP) The IP results are given in Figure 5. A (Tone) (Initial consonant) analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the IP showed a main effect of Tone [F(, 86)=.0, p<.00]. A posthoc analysis indicated that the IP for Tone was earlier than that for Tone, which in turn was earlier than the IPs for Tone and Tone. There was no difference between the IPs for Tone and Tone. The main effect of Initial consonant is also significant [F(, 86)=07.8, p<.00]; sonorant-initial syllables have an earlier IP than obstruent-initial syllables. The interaction between the two main effects is not significant [F(, 86)=.9, p=.087]. Figure 5. Isolation points across four tones and two types of initial segments. To further examine whether the earlier IP for sonorant-initial syllables was caused by the sonorancy of the initial segment or a shorter gate duration, we measured the duration of the initial consonant (gate ). Results from a (Tone) (Initial consonant) ANOVA showed that the main effect of Tone was not significant [F(, )=., p=.78], but there was a main effect of the Initial consonant [F(, )= 9.5, p<.00]; sonorant-initial syllables had a shorter gate duration than obstruent-initial syllables. The interaction is not significant [F(, )=.8, p=.697]. The gate duration results are given in Figure 6.

7 Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 0 (008), p Initial sonorant obstruent Gate Duration (ms) Tone Figure 6. Gate duration across four tones and two types of initial segments. To evaluate the effect of gate duration on the IP, we further conducted a (Tone) (Initial consonant) analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with gate duration as a covariate. The main effect of Tone was still significant [F(, 86)=99.65, p<.00], and posthoc analyses indicated that Tone had an earlier IP than Tone, which had an earlier IP than Tone and Tone, and there was no difference between Tone and Tone. The main effect of Initial consonant was not significant [F(, 86)=.006, p=.99]. The interaction was also not significant [F(,86)=.9, p=.]. This analysis showed that when the factor of gate duration was excluded, there was no significant difference in IP between sonorant-initial and obstruent-initial syllables. The IP results excluding gate duration are given in Figure 7. Identification Point (ms) Initial sonorant obstruent 0.50 Tone Figure 7. Isolation points across four tones and two types of initial segments (with gate duration excluded).

8 Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 0 (008), p Accuracy rate at gate To further investigate the effect of sonorancy on tonal identification, we calculated the accuracy rates for tonal identification at gate for all stimuli. These accuracy rates are given in Figure 8. Results from a (Tone) (Initial consonant) ANOVA showed that, unsurprisingly, there was a main effect of tone [F(, 888)=.78, p<.00], and posthoc analyses indicated that the accuracy rate was the highest for Tone, followed by Tone and then Tone and Tone. But the main effect of the Initial consonant was also significant [F(, 888)=9.5, p<.00]; the accuracy rate was higher for sonorant-initial syllables than obstruent-initial syllables. Gate Accuracy Rate 0.80 Sonorant 0.60 Accuracy rate Obstruent 0.00 Tone Figure 8. Gate accuracy rate across four tones and two types of initial segments. To further illustrate this point, sample F0 contours of the sonorant-initial syllable meng and the obstruent-initial syllable fang were plotted in Figure 9. We can see that although the IP for meng is earlier than that for fang, this difference is largely due to the difference in the duration of the initial consonant (gate ).

9 Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 0 (008), p. 9 Figure 9. Sample F0 contours for a sonorant-initial syllable meng and an obstruentinitial syllable fang. The dotted line indicates the gate boundary and the solid line shows the IP. Our ANCOVA results for the IP and the ANOVA results for the accuracy rate indicate that although the sonorancy of the initial consonant does not necessarily trigger an earlier IP, it does contribute to tonal identification in boosting the accuracy rate at gate. The fact that it does not trigger an earlier IP indicates that in order for the listener to confidently identify a tone, a certain amount of duration from the vowel is necessary, as it provides clearer acoustic cues for F0... Analysis of tonal confusion before IP We further examined the responses listeners provided before the IP to investigate the possible cues that the listeners used in making their judgments. Figure 0 shows the histograms of tone responses at gates -9 for Tone and Tone. The y-axis represents the number of times a particular tone was given as the response. For later gates of the stimuli, subjects correctly identified the target tone with a close-to-00% accuracy rate. We thus do not report these later gates in the histograms. For Tone tokens (Figure 0a), subjects start reaching a high accuracy rate from gate. Errors made before gate are mostly misidentifications as Tone. This may be due to the similarity between the initial contours of Tone and Tone in both the register and the tone shape. Correspondingly, Tone (Figure 0b), before reaching a high accuracy rate at gate 5, was often misidentified as Tone. The reason that it takes longer for Tone to be correctly identified than Tone may be that at earlier gates, the tone duration is not long enough for the subjects to perceive the falling contour, thus causing a level tone perception.

10 Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 0 (008), p. 9 (a) Gates for Tone Frequency (b) Identification Gates for Tone Frequency Identification Figure 0. Histograms of tone responses at gates -9 for Tone (a) and Tone (b). The histograms for Tone and Tone responses for gates -9 are given in Figure. Similar to the results found in Wu and Shu (00), there was a high percentage of Tone responses at earlier gates for Tone and Tone. We propose that this is again due to the short duration of the presented segment, which does not warrant a contour tone perception. Tone, being the only level tone in the language, then becomes the most common response at earlier gates for all four target tones. Interestingly, instead of being confused with Tone, Tone tokens at earlier gates received significant Tone responses. Closer examination of Tone and Tone showed that at early gates, these two tones, although different in register, share very similar tonal contours (cf. Fig. ). The first gate of Tone was also often misidentified as Tone, presumably due to the short duration. Starting from gate, subjects had significantly more Tone responses. Interestingly, in gates -7, Tone tokens were sometimes misidentified as Tone. We surmise that since Tone is the only tone in the low register region, listeners may have taken advantage of the low register and identified them as Tone at the very beginning; but when enough duration was heard, which warranted a falling tone perception, a Tone perception was triggered.

11 Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 0 (008), p. 9 (a) Gates for Tone Frequency Identification (b) Gates for Tone Frequency Identification Figure. Histograms of tone responses at gates -9 for Tone (a) and Tone (b). The confusion analysis suggests that among the acoustic cues for Mandarin tones, listeners are the most sensitive to a high registered pitch at the beginning of a tonal stimulus, as evidenced by the earlier IPs for Tone and Tone, which start with a high pitch. The contour perception requires a significant duration of the vowel that carries the contour, as shown by the common misidentification of Tone as Tone at early gates. An acoustic low pitch seems to carry a less significant perceptual weight than an acoustic high pitch at tonal onset, as evidenced by the common misidentification of Tone (low pitch onset) as Tone (high pitch onset) at early gates; the low pitch also carries a less significant perceptual weight than a contour pitch at tonal onset, as the speakers sometimes identified the low falling pitch at the beginning of Tone as the high falling pitch of Tone. Our tonal confusion data are inconsistent with the general understanding that among Mandarin tones, Tone is more likely confused with Tone, and Tone is more likely confused with Tone. This may be due to the fact that the cues listeners focus on during the initial unfolding of the tone are different from the ones they use once the entire tone has been presented.

12 Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 0 (008), p. 9. Discussion and conclusion The current study establishes that a timing difference exists in the processing of different Mandarin tones. The isolation point is the earliest for Tone, followed by Tone, which is then followed by Tone and Tone. The IP for sonorant-initial syllables is earlier than that for obstruent-initial syllables, but this difference is likely due to the shorter duration of initial sonorants than initial obstruents, not their difference in sonorancy per se. Despite its lack of temporal effects, the sonorancy of the initial consonant does contribute to the identification of tone, in that it boosts the accuracy rate of identification at gate, which is solely composed of the initial consonant. Based on the confusion analysis before the isolation point, a hierarchy of cues at the onset of tonal identification was also found: high > contour > low. High-onset tones, regardless of contours, were not misidentified as low-onset tones; but low-onset tones were sometimes misidentified as high-onset tones due to their contour shapes. In sum, our study provides more detailed temporal information about tone processing for Mandarin. With a better understanding of the timing of identification and acoustic cues that listeners rely on at the onset of identification, it will assist in the further refinement of temporal precision in future processing studies of Mandarin tones. References Black, J. W (970). The magnitude of pitch inflection. Proceedings of the 6 th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Prague: Da, J. (007). Chinese text computing corpus. Gandour, J. (98). Tone perception in Far Eastern languages. Journal of Phonetics, : Greenberg, S. and E. Zee (979). On the perception of contour tones. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 5: Grosjean, F. (980). Spoken word recognition processes and the gating paradigm. Perception and Psychophysics, 8 (): Howie, J. M. (976). Acoustical studies of Mandarin vowels and tones. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lee, C-Y. (000). Lexical tone in spoken word recognition: a view from Mandarin Chinese. Doctorate Dissertation, Brown University. Moore, C. B., and Jongman, A. (997). Speaker normalization in the perception of Mandarin Chinese tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 0: Nordenhake, M. and J. O. Svantesson. (98). Duration of standard Chinese word tones in different sentence environments. Lund University Working papers in Linguistics 5: 05-. Wu, N. and Shu, H. (00). The gating paradigm and spoken word recognition of Chinese. Acta Psychologica, 5 (5): Author contact information: Yuwen Lai: Jie Zhang:

Phonological and Phonetic Representations: The Case of Neutralization

Phonological and Phonetic Representations: The Case of Neutralization Phonological and Phonetic Representations: The Case of Neutralization Allard Jongman University of Kansas 1. Introduction The present paper focuses on the phenomenon of phonological neutralization to consider

More information

The Perception of Nasalized Vowels in American English: An Investigation of On-line Use of Vowel Nasalization in Lexical Access

The Perception of Nasalized Vowels in American English: An Investigation of On-line Use of Vowel Nasalization in Lexical Access The Perception of Nasalized Vowels in American English: An Investigation of On-line Use of Vowel Nasalization in Lexical Access Joyce McDonough 1, Heike Lenhert-LeHouiller 1, Neil Bardhan 2 1 Linguistics

More information

Journal of Phonetics

Journal of Phonetics Journal of Phonetics 41 (2013) 297 306 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Journal of Phonetics journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/phonetics The role of intonation in language and

More information

Rhythm-typology revisited.

Rhythm-typology revisited. DFG Project BA 737/1: "Cross-language and individual differences in the production and perception of syllabic prominence. Rhythm-typology revisited." Rhythm-typology revisited. B. Andreeva & W. Barry Jacques

More information

Intra-talker Variation: Audience Design Factors Affecting Lexical Selections

Intra-talker Variation: Audience Design Factors Affecting Lexical Selections Tyler Perrachione LING 451-0 Proseminar in Sound Structure Prof. A. Bradlow 17 March 2006 Intra-talker Variation: Audience Design Factors Affecting Lexical Selections Abstract Although the acoustic and

More information

1. REFLEXES: Ask questions about coughing, swallowing, of water as fast as possible (note! Not suitable for all

1. REFLEXES: Ask questions about coughing, swallowing, of water as fast as possible (note! Not suitable for all Human Communication Science Chandler House, 2 Wakefield Street London WC1N 1PF http://www.hcs.ucl.ac.uk/ ACOUSTICS OF SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY IN DYSARTHRIA EUROPEAN MASTER S S IN CLINICAL LINGUISTICS UNIVERSITY

More information

Voice conversion through vector quantization

Voice conversion through vector quantization J. Acoust. Soc. Jpn.(E)11, 2 (1990) Voice conversion through vector quantization Masanobu Abe, Satoshi Nakamura, Kiyohiro Shikano, and Hisao Kuwabara A TR Interpreting Telephony Research Laboratories,

More information

Revisiting the role of prosody in early language acquisition. Megha Sundara UCLA Phonetics Lab

Revisiting the role of prosody in early language acquisition. Megha Sundara UCLA Phonetics Lab Revisiting the role of prosody in early language acquisition Megha Sundara UCLA Phonetics Lab Outline Part I: Intonation has a role in language discrimination Part II: Do English-learning infants have

More information

Pobrane z czasopisma New Horizons in English Studies Data: 18/11/ :52:20. New Horizons in English Studies 1/2016

Pobrane z czasopisma New Horizons in English Studies  Data: 18/11/ :52:20. New Horizons in English Studies 1/2016 LANGUAGE Maria Curie-Skłodowska University () in Lublin k.laidler.umcs@gmail.com Online Adaptation of Word-initial Ukrainian CC Consonant Clusters by Native Speakers of English Abstract. The phenomenon

More information

Unvoiced Landmark Detection for Segment-based Mandarin Continuous Speech Recognition

Unvoiced Landmark Detection for Segment-based Mandarin Continuous Speech Recognition Unvoiced Landmark Detection for Segment-based Mandarin Continuous Speech Recognition Hua Zhang, Yun Tang, Wenju Liu and Bo Xu National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition Institute of Automation, Chinese

More information

Quarterly Progress and Status Report. Voiced-voiceless distinction in alaryngeal speech - acoustic and articula

Quarterly Progress and Status Report. Voiced-voiceless distinction in alaryngeal speech - acoustic and articula Dept. for Speech, Music and Hearing Quarterly Progress and Status Report Voiced-voiceless distinction in alaryngeal speech - acoustic and articula Nord, L. and Hammarberg, B. and Lundström, E. journal:

More information

Learners Use Word-Level Statistics in Phonetic Category Acquisition

Learners Use Word-Level Statistics in Phonetic Category Acquisition Learners Use Word-Level Statistics in Phonetic Category Acquisition Naomi Feldman, Emily Myers, Katherine White, Thomas Griffiths, and James Morgan 1. Introduction * One of the first challenges that language

More information

Acoustic correlates of stress and their use in diagnosing syllable fusion in Tongan. James White & Marc Garellek UCLA

Acoustic correlates of stress and their use in diagnosing syllable fusion in Tongan. James White & Marc Garellek UCLA Acoustic correlates of stress and their use in diagnosing syllable fusion in Tongan James White & Marc Garellek UCLA 1 Introduction Goals: To determine the acoustic correlates of primary and secondary

More information

Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics

Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics Volume 19, 2013 http://acousticalsociety.org/ ICA 2013 Montreal Montreal, Canada 2-7 June 2013 Speech Communication Session 2aSC: Linking Perception and Production

More information

SEGMENTAL FEATURES IN SPONTANEOUS AND READ-ALOUD FINNISH

SEGMENTAL FEATURES IN SPONTANEOUS AND READ-ALOUD FINNISH SEGMENTAL FEATURES IN SPONTANEOUS AND READ-ALOUD FINNISH Mietta Lennes Most of the phonetic knowledge that is currently available on spoken Finnish is based on clearly pronounced speech: either readaloud

More information

Dyslexia/dyslexic, 3, 9, 24, 97, 187, 189, 206, 217, , , 367, , , 397,

Dyslexia/dyslexic, 3, 9, 24, 97, 187, 189, 206, 217, , , 367, , , 397, Adoption studies, 274 275 Alliteration skill, 113, 115, 117 118, 122 123, 128, 136, 138 Alphabetic writing system, 5, 40, 127, 136, 410, 415 Alphabets (types of ) artificial transparent alphabet, 5 German

More information

Contrastiveness and diachronic variation in Chinese nasal codas. Tsz-Him Tsui The Ohio State University

Contrastiveness and diachronic variation in Chinese nasal codas. Tsz-Him Tsui The Ohio State University Contrastiveness and diachronic variation in Chinese nasal codas Tsz-Him Tsui The Ohio State University Abstract: Among the nasal codas across Chinese languages, [-m] underwent sound changes more often

More information

A Cross-language Corpus for Studying the Phonetics and Phonology of Prominence

A Cross-language Corpus for Studying the Phonetics and Phonology of Prominence A Cross-language Corpus for Studying the Phonetics and Phonology of Prominence Bistra Andreeva 1, William Barry 1, Jacques Koreman 2 1 Saarland University Germany 2 Norwegian University of Science and

More information

Running head: DELAY AND PROSPECTIVE MEMORY 1

Running head: DELAY AND PROSPECTIVE MEMORY 1 Running head: DELAY AND PROSPECTIVE MEMORY 1 In Press at Memory & Cognition Effects of Delay of Prospective Memory Cues in an Ongoing Task on Prospective Memory Task Performance Dawn M. McBride, Jaclyn

More information

Linking object names and object categories: Words (but not tones) facilitate object categorization in 6- and 12-month-olds

Linking object names and object categories: Words (but not tones) facilitate object categorization in 6- and 12-month-olds Linking object names and object categories: Words (but not tones) facilitate object categorization in 6- and 12-month-olds Anne L. Fulkerson 1, Sandra R. Waxman 2, and Jennifer M. Seymour 1 1 University

More information

THE PERCEPTION AND PRODUCTION OF STRESS AND INTONATION BY CHILDREN WITH COCHLEAR IMPLANTS

THE PERCEPTION AND PRODUCTION OF STRESS AND INTONATION BY CHILDREN WITH COCHLEAR IMPLANTS THE PERCEPTION AND PRODUCTION OF STRESS AND INTONATION BY CHILDREN WITH COCHLEAR IMPLANTS ROSEMARY O HALPIN University College London Department of Phonetics & Linguistics A dissertation submitted to the

More information

L1 Influence on L2 Intonation in Russian Speakers of English

L1 Influence on L2 Intonation in Russian Speakers of English Portland State University PDXScholar Dissertations and Theses Dissertations and Theses Spring 7-23-2013 L1 Influence on L2 Intonation in Russian Speakers of English Christiane Fleur Crosby Portland State

More information

An Acoustic Phonetic Account of the Production of Word-Final /z/s in Central Minnesota English

An Acoustic Phonetic Account of the Production of Word-Final /z/s in Central Minnesota English Linguistic Portfolios Volume 6 Article 10 2017 An Acoustic Phonetic Account of the Production of Word-Final /z/s in Central Minnesota English Cassy Lundy St. Cloud State University, casey.lundy@gmail.com

More information

1 st Quarter (September, October, November) August/September Strand Topic Standard Notes Reading for Literature

1 st Quarter (September, October, November) August/September Strand Topic Standard Notes Reading for Literature 1 st Grade Curriculum Map Common Core Standards Language Arts 2013 2014 1 st Quarter (September, October, November) August/September Strand Topic Standard Notes Reading for Literature Key Ideas and Details

More information

The Effect of Discourse Markers on the Speaking Production of EFL Students. Iman Moradimanesh

The Effect of Discourse Markers on the Speaking Production of EFL Students. Iman Moradimanesh The Effect of Discourse Markers on the Speaking Production of EFL Students Iman Moradimanesh Abstract The research aimed at investigating the relationship between discourse markers (DMs) and a special

More information

Speech Recognition at ICSI: Broadcast News and beyond

Speech Recognition at ICSI: Broadcast News and beyond Speech Recognition at ICSI: Broadcast News and beyond Dan Ellis International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley CA Outline 1 2 3 The DARPA Broadcast News task Aspects of ICSI

More information

Improved Effects of Word-Retrieval Treatments Subsequent to Addition of the Orthographic Form

Improved Effects of Word-Retrieval Treatments Subsequent to Addition of the Orthographic Form Orthographic Form 1 Improved Effects of Word-Retrieval Treatments Subsequent to Addition of the Orthographic Form The development and testing of word-retrieval treatments for aphasia has generally focused

More information

Processing Lexically Embedded Spoken Words

Processing Lexically Embedded Spoken Words Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1999, Vol. 25, No. 1,174-183 Copyright 1999 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 0095-1523/99/S3.00 Processing Lexically

More information

Learning Methods in Multilingual Speech Recognition

Learning Methods in Multilingual Speech Recognition Learning Methods in Multilingual Speech Recognition Hui Lin Department of Electrical Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98125 linhui@u.washington.edu Li Deng, Jasha Droppo, Dong Yu, and Alex

More information

Rachel E. Baker, Ann R. Bradlow. Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA

Rachel E. Baker, Ann R. Bradlow. Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA LANGUAGE AND SPEECH, 2009, 52 (4), 391 413 391 Variability in Word Duration as a Function of Probability, Speech Style, and Prosody Rachel E. Baker, Ann R. Bradlow Northwestern University, Evanston, IL,

More information

Demonstration of problems of lexical stress on the pronunciation Turkish English teachers and teacher trainees by computer

Demonstration of problems of lexical stress on the pronunciation Turkish English teachers and teacher trainees by computer Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 46 ( 2012 ) 3011 3016 WCES 2012 Demonstration of problems of lexical stress on the pronunciation Turkish English teachers

More information

Word Stress and Intonation: Introduction

Word Stress and Intonation: Introduction Word Stress and Intonation: Introduction WORD STRESS One or more syllables of a polysyllabic word have greater prominence than the others. Such syllables are said to be accented or stressed. Word stress

More information

A Socio-Tonetic Analysis of Sui Dialect Contact. James N. Stanford Rice University. [To appear in Language Variation and Change 20(3)]

A Socio-Tonetic Analysis of Sui Dialect Contact. James N. Stanford Rice University. [To appear in Language Variation and Change 20(3)] A Socio-Tonetic Analysis of Sui Dialect Contact James N. Stanford Rice University [To appear in Language Variation and Change 20(3)] Author s address: Department of Linguistics, MS23 Rice University 6100

More information

Houghton Mifflin Reading Correlation to the Common Core Standards for English Language Arts (Grade1)

Houghton Mifflin Reading Correlation to the Common Core Standards for English Language Arts (Grade1) Houghton Mifflin Reading Correlation to the Standards for English Language Arts (Grade1) 8.3 JOHNNY APPLESEED Biography TARGET SKILLS: 8.3 Johnny Appleseed Phonemic Awareness Phonics Comprehension Vocabulary

More information

Speech Segmentation Using Probabilistic Phonetic Feature Hierarchy and Support Vector Machines

Speech Segmentation Using Probabilistic Phonetic Feature Hierarchy and Support Vector Machines Speech Segmentation Using Probabilistic Phonetic Feature Hierarchy and Support Vector Machines Amit Juneja and Carol Espy-Wilson Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Maryland,

More information

Eyebrows in French talk-in-interaction

Eyebrows in French talk-in-interaction Eyebrows in French talk-in-interaction Aurélie Goujon 1, Roxane Bertrand 1, Marion Tellier 1 1 Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LPL UMR 7309, 13100, Aix-en-Provence, France Goujon.aurelie@gmail.com Roxane.bertrand@lpl-aix.fr

More information

Program Matrix - Reading English 6-12 (DOE Code 398) University of Florida. Reading

Program Matrix - Reading English 6-12 (DOE Code 398) University of Florida. Reading Program Requirements Competency 1: Foundations of Instruction 60 In-service Hours Teachers will develop substantive understanding of six components of reading as a process: comprehension, oral language,

More information

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES MODELING IMPROVED AMHARIC SYLLBIFICATION ALGORITHM

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES MODELING IMPROVED AMHARIC SYLLBIFICATION ALGORITHM ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES MODELING IMPROVED AMHARIC SYLLBIFICATION ALGORITHM BY NIRAYO HAILU GEBREEGZIABHER A THESIS SUBMITED TO THE SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES OF ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

More information

First Grade Curriculum Highlights: In alignment with the Common Core Standards

First Grade Curriculum Highlights: In alignment with the Common Core Standards First Grade Curriculum Highlights: In alignment with the Common Core Standards ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS Foundational Skills Print Concepts Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features

More information

English Language and Applied Linguistics. Module Descriptions 2017/18

English Language and Applied Linguistics. Module Descriptions 2017/18 English Language and Applied Linguistics Module Descriptions 2017/18 Level I (i.e. 2 nd Yr.) Modules Please be aware that all modules are subject to availability. If you have any questions about the modules,

More information

Atypical Prosodic Structure as an Indicator of Reading Level and Text Difficulty

Atypical Prosodic Structure as an Indicator of Reading Level and Text Difficulty Atypical Prosodic Structure as an Indicator of Reading Level and Text Difficulty Julie Medero and Mari Ostendorf Electrical Engineering Department University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 USA {jmedero,ostendor}@uw.edu

More information

**Note: this is slightly different from the original (mainly in format). I would be happy to send you a hard copy.**

**Note: this is slightly different from the original (mainly in format). I would be happy to send you a hard copy.** **Note: this is slightly different from the original (mainly in format). I would be happy to send you a hard copy.** REANALYZING THE JAPANESE CODA NASAL IN OPTIMALITY THEORY 1 KATSURA AOYAMA University

More information

Copyright by Niamh Eileen Kelly 2015

Copyright by Niamh Eileen Kelly 2015 Copyright by Niamh Eileen Kelly 2015 The Dissertation Committee for Niamh Eileen Kelly certifies that this is the approved version of the following dissertation: An Experimental Approach to the Production

More information

Individual Differences & Item Effects: How to test them, & how to test them well

Individual Differences & Item Effects: How to test them, & how to test them well Individual Differences & Item Effects: How to test them, & how to test them well Individual Differences & Item Effects Properties of subjects Cognitive abilities (WM task scores, inhibition) Gender Age

More information

Florida Reading Endorsement Alignment Matrix Competency 1

Florida Reading Endorsement Alignment Matrix Competency 1 Florida Reading Endorsement Alignment Matrix Competency 1 Reading Endorsement Guiding Principle: Teachers will understand and teach reading as an ongoing strategic process resulting in students comprehending

More information

Universal contrastive analysis as a learning principle in CAPT

Universal contrastive analysis as a learning principle in CAPT Universal contrastive analysis as a learning principle in CAPT Jacques Koreman, Preben Wik, Olaf Husby, Egil Albertsen Department of Language and Communication Studies, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway jacques.koreman@ntnu.no,

More information

Stages of Literacy Ros Lugg

Stages of Literacy Ros Lugg Beginning readers in the USA Stages of Literacy Ros Lugg Looked at predictors of reading success or failure Pre-readers readers aged 3-53 5 yrs Looked at variety of abilities IQ Speech and language abilities

More information

An Evaluation of the Interactive-Activation Model Using Masked Partial-Word Priming. Jason R. Perry. University of Western Ontario. Stephen J.

An Evaluation of the Interactive-Activation Model Using Masked Partial-Word Priming. Jason R. Perry. University of Western Ontario. Stephen J. An Evaluation of the Interactive-Activation Model Using Masked Partial-Word Priming Jason R. Perry University of Western Ontario Stephen J. Lupker University of Western Ontario Colin J. Davis Royal Holloway

More information

Segregation of Unvoiced Speech from Nonspeech Interference

Segregation of Unvoiced Speech from Nonspeech Interference Technical Report OSU-CISRC-8/7-TR63 Department of Computer Science and Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 4321-1277 FTP site: ftp.cse.ohio-state.edu Login: anonymous Directory: pub/tech-report/27

More information

Phonological encoding in speech production

Phonological encoding in speech production Phonological encoding in speech production Niels O. Schiller Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Maastricht University, The Netherlands Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

More information

Perceived speech rate: the effects of. articulation rate and speaking style in spontaneous speech. Jacques Koreman. Saarland University

Perceived speech rate: the effects of. articulation rate and speaking style in spontaneous speech. Jacques Koreman. Saarland University 1 Perceived speech rate: the effects of articulation rate and speaking style in spontaneous speech Jacques Koreman Saarland University Institute of Phonetics P.O. Box 151150 D-66041 Saarbrücken Germany

More information

Large Kindergarten Centers Icons

Large Kindergarten Centers Icons Large Kindergarten Centers Icons To view and print each center icon, with CCSD objectives, please click on the corresponding thumbnail icon below. ABC / Word Study Read the Room Big Book Write the Room

More information

On the nature of voicing assimilation(s)

On the nature of voicing assimilation(s) On the nature of voicing assimilation(s) Wouter Jansen Clinical Language Sciences Leeds Metropolitan University W.Jansen@leedsmet.ac.uk http://www.kuvik.net/wjansen March 15, 2006 On the nature of voicing

More information

The influence of metrical constraints on direct imitation across French varieties

The influence of metrical constraints on direct imitation across French varieties The influence of metrical constraints on direct imitation across French varieties Mariapaola D Imperio 1,2, Caterina Petrone 1 & Charlotte Graux-Czachor 1 1 Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LPL UMR 7039,

More information

ELA/ELD Standards Correlation Matrix for ELD Materials Grade 1 Reading

ELA/ELD Standards Correlation Matrix for ELD Materials Grade 1 Reading ELA/ELD Correlation Matrix for ELD Materials Grade 1 Reading The English Language Arts (ELA) required for the one hour of English-Language Development (ELD) Materials are listed in Appendix 9-A, Matrix

More information

The Acquisition of English Intonation by Native Greek Speakers

The Acquisition of English Intonation by Native Greek Speakers The Acquisition of English Intonation by Native Greek Speakers Evia Kainada and Angelos Lengeris Technological Educational Institute of Patras, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki ekainada@teipat.gr,

More information

Quarterly Progress and Status Report. VCV-sequencies in a preliminary text-to-speech system for female speech

Quarterly Progress and Status Report. VCV-sequencies in a preliminary text-to-speech system for female speech Dept. for Speech, Music and Hearing Quarterly Progress and Status Report VCV-sequencies in a preliminary text-to-speech system for female speech Karlsson, I. and Neovius, L. journal: STL-QPSR volume: 35

More information

Perceptual scaling of voice identity: common dimensions for different vowels and speakers

Perceptual scaling of voice identity: common dimensions for different vowels and speakers DOI 10.1007/s00426-008-0185-z ORIGINAL ARTICLE Perceptual scaling of voice identity: common dimensions for different vowels and speakers Oliver Baumann Æ Pascal Belin Received: 15 February 2008 / Accepted:

More information

SARDNET: A Self-Organizing Feature Map for Sequences

SARDNET: A Self-Organizing Feature Map for Sequences SARDNET: A Self-Organizing Feature Map for Sequences Daniel L. James and Risto Miikkulainen Department of Computer Sciences The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 dljames,risto~cs.utexas.edu

More information

Speech Recognition using Acoustic Landmarks and Binary Phonetic Feature Classifiers

Speech Recognition using Acoustic Landmarks and Binary Phonetic Feature Classifiers Speech Recognition using Acoustic Landmarks and Binary Phonetic Feature Classifiers October 31, 2003 Amit Juneja Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Maryland, College Park,

More information

Taught Throughout the Year Foundational Skills Reading Writing Language RF.1.2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words,

Taught Throughout the Year Foundational Skills Reading Writing Language RF.1.2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, First Grade Standards These are the standards for what is taught in first grade. It is the expectation that these skills will be reinforced after they have been taught. Taught Throughout the Year Foundational

More information

Disambiguation of Thai Personal Name from Online News Articles

Disambiguation of Thai Personal Name from Online News Articles Disambiguation of Thai Personal Name from Online News Articles Phaisarn Sutheebanjard Graduate School of Information Technology Siam University Bangkok, Thailand mr.phaisarn@gmail.com Abstract Since online

More information

Writing quality predicts Chinese learning

Writing quality predicts Chinese learning Read Writ (2015) 28:763 795 DOI 10.1007/s11145-015-9549-0 Writing quality predicts Chinese learning Connie Qun Guan Charles A. Perfetti Wanjin Meng Published online: 20 February 2015 Springer Science+Business

More information

On the Combined Behavior of Autonomous Resource Management Agents

On the Combined Behavior of Autonomous Resource Management Agents On the Combined Behavior of Autonomous Resource Management Agents Siri Fagernes 1 and Alva L. Couch 2 1 Faculty of Engineering Oslo University College Oslo, Norway siri.fagernes@iu.hio.no 2 Computer Science

More information

Speech Emotion Recognition Using Support Vector Machine

Speech Emotion Recognition Using Support Vector Machine Speech Emotion Recognition Using Support Vector Machine Yixiong Pan, Peipei Shen and Liping Shen Department of Computer Technology Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, China panyixiong@sjtu.edu.cn,

More information

An Empirical and Computational Test of Linguistic Relativity

An Empirical and Computational Test of Linguistic Relativity An Empirical and Computational Test of Linguistic Relativity Kathleen M. Eberhard* (eberhard.1@nd.edu) Matthias Scheutz** (mscheutz@cse.nd.edu) Michael Heilman** (mheilman@nd.edu) *Department of Psychology,

More information

The Efficacy of PCI s Reading Program - Level One: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools

The Efficacy of PCI s Reading Program - Level One: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools The Efficacy of PCI s Reading Program - Level One: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools Megan Toby Boya Ma Andrew Jaciw Jessica Cabalo Empirical

More information

A survey of intonation systems

A survey of intonation systems 1 A survey of intonation systems D A N I E L H I R S T a n d A L B E R T D I C R I S T O 1. Background The description of the intonation system of a particular language or dialect is a particularly difficult

More information

A Bootstrapping Model of Frequency and Context Effects in Word Learning

A Bootstrapping Model of Frequency and Context Effects in Word Learning Cognitive Science 41 (2017) 590 622 Copyright 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc. All rights reserved. ISSN: 0364-0213 print / 1551-6709 online DOI: 10.1111/cogs.12353 A Bootstrapping Model of Frequency

More information

Learning Structural Correspondences Across Different Linguistic Domains with Synchronous Neural Language Models

Learning Structural Correspondences Across Different Linguistic Domains with Synchronous Neural Language Models Learning Structural Correspondences Across Different Linguistic Domains with Synchronous Neural Language Models Stephan Gouws and GJ van Rooyen MIH Medialab, Stellenbosch University SOUTH AFRICA {stephan,gvrooyen}@ml.sun.ac.za

More information

CLASSIFICATION OF PROGRAM Critical Elements Analysis 1. High Priority Items Phonemic Awareness Instruction

CLASSIFICATION OF PROGRAM Critical Elements Analysis 1. High Priority Items Phonemic Awareness Instruction CLASSIFICATION OF PROGRAM Critical Elements Analysis 1 Program Name: Macmillan/McGraw Hill Reading 2003 Date of Publication: 2003 Publisher: Macmillan/McGraw Hill Reviewer Code: 1. X The program meets

More information

Class-Discriminative Weighted Distortion Measure for VQ-Based Speaker Identification

Class-Discriminative Weighted Distortion Measure for VQ-Based Speaker Identification Class-Discriminative Weighted Distortion Measure for VQ-Based Speaker Identification Tomi Kinnunen and Ismo Kärkkäinen University of Joensuu, Department of Computer Science, P.O. Box 111, 80101 JOENSUU,

More information

OVERVIEW OF CURRICULUM-BASED MEASUREMENT AS A GENERAL OUTCOME MEASURE

OVERVIEW OF CURRICULUM-BASED MEASUREMENT AS A GENERAL OUTCOME MEASURE OVERVIEW OF CURRICULUM-BASED MEASUREMENT AS A GENERAL OUTCOME MEASURE Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Michelle M. Shinn, Ph.D. Formative Evaluation to Inform Teaching Summative Assessment: Culmination measure. Mastery

More information

Consonant-Vowel Unity in Element Theory*

Consonant-Vowel Unity in Element Theory* Consonant-Vowel Unity in Element Theory* Phillip Backley Tohoku Gakuin University Kuniya Nasukawa Tohoku Gakuin University ABSTRACT. This paper motivates the Element Theory view that vowels and consonants

More information

Build on students informal understanding of sharing and proportionality to develop initial fraction concepts.

Build on students informal understanding of sharing and proportionality to develop initial fraction concepts. Recommendation 1 Build on students informal understanding of sharing and proportionality to develop initial fraction concepts. Students come to kindergarten with a rudimentary understanding of basic fraction

More information

Phonological Encoding in Sentence Production

Phonological Encoding in Sentence Production Phonological Encoding in Sentence Production Caitlin Hilliard (chillia2@u.rochester.edu), Katrina Furth (kfurth@bcs.rochester.edu), T. Florian Jaeger (fjaeger@bcs.rochester.edu) Department of Brain and

More information

STUDIES WITH FABRICATED SWITCHBOARD DATA: EXPLORING SOURCES OF MODEL-DATA MISMATCH

STUDIES WITH FABRICATED SWITCHBOARD DATA: EXPLORING SOURCES OF MODEL-DATA MISMATCH STUDIES WITH FABRICATED SWITCHBOARD DATA: EXPLORING SOURCES OF MODEL-DATA MISMATCH Don McAllaster, Larry Gillick, Francesco Scattone, Mike Newman Dragon Systems, Inc. 320 Nevada Street Newton, MA 02160

More information

Tun your everyday simulation activity into research

Tun your everyday simulation activity into research Tun your everyday simulation activity into research Chaoyan Dong, PhD, Sengkang Health, SingHealth Md Khairulamin Sungkai, UBD Pre-conference workshop presented at the inaugual conference Pan Asia Simulation

More information

THE PERCEPTIONS OF THE JAPANESE IMPERFECTIVE ASPECT MARKER TEIRU AMONG NATIVE SPEAKERS AND L2 LEARNERS OF JAPANESE

THE PERCEPTIONS OF THE JAPANESE IMPERFECTIVE ASPECT MARKER TEIRU AMONG NATIVE SPEAKERS AND L2 LEARNERS OF JAPANESE THE PERCEPTIONS OF THE JAPANESE IMPERFECTIVE ASPECT MARKER TEIRU AMONG NATIVE SPEAKERS AND L2 LEARNERS OF JAPANESE by YOSHIYUKI HARA A THESIS Presented to the Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures

More information

The Bruins I.C.E. School

The Bruins I.C.E. School The Bruins I.C.E. School Lesson 1: Retell and Sequence the Story Lesson 2: Bruins Name Jersey Lesson 3: Building Hockey Words (Letter Sound Relationships-Beginning Sounds) Lesson 4: Building Hockey Words

More information

Lip reading: Japanese vowel recognition by tracking temporal changes of lip shape

Lip reading: Japanese vowel recognition by tracking temporal changes of lip shape Lip reading: Japanese vowel recognition by tracking temporal changes of lip shape Koshi Odagiri 1, and Yoichi Muraoka 1 1 Graduate School of Fundamental/Computer Science and Engineering, Waseda University,

More information

Phonetic Knowledge in Tonal Adaptation: Mandarin and English. Loanwords in Lhasa Tibetan*

Phonetic Knowledge in Tonal Adaptation: Mandarin and English. Loanwords in Lhasa Tibetan* Feng-fan Hsieh and Michael Kenstowicz National Tsing Hua University and MIT Phonetic Knowledge in Tonal Adaptation: Mandarin and English Loanwords in Lhasa Tibetan* In this paper we present the results

More information

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 141 ( 2014 ) WCLTA Using Corpus Linguistics in the Development of Writing

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 141 ( 2014 ) WCLTA Using Corpus Linguistics in the Development of Writing Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 141 ( 2014 ) 124 128 WCLTA 2013 Using Corpus Linguistics in the Development of Writing Blanka Frydrychova

More information

Concept Acquisition Without Representation William Dylan Sabo

Concept Acquisition Without Representation William Dylan Sabo Concept Acquisition Without Representation William Dylan Sabo Abstract: Contemporary debates in concept acquisition presuppose that cognizers can only acquire concepts on the basis of concepts they already

More information

Considerations for Aligning Early Grades Curriculum with the Common Core

Considerations for Aligning Early Grades Curriculum with the Common Core Considerations for Aligning Early Grades Curriculum with the Common Core Diane Schilder, EdD and Melissa Dahlin, MA May 2013 INFORMATION REQUEST This state s department of education requested assistance

More information

Stacks Teacher notes. Activity description. Suitability. Time. AMP resources. Equipment. Key mathematical language. Key processes

Stacks Teacher notes. Activity description. Suitability. Time. AMP resources. Equipment. Key mathematical language. Key processes Stacks Teacher notes Activity description (Interactive not shown on this sheet.) Pupils start by exploring the patterns generated by moving counters between two stacks according to a fixed rule, doubling

More information

South Carolina English Language Arts

South Carolina English Language Arts South Carolina English Language Arts A S O F J U N E 2 0, 2 0 1 0, T H I S S TAT E H A D A D O P T E D T H E CO M M O N CO R E S TAT E S TA N DA R D S. DOCUMENTS REVIEWED South Carolina Academic Content

More information

CDE: 1st Grade Reading, Writing, and Communicating Page 2 of 27

CDE: 1st Grade Reading, Writing, and Communicating Page 2 of 27 Revised: December 2010 Colorado Academic Standards in Reading, Writing, and Communicating and The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and

More information

How Does Physical Space Influence the Novices' and Experts' Algebraic Reasoning?

How Does Physical Space Influence the Novices' and Experts' Algebraic Reasoning? Journal of European Psychology Students, 2013, 4, 37-46 How Does Physical Space Influence the Novices' and Experts' Algebraic Reasoning? Mihaela Taranu Babes-Bolyai University, Romania Received: 30.09.2011

More information

DOWNSTEP IN SUPYIRE* Robert Carlson Societe Internationale de Linguistique, Mali

DOWNSTEP IN SUPYIRE* Robert Carlson Societe Internationale de Linguistique, Mali Studies in African inguistics Volume 4 Number April 983 DOWNSTEP IN SUPYIRE* Robert Carlson Societe Internationale de inguistique ali Downstep in the vast majority of cases can be traced to the influence

More information

NCU IISR English-Korean and English-Chinese Named Entity Transliteration Using Different Grapheme Segmentation Approaches

NCU IISR English-Korean and English-Chinese Named Entity Transliteration Using Different Grapheme Segmentation Approaches NCU IISR English-Korean and English-Chinese Named Entity Transliteration Using Different Grapheme Segmentation Approaches Yu-Chun Wang Chun-Kai Wu Richard Tzong-Han Tsai Department of Computer Science

More information

Strategies for Solving Fraction Tasks and Their Link to Algebraic Thinking

Strategies for Solving Fraction Tasks and Their Link to Algebraic Thinking Strategies for Solving Fraction Tasks and Their Link to Algebraic Thinking Catherine Pearn The University of Melbourne Max Stephens The University of Melbourne

More information

Automatic intonation assessment for computer aided language learning

Automatic intonation assessment for computer aided language learning Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Speech Communication 52 (2010) 254 267 www.elsevier.com/locate/specom Automatic intonation assessment for computer aided language learning Juan Pablo Arias a,

More information

On-the-Fly Customization of Automated Essay Scoring

On-the-Fly Customization of Automated Essay Scoring Research Report On-the-Fly Customization of Automated Essay Scoring Yigal Attali Research & Development December 2007 RR-07-42 On-the-Fly Customization of Automated Essay Scoring Yigal Attali ETS, Princeton,

More information

THE INFLUENCE OF TASK DEMANDS ON FAMILIARITY EFFECTS IN VISUAL WORD RECOGNITION: A COHORT MODEL PERSPECTIVE DISSERTATION

THE INFLUENCE OF TASK DEMANDS ON FAMILIARITY EFFECTS IN VISUAL WORD RECOGNITION: A COHORT MODEL PERSPECTIVE DISSERTATION THE INFLUENCE OF TASK DEMANDS ON FAMILIARITY EFFECTS IN VISUAL WORD RECOGNITION: A COHORT MODEL PERSPECTIVE DISSERTATION Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy

More information

Developing phonological awareness: Is there a bilingual advantage?

Developing phonological awareness: Is there a bilingual advantage? Applied Psycholinguistics 24 (2003), 27 44 Printed in the United States of America DOI: 10.1017.S014271640300002X Developing phonological awareness: Is there a bilingual advantage? ELLEN BIALYSTOK, SHILPI

More information

The analysis starts with the phonetic vowel and consonant charts based on the dataset:

The analysis starts with the phonetic vowel and consonant charts based on the dataset: Ling 113 Homework 5: Hebrew Kelli Wiseth February 13, 2014 The analysis starts with the phonetic vowel and consonant charts based on the dataset: a) Given that the underlying representation for all verb

More information

Progress Monitoring for Behavior: Data Collection Methods & Procedures

Progress Monitoring for Behavior: Data Collection Methods & Procedures Progress Monitoring for Behavior: Data Collection Methods & Procedures This event is being funded with State and/or Federal funds and is being provided for employees of school districts, employees of the

More information

Measurement. Time. Teaching for mastery in primary maths

Measurement. Time. Teaching for mastery in primary maths Measurement Time Teaching for mastery in primary maths Contents Introduction 3 01. Introduction to time 3 02. Telling the time 4 03. Analogue and digital time 4 04. Converting between units of time 5 05.

More information

Manual Response Dynamics Reflect Rapid Integration of Intonational Information during Reference Resolution

Manual Response Dynamics Reflect Rapid Integration of Intonational Information during Reference Resolution Manual Response Dynamics Reflect Rapid Integration of Intonational Information during Reference Resolution Timo B. Roettger & Mathias Stoeber timo.roettger@uni-koeln.de, m.stoeber@uni-koeln.de Department

More information