# ECT7110 Classification Decision Trees. Prof. Wai Lam

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1 ECT7110 Classification Decision Trees Prof. Wai Lam

2 Classification and Decision Tree What is classification? What is prediction? Issues regarding classification and prediction Classification by decision tree induction ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 2

3 Classification vs. Prediction Classification: predicts categorical class labels classifies data (constructs a model) based on the training set and the values (class labels) in a classifying attribute and uses it in classifying new data E.g. categorize bank loan applications as either safe or risky. Prediction: models continuous-valued functions, i.e., predicts unknown or missing values E.g. predict the expenditures of potential customers on computer equipment given their income and occupation. Typical Applications credit approval target marketing medical diagnosis treatment effectiveness analysis ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 3

4 Classification A Two-Step Process Step1 (Model construction): describing a predetermined set of data classes Each tuple/sample is assumed to belong to a predefined class, as determined by the class label attribute The set of tuples used for model construction: training set The individual tuples making up the training set are referred to as training samples Supervised learning: Learning of the model with a given training set. The learned model is represented as classification rules decision trees, or mathematical formulae. ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 4

5 Classification A Two-Step Process Step 2 (Model usage): the model is used for classifying future or unseen objects. Estimate accuracy of the model The known label of test sample is compared with the classified result from the model Accuracy rate is the percentage of test set samples that are correctly classified by the model. Test set is independent of training set, otherwise over-fitting will occur If the accuracy is acceptable, the model is used to classify future data tuples with unknown class labels. ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 5

6 Classification Process (1): Model Construction Training Data Classification Algorithms NAME AGE INCOME CREDIT RATING Mike <= 30 low fair Mary <= 30 low poor Bill high excellent Jim >40 med fair Dave >40 med fair Anne high excellent Classifier (Model) IF age = and income = high THEN credit rating = excellent ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 6

7 Classification Process (2): Use the Model in Prediction Classifier Testing Data Unseen Data (John, , med) NAME AGE INCOME CREDIT RATING May Wayne <= 30 >40 high high fair excellent Ana Jack <=30 low med poor fair Credit rating? fair ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 7

8 Supervised vs. Unsupervised Learning Supervised learning (classification) Supervision: The training data (observations, measurements, etc.) are accompanied by labels indicating the class of the observations New data is classified based on the training set Unsupervised learning (clustering) The class labels of training data is unknown Given a set of measurements, observations, etc. with the aim of establishing the existence of classes or clusters in the data ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 8

9 Issues regarding Classification and Prediction (1): Data Preparation Data cleaning Preprocess data in order to reduce noise and handle missing values Relevance analysis (feature selection) Remove the irrelevant or redundant attributes E.g. date of a bank loan application is not relevant Improve the efficiency and scalability of data mining Data transformation Data can be generalized to higher level concepts (concept hierarchy) Data should be normalized when methods involving distance measurements are used in the learning step (e.g. neural network) ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 9

10 Issues regarding Classification and Prediction (2): Evaluating Classification Methods Predictive accuracy Speed and scalability time to construct the model time to use the model Robustness handling noise and missing values Scalability efficiency in disk-resident databases (large amount of data) Interpretability: understanding and insight provided by the model Goodness of rules decision tree size compactness of classification rules ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 10

11 Classification by Decision Tree Induction Decision tree A flow-chart-like tree structure Internal node denotes a test on an attribute Branch represents an outcome of the test Leaf nodes represent class labels or class distribution Use of decision tree: Classifying an unknown sample Test the attribute values of the sample against the decision tree ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 11

12 An Example of a Decision Tree For buys_computer age? <=30 > student? credit rating? no excellent fair no no ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 12

13 How to Obtain a Decision Tree? Manual construction Decision tree induction: Automatically discover a decision tree from data Tree construction At start, all the training examples are at the root Partition examples recursively based on selected attributes Tree pruning Identify and remove branches that reflect noise or outliers ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 13

14 Training Dataset This follows an example from Quinlan s ID3 age income student credit_rating <=30 high no fair <=30 high no excellent high no fair >40 medium no fair >40 low fair >40 low excellent low excellent <=30 medium no fair <=30 low fair >40 medium fair <=30 medium excellent medium no excellent high fair >40 medium no excellent buys_computer no no no no no ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 14

15 Algorithm for Decision Tree Induction Basic algorithm (a greedy algorithm) Tree is constructed in a top-down recursive divide-andconquer manner At start, all the training examples are at the root Attributes are categorical (if continuous-valued, they are discretized in advance) Examples are partitioned recursively based on selected attributes ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 15

16 Basic Algorithm for Decision Tree Induction If the samples are all of the same class, then the node becomes a leaf and is labeled with that class Otherwise, it uses a statistical measure (e.g., information gain) for selecting the attribute that will best separate the samples into individual classes. This attribute becomes the test or decision attribute at the node. A branch is created for each known value of the test attribute, and the samples are partitioned accordingly The algorithm uses the same process recursively to form a decision tree for the samples at each partition. Once an attribute has occurred at a node, it need not be considered in any of the node s descendents. ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 16

17 Basic Algorithm for Decision Tree Induction The recursive partitioning stops only when any one of the following conditions is true: All samples for a given node belong to the same class There are no remaining attributes on which the samples may be further partitioned. In this case, majority voting is employed. This involves converting the given node into a leaf and labeling it with the class in majority voting among samples. There are no samples for the branch test-attribute=ai. In this case, a leaf is created with the majority class in samples. ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 17

18 ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 18

19 Attribute Selection by Information Gain Computation Consider the attribute age: age p i n i <= > Gain( age) = Consider other attributes in a similar way: Gain( income ) = Gain( student ) = Gain( credit _ rating ) = ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 19

20 Learning (Constructing) a Decision Tree age? <=30 > ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 20

21 Extracting Classification Rules from Trees Represent the knowledge in the form of IF-THEN rules One rule is created for each path from the root to a leaf Each attribute-value pair along a path forms a conjunction The leaf node holds the class prediction age? Rules are easier for humans to understand <= >40 Example student? credit rating? no excellent fair no no IF age = <=30 AND student = no THEN buys_computer = no IF age = <=30 AND student = THEN buys_computer = IF age = THEN buys_computer = IF age = >40 AND credit_rating = excellent THEN buys_computer= IF age = <=30 AND credit_rating = fair THEN buys_computer = no ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 21

22 Classification in Large Databases Classification a classical problem extensively studied by statisticians and machine learning researchers Scalability: Classifying data sets with millions of examples and hundreds of attributes with reasonable speed Why decision tree induction in data mining? relatively faster learning speed (than other classification methods) convertible to simple and easy to understand classification rules comparable classification accuracy with other methods ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 22

23 Presentation of Classification Results ECT7110 Classification and Decision Tree 23

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