QUELLES PRIORITES EDUCATIVES POUR

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1 France Strategie QUELLES PRIORITES EDUCATIVES POUR Question: Que faut-il changer dans l École pour qu'elle fasse progresser l'ensemble des élèves et réduise le poids des déterminismes sociaux? Faut-il investir davantage? Enseigner autrement? Contribution: Beatriz Pont, Affilié de Recherche, LIEPP, Sciences Po Juin,

2 PIKETTY (2014) Investing in equity in education is key Increasing wealth inequalities (r>g) have negative consequences. Knowledge and skills diffusion are key to productivity growth and reduction of inequality. For greater convergence in growth, need for progressive wealth tax and invest in education and skills for the more disadvantaged. CINGANO (2014) Income inequality has negative impact on further growth Wider gaps in income prevent skills development among low SES and generate more inequality and prevent growth Inequality affects growth: Undermining education opportunities for low SES children. lowering social mobility and hampering skills development.

3 In fact, EQUITY goes hand in hand with QUALITY Education failure imposes high costs to individuals and to society It limits capacity of economies to grow and innovate Damages social cohesion and mobility and is expensive: Higher public health expenditures Higher welfare, increased criminality

4 Hungary New France Israel Belgium Germany Luxembourg Chile Denmark Austria Portugal Czech Spain Poland OECD Australia Ireland Switzerland Greece Slovenia United Netherlands Japan Sweden Italy Finland United Mexico Canada Norway Turkey Korea Iceland Estonia Challenge: The impact of background on performance is strong (PISA 2012) Relative risk of scoring in bottom quarter in PISA mathematics Students in the bottom quarter of the ESCS index Immigrant students Source: OECD PISA 2012 Database.

5 Mexico Turkey Portugal Spain Italy Iceland Chile1 New Zealand Denmark Belgium Norway OECD average Greece Netherlands France United Kingdom Ireland Luxembourg Estonia Australia Germany Hungary Austria United States Switzerland Finland Israel Sweden Canada Czech Republic Slovak Republic Slovenia Poland Korea Challenge: The share of those who do not complete remains high (EAG 2014) % % of those who have not completed upper secondary education, Source: OECD (2014), Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, Table A1.2a.

6 Finland Canada New Zealand Australia Netherlands Belgium Norway Estonia Switzerland United States Sweden Germany Ireland France Denmark United Kingdom Hungary OECD average Portugal Italy Slovenia Greece Spain Czech Republic Israel Luxembourg Austria Russian Federation Mexico Brazil Mean performance in the reading scale Challenge: reading gap between immigrant students and natives Reading performance by immigrant status in PISA (2009) 550 Students without an immigrant background Second-generation students First-generation students

7 OECD average Puntuación media en matemáticas Achieving equity with quality Above average performance in mathematics literacy Above average impact of SES on performance Slovak Republic Korea Austria Japan Czech Republic Switzerland Slovenia Netherlands Belgium Poland Finland Estonia Germany Australia Canada France New Zealand Ireland United Kingdom Iceland Denmark Portugal Luxembourg Italy Norway Spain Sweden Hungary Israel United States Greece Turkey Chile Above average performance in math literacy Below average impact of SES on performance Mexico OECD average Below average performance Above average impact of SES on results Porcentaje de variación en el rendimiento explicado por el índice PISA de los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales status 15 Below average performance Above average impact of SES on results Source: OECD (2013), PISA 2012 Results: Excellence through Equity (Volume II): Giving Every Student the Chance to Succeed, Table II

8 Mathematics performance on PISA 2012 It is not how much but how money is invested that matters 600 Spending per student and average math performance, PISA Korea Japan Poland Finland Switzerland Estonia Canada Netherlands Germany Belgium Australia Czech Republic Austria R² = 0.00 Denmark Slovak Republic Portugal France Ireland Norway Hungary Spain United States Israel Italy Iceland United Kingdom Turkey New Zealand Sweden Slovenia Chile Mexico Luxembourg Average spending per student from the age of 6 to 15 (USD, PPPs) Source: OECD (2015), Education Policy Outlook 2015: Making Reforms Happen.

9 Policies to achieve more equitable education systems Invest early and through upper secondary Eliminate system level obstacles to equity Support low performing disadvantaged schools and students

10 Avoid system level policies that hinder equity ECEC Australia/Cana da/chile/mexi co/nordic/fran ce/spain Source: OECD PISA Comprehensiv e education /reduce repetition Nordics/France No early tracking/equivalent upper sec pathways Austria/Nordic/Alb erta More equitable system level policies Manage school choice to avoid inequities Neths/Chile Make funding responsive to needs Chile/Netherla nds/australia/ Ontario

11 Japan Korea Norway Iceland Slovenia United Kingdom Finland Russian Federation Slovak Republic Czech Republic Denmark Sweden New Zealand Poland Estonia Greece Shanghai-China Israel Australia Canada Hungary Ireland Austria Turkey OECD average United States Hong Kong-China Italy Germany Mexico Switzerland Chile Netherlands Belgium Portugal Spain Luxembourg France Brazil Macao-China Percentage of students Year repetition as a learning strategy? % of students aged 15 who have repeated at least 1 year, PISA

12 Policy options to eliminate grade repetition Ensure continuous assessment and support strategies Preventive measures Promotion with support A structured and engaging plan of support Raise awareness and set targets and incentives Reverse repetition culture in schools and society

13 Netherlands Chile Ireland Korea United Kingdom Australia Spain Japan Denmark OECD average France Hungary Sweden Portugal Shanghai-China Mexico Austria Czech Republic Canada Switzerland Germany New Zealand United States Italy Finland Poland Estonia Slovenia School choice is not as common as we think Percentage of students attending PISA Fig IV.1.22 Government-independent private schools Government-dependent private schools Government or public schools %

14 Luxembourg Switzerland Italy Japan Czech Republic Netherlands Ireland United States Hungary Sweden Korea United Kingdom Finland Denmark OECD average France Shanghai-China Australia Spain Slovak Republic Mexico Germany Austria Chile Canada Poland Portugal New Zealand Score-point difference Differences in mathematics performance between private and public schools shrink after accounting for socio-economic status Observed performance difference After accounting for students and schools socio-economic status 100 Fig IV Performance advantage of public schools Performance advantage of private schools

15 Manage school choice to prevent inequities Choice Opt for higher quality schools, and might foster efficiency, spur innovation and raise quality overall. Choice can result in a greater sorting and segregation of students by ability, income and ethnic background. Equity

16 Policy options to manage school choice Introduce controlled choice programmes In Cambridge (United States) central allocation to preferred schools, taking diversity criteria into consideration. Make disadvantaged students attractive Providing financial incentives to schools to enrol low SES students. Limiting selection mechanisms schools can use (criteria for admission, time of registration, additional fees). Providing vouchers or tax credits to make high quality schools affordable. Level the playing field for disadvantaged students Raise awareness, improve access to information about schools and support to make better-informed choices. Milwaukee (United States) set up extensive programme to inform/help parents. As a result, 95% families filled in their school choice forms.

17 Canada Mexico Korea Japan Hungary New Zealand Chile Ireland Greece Iceland Estonia United Kingdom Israel Portugal Turkey1 France Spain OECD average Denmark Poland Germany Sweden Australia Norway Italy Luxembourg Switzerland Slovenia Netherlands Finland Slovak Republic Czech Republic Belgium Austria 17 Enhance vocational education and training (VET) Canada: Apprenticeship 20 grants (2007-) Enrolment of upper secondary students in pre-vocational or vocational programmes Japan: Guidelines for Denmark: enhancing provision % General Pre-vocational VET with academic exam Portugal: Vocational 100 (2010); Better More National Integrated attractive VET (2014) Strategy( ) New Zealand: Trades Academies(2009) Italy: Governance & Higher Technical Institutes (2011) Germany: Information & transitions into Tertiary Luxembourg: VET Reform (2008) 0

18 Policies to achieve more equitable education systems Invest early and through upper secondary Eliminate system level obstacles to equity Support low performing disadvantaged schools and students

19 Netherlands Hungary Belgium Luxembourg Germany Slovenia Austria Israel Japan Greece Slovak Republic Italy Ireland Korea Portugal OECD average Czech Republic New Zealand Chile United States Mexico United Kingdom Australia Spain Turkey Denmark Poland Switzerland Canada Iceland Sweden Estonia Finland Norway Students may have different opportunities depending on schools they attend Relative risk of scoring in the bottom quarter of the performance distribution, PISA Students in socio-economically disadvantaged schools Students in socio-economically average schools Students in socio-economically advantaged schools 19

20 Disadvantaged schools are confronted to multiple challenges Impact of student s socioeconomic background Wider range of abilities Insufficient systemic support Schools inadequate response to student needs Poor school environments Challenging school climate Poor management Insufficient support for staff Demanding learning environment Inadequate support systems

21 2) Support low performing disadvantaged schools and students Quality staff Specialised leadership and teacher training Attractive working conditions Provide support Restructure schools when needed School climate Culture of high expectations School plans to prioritise school climate and positive relationships Monitoring and data for intervention Alternative organisation of learning time Parental and community engagement Need to prioritise communication Provide guidelines to parents on role Foster closer links with communities and mentors

22 Estonia Iceland Korea Turkey Norway Canada Mexico United Kingdom Finland Italy Sweden Japan Netherlands United States Slovenia Greece Switzerland Ireland Australia OECD average Poland Spain Czech Republic Portugal Austria Denmark Chile Luxembourg Germany Belgium Israel France New Zealand Hungary Slovak Republic Different strategies to support students from disadvantaged or diverse backgrounds 22 Increased likelihood of students in the bottom quarter of the ESCS index scoring in the bottom quarter of the mathematics Policies to support performance distribution Finland: National Core Curriculum for Instruction Preparing Immigrants Ratio for Basic Education (2009) 3.5 Increased likelihood of immigrant students scoring in the bottom quarter of the mathematics performance distribution UK England: Pupil premium ECEC: Poland, Korea, Australia, Italy, Nordic Countries, Slovenia, United States. OECD average New Zealand: Māori/Pasifika populations ( ) Chile: Law on Preferential Subsidies (2008) Germany: National Action Plan on Integration (2011) France/Portugal: Education Priority Zones Austria: New middle school reform Source: OECD, PISA 2012 Database, Table II.2.4a and Table II.3.4a.

23 Korea Finland Mexico Alberta (Canada) Flanders (Belgium) Netherlands Australia England (UK) Israel United States Chile Average Norway Japan Denmark Poland Iceland Estonia Brazil Italy Czech Republic Portugal Spain Sweden France Slovak Republic Percentage of teachers Support the teaching profession with incentives in disadvantaged schools % lower secondary teachers who "agree" or "strongly agree" that teaching profession is a valued profession in society, TALIS Korea: Evaluation system (2010) Finland: OSAAVA programme ( ) Netherlands: Teachers Programme (2013) France: Reform of teacher training programmes (2013) Australia: Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (2010) Mexico: Teacher Professional Service (2013) Source: OECD (2014), TALIS..

24 Spain Iceland France Brazil Flanders Portugal Finland Croatia Italy Israel Sweden Mexico Chile Alberta United States Norway Denmark Average Australia Malaysia Czech Republic Bulgaria Estonia Netherlands Serbia Slovak Republic Abu Dhabi Singapore England (UK) Poland Romania Latvia Japan Korea Percentage of teachers Promote in school teacher collaboration, TALIS Never observe other teachers' classes and provide feedback Never teach jointly as a team in the same class Never engage in joint activities across different classes and age groups (e.g. projects) Never take part in collaborative professional learning 24

25 Policies to achieve more equitable education systems Invest early and through upper secondary Eliminate system level obstacles to equity Support low performing disadvantage d schools and students Some issues for France: -culture of repetition (difficult change in teaching practices) -high impact of SES in education performance -integration of migrants in schools -lack of teacher and school leaders collaboration for improvement

26 Visiting a new education system: Finland Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Finland utube.com/watc h?v=zwd1v73o 4VI 26

27 sources for further information For further information Beatriz Education Policy Outlook ok.htm

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