1 Analyzing Linguistically Appropriate IEP Goals in Dual Language Programs 2016 Dual Language Conference: Making Connections Between Policy and Practice March 19, 2016 Framingham, MA
3 Session Description This practice oriented session will help teachers support the instructional relationship between language, literacy, and academic success by considering how standards based IEP goals can be developed that address the linguistic needs of English Learners. Participants will learn to: (1) review and analyze language goals for ELD instruction (2) define and develop standards-based IEPs, and (3) analyze linguistically appropriate academic goals for IEPs. Participants will consider: WIDA Guiding Principles of Language Development WIDA Performance Definitions and Dimensions grade-appropriate academic language instructional needs of ELs with IEPs
4 WIDA: Guiding principles of language development Students languages and cultures are valuable resources to be tapped and incorporated into schooling. Students home, school, and community experiences influence their language development. Students draw on their metacognitive, metalinguistic, and metacultural awareness to develop proficiency in additional languages. Students academic language development in their native language facilitates their development in English. Quick Review: Read the 10 WIDA Guiding Principles. Students learn language and culture through meaningful use and interaction. Students use language in functional and communicative ways that vary according to context. Students develop language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing interdependently, but at different rates and in different ways. Turn & Talk: Discuss the one that stands out to you the most when considering your ELs with IEPs. Students development of academic language and academic content knowledge are interrelated processes. Students development of social, instructional, and academic language, a complex and long term process, is the foundation for their success in school. Students access to instructional tasks requiring complex thinking is enhanced when linguistic complexity and instructional support match their levels of language proficiency.
5 WIDA Language Proficiency Levels Reflect: Think about an EL that also has IEP goals. What is the approximate level of language proficiency in both languages for the student?
6 WIDA Performance Definitions Listening & Reading With the language proficiency level of the student in mind, consider some of the tasks or skills that the student is expected to complete. How is this a match or not a match to the student you are thinking about?
7 WIDA Performance Definitions Speaking & Writing With the language proficiency level of the student in mind, consider some of the tasks or skills that the student is expected to complete. How is this a match or not a match to the student you are thinking about?
8 What is meant by age appropriate academic language? Two Minute Table Talk: How would you define age appropriate academic language? the quality and ability of work for a specified age range suitable for a + particular person, = place, or condition tasks or activities that are rigorous and developmentally appropriate, yet not stilted or unnatural for students age appropriate academic language In (2012), van Leo and Walqui wrote, The Common Core Standards provide us with an opportunity to reconceptualize our pedagogical view of language and the ways in which it can be taught. the language needed by students to do work in schools the language used to acquire deeper understanding of content area topics the language found in texts and on tests the specific language and vocabulary of a content area, including conventions and devices typical for that content area (i.e. essay v lab report v debate)
9 Instructional needs of ELs with IEPs Two Minute Table Talk: How does the WIDA Framework help us to be mindful of the instructional needs of all ELs? Primary Language Support Primary Language Literacy Development English Language Development English Language Literacy Development Specifically Designed, Accessible Content Area Instruction Academic, Developmental, & Functional Needs
10 Instructional needs of ELs with IEPs The IEP is a comprehensive description of the student s strengths and needs in accessing and progressing toward age appropriate grade-level standards in the general curriculum. For English learners, the student s language proficiency and needs must be documented and all IEP goals must be appropriate for the student s proficiency level in the instructional language.
11 Teacher Roles Content Teachers Content Objectives (based on CCSS, NGGS, or other content standards) Teaches skills and content knowledge Facilitates appropriate socialization/behaviors Language Teachers Language Objectives (based on WIDA/ELP standards) Provides explicit, systematic English language instruction Teaches appropriate use of language registers Special Education Teachers Measurable, Linguistically Aligned Objectives (based on student need) Provides individualized instruction through explicit, systematic methods Instruction targeted to remediate child s disability Teaches to grade-level standards Differentiates instruction Teaches to grade-level English proficiency standards Teaches to language objectives Teaches to IEP goals Utilizes variety of instructional methodologies
12 Language Objectives Turn & Talk: What are the required elements of language objectives for your school, department, or district? According to Egbert & Ernst-Slavit (2010), language objectives: are the HOW of the lesson o should be specific about the language skills you want students to develop o derive from the content to be taught o consider the strengths and needs of students o present measureable, achievable outcomes
13 Language Objectives Kinsella & Ward Singer (2011) A language objective stems from the content objective and the language demands of the standard of the lesson. The three main components of a language objective are: function form target content application
14 Language Objectives : Function Kinsella & Ward Singer (2011), describe the function as referring to what you want the students to do. They are measurable and active verbs.
15 Language Objectives : Function This can also be considered depending on the language aspect of the lesson: Language Skills Associated with Content Lessons Listening Speaking Reading Writing Draw a picture Role play Answer questions Listen and retell Follow directions Demonstrate Distinguish between Record Name Discuss Explain Ask and Answer Questions Summarize Evaluate Clarify Justify Preview and predict Find specific information Read fluently Identify main idea Determine fact vs. opinion Scan Infer Identify vocabulary Create complete sentences Summarize List Compare Explain Write questions and answers Create a poem Diagram
16 Language Objectives : Form Kinsella & Ward Singer (2011) describe the form as the grammar, syntax, patterns, and structures students need to use to complete the task. These could be made more specific and depending on the function, the task, and/or the content area.
17 Language Objectives : Content Application Content application generally refers to the actual task from the content area that your students need to complete in order to accomplish the objective. This means that we consider: words that students are expected to produce in discussions, in answering comprehension questions, in any task that requires language production the verbal and written responses we can anticipate from students the most linguistically appropriate response for this grade level
18 Are these language objectives? Students will correctly use present and future tense verbs discuss a story using complete sentences define vocabulary words and use them in complete sentences use past tense verbs to write a paragraph explaining how the actions of Trevor influenced Terri and Matt write a paragraph in the past tense follow directions 18
19 Language is in the Foreground Dutro (2013) explains that ELD objectives focus on language: Students will be able to use taught vocabulary and sentence patterns to describe, compare, explain, etc. 19
20 Sample Language Objective Frame Students will use (grammatical form) to. (grammatical function) Grammatical form comparative & superlative adjectives sequencing words modal verbs Grammatical function compare give directions suggest solutions 20
21 Bring in the Content Application Bruzzese (2015) suggests that a strong language objective will consider both the Language Components: Students will be able to use taught vocabulary and sentence patterns to describe, compare, explain, etc. AND the Content application: in completing a specific content-related task. 21
22 Sample Frame for Language AND Content Students will - give directions to - describe (grammatical function) (content application) - solve a math problem - the main character in a story using. (grammatical form) - sequencing words and specific math terms - precise character trait adjectives 22
23 Analyzing Language Objectives Students will be able to use based on, in my opinion, and I learned from in order to explain their own ideas in light of the discussion. Students will recount a text read aloud or information presented through other media using main idea is, mostly about, and important idea/detail. Students will be able to use the author stated, according to the text, and from I know that in order to support their own ideas based on research 23 read by the class.
24 Writing Language Objectives Consider this 4th grade ELA standard: Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, summarize the text. Using the sample language objective frame, work with a partner to create a possible language objective for this task. Students will (grammatical function) (content application) using. (grammatical form) 24
26 Turn & Talk: What stands out for you about the connection between MPIs, content, and language objectives? Trower, 2015
27 Effective Language Objectives Stem from the linguistic demands of a task at the appropriate language level Focus on high-leverage language that will serve students in many academic and social contexts Use active verbs to explain task Name the specific language students will use Consider the language proficiency level of the students as well as the salient features of that proficiency level (adapted from Dutro, 2013) Turn & Talk: Discuss one thing you learned about effective Language Objectives in the last 10 minutes. 27
28 Standards-based IEPs The process used to develop a standards-based IEP is directly tied to the state s content standards. Both the student s present level of performance (often referred to as PLOP ) and the annual IEP goals are aligned with the state s grade-level standards, creating a plan that is aimed at getting the student to a proficient level on all state standards. This does not mean that the student is on grade level in the content area rather they are working towards meeting grade level expectations and receiving grade level content instruction. (VA DOE, 2011).
29 Steps to Creating a Linguistically Appropriate Standards-Based IEP 1. Consider the grade-level content and language proficiency standards for the grade in which the student is enrolled or would be enrolled based on age. 2. Examine classroom and student data to determine where the student is functioning in relation to the grade-level standards and language proficiency standards. 3. Establish the present level of academic achievement, functional performance and language proficiencies. 4. Develop measurable annual goals aligned with grade-level academic content and ELD standards. 5. Assess and report the student s progress throughout the year, considering language development in both languages and content areas. 6. Identify specially designed instruction including accommodations and/or modifications needed to access and progress in the general education curriculum and what academic language supports will be necessary for the student.
30 1. Consider the grade-level content and ELD standards for the grade in which the student is enrolled or would be enrolled based on age. Since academic content standards are the foundation of the general education curriculum, it is necessary for the IEP team to consider how the student is performing in relation to the state s grade-level content standards. What is the intent of the content standard? What is the content standard saying that the student must know and be able to do? What language standards connect to this content standard? How do students demonstrate academic language proficiency with this standard?
31 4. Develop measurable annual goals aligned with grade-level academic content standards. What are the student s needs as identified in the present level of performance? What can the student reasonably be expected to accomplish in one school year? How will language proficiency be supported as a part of the IEP goals? Are the conditions for meeting the goal addressed? What scaffolds have been successful in helping the student make progress in the general curriculum? How will the outcome of the goal be measured?
32 6: Identify specially designed instruction including accommodations and/or modifications needed to access and progress in the general education curriculum. Remember your goal is to accelerate progress. What are the student s interests, preferences, and goals? What accommodations are needed to enable the student to access the knowledge in the general education curriculum? How will language development (in both languages) be considered and monitored throughout the life of the IEP? What accommodations have been used with the student and were they effective? Has the complexity of the materials been changed in such a way that the content has been modified?
33 Steps to Creating a Linguistically Appropriate Standards-Based IEP Five Minute Table Talk: What idea or aspect did you hear that solidified a practice your school/iep team has? What idea or aspect did you hear that is a new or different way to consider the development of IEP goals for culturally and linguistically diverse students? What idea or aspect might you consider discussing with your IEP team in the future as you develop linguistically appropriate standards based IEPs?
34 Linguistically Aligned Goals Linguistically aligned goals should: o Align to the student s present levels of performance in English (taken from an ELP assessment) o Be drafted in the student s areas of disability that may be impacted by being an English learner Note: This may be accomplished through alignment of the student s academic goals in ELA (listening, speaking, reading, or writing as relevant to the student s English proficiency level (as per WIDA proficiency levels, performance descriptors, or other indicators of ELP aligned to the new ELD/ELP standards.
35 Objectives Content Objectives are the: Language Objectives are the: Purpose: tell what students will know or do Links to state standards Purpose Tells how students will perform the task using which language forms/ key vocabulary 35
36 Five Components of IEP Goals 1. Learner & Date 2. Behavior clearly defined, observable behavior (state the form or key vocabulary) 3. Condition under which student will perform the behavior 4. Criterion performance level required to achieve mastery of the goal 5. Evaluation Schedule frequency of assessment 36
37 SMARTER (Linguistically Aligned) IEP Goals Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Timely Enhance language Relevant for language acquisition Learner & Date Behavior clearly defined, observable behavior Condition under which student will perform the behavior Criterion performance level required to achieve mastery of the goal Evaluation Schedule
38 Common Core State Standards and Content Goals ELA Reading Standards: Literature 3.RL Key Ideas and Details 3.RL.2 (Content Goal) Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. 38
39 Steps to Linguistically Aligned IEP Goal What is the linguistic demand (taken from CCSS)? Recount stories by making connections between story events What is the language function (purpose)? Retell a story What is the language form needed to perform the function? Past tense verbs. transition words, articles What key vocabulary will be used? Taken from stories (past tense verbs) 39
40 Recount Stories: Level 2 content application support grammatical function By (date), after viewing a series of (3) related pictures depicting events from a story, and after listening to the teacher tell a story to match the events in the pictures, (student) will use the pictures to verbally retell 1 event per picture to a partner, using at least (3) words per picture, and point to the picture as he/she describes the events, for (2 out of 3) stories told using taught transition words. grammatical form
41 Recount Stories: Level 3 support content application By (date), after viewing a series of (3) related pictures depicting events from a story, and after listening to the teacher tell a story to match the events in the pictures, (student) will use the pictures to verbally retell 1 event per picture to a partner, using at least 1 complete sentence per picture, and point to the picture as he/she describes the events, for (2 out of 3) stories told using past tense verbs and taught transition words. grammatical function grammatical form
42 Recount Stories: Level 4 content application By (date), after viewing a series of (3) related function pictures depicting events from a story, and after listening to the teacher tell a story to match the events in the pictures, (student) will use the pictures to verbally retell 1 event per picture to a partner, using at least 1 complex or 2 simple sentences per picture, and point to the picture as he/she describes the events, for (2 out of 3) stories told using past tense verbs and taught transition words. grammatical support grammatical form
43 Steps to Linguistically Aligned IEP Goal What is the linguistic demand (taken from CCSS)? What is the language function (purpose)? What is the language form needed to perform the function? What key vocabulary will be used? 43
44 Key Idea & Details: Level 4 By (date), after reading a grade level informational article with the main idea (e.g. topic sentence, topic paragraph, title, headings) removed, (name) will infer and verbally state the main idea using at least one complex complete sentence in (2 out of 3) trials as measured by teacher observation. support content application grammatical function Can you identify the grammatical form
45 Compare & Contrast: Level 2 By (date), after reading (1) instructional level illustrated text with an advanced partner reading the text aloud and student repeating, (name) will use teacher provided glossary of pronouns (e.g. "He/she", "I", "you") to identify language that indicates narrative point of view by highlighting the language in the text for (in 4 out 5 trials). support content application grammatical function Can you identify the grammatical form
46 Compare & Contrast: Level 4 support By (date), after reading (2) grade level texts from different points of view, (name) will use a Venn Diagram to verbally compare and contrast at least (2) similarities and at least (2) differences from each point of view (in 4 out 5 trials) as measured by (a teacher made test). content application grammatical function Can you identify the grammatical form
47 Key Vocabulary for Math Problem Solving: Level 3 By (date), after given real-life word problems and pictures of the word problems (name) will listen to and read along with the problem 2-3 times, underlining key language that signals use of mathematical operations (e.g. product of, increased by, per, ratio, quotient of), then use the underlined language and picture of the word problem to write an equation, and correctly solve (4 out of 5) math word problems. support content application grammatical function grammatical form Can you identify the
48 Session Recap This practice oriented session will help teachers support the instructional relationship between language, literacy, and academic success by considering how standards based IEP goals can be developed that address the linguistic needs of English Learners. Participants will learn to: (1) analyze language goals for ELD instruction (2) write ELD language goals,, (3) define and develop standards-based IEPs, and (4) analyze linguistically appropriate academic goals for IEPs. Participants will consider: WIDA Guiding Principles of Language Development WIDA Performance Definitions and Dimensions grade-appropriate academic language instructional needs of ELs with IEPs
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