COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIME TOKEN IN THE TEACHING OF SPEAKING

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1 COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIME TOKEN IN THE TEACHING OF SPEAKING Rachda Adilla English Education, Languages and Arts Faculty, State University of Surabaya Prof. Dr. Susanto, M. Pd. English Education, Languages and Arts Faculty, State University of Surabaya Abstrak Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa rehearsal, feedback, dan engagement dalam Cooperative Learning Time Token telah di implementasikan dalam proses belajar dan mengajar materi berbicara. Dengan demikian, tujuan dari peneitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan bagaimana guru mengimplementasikan dalam proses belajar mengajar kemampuan berbicara. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif yang bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan fenomena secara mendalam dengan menggunakan kata-kata. Maka dari itu, instrument utama dalam penelitian ini adalah peneliti itu sendiri. Untuk membantu pengambilan penelitian, peneliti menggunakan cacatan lapangan dari proses observasi. Peneliti memilih seorang guru sebajai subjek penelitian ini merujuk pada pengalaman guru tersebut yang telah menggunakan tehnik-tehnik Cooperative Learning dalam proses belajar mengajar, salah satunya adalah. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah proses rehearsal, feedback, dan engagement dalam Cooperative Learning Time Token cukup berhasil di implementasikan. Aktivitas rehearsal yang di lakukan oleh guru untuk mempersiapkan murid-murid sebelum melakukan aktivitas. Sedangkan aktivitas feedback di laksanakan untuk memberi kesempatan pada guru untuk memberikan masukan kepada murid-murid mengenai performa mereka dalam aktivitas. dan yang terakhir, aktivitas engagement menunjukkan bagaimana guru membuat aktivitas yang di lakukan menjadi lebih hidup lagi dengan cara mengatur bangku menjadi huruf U sehingga murid-murid lebih mudah untuk mengikuti jalannya aktivitas. Kata Kunci: Cooperative Learning, Time Token, Berbicara, Teks Deskriptif, Rehearsal, Feedback, dan Engagement. Abstract This research aimed to describe how the teacher implement rehearsal, feedback, and engagement during in the teaching of speaking. The design of this research is descriptive research which aimed to describe the phenomenon in depth by using words. Therefore, the researcher is the main instrument of this research. The researcher also used field note to gain the data during the observation. The researcher use the teacher as the subject since she has already implemented many of Cooperative Learning technique, including. The result of this research was the rehearsal, feedback, and engagement activities during Cooperative Learning Time Token was going fairly well. The rehearsal was done by the teacher to prepare the students before doing the activity. The feedback activity gave the teacher chance to advising the students regarding the performance. And the engagement activity showed how the teacher make the activity live by arranging the chair into U shape to make the students easier to follow the activity. Keywords: Cooperative Learning, Time Token, Speaking, Descriptive Text, Rehearsal, Feedback, and Engagement. INTRODUCTION Time Token is one of the techniques belongs to the cooperative learning created by Arends (1997) which emphasize on communication and cooperation between students in sharing or solving information and to solve the problem of dominant students or silent students in conversation by using a card. Students are given with card by the teacher and each card has time and students job on it. In this case, students are asked to present their work in front of the class by using that card. Students are not allowed to expand their time of presentation since it has been given précised time on the card. As supported by Mandal (2009) that this technique ensures same participation level by limiting how often each members or groups are allowed to speak. This is supported by Thornbury (2006: 8) that the basic rule in speaking is turntaking, in which the speaker take turns in delivering their speech during the activity. Since this technique using group work, it also can increase their teamwork and helps 1

2 them gain various goals. This is supported by Sharan (1980) that one of the conclusions that can be gained by using team methods is that they can be used to activate different group processes and achieve different goals. In this condition, students can express themselves in sharing and supporting each other s in well-behave situation. By doing so, the teacher-centered learning can be avoided. The importance of Time Token as Cooperative Learning has been proven in previous study. In teaching English, Time Token is proven to be effective to be used to increase student ability and motivation in speaking skills, especially in fluency and sequences (Urbanus, 2011). Although Time Token is proven effective to be used, there are still problems in conducting the techniques itself. From the above previous study, same problem and suggestion has been shown in implementing the technique: the appropriate material based on students level. And of course, this problem leads to difficulties for the students in giving questions or suggestions to their friends. Teacher s role in speaking activities should be as motivator and facilitator of the students. It is the teacher s job to make sure that the students can express their ideas by presenting it in front of the class without nervous or even silent during speaking activity. Such condition can only by gained by creating real-life communication situation. But in fact, the students always reluctant to speak in front of the class and tended to be silent because many of their friends laughed at them. Therefore, creating real-life communication situation in speaking activities needs appropriate technique and material that used group work. As Kayi (2012) stated that teacher should create three things in speaking: real-life situation, excited activities, and challenging task, and all of them can only be achieved if the students work cooperatively together. is the answer for the teacher who looks for alternative technique in teaching speaking since it can enable the students to work cooperatively in completing the task as well as developing their social skills during the activity. As for the material, the teacher can used descriptive text because it can give chances to the students to express their ideas in describing material and immaterial things freely. Although is widely used in many subject, but only few teacher has been used it in teaching English. One of the SMAN teachers in Sidoarjo teacher uses it, especially for teaching of spoken descriptive. The teacher said that this technique is quiet effective used in teaching spoken descriptive text because it can make the students active and happy during the teaching learning activity by often reducing the use of native language (bahasa Indonesia and bahasa Jawa). Moreover, by using this technique, the teacher can make the students working together and reducing her role in the class as the main source of knowledge and let the students work by using their own efforts to complete the task given by the teacher and gain understanding by themselves. Unfortunately, the teacher did not explain how to deliver the material in the classroom as well as encouraging the students to be active during teaching learning activity. From the information above, the researcher tends to answer the problem: how is the teaching learning activity done by the teacher in the classroom? From the preceding paragraph, the researcher understood that can improve their abilities in speaking as well as their social skills since it encourage the students to approach their friends during the activity. Moreover, according to Harmer (1999: 87-88) there are three main benefits of teaching speaking: rehearsal (chances of practicing the language outside the classroom), feedback (giving advices and suggestions after performance to improve speaking ability), and engagement (making the students highly motivating). By considering the statement, it can be considered that is very useful in teaching speaking. Therefore, following the above statement, the researcher formulated three research questions for this research, they were: 1. What were the teacher s rehearsal activities during the Cooperative Learning Time Token? 2. What were the teacher s feedback activities during the Cooperative Learning Time Token? 3. What were the teacher s engagement activities during the Cooperative Learning Time Token? RESEARCH METHOD Based on the research questions and the objectives mention in the above statement, the form of this study was classified as descriptive qualitative research which aims to describe the teacher activities during speaking activity using. As Ary, Jacob, Sorensen, and Razavieh (2010:29) stated that qualitative research aims to describe phenomenon in depth to gain complete understanding by using words rather than numbers. Therefore, the data taken from descriptive qualitative research cannot be measured using a numeric analysis, but by describing it with words. The setting of this study was one of the State Senior High School located in Sidoarjo. The researcher choosed this place because it has received National Standardized School (SSN) from the Ministry of Education (DEPDIKNAS). Moreover, the English teachers of the school were often using media or teaching technique

3 during teaching learning activity. The researcher hoped that by observing teacher s activity during speaking activity which uses, he could gain new perspectives about the technique itself and of course, building knowledge for a better understanding in teaching English as a Foreign Language. The subject of the study was one of the English teachers in the school. The researcher selected this teacher as the subject because the teacher is very creative in teaching English skills. The teacher often uses several teaching technique and media during teaching learning activity. As for the teaching technique, the teacher often uses Cooperative Learning technique such as Jigsaw, Think-Pair-Share, Number Head Together, and Time Token. Moreover, the teacher is admired by many students of the tenth grade because of the activeness and creativity in teaching English. The sources of the data from this study were the teaching learning process done by the teacher using in teaching Spoken Descriptive. The data was obtained to answer the research questions of the study (Susanto, 2008:39). The first data of the study were activity of rehearsal, feedback, and engagement done by the teacher during the Cooperative Learning Time Token. Since the design of this study is qualitative, the researcher is the key of the instrument. Moreover, to help the researcher in collecting the data of the study, the researcher will use observation or direct interview (Ary, Jacob, Sorensen, and Ravazieh, 2010:421). In collecting the first data, the researcher will conduct an observation from the beginning until the end in the class during teaching learning of spoken descriptive text activity by using. In this study, the researcher will act as complete observer which present on the site but not participate at all (Ary, Jacob, Sorensen, and Ravazieh, 2010:433). In this study, the researcher will take notes on the teaching learning activity, especially on teacher s activity in rehearsal, feedback, and engagement. The data of observation field note will be analyze in descriptive way by describing the rehearsal, feedback, and engagement activity done by the teacher during. From the field notes, the researcher will get the description of the rehearsal, feedback, and engagement activity done by the teacher from the researcher s point of view. Since the descriptive qualitative research always deals with massive amount of data collects from the observation, the researcher must organize it in such convenient way in order to making new explanation, developing theories, or posing a new questions using three stages: organizing and familiarizing, coding and reducing, and interpreting and representing (Ary, Jacob, Sorensen, and Ravazieh:2010:481). To avoid misunderstanding, the researcher describe each of the terms below: 1. Familiarizing and Organizing The researcher will transcript the data gained from the observation by making notes. To avoid bias in transcription, the data will not be concern with grammatical patterns. After transcription, the researcher will re-read the data to ensure the quality of the data. Then, the researcher will classify the data into some titles to make it easier to read and to understand. 2. Coding and reducing The researcher will separate the data taken from the study by looking its unit of meaning (words, phrases, sentences, behavior patterns, subjects ways of thinking, and events) that is important and often occur regularly. By doing so, the irrelevant data will crossed-out and will analyze the relevant data further. 3. Interpreting and representing The researcher will make generalization based on connection from categories and patterns. Interpreting descriptive qualitative data is difficult since it is personal and having no rules. Therefore, the researcher will rely on personal feelings supported by the data. Moreover, to avoid subjectivity, narrative inquiry will be uses by the researcher as an approach in interpreting the data. After interpreting the data, the researcher will represent the data of the studies by reporting the themes using multimedia presentations. RESULT AND DISCUSSION In this part, the researcher tend to report the results and discussions the observation in order to answer all of research questions. The Use of in Teaching Speaking Skill to the Tenth Grade Students Before answering all of the research questions on the preceeding paragraph, the researcher tended to answer the research problem "how is the teaching learning activities done by the teacher in the classroom? The researcher described the teaching learning activities done by the teacher in the classroom which used Cooperative Learning Time Token. As the researcher stated in the previous chapter that the main point of the Cooperative Learning Time Token is to ensure all of the students gain the same right to deliver their ideas by speaking by providing the same exact time and proper role using cards. Moreover, all of the detail must be prepared by the teacher before the application of the technique. The condition of the class during the application of must be set into discussion style. The teacher arranged the chairs and the 3

4 tables into U letter with some of them in front of the class for the presenter s place. The aim of the room s arrangement is to make sure all of the student can fully participate in the discussion and have the teacher observed and guide the students during the activities without obscuring the discussion. After preparing the chair and the tables, the teacher prepares all of equipment regarding the discussion such as the tag name for the presenter, MC, time-keeper, and the captain of the group to separate the role of the students during the discussion. The separation also aimed to make sure the teacher can acknowledged and guided each of the students jobs during the discussion. After preparing the name tags, the teacher prepared the essential part of the Cooperative Learning Time Token, the cards. The cards was divided into two parts, the first one is for the presenters and the second one is for the audiences.the presenter s card contained job to explained the result of the discussion in thirty seconds. While the audiences card contained job to give a question or suggestion in thirty seconds. Next, after the teacher prepared all of the equipment, the teacher then explained all of the information regarding the activity to the students. The explanation was aimed to make the students each of their role during the discussion as well as not crossing the rule of the discussion After that, the teacher had the students divide themselves into a group which consist of four students and select one of them to become the captain of the group. Then, the teacher asked each captain to come forward and took an envelope in which had a number on it. After the teacher called the entire captain of the group to took the envelope, the teacher then gave the students time to discuss the topic for twenty minutes. Next, the teacher then asked the first group to come forward and had the second group become the MC and the time-keeper for the first group. When some of the students made some noise during the discussion session, the teacher asked them to be quiet and had them respect the presenter. The Teacher s Rehearsal Activities during The activity of rehearsal happened before the teacher conducted the. The rehearsal activity aimed to make the students prepared by practicing it first with the teacher. The teacher prepared them by explaining the activity they are going to do, have the students practice the conversation as well as the pronunciation. If the students make mistake during the practice, the teacher simply use gestures and command words as signal for the students to repeat the practice. The teacher also have the students practice the role of each students during the activity (MC, Time Keeper, and Presenter) by appoint them randomly. The aimed of the teacher s action is to ensure each student had the exact quality the teacher need before the students did the activity. The Teacher s Feedback Activities during The activity of feedback consists of gestures, words, sentences, or phrases uses by the teacher while giving suggestion to the students during Cooperative Learning Time Token activity. In this activity, the teacher tended to repair the mistake made by the students as well as giving suggestion regarding their action during the discussion. Since the teacher did not directly participate in the discussion session, the teacher s feedback is conducted in post-discussion. Moreover, by conducting the feedback session after the students finished their discussion session, the teacher could avoid wasting the time during feedback session. The Teacher s Engagement Activities during The activity of engagement consists of gestures, words, sentences, or phrases uses by the teacher in making the activity become challenging for the students during Activity. The engagement activity aimed to make the activity, in this case is, become challenging to the students. The teacher started by arranging the class formation in U letter shape. This activity happened before the discussion session or in the pre-activity. The U letter shape formation is the common formation in the discussion session. In this formation, the presenter can cover all of the audiences in the class so well that every one of them can hear what the presenter said. The other teacher s engagement activity was the time allocation written in the time token s card. The teacher allocated 30 seconds for the students in delivering their speech. Each side, the presenter and the audience, has the same time allocation that is 30 seconds. SUMMARY Based on the findings of data analysis and discussion in the previous chapter, the researcher drew a conclusion: first, the teacher s rehearsal, feedback, and engagement activities during in the teaching and learning process was going fairly well. The rehearsal activity was done to make the students prepared

5 and know what they were doing before conducting the discussion. The teacher also asked the students to imitate what she said in order to train their pronunciation before conducting the activity. Second, in the feedback activity, the teacher gave some suggestion regarding the activity as well as improving the students ability in delivering their speech in front of the class. Third, in the teacher s engagement activity, the teacher tended to make the activity become challenging to the students by arranging the class formation into U letter shape to make the students can see all of the discussion session thoroughly. Moreover, the teacher also gave the same time allocation, 30 seconds, for both presenters and the audiences. The teacher also gave different topic in the mission card to ensure each group has different presentation s topic. REFERENCES Arends, Richard I. (2012). Learning to Teach (Ninth edition). USA: McGraw-Hill. Arends, Richard I. & Kilcher, Ann. (2010). Teaching for Student Learning Becoming an Accomplished Teacher. New York: Routledge. Ary, D., Jacob, Lucy C., Sorensen, Chris., Ravazieh, A. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education (Eight Edition). USA: Wadsworth. Cora, L. & Knight, P. (2006). Learning and Teaching English: A Course for Teacher. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DEPDIKNAS. (2006). Standar Isi Kompetensi Lulusan Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Sekolah Menengah Atas. Jakarta: DEPDIKNAS. Harmer, Jeremy. (1998). how to Teach English. Harlow, Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited. Harmer, Jeremy. (2007). how to teach English (new edition). China: Pearson Education Limited. Harmer, Jeremy. (2007). how to teach English (4 th edition). UK: Pearson Education Limited. Haynes, Judie. & Zacarian, Debbie. (2010). Teaching English Language Learners. Vancouver: ASCD. Ibrahim, A.H. & Yusoff, Z.F. (2012). Teaching Public Speaking in Blended Environment. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 2, No. 6, November Malaysia: Universiti Malaysia Pahang Grant. Kagan, Spencer. (2009). Cooperative Learning. California: Kagan Publishing. Kayi, Hayrire. (2006). Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language (Internet Teaching English as Second Language Journal). Nevada: University of Nevada. Mandal, Rita R. (2009). Cooperative Learning Strategies to Enhance Writing Skill. The Journal of Applied Linguistics. Volume 1:2 March 2009.pp Malihah, Noor. (2010). The Effectiveness of Speaking Instruction through Task-Based Language Teaching. Salatiga: State Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN) Salatiga. Priyana, J., Irjayanti, A.R, Renitasari, V Interlanguage: Engish for Senior High School Students X. Pusat Perbukuan DEPDIKNAS: Sari, Bimanti W. (2012). THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TIME TOKEN TO TEACH SPEAKING DESCRIPTIVE TEXT TO TENTH GRADER STUDENTS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL. Unpublished Thesis, Universitas Negeri Surabaya: Surabaya. Sharan, Shlomo. (1980). Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: Recent Methods and Effects on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations. Review of Educational Research Summer, 1980, Vol. 50, No. 2, Pp Slavin, Robert E. (1980). Cooperative Learning : 315 REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. American Educational Research and Sage Publications. Slavin, Robert E. (1988). Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement. Association for Supervision and Curriculum: JRA Publish. Suprijono, Agus. (2009). Cooperative Learning: Teori & Aplikasi Paikem. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Thornbury, Scott. (2005). How to Teach Speaking. UK: Pearson Education Limited. Ur, Penny. (1996). A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Waitaby, Urbanus. (2011). The Improvement of Speaking Skills through Cooperative Learning Approach on Third Graders of SDN (State Elementary School) I Kiduldalem I Sub-District Klojen Malang City. Unpublished Thesis, Universitas Negeri Malang: Malang. Wiyarsi, Antuni. (2010). Implementation of Cooperative Learning Type Time Token to Increase the Students Activity and Interest on General Chemistry. Yogyakarta: University State of Yogyakarta. 5

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