1 THE EFFECT OF USING SILENT CARD SHUFFLE STRATEGY TOWARD STUDENTS WRITING ACHIEVEMENT A Study at Eight Grade Students of SMP N 10 Padang By : Heni Safitri*) Advisors : **) Riny Dwitya Sani dan M. Khairi Ikhsan**) Staf Pengajar Program Studi Bahasa Inggris STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat ABSTRAK Dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris, banyak siswa yang masih memiliki kesulitan dalam menulis sebuah teks. Hal itu disebabkan karena beberapa faktor, baik dari siswa itu sendiri maupun dari guru yang mengajar. Dari sekian banyak strategi yang dapat digunakan dalam pembelajaran writing, peneliti memilih untuk menggunakan strategi Silent Card Shuffle Strategy yang bertujuan untuk membantu siswa dalam meningkatkan kemampuan mereka dalam menulis. Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VIII di SMP Negeri 10 Padang,.Peneliti mengambil sampel menggunakan cluster sampling dimana dua kelas di pilih untuk dijadikan sampel. Kemudian peneliti menggunakan flipping coin untuk menentukan kelas eksperimen dan kelas kontrol. Hasilnya diperoleh kelas VIII E sebagai kelas eksperimen dan kelas VIII D sebagai kelas kontrol. Sebelum memberi treatment peneliti memberi pre-test di kedua kelas sampel untuk mengetahui kemampuan awal siswa dalam menulis. Peneliti mengajar selama 8 kali pertemuan di kelas VIII E menggunakan strategy Silent Card Shuffle dan strategi Interactive Writing di kelas VIII D. Test terakhir berupa posttest yaitu untuk mengetahui perbedaan nilai rata-rata antara kedua kelas sample. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang diperoleh, dapat disimpulkan bahwa strategi Silent Card Shuffle memberikan efek yang signifikan terhadap kemampuan menulis siswa kelas VIII di SMP N 10 Padang. Hal ini ditunjukan dengan tingginya nilai rata-rata differential di kelas eksperimen (VIII E), yaitu 1.57 dibandingkan dengan kelas kontrol (VIII D), yaitu 0.7, dan tingginya nilai T-tes di kelas experiment (3,14) dibanding dengan T-tes di kelas control (1.3).Oleh karena itu diharapkan kepada guru untuk dapat menggunakan strategi Silent Card Shuffle dalam pembelajaran dan pengajaran writing skill. Kata Kunci : Strategy Silent Card Shuffle, Kemampuan Menulis *) Penulis **) Pembimbing INTRODUCTION Writing is a way to express idea, thought, and opinion in written form. In English teaching learning, writing is one of skills that have to be acquired by students at all level beside speaking, reading and listening. Then, the writer can convey the information and knowledge to the reader with the variety of message such as a letter, an article, a report, a poem and other in written form. Therefore, the students must improve their writing skill about how to create a good text. By comprehending writing skill the students are able to express and arrange their thoughts and opinions to produce a text. To be a good writer, the
2 students should pay attention to many things such as choose the word appropriately, the grammatical, use the punctuation and the coherence on the sentences. It is important thing to make the readers can understand easily when they read that writing. So that, the writer should be given more attention because writing is productive skill that enables someone to communicate their idea to others. As stated on school based curriculum (2006) in teaching writing at junior high school for the eighth grade students, the students are expected to be able to write several kinds of text. They are descriptive, narrative, and recount text. The students should be able to identify the generic structure of each text. Furthermore, the purpose of curriculum in writing skill; the students can increase their ability in writing skill and also they are be able to arrange the sentences into paragraph by using grammar, punctuation and coherence correctly, and finally they can write well. To produce an English text well, the students should study hard in order to be able to write well. Two kinds of text which are learned at junior high school are narrative text and recount text. Narrative involved with chronological events which lead to crisis and then find its resolution. It is purposed to entertain or amuse the readers. Then, recount also involved with chronological events that have a purpose to report an event or an activity of someone and to entertain the readers. Thus, by writing a narrative text and recount text student learn to manage their ideas and contribute it to a good writing. Unfortunately, there were some problems that were faced by the students in learning writing. Based on researcher experience while teaching practice at junior high school 10 Padang, those problems involved two factors. The first problem came from the students themselves. In doing writing activity, some of them often get difficulties in developing their ideas. They could not express the ideas that they thought to convey in written form. Then they did not know what they were going to write. Some of them wrote sentences but they made many mistakes so that they cannot produce a good sentence. Furthermore, they were still in doubt, afraid, lazy, and bored to write exactly writing a composition that is because of poor of vocabularies, grammar, spelling or punctuation or not able to organize the ideas yet. The second problem came from the strategy which is used by the teacher. Some teachers did not teach the students how to write a narrative and recount paragraph well. They only gave the topic, and if the students could not finish the work the teacher asked them to do it at home. It seems that, most students felt bored to write a paragraph, because the teacher just implemented the same strategy for teaching writing in every week, so the students felt less motivation from a teacher. Because of these problems, most of students got the bad effects. First, the students did not know how to organize the generic structure that consists of orientation, complication and reorientations. Second, if the students have lack of vocabulary, writing is also difficult for them. Third, the students are difficult to find ideas that should they write, so they can not develop their ideas in written form. Fourth, students have difficulty in finding appropriate words to construct their writing. Finally, they also worry about grammar and punctuation, so they can not produce a good writing. Thus, it makes them stop writing. They are pressured to make a paragraph. The teacher should apply the fascinating teaching that can evaluate students work about the topic and directly become a feedback on their writing.
3 Referring on the problem above, it is important for English teacher to find out some solutions, especially in teaching writing. The English teacher can apply many strategies in teaching writing. There are some strategies that can be applied by teacher and it can increase students motivation to write in English that are interactive writing, partner work, writing workshop, and Silent Card Shuffle strategy. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Basically, there are four basic skills used in language teaching learning, they are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Writing is one of four skills in English that must be acquired by the students. Oshima and Hogue (1991:3) defines that writing is a process, and a product. Its means that in writing we need process for creating a good paragraph, the process is firstly we should think about everything that has related to idea, and then think about the supporting idea in clause form, and after that we can make the sentences in outline form and then rewrite them to be a good paragraph. Those process are very important in writing because good or not a writing depend on how the writer relate idea and supporting details, then using grammar correctly. So, we need a process to create a good paragraph. In this research, rsearcher used Silent Card Shuffle Startegy which was one of strategy for teaching writing. Silent Card Shuffle strategy is a strategy that has several actions such as, sequencing, matching, positioning, and classification about something by using pictures or photos than imagine that in a good paragraph. Frangenheim (2005:51) states that the Silent Card Shuffle is strategy that can increase the challenge, duplicate certain cards and insist that all cards be used in the sequence, or in the classifications (note that the same card may not appear twice in the same classification). It means that the Silent Card Shuffle help student making a sequence, classification and matching pictures or photos in cards form and then student should think about the card and write something about picture in a paragraph so this strategy can be used in teaching writing. Next, New Zealand curriculum (2010:1) explains the Silent Card Shuffle is a learnedcentered, cooperative strategy useful for classroom activities that require small group to classify, sort, sequence, map and match. The meaning of the statement before that s Silent Card Shuffle is the strategy that create student be active in small group and doing some activity such classify, sort, sequence, map, and match something. In addition Frangenheim in Rodin Educational Consultancy (2009:15) Silent Card Shuffle is no talking and let your finger do the talking. The meaning of this statement is the Silent Card Shuffle as cooperative strategy that demands the student more active than teacher in a class. All of students in the small groups or the pairs have not to talk but they have to do more activity with their fingers, in classifying, sequencing, matching, mapping, and positioning the correct card. It makes the class look like silently but actually the students are studying writing actively by using Silent Card Shuffle strategy. In conclusion based on the some definitions of Silent Card Shuffle, it is a strategy that has several applications, such as; sequencing, classifying, matching and mapping the card that can help the students in writing. This strategy can help students in creating a paragraph, because the student just imagine and sequence what they have seen on the card in written form. So this strategy is suitable for writing because it is a complete package strategy, it means that it not only has several application that can apply in teaching
4 writing strategy but also has card as media in teaching writing. There are nine procedures of Silent Card Shuffle Strategy that proposed by Frangenheim (2005:5), there were mentioned as follow: (a) The teacher divides the students into some small groups. Each small group consists of 3 or 4 student, (b) The teacher gives an envelope to each group. On an envelope consist of some pictures with clues as guiding for student in writing. The clues related to the pictures, (c) The students open envelope and lay out cards. In this step, the groups open the envelope and put the cards on the tabl, (d) Teacher nominates criteria. It means the teacher tells to the groups that the cards are about a narrative paragraph. The cards are some pictures that completed with clues that related to the pictures, then the groups must sequence the cards based on the generic structure of narrative paragraph. Generic structure of narrative paragraph is orientation, complication, resolutio, (e) Pairs complete a story. The teacher asks to the groups for writing narrative paragraph by using pictures that have been sequenced by the groups, (f) Pair A visits pair B and Pair B tells story. Then pair A makes 2 recommendations. It means team A visits team B, then a chairman of team B should tell about their narrative paragraph to team A, and the next, team A must make two commentaries about it, (g) Pair B visits Pair A same as above. This step is same as the step before, pair A visits pair C. Pair B visits pair D, all of team is visited to each other, then team B improve their story with recommendation of team A, and this activity is also done by another groups, (h) Teacher nominates 2 4 pairs to display to class. This step means, the teacher asks to one of groups for showing the result of their discussion in front of the class, (h) Read and discuss. Use 5 W and 1 H (Who, Where, What, When, Why and How). Last activity, the teacher and the student read and discuss together about the lesson and the result of discussion each group by using 5 W and 1 H (Who, Where, What, When, Why and How). Frangenheim (2005:56) proposes the advantage of the silent card shuffle strategy is a different way of reminding student of sequence of event and had other application. It means that the Silent Card Shuffle can help student for reminding of sequencing about something event by using picture than imagine the picture in written form by using the simple word. And in the Silent Card Shuffle has several applications that useful for student in teaching writing, the applications are sequencing, classification, matching concept and definition, mapping and positioning, so that trough those applications, the students will be helped in writing a paragraph. METHOD OF THE RESEARCH This research was experimental research.. According to Gay and Airasian (2000) Experimental research was study to find causeeffect relationship. The researcher used quasi-experimental design especially in nonequivalent groups pre test post test control group design because the researcher took two classes (one for experimental class and one for control class), not one class like pre-experimental design. Besides that, the researcher done group selected, not individual selected that is applied in true-experimental design. One group for experimental class taught by using silent card shuffle strategy and other group for control class taught by using Interactive Writing Strategy Furthermore, to support this research and gain the data, the researcher needed some meetings that will be function as the way to do experiment.
5 Gay and Airasian (2000) explain that some periods require for treatment. In other word, to find out whether the strategy has an effect or not, the researcher need some meetings for the treatment to see the different both of variables. In this case, the researcher used two variables. Four Corners Strategy was the independent variable and the students score of reading comprehension was the dependent variable. The population of this research was SMP N 10 Padang in academic year 2013/2014. There were three classes; VIII D, VIII E andviii F. However, in this research, the researcher used three classes as the population because only three classes that had same characteristics, such as the same teacher and same background knowledge. In addition, sum of students class VIII Dwas 30, VIII E was 30 and VIII F was 30. Therefore, total populations were 90 students. The researcher selected the sample based on the students mean scores in writing test. After that, the researcher used formula that suggested by Sudjana to find normality and homogeneity class. The sample was normal if the result of calculation of normality data is under 0,1610, but if the result is above 0,1610 it is not normal. Therefore, P-value of VIII D was ,1610; it means the sample is normal, VIII E P-Value ,1610; it means the sample is normal and VIII F P-Value ,1610, it means the sample is normal. Moreover, the population of this research was homogeny because F-testing was smaller than 1,90, F-testing = 1,03 1,90. Then, the researcher took sample randomly from the normality class and homogeneity class. There were experimental class, control class and try out class. Experimental class wasviii E; control class was VIII D and try out classviii F. The researcher chose VIII E as experimental class and VIII D as control class, because both of class have near same mean score After that, the researcher gave pretest for both of classes as to know the writing test score of the students before giving treatment. The researcher used writing test (openended essay) as the instrumentation of this research. The researcher gave test related to writing ability about genre there were Recount and Narrative text. In constructing the test, two important elements should be considerate there were validity and reliability. The validity of the test was content validity. It means, the material or the topics was based on curriculum that is taught by the teacher. After that, the teacher gave a test to the students to know content validity. Clear instruction was provided for the students. Then, In this research, the researcher used the Rater Reliability because when the researcher want to give the score to the student test results, the researchers will use the same scoring rubric for each class and it is in accordance with the characteristics of Rater Reliability itself.then, to know the result of the writing test score the researcher used scoring rubric of writing test as stated by Kern (2005), there are four content areas that should be scored by teacher. They are content, organization, language use and mechanic. Then, reliability means as the stability of the score. It is supported by brown (2004:20) who supports that reliability considered about numbers of factors that may contribute to students, following responsibility, fluctuation in students, in scoring, in test administration, and in the test itself. They also say that a valid test is always reliable test, but a reliable test is not always valid. In the other words, the result of the test was constant although it was done by another person. In writing score, the researcher will helped by teacher in the school as
6 scorer. In this research, the researcher will analyze the data by using Product Moment formula which was suggested by Arikunto (2001:170) to measure the reliability of the test. Finally, researcher analyzed the data by using t-test formula which is suggested by Gay and Airisian (2000:489). DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDING Based on the data analysis, the researcher found that the reliability of pretest in experimental class was 0,8 and posttest was 0,8. Then, the mean score difference in experimental class was 1,57 the researcher took from the sum of differences between pretest and posttest( D =47) divided by number of participant in experimental class ( n =30). In addition, the reliability of pretest in control class was 0,6 and posttest was 0,9. Then,mean score difference in control class was 0,7 the researcher took from the sum of differences between pretest and posttest ( D 19,5) divided by number of participant in control class ( n = 30). The researcher found that t-calculated in experimental class was 3,14 was bigger than t- table (2,045) at the degree of freedom 29 and at the level of significance 0, 05. Therefore, it can be concluded that there was a positive effect of using Silent Card Shuffle Strategy toward students writing achievement at eight grade of students of SMP N 10 Padang academic year 2013/2014. Based on the data analysis, the researcher found that there was Silent Card Shuffle Strategy gave positive effect for students writing achievement. writing because Silent Card Shuffle Strategy guided students by picture, key sentence, and teacher in writing, it can help students be active in writing class. REFERENCES Arikunto, Suharsimi Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: PT Renaka Cipta Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan.Jakarta: Bumi. Brown, H. Douglas Language Assessment: Principle and Classroom Practices. New York: Pearson Education, inc Eric, Frengenheim Reflection On Classroom Thinking Strategy. London: Chapman Publishing Gay, L. R and Peter Airasian Educational Research: Competences for Analysis and Application. 6 th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann Writing Academic English. Newyork: Addison- Wesley Publishing Company. Sudjana Metode Statistika. Bandung: Tarsito CONCLUSION From the research findings, the researcher concludes that Silent Card Shuffle Strategy was given positive effect toward students writing achievement. Therefore, the teacher is suggested to use Silent Card Shuffle Strategy in teaching