# Sample Problems for MATH 5001, University of Georgia

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1 Sample Problems for MATH 5001, University of Georgia 1 Give three different decimals that the bundled toothpicks in Figure 1 could represent In each case, explain why the bundled toothpicks can represent that decimal Figure 1: Which Decimals Can These Bundled Toothpicks Represent? Label the tick marks on the three number lines in Figure in three different ways In each case, your labeling should fit with the fact that the tick marks at the ends of the number lines are longer than the other tick marks You may further lengthen the tick marks at either end as needed Figure : Label These Number Lines 71 3 Anna says that the dark blocks pictured in Figure 3 can t represent 1 because there are 6 dark blocks and 6 is more than 1 but 1 is supposed to be less than 1 What must Anna learn about fractions in order to overcome her confusion? (a) Give three different fractions that you can legitimately use to describe the shaded region in Figure For each fraction, explain why you can use that fraction to describe the shaded region (b) Write an unambiguous question about the shaded region in Figure that can be answered by naming a fraction Explain why your question is not ambiguous 1

2 Figure 3: Representing the Fraction 1 Figure : What Fraction is Shaded? 5 If 3 of a cup of a food gives you your daily value of potassium, then what fraction of your daily value of potassium is in 1 cup of the food? Draw a picture that helps you solve this problem Use your picture to help you explain your solution For each fraction in this problem, and in your solution, describe the whole associated with this fraction In other words, describe what each fraction is of 6 Use the meaning of fractions to explain clearly why 3 = 3 (Do not use multiplication by 1 to explain this) 7 Plot 5, 5, and on the number line in Figure 5 in such a way that each number 6 3 falls on a tick mark Lengthen the tick marks of whole numbers Figure 5: A Number Line 8 If the normal rainfall for August is 5 inches, but only 175 inches of rain fell in August, then what percent of the normal rainfall fell in August? (a) Show how to solve the problem with the aid of a picture Explain how your picture helps you solve the problem (b) Explain how to solve the problem numerically 9 Find a number between and 7865 and plot all three numbers visibly and distinctly on a copy of the number line in Figure 6 Label all the longer tick marks on your number line 10 Which of the following could the pictures in Figure 7 be used to illustrate? Circle all that apply 10 > 5 1 > 5 1 > 5 1 > 5 1 > 05

3 Figure 6: A Number Line Figure 7: Which Inequalities Can These Blocks Represent? 11 Explain clearly and in detail why we can determine which of two fractions is greater by using the cross-multiplying method What is the rationale behind this method? What are we really doing when we cross-multiply in order to compare fractions? 1 Conrad says that 3 > because 3 > and 8 > 7 Regardless of whether or not 8 7 Conrad s conclusion is correct, discuss whether or not Conrad s reasoning is valid 13 Use reasoning other than converting to decimals, using common denominators, or cross-multiplying to determine which of 38 5 and is greater Explain your 39 6 reasoning clearly and in detail 1 Maya has made up her own method of rounding Starting at the right-most place in a decimal, she keeps rounding to the value of the next place to the left until she reaches the place to which the decimal was to be rounded For example, Maya would use the following steps to round 3716 to the nearest tenth: Is Maya s method a valid way to round? Explain why or why not 15 Erin wants to figure out how much time elapsed from 10:55 am to 11:30 am Erin does the following: 1 0 1/: 1 3/ 10 0/ 10 : 55 0 : 75 and says the answer is 75 minutes Is Erin right? If not, explain what is wrong with her method and show how to modify her method to make it correct 16 Frank says that + = and uses the picture below as evidence Explain why Frank s method is not a valid way to add fractions Be specific (Do not explain how to do the problem correctly, explain where the flaw is in Frank s reasoning) 3

4 add them together: 17 Which of the following problems can be solved by adding 1+ 1? For those problems 3 that can t be solved by adding 1 + 1, solve the problem in another way if there is 3 enough information to do so, or explain why the problem cannot be solved (a) One third of the boys in Mrs Scott s class want to have a peanut butter sandwich for lunch One fourth of the girls in Mrs Scott s class want to have a peanut butter sandwich for lunch What fraction of the children in Mrs Scott s class want to have a peanut butter sandwich for lunch? (b) One third of the pizzas served at a party have pepperoni on them One fourth of the pizzas served at the party have mushrooms on them What fraction of the pizzas served at the party have either pepperoni or mushrooms on them? (c) The pizzas served at a party all have only one topping One third of the pizzas served at the party have pepperoni on them One fourth of the pizzas served at the party have mushrooms on them What fraction of the pizzas served at the party have either pepperoni or mushrooms on them? 18 Can the following story problem be solved by subtracting 1 1? If not, explain 3 why not, and solve the problem in another way if there is enough information to do so Story problem: There is 1 of a pie left over from yesterday Julie eats 1 of the 3 leftover pie Now how much pie is left? 19 A community goes from producing 1 tons of waste per month to producing 3 1 tons of waste per month (a) Show how to use a picture to help you calculate the percent increase in a community s monthly waste production (b) Show how to calculate the percent increase in the community s monthly waste production numerically 0 Tomaslav has learned the following facts well: all the sums of whole numbers that add to 10 or less; Tomaslav knows these facts forwards and backwards, for example, he knows not only that 5 + is 7, but also that 7 breaks down into , 10 +, ,, the doubles 1 + 1, +, 3 + 3,, Describe three different ways that Tomaslav could use reasoning together with the facts he knows well to solve Draw pictures to support your descriptions In each case, write equations to go along with the strategies you describe Take care to use parentheses appropriately and as needed

5 1 To solve , a student writes the following: = 165 Describe the student s solution strategy and discuss why the strategy makes sense Expanded forms may be helpful to your discussion A rug is feet wide and 5 feet long Use the meaning of multiplication to explain why we can calculate the area of the rug by multiplying 3 A box is feet deep, 3 feet wide, and feet tall Use the meaning of multiplication to explain why we can calculate the volume of the box by multiplying Which property or properties of arithmetic do you use when you calculate 3 70 by first calculating 3 7 = 1 and then putting a zero on the end of 1 to make 10? Write equations to show which properties are used and where 5 Write at least two different expressions for the total number of triangles in Figure 8 Each expression is only allowed to use the numbers 3,, and 5, the multiplication symbol, and parentheses In each case, use the meaning of multiplication to explain why your expression represents the total number of triangles in Figure 8 Figure 8: How Many Triangles? 6 Keisha says that it s easy to multiply even numbers by 5 because you just take half of the number and put a zero on the end Write equations that incorporate Keisha s method and that demonstrate why her method is valid Use the case 5 8 for the sake of concreteness Write your equations in the following form: 5 8 = some expression = some expression = 0 7 Ashley knows her 1,, 3,, and 5 multiplication tables well 5

6 (a) Describe how the three pictures in Figure 9 provide Ashley with three different ways to determine 6 8 from multiplication facts that she already knows well In each case, write an equation that corresponds to the picture and that shows how 6 8 is related to other multiplication facts Figure 9: Different Ways to Think of 6 8 (b) Draw pictures showing two different ways that Ashley could use the multiplication facts she knows well to determine 6 7 In each case, write an equation that corresponds to the picture and that shows how 6 7 is related to other multiplication facts 8 Halley calculates 5% of 80 in the following way: Half of 80 is 10 I know 10% is 8, so 5% is half of that, which is 1 So I get 10 minus 1, which is 16 (a) Explain briefly why it makes sense for Halley to solve the problem the way she does What is the idea behind her strategy? (b) Write a string of equations that incorporate Halley s ideas Which properties of arithmetic did Halley use (knowingly or not) and where? Be thorough and be specific Write your equations in the following format: 5% 80 = some expression = some expression = 16 9 (a) Use the partial products algorithm to calculate 3 7 (b) Use the meaning of multiplication and a picture to give a clear and thorough explanation for why the partial products algorithm gives the correct answer to the multiplication problem in part (a) (Use graph paper for your picture) (c) Show why the partial products algorithm calculates the correct answer to the multiplication problem in part (a) by writing equations that use properties of arithmetic and that incorporate the calculations of the partial products algorithm (FOIL is not a property of arithmetic) Write your equations in 6

7 the following format: 3 7 = some expression = some expression Identify the properties of arithmetic that you used and show where you used them (d) Relate your equations for part (c) to your picture for part (b) 30 Which of the following are story problems for 1 3 briefly in each case and which are not? Explain (a) There is 3 of a cake left One half of the children in Mrs Brown s class want cake How much of the cake will the children get? (b) A brownie recipe used 3 of a cup of butter for a batch of brownies You ate 1 of a batch How much butter did you consume when you ate those brownies? (c) Three quarters of a pan of brownies is left Johnny eats 1 brownies Now what fraction of a pan of brownies is left? of a pan of (d) Three quarters of a pan of brownies is left Johnny eats 1 of what is left How many brownies did Johnny eat? (e) Three quarters of a pan of brownies is left Johnny eats 1 of what is left What fraction of a pan of brownies did Johnny eat? 31 Write a simple story problem for Use your story problem and use pictures to explain clearly why it makes sense that the answer to the fraction multiplication problem is In particular, explain why the numerators are multiplied and why the denominators are multiplied 3 For each of the following story problems, write the corresponding division problem, state which interpretation of division is involved (the how many groups? or the how many in each group?, with or without remainder), and solve the problem (a) Given that 1 quart is cups, how many quarts of water is 35 cups of water? (b) If your car used 15 gallons of gasoline to drive 330 miles, then how many miles per gallon did your car get? (c) If you drove 0 miles at a constant speed and if it took you 3 1 hours, then how fast were you going? 7

8 (d) Given that 1 inch is 5 centimeters, how tall in inches is a woman who is 153 cm tall? (e) Will needs to cut a piece of wood 67 of an inch thick, or just a little less thick Will s ruler shows sixteenths of an inch How many sixteenths of an inch thick should Will cut his piece of wood? 33 Make up and solve three different story problems for 9 (a) In the first story problem, the answer should best be expressed as, remainder 1 (b) In the second story problem, the answer should best be expressed as 1 (c) In the third story problem, the answer should best be expressed as 5 3 (a) Explain why 1 0 is not defined by rewriting the problem 1 0 =? as a multiplication problem (b) Explain why 1 0 is not defined by writing a story problem for Maya is working on the division problem 5 15 Maya s work appears in Figure = 0 8 = R 5 Figure 10: Maya s work for 5 15 (a) Explain why Maya s strategy makes sense It may help you to work with a story problem for 5 15 (b) Write equations that correspond to Maya s work and that demonstrate that 5 15 = 16, remainder 5 (One side of each equation should be 5) 36 (a) Write a story problem for using the how many groups? interpretation of division (b) Use the scaffold method to calculate Interpret each step in the scaffold method in terms of your story problem Sources: Mathematics for Elementary Teachers, volume 1, preliminary edition, by Sybilla Beckmann, Addison-Wesley, 003 Mathematics for Elementary Teachers Instructor s Manual by Sybilla Beckmann, Addison-Wesely, 00 expected 8

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