# Arizona s College and Career Ready Standards Mathematics

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1 Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics Mathematical Practices Explanations and Examples First Grade ARIZONA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION HIGH ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR STUDENTS State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication

2 First Grade Overview Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA) Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction. Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. Add and subtract within 20. Work with addition and subtraction equations. Number and Operations in Base Ten (NBT) Extend the counting sequence. Understand place value. Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract. Measurement and Data (MD) Geometry (G) Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units. Tell and write time. Represent and interpret data. Reason with shapes and their attributes. Mathematical Practices (MP) 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 4. Model with mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for and make use 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 2 of 24

4 Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA) Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction. Mathematical Practices Explanations and Examples 1.OA.A.1. Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Table 1.) Connections: 1.OA.2; 1.OA.3; 1.OA.6; 1.RI.3; ET01 S1C4 01; ET01 S2C MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 1.MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 1.MP.4. Model with mathematics. 1.MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. regularity in repeated reasoning. Contextual problems that are closely connected to students lives should be used to develop fluency with addition and subtraction. Table 1 describes the four different addition and subtraction situations and their relationship to the position of the unknown. Students use objects or drawings to represent the different situations. Take for example: Abel has 9 balls. He gave 3 to Susan. How many balls does Abel have now? Compare example: Abel has 9 balls. Susan has 3 balls. How many more balls does Abel have than Susan? A student will use 9 objects to represent Abel s 9 balls and 3 objects to represent Susan s 3 balls. Then they will compare the 2 sets of objects. Note that even though the modeling of the two problems above is different, the equation, 9 3 =?, can represent both situations yet the compare example can also be represented by 3 +? = 9 (How many more do I need to make 9?). It is important to attend to the difficulty level of the problem situations in relation to the position of the unknown. Result Unknown, Total Unknown, and Both Addends Unknown problems are the least complex for students. The next level of difficulty includes Change Unknown, Addend Unknown, and Difference Unknown. The most difficult are Start Unknown and versions of Bigger and Smaller Unknown (compare problems). Students may use document cameras to display their combining or separating strategies. This gives them the opportunity to communicate and justify their thinking. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 4 of 24

8 Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA) Work with addition and subtraction equations. Mathematical Practices 1.OA.D.7. Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 1, = 2 + 5, = Connections: 1.NBT.3; 1.RI.3; 1.SL.1; ET01 S1C2 02; ET01 S2C MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 1.MP.6. Attend to precision. Explanations and Examples Interchanging the language of equal to and the same as as well as not equal to and not the same as will help students grasp the meaning of the equal sign. Students should understand that equality means the same quantity as. In order for students to avoid the common pitfall that the equal sign means to do something or that the equal sign means the answer is, they need to be able to: Express their understanding of the meaning of the equal sign Accept sentences other than a + b = c as true (a = a, c = a + b, a = a + 0, a + b = b + a) Know that the equal sign represents a relationship between two equal quantities Compare expressions without calculating These key skills are hierarchical in nature and need to be developed over time. Experiences determining if equations are true or false help student develop these skills. Initially, students develop an understanding of the meaning of equality using models. However, the goal is for students to reason at a more abstract level. At all times students should justify their answers, make conjectures (e.g., if you add a number and then subtract that same number, you always get zero), and make estimations. Once students have a solid foundation of the key skills listed above, they can begin to rewrite true/false statements using the symbols, < and >. Examples of true and false statements: 7 = = = = = = = = = = = = 19 Students can use a clicker (electronic response system) or interactive whiteboard to display their responses to the equations. This gives them the opportunity to communicate and justify their thinking. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 8 of 24

9 Operations and Algebraic Thinking (OA) Work with addition and subtraction equations. Mathematical Practices 1.OA.D.8. Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations: 8 +? = 11, 5 = 3, =. Connections: 1.OA.1; 1.OA.3; 1.OA.5; 1.OA.6; 1.NBT.4; 1.RI.3; ET01 S1C2 02; ET01 S2C MP.6. Attend to precision. Explanations and Examples Students need to understand the meaning of the equal sign and know that the quantity on one side of the equal sign must be the same quantity on the other side of the equal sign. They should be exposed to problems with the unknown in different positions. Having students create word problems for given equations will help them make sense of the equation and develop strategic thinking. Examples of possible student think throughs : 8 +? = 11: 8 and some number is the same as and 2 is 10 and 1 more makes 11. So the answer is 3. 5 = 3: This equation means I had some cookies and I ate 3 of them. Now I have 5. How many cookies did I have to start with? Since I have 5 left and I ate 3, I know I started with 8 because I count on from , 7, 8. Students may use a document camera or interactive whiteboard to display their combining or separating strategies for solving the equations. This gives them the opportunity to communicate and justify their thinking. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 9 of 24

10 Number and Operations in Base Ten (NBT) Extend the counting sequence. Mathematical Practices 1.NBT.A.1. Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral. Connections: 1.NBT.2; 1.RT.3; 1.SL.1; 1.W.2 regularity in repeated reasoning. Explanations and Examples Students use objects, words, and/or symbols to express their understanding of numbers. They extend their counting beyond 100 to count up to 120 by counting by 1s. Some students may begin to count in groups of 10 (while other students may use groups of 2s or 5s to count). Counting in groups of 10 as well as grouping objects into 10 groups of 10 will develop students understanding of place value concepts. Students extend reading and writing numerals beyond 20 to 120. After counting objects, students write the numeral or use numeral cards to represent the number. Given a numeral, students read the numeral, identify the quantity that each digit represents using numeral cards, and count out the given number of objects. Students should experience counting from different starting points (e.g., start at 83; count to 120). To extend students understanding of counting, they should be given opportunities to count backwards by ones and tens. They should also investigate patterns in the base 10 system. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 10 of 24

11 Number and Operations in Base Ten (NBT) Understand place value. Mathematical Practices 1.NBT.B.2 Understand that the two digits of a two digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases: a. 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones called a ten. b. The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. c. The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). Connections: ET01 S1C2 02; ET01 S2C NBT.B.3. Compare two twodigit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <. Connections: 1.RI.3; 1.SL.1; 1.W.2 regularity in repeated reasoning. 1.MP.6. Attend to precision. regularity in repeated reasoning. Explanations and Examples Understanding the concept of 10 is fundamental to children s mathematical development. Students need multiple opportunities counting 10 objects and bundling them into one group of ten. They count between 10 and 20 objects and make a bundle of 10 with or without some left over (this will help students who find it difficult to write teen numbers). Finally, students count any number of objects up to 99, making bundles of 10s with or without leftovers. As students are representing the various amounts, it is important that an emphasis is placed on the language associated with the quantity. For example, 53 should be expressed in multiple ways such as 53 ones or 5 groups of ten with 3 ones leftover. When students read numbers, they read them in standard form as well as using place value concepts. For example, 53 should be read as fifty three as well as five tens, 3 ones. Reading 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 as one ten, 2 tens, 3 tens, etc. helps students see the patterns in the number system. Students may use the document camera or interactive whiteboard to demonstrate their bundling of objects. This gives them the opportunity to communicate their thinking. Students use models that represent two sets of numbers. To compare, students first attend to the number of tens, then, if necessary, to the number of ones. Students may also use pictures, number lines, and spoken or written words to compare two numbers. Comparative language includes but is not limited to more than, less than, greater than, most, greatest, least, same as, equal to and not equal to. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 11 of 24

13 Number and Operations in Base Ten (NBT) Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract. continued Mathematical Practices Explanations and Examples 1.NBT.C.4. continued Student thinks: Four 10s and one 10 are 5 tens or 50. Then 5 and 8 is (or ) or and 13 is 6 tens plus 3 more or 63 1.NBT.C.5. Given a two digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used. Connections: 1.NBT.2; ET01 S1C MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. regularity in repeated reasoning Student thinks: 29 is almost 30. I added one to 29 to get to and 14 is 44. Since I added one to 29, I have to subtract one so the answer is 43. This standard requires students to understand and apply the concept of 10 which leads to future place value concepts. It is critical for students to do this without counting. Prior use of models such as base ten blocks, number lines, and 100s charts helps facilitate this understanding. It also helps students see the pattern involved when adding or subtracting 10. Examples: 10 more than 43 is 53 because 53 is one more 10 than less than 43 is 33 because 33 is one 10 less than 43 Students may use interactive versions of models (base ten blocks, 100s charts, number lines, etc.) to develop prior understanding. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 13 of 24

14 Number and Operations in Base Ten (NBT) Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract. Mathematical Practices Explanations and Examples 1.NBT.C.6. Subtract multiples of 10 in the range from multiples of 10 in the range (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Connections: 1.NBT.2; 1.NBT.5; 1.RI.3; 1.W.2; ET01 S1C MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 1.MP.4. Model with mathematics. 1.MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. regularity in repeated reasoning. This standard is foundational for future work in subtraction with more complex numbers. Students should have multiple experiences representing numbers that are multiples of 10 (e.g. 90) with models or drawings. Then they subtract multiples of 10 (e.g. 20) using these representations or strategies based on place value. These opportunities develop fluency of addition and subtraction facts and reinforce counting up and back by 10s. Examples: 70 30: Seven 10s take away three 10s is four 10s 80 50: 80, 70 (one 10), 60 (two 10s), 50 (three 10s), 40 (four 10s), 30 (five 10s) 60 40: I know that is 6 so four 10s + two 10s is six 10s so is 20 Students may use interactive versions of models (base ten blocks, 100s charts, number lines, etc.) to demonstrate and justify their thinking. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 14 of 24

15 Measurement and Data (MD) Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units. Mathematical Practices Explanations and Examples 1.MD.A.1. Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. Connections: 1.RI.3; SC01 S1C2 01; SC01 S1C3 01; SC01 S5C1 01; SC01 S1C2 03; ET01 S2C1 01; ET01 S1C MP.6. Attend to precision. In order for students to be able to compare objects, students need to understand that length is measured from one end point to another end point. They determine which of two objects is longer by physically aligning the objects. Typical language of length includes taller, shorter, longer, and higher. When students use bigger or smaller as a comparison, they should explain what they mean by the word. Some objects may have more than one measurement of length, so students identify the length they are measuring. Both the length and the width of an object are measurements of length. Examples for ordering: Order three students by their height Order pencils, crayons, and/or markers by length Build three towers (with cubes) and order them from shortest to tallest Three students each draw one line, then order the lines from longest to shortest Example for comparing indirectly: Two students each make a dough snake. Given a tower of cubes, each student compares his/her snake to the tower. Then students make statements such as, My snake is longer than the cube tower and your snake is shorter than the cube tower. So, my snake is longer than your snake. Students may use an interactive whiteboard or document camera to demonstrate and justify comparisons. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 15 of 24

16 Measurement and Data (MD) Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units. Mathematical Practices Explanations and Examples 1.MD.A.2. Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps. Connections: 1.SL.1; 1.RI.3; ET01 S1C MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 1.MP.6. Attend to precision. Students use their counting skills while measuring with non standard units. While this standard limits measurement to whole numbers of length, in a natural environment, not all objects will measure to an exact whole unit. When students determine that the length of a pencil is six to seven paperclips long, they can state that it is about six paperclips long. Example: Ask students to use multiple units of the same object to measure the length of a pencil. (How many paper clips will it take to measure how long the pencil is?) Students may use the document camera or interactive whiteboard to demonstrate their counting and measuring skills. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 16 of 24

17 Measurement and Data (MD) Tell and write time. Mathematical Practices 1.MD.B.3. Tell and write time in 1.MP.5. Use appropriate tools hours and half hours using strategically. analog and digital clocks. Connections: 1.SL.1; 1.LRI.3; ET01 S1C2 02; ET01 S2C MP.6. Attend to precision. Explanations and Examples Ideas to support telling time: within a day, the hour hand goes around a clock twice (the hand moves only in one direction) when the hour hand points exactly to a number, the time is exactly on the hour time on the hour is written in the same manner as it appears on a digital clock the hour hand moves as time passes, so when it is half way between two numbers it is at the half hour there are 60 minutes in one hour; so halfway between an hour, 30 minutes have passed half hour is written with 30 after the colon It is 4 o clock It is halfway between 8 o clock and 9 o clock. It is 8:30. The idea of 30 being halfway is difficult for students to grasp. Students can write the numbers from 0 60 counting by tens on a sentence strip. Fold the paper in half and determine that halfway between 0 and 60 is 30. A number line on an interactive whiteboard may also be used to demonstrate this. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 17 of 24

18 Measurement and Data (MD) Represent and interpret data. Mathematical Practices 1.MD.C.4. Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. Connections: 1.RI.4; 1.SL.2; 1.SL.3; 1.W.2; ET01 S4C2 02; ET01 S2C1 01; SC01 S1C3 03; SC01 S1C MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 1.MP.4. Model with mathematics. 1.MP.5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 1.MP.6. Attend to precision. Explanations and Examples Students create object graphs and tally charts using data relevant to their lives (e.g., favorite ice cream, eye color, pets, etc.). Graphs may be constructed by groups of students as well as by individual students. Counting objects should be reinforced when collecting, representing, and interpreting data. Students describe the object graphs and tally charts they create. They should also ask and answer questions based on these charts or graphs that reinforce other mathematics concepts such as sorting and comparing. The data chosen or questions asked give students opportunities to reinforce their understanding of place value, identifying ten more and ten less, relating counting to addition and subtraction, and using comparative language and symbols. Students may use an interactive whiteboard to place objects onto a graph. This gives them the opportunity to communicate and justify their thinking. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 18 of 24

19 Geometry (G) Reason with shapes and their attributes. Mathematical Practices 1.G.A.1. Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and threesided) versus non defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. Connections: 1.RI.3; 1.SL.1; 1.SL.2; ET01 S2C1 01; SC01 S5C MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 1.MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 1.MP.4. Model with mathematics. Explanations and Examples Attributes refer to any characteristic of a shape. Students use attribute language to describe a given two dimensional shape: number of sides, number of vertices/points, straight sides, closed. A child might describe a triangle as right side up or red. These attributes are not defining because they are not relevant to whether a shape is a triangle or not. Students should articulate ideas such as, A triangle is a triangle because it has three straight sides and is closed. It is important that students are exposed to both regular and irregular shapes so that they can communicate defining attributes. Students should use attribute language to describe why these shapes are not triangles. Students should also use appropriate language to describe a given three dimensional shape: number of faces, number of vertices/points, number of edges. Example: A cylinder may be described as a solid that has two circular faces connected by a curved surface (which is not considered a face). Students may say, It looks like a can. Students should compare and contrast two and three dimensional figures using defining attributes. Examples: List two things that are the same and two things that are different between a triangle and a cube. Given a circle and a sphere, students identify the sphere as being three dimensional but both are round. Given a trapezoid, find another two dimensional shape that has two things that are the same. Students may use interactive whiteboards or computer environments to move shapes into different orientations and to enlarge or decrease the size of a shape still keeping the same shape. They can also move a point/vertex of a triangle and identify that the new shape is still a triangle. When they move one point/vertex of a rectangle they should recognize that the resulting shape is no longer a rectangle. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 19 of 24

20 Geometry (G) Reason with shapes and their attributes. Mathematical Practices 1.G.A.2. Compose twodimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half circles, and quarter circles) or three dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. (Students do not need to learn formal names such as right rectangular prism. ) Connections: 1.RI.3; 1.SL.1; ET01 S2C MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 1.MP.4. Model with mathematics. Explanations and Examples The ability to describe, use and visualize the effect of composing and decomposing shapes is an important mathematical skill. It is not only relevant to geometry, but is related to children s ability to compose and decompose numbers. Students may use pattern blocks, plastic shapes, tangrams, or computer environments to make new shapes. The teacher can provide students with cutouts of shapes and ask them to combine them to make a particular shape. Example: What shapes can be made from four squares? Students can make three dimensional shapes with clay or dough, slice into two pieces (not necessarily congruent) and describe the two resulting shapes. For example, slicing a cylinder will result in two smaller cylinders. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 20 of 24

21 Geometry (G) Reason with shapes and their attributes. Mathematical Practices 1.G.A.3. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. Connections: 1.RI.3; 1.RI.4; 1.SL.1; 1.SL.2; ET01 S2C MP.3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 1.MP.6. Attend to precision. Explanations and Examples Students need experiences with different sized circles and rectangles to recognize that when they cut something into two equal pieces, each piece will equal one half of its original whole. Children should recognize that halves of two different wholes are not necessarily the same size. Also they should reason that decomposing equal shares into more equal shares results in smaller equal shares. Examples: Student partitions a rectangular candy bar to share equally with one friend and thinks I cut the rectangle into two equal parts. When I put the two parts back together, they equal the whole candy bar. One half of the candy bar is smaller than the whole candy bar. Student partitions an identical rectangular candy bar to share equally with 3 friends and thinks I cut the rectangle into four equal parts. Each piece is one fourth of or one quarter of the whole candy bar. When I put the four parts back together, they equal the whole candy bar. I can compare the pieces (one half and one fourth) by placing them side by side. One fourth of the candy bar is smaller than one half of the candy bar. Students partition a pizza to share equally with three friends. They recognize that they now have four equal pieces and each will receive a fourth or quarter of the whole pizza. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 21 of 24

23 for Mathematical Practice (MP) regularity in repeated reasoning. Mathematical Practices are listed throughout the grade level document in the 2nd column to reflect the need to connect the mathematical practices to mathematical content in instruction. Explanations and Examples First graders begin to discern a pattern or structure. For instance, if students recognize = 15, then they also know = 15. (Commutative property of addition.) To add , the first two numbers can be added to make a ten, so = = 14. In the early grades, students notice repetitive actions in counting and computation, etc. When children have multiple opportunities to add and subtract ten and multiples of ten they notice the pattern and gain a better understanding of place value. Students continually check their work by asking themselves, Does this make sense? Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 23 of 24

24 Table 1. Common addition and subtraction situations. 6 Add to Take from Put Together / Take Apart 2 Compare 3 Result Unknown Change Unknown Start Unknown Two bunnies were sitting on the grass. Some more bunnies hopped there. Then there were five bunnies. How many bunnies hopped over to the first two? 2 +? = 5 Two bunnies sat on the grass. Three more bunnies hopped there. How many bunnies are on the grass now? =? Some bunnies were sitting on the grass. Three more bunnies hopped there. Then there were five bunnies. How many bunnies were on the grass before?? + 3 = 5 Five apples were on the table. I ate two apples. How many apples are on the table now? 5 2 =? Five apples were on the table. I ate some apples. Then there were three apples. How many apples did I eat? 5? = 3 Some apples were on the table. I ate two apples. Then there were three apples. How many apples were on the table before?? 2 = 3 Total Unknown Addend Unknown Both Addends Unknown 1 Three red apples and two green apples are on the table. How many apples are on the table? =? ( How many more? version): Lucy has two apples. Julie has five apples. How many more apples does Julie have than Lucy? ( How many fewer? version): Lucy has two apples. Julie has five apples. How many fewer apples does Lucy have than Julie? 2 +? = 5, 5 2 =? Five apples are on the table. Three are red and the rest are green. How many apples are green? 3 +? = 5, 5 3 =? Grandma has five flowers. How many can she put in her red vase and how many in her blue vase? 5 = 0 + 5, 5 = = 1 + 4, 5 = = 2 + 3, 5 = Difference Unknown Bigger Unknown Smaller Unknown (Version with more ): Julie has three more apples than Lucy. Lucy has two apples. How many apples does Julie have? (Version with fewer ): Lucy has 3 fewer apples than Julie. Lucy has two apples. How many apples does Julie have? =?, =? (Version with more ): Julie has three more apples than Lucy. Julie has five apples. How many apples does Lucy have? (Version with fewer ): Lucy has 3 fewer apples than Julie. Julie has five apples. How many apples does Lucy have? 5 3 =?,? + 3 = 5 6 Adapted from Box 2 4 of Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood, National Research Council (2009, pp. 32, 33). 1 These take apart situations can be used to show all the decompositions of a given number. The associated equations, which have the total on the left of the equal sign, help children understand that the = sign does not always mean makes or results in but always does mean is the same number as. 2 Either addend can be unknown, so there are three variations of these problem situations. Both Addends Unknown is a productive extension of this basic situation, especially for small numbers less than or equal to For the Bigger Unknown or Smaller Unknown situations, one version directs the correct operation (the version using more for the bigger unknown and using less for the smaller unknown). The other versions are more difficult. Arizona Department of Education High Academic for Students Arizona s College and Career Ready Mathematics State Board Approved June 2010 October 2013 Publication Page 24 of 24

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