# Developing a concrete-pictorial-abstract model for negative number arithmetic

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2 they see around them. (1995, p.12). This may explain why negative number arithmetic is a topic so fraught with misconceptions; if the instructional model does not address conceptual understanding, students may actively seek out rules and justifications which may not necessarily be conceptually sound. Teaching for conceptual understanding has long been a focus for mathematics education, and in recent years the concrete-pictorial-abstract (CPA) approach has been identified as a central feature of successful mathematics curricula that place an emphasis on conceptual understanding (DfE, 2012). Broadly speaking, the CPA approach involves first exploring a concept through the use of concrete manipulatives; next representing that concept pictorially; and finally representing the concept symbolically. CPA models have been shown to be effective in teaching negative number concepts to sixth-grade students in Turkey (Altiparmak and Ozdogan, 2008) and algebra to middle-school students in the USA (Witzel, 2005). The use of the number line to teach negative number concepts is a subject of debate (Heeffer, 2011); research highlights the fact that no single representation seems to adequately represent all negative number operations (Kilhamn, 2008) and that manipulatives and representations can be contrived (Bofferding, 2010, p.1). One issue with representations in general is their inconsistent use; the number line, for example, is a ubiquitous feature of the mathematics classroom and it is taken for granted that it will be used by teachers and students in a consistent and conceptually coherent manner. But the number line forms a part of a semiotic representation (Duval, 1999); an overall model which consists of the number line itself, coupled with an understanding of what concepts it represents and how it represents these concepts, and confusion is very likely if the nature of the number line model is not understood and the constituting aspects of its nature are not clearly recognised. (Heuvel-Panhuizen, 2008, pp.25-26). Kilhamn (2008) notes that some teachers use several different models simultaneously during a lesson and this variety can confuse students. So, even if the representation is an effective one, it is possible that its inconsistent use renders it ineffective. This study aims to develop a semiotic representation using the vertical number line and number bar manipulatives as the key representations, for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division with negative numbers. The number bars we have designed are card rectangles, with a positive number printed on one side and its negative on the other, upside down, so that flipping the bar negates the number. Method and research questions The participating students (n=12) were aged between 14 and 15 years, forming two existing classes in a UK secondary school which were both ranked fifth out of five in the year group, based on prior attainment. The trial group (n=7) was taught the topic of negative number arithmetic using the trial CPA model (8 hours in total), and the control group (n=5) was taught using a conventional non-cpa approach (10 hours in total). Both trial and control groups completed a pre-assessment prior to studying the topic and a post-assessment afterwards. This research was guided by the two following questions: 1. Is there a difference in change in score from pre-assessment to postassessment between trial and control group? We assume the null hypothesis that the mean change in scores is equal for both trial and control groups. 2. Is there qualitative evidence that trial or control group demonstrate conceptual understanding? Lessons were observed in-class; filmed and observed by From Conference Proceedings 37-2 (BSRLM) available at bsrlm.org.uk the author - 2

3 Concrete researcher and trial group teacher; and post-lesson discussions were held with Table 1: Design of the concrete-pictorial-abstract model for negative number arithmetic Conceptualisation Representation Rationale Unary, symmetric, Thermometer binary, magnitude Pictorial Abstract Vocabulary Notation Formal rules Unary, symmetric, binary, magnitude Symmetric, binary, magnitude Unary, magnitude Symmetric, magnitude Addition (binary) Subtraction (binary) Multiplication (binary) Division (binary) Unary, symmetric, binary Addition (unary, symmetric, binary) Subtraction (unary, symmetric, binary) Multiplication (unary, symmetric, binary) Sea level Building section with basement levels. Vertical number line. Number bar manipulatives. Higher Lower Zero Negative Opposite Direction Up Down Addition Forward Subtraction Backward Multiplication Add on times. Lots of Division Take away... times. How many times does go into? Use of brackets around negative numbers. Adding a negative number is equivalent to subtracting a positive number. Subtracting a negative number is equivalent to adding a negative number. The product of an even/odd number of negative numbers is positive/negative. both trial and control group teachers. Position, direction, and movement may be represented in concrete contexts. Direct abstraction from the concrete representations. Red: positive, blue: negative. Sign as direction and magnitude as distance from zero. Red: positive, blue: negative. To avoid possible confusion over the terms smaller; larger; greater; less. Zero as a position on the number line as opposed to a zero-quantity. Negative numbers count downwards, away from zero. Misconceptions about magnitude, e.g.: a student might think that ( 7) > 4 because 7 > 4. The terms negative and opposite are equivalent. The sign of a number denotes the direction in which it is pointing. Avoiding use of the term minus, which could be confused with the subtraction operation. Addition as forward movement. Subtraction as backward movement. Multiplication as repeated addition. Division as repeated subtraction. To distinguish between the negative sign of a number and the subtraction operation. Procedural fluency based on conceptual understanding. From Conference Proceedings 37-2 (BSRLM) available at bsrlm.org.uk the author - 3

4 Division (unary, symmetric, binary) The quotient of an even/odd number of negative numbers is positive/negative. Results Assessment scores The changes in scores from pre-assessment to post-assessment were compared in relation to six skills: ordering numbers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. A two-sided t-test suggests that the mean change in score was higher for the trial group in the areas of overall score (p=0.025<0.05), addition (p=0.034<0.05), and subtraction (p=0.040<0.05). In the areas of ordering numbers, multiplication, and division, there was no significant difference between groups. Figure 1: Comparison of pre-assessment and post-assessment scores Mean overall assessment score Mean addition score Mean subtraction score Mean score Mean score Mean score Trial Control Trial Control Trial Control Pre-assessment Post-assessment Lesson observations and post-lesson discussions During the addition and subtraction lessons, students were able to work for extended periods of time without asking for the teacher to check that their work was correct, assessing their own work against the visual representation. This is something that the teacher noted as being unusual for this class. The worksheets from the lessons also provide evidence that students were using the number lines correctly, and then continuing on to answer more challenging questions without the use of number lines. This suggests that some internalisation of concept may have taken place. The consistent use of vocabulary and notation became an unexpected motivating factor in lessons, with students enjoying the opportunity to correct each others use of the word minus instead of negative, and to suggest where brackets should be written in order to distinguish between the roles of the negative sign. The trial group teacher noted that the overall level of student engagement was improved, although this may have been due to the observer effect. Discussion While the model was effective in representing addition and subtraction with negative numbers, it becomes complicated as a representation for multiplication and division. The concept of negative as opposite was effective in developing students understanding of the double-negative; the double-negative was not explicitly included in the pre- and post-assessments, however, so it is unclear what the students exact From Conference Proceedings 37-2 (BSRLM) available at bsrlm.org.uk the author - 4

5 starting points were with this concept. It was discussed that this may be a useful conceptualisation for multiplication and division. This, however, would rely on secure understanding of the associative property of multiplication, and that ( a) = ( 1) a; so, for example, ( 4) ( 3) = ( (4 3)) = ( 12) = 12, that is, the opposite of 4 multiplied by negative 3 is equal to the opposite of negative 12. It would also be important to consider the use of brackets here in order to maintain consistency but also to avoid over-complicating the notation. A continuation of this research might also investigate the finer aspects of the model, for example, the effect of using a vertical number line as opposed to a horizontal number line; the efficacy of the number bar manipulatives in representing negative number concepts; and how the number bar manipulatives might fit into students understanding of well-established models such as Cuisenaire rods and the bar model. Reflecting on the design and trial process also raises the question: have we just created another analogy? Does the model represent the underlying mathematical structure of negative number arithmetic, or have we conceptualised negative number arithmetic so that it fits our model? It may be possible to answer this question by conducting further trials with students who have no prior experience with negative number arithmetic. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that students who were taught negative number arithmetic using a CPA model, based on the vertical number line and number bar manipulatives as key representations, increased their scores in post-assessments by a significantly greater number of marks than students who were taught using a non- CPA approach, in the areas of addition and subtraction with negative numbers. There is also qualitative evidence to suggest that the CPA model had a positive effect on student confidence, independence, and engagement. The model would require further development in order to effectively represent multiplication and division, possibly by utilising the conceptualisation of negative as opposite. Whether or not the model does turn out to be successful, the systematic design process which draws extensively on existing research has, at least, raised some valuable ideas regarding the ways in which we design our instructional models. Acknowledgements This research was funded by Nottingham Trent University Small Scale Research Projects The authors would like to thank the participating teachers Joshua Cutts and John Hammond. References Altiparmak, K. and Özdoğan, E. (2010). A study on the teaching of the concept of negative numbers. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science & Technology, 41(1), Askew, M. and Wiliam, D. (1995). Recent Research in Mathematics Education, London: HMSO. Bofferding, L. (2010). Addition and subtraction with negatives: Acknowledging the multiple meanings of the minus sign. In P. Brosnan, D. Erchick, & L. Flevares (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the North American From Conference Proceedings 37-2 (BSRLM) available at bsrlm.org.uk the author - 5

6 Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, (pp ). Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University. Department for Education. (2012). Review of the National Curriculum in England: What can we learn from the English, mathematics and science curricula of high- performing jurisdictions? (DFE-RR178). London: DfE. Duval, R. (1999). Representation, vision and vizualisation: Congnitive functions in mathematical thinking. Basic issues for learning. In F. Hitt & M. Santos (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, (pp.3-26). Columbus, OH: Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education. Heefer, A. (2011). Historical objections against the number line. Science & Education, 20(9), Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. (2008). Learning from didactikids : An impetus for revisiting the empty number line. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 20(3), Kilhamn, C. (2008). Making sense of negative numbers through metaphorical reasoning. In C.Bergsten, B. Grevholm & T. Lingefjärd (Eds.), Perspectives on Mathematical Knowledge: Proceedings of MADIF 6, (pp.30-40). Stockholm, Sweden. Tatsuoka, K. K. (1983). Rule space: An approach for dealing with misconceptions based on item response theory. Journal of Educational Measurement, 20(4), Vlassis, J. (2008). The role of mathematical symbols in the development of number conceptualization: The case of the minus sign. Philosophical Psychology, 21(4), Witzel, B. (2005). Using CRA to teach algebra to students with math difficulties in inclusive settings. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 3(2), From Conference Proceedings 37-2 (BSRLM) available at bsrlm.org.uk the author - 6

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