1 The Writing Process The Academic Support Centre // September 2015
2 + so that someone else can understand it!
3 Why write?
4 Why do academics (scientists) write?
5 The Academic Writing Process
6 Describe your writing process What do you need mentally and physically to start writing? What stages do you go through during the writing process? What is the hardest part? The easiest part?
7 Writing Processes A. Brainstorm. Read. Write. Edit. Turn in. B. Read. Read. Read. Read. Read. Write at the last minute. Turn in. C. Read. Read. Panic. Ask for deadline extension. D. Usually starts with brainstorming, reading and note-taking, which leads to drafting, which can lead back to research which generates new ideas which leads to more drafting which leads to revision which leads to new ideas which leads to more focused reading which leads to more revising, which eventually leads to editing and proofreading. Turn in.
8 Writing process Writing process The Writing Process
9 From N.A. Study Smart. Griffith University. [Online]. 15 Jan
10 An example writing process
11 Analyze assignment Subject to topic to RQ Organize thoughts Focused reading & note-taking Revise & draft 2 Feedback Draft 1 Organize thoughts 2 Feedback Revise & draft 3 Edit & polish Turn in!
12 Different texts at different times Process writing (focus on thinking & content) Product writing (focus on its form) Different types of writing generate different types of text: -raw text (for your eyes only) -draft text (for feedback during the process) -reader text (the end product) All are necessary and have their place in the writing process
16 Subject to topic to RQ Tree diseases (Subjects) Dutch Elm Disease treatment and prevention in Dalby Söderskog
17 beginner s mistakes: start plowing through all the sources they can find on a topic, taking notes on everything they read. the best way to begin working on your specific topic is not to find all the data you can on your general topic, but to formulate questions that point you just those data that you need to answer them. From pg of The Craft of Research by Booth, Colomb, & Williams
18 Subject to topic to RQ Types of questions to ask: *Free write or list what you already know about your topic Ask about the history: How does (topic) fit into a larger developmental context? What is (topic s) internal history? Ask about its structure and composition: How does (topic) fit into the context of a larger structure or function as part of a larger system? How do (topic s) parts fit together as a system?
19 Subject to topic to RQ Types of questions to ask: Ask how your topic is categorized? How can (topic) be grouped into kinds? How does (topic) compare to and contrast with others like it? Turn positive questions into negative ones. What has not contributed to? How does (topic) not differ from? Ask what if? and other speculative questions. How would things be different if (topic) didn t happen/never existed?
20 Subject to topic to RQ Tree diseases Dutch Elm Disease treatment and prevention in Dalby Söderskog (Subjects) Question How is Dutch Elm Disease currently treated in Dalby Söderskog? What does the current condition of the elms in Dalby Söderskog suggest about their future?
24 I. Introduction A. Context B. Problem (What we don t know) C. Aim II. D. RQ Methods A. Design B. Data collection III. Results IV. Discussion V. Conclusion IMRAD outline
25 Organize thoughts Variety of methods IMRAD outline Mind map
26 Historical development Effects of convergence Health care finance convergence External causes Internal causes Mind map
27 Organize thoughts Variety of methods IMRAD outline Mind map Free write
28 How to free write 1. Choose a starting sentence/theme and time frame 2. Write without stopping no punctuation! 3. Continue to write without thinking about what you re writing 4. Do not use the backspace or eraser 5. Continue to write even if you don t have anything to write about If you free write on the computer, turn off the monitor!
29 How to free write: sentences It s a problem that (starting point) It s a problem especially for.this could be used by.to.(whom does it concern?) The problem is caused by. (causes) I aim to understand/find out.(your aim) I plan to study the problem by. (method) Some keywords and concepts are I will only deal with because (delimitations) I treat this topic only from.perspective For now, I ll work as if this section will have the following structure (content & organization)
30 From free write to draft 1. Find a starting point for a new free write underline good ideas and formulations write the best bits on a new page and free write from there repeat until you have developed a working draft 2. Find a research problem formulate the most important point in one sentence use the formulation as a research problem 3. Find keywords and make a preliminary structure note keywords and write them on a separate page structure the keywords in a logical order paper structure? write additional comments on each point
31 Organize thoughts Variety of methods IMRAD outline Mind map Free write Tell a friend
32 Tell a friend and get feedback What I remember the most was I d like to know more about I didn t quite understand
34 Active Reading Big picture before details Familiarity before understanding
35 Active Reading Before get an overview: What type of text is this? Title, author information, synopsis on the back, table of contents, forward, abstract Headings, bold/italicized words, text boxes, figures, graphs
36 Active Reading Before What do I want out of this reading?
37 Active Reading SKIM: overview of content and main points. To find parts you want to read more carefully. NORMAL: the overall message, thinking, argumentation, problem formulation, and results. INTENSIVE: detailed knowledge, precise information, to learn the material deeply and be able to reproduce and analyze the nuances of the text. SELECTIVE: the texts relevance from a specific point of view. To use the text in a specific context.
38 Notes that rework the source better essay NOTES Main claim and evidence Keywords Examples Models Quotes Page numbers and reference info REFLECTIONS Questions Associations, reactions, ideas, concretizations Visualizations
39 Synthesis matrix for an overview of the literature AKA Literature Review Idea and example from:
40 Idea and example from:
41 Ask: Are there differences in the scope of these texts main claims? Any degree of disagreements between them? Do they use similar methods to tackle similar problems? Do they engage with each other? How? Do they cover different aspects of my subject? How many different aspects? Any left out? How detailed/deep is each analysis? Any ideas in one text that you could reasonably expect to see in another, but don t?
42 Analyze assignment Subject to topic to RQ Organize thoughts Focused reading & note-taking Revise & draft 2 Feedback Draft 1 Organize 2 Feedback Revise & draft 3 Edit & polish Turn in!
43 Use metacommentary Can start as process text for the writer and become product text for the reader. Forces the writer to think about the relationship between parts. Version 1 AKA the red thread In this chapter, I will begin by discussing the background to my topic. With that background in place, I will turn to an evaluation of the relevant literature on this topic. The next step will be a re-interpretation of my problem in light of this literature. I will conclude by considering the implication of my topic for the broader field.
44 Use metacommentary Can start as process text for the writer and become product text for the reader. Forces the writer to think about the relationship between parts. Version 2 In this chapter, I will begin by discussing the background to [my topic]. With that background in place, I will turn to an evaluation of the relevant literature on [my topic]. The next step will be a re-interpretation of [my topic] in light of this literature. I will conclude by considering the implications of [my topic] for [my field].
45 Use metacommentary Version 3 The first step in discussing [something] must be a consideration of [some sort of background issue]. To get a better feel for [this issue], we will need to look at [a particular aspect of the literature]. The dynamic that we see between [these two strains of thought we ve identified in the literature] will provide a new way to understand the [current topic]. It is only when we see [this topic] in this new way that we can grasp its implications for the broader project of understanding [some issue facing the field as a whole].
47 If writing for an extending amount of time is painful
48 Pomodoro Technique 1. Choose a task 2. Work with intense focus for 25 minutes 3. When distracted, quickly note them on paper 4. After 25 minutes, note what you have done 5. Take a break for 3-5 minutes 6. Work for another 25 minutes 7. After 4 pomodori, take a longer break (30 min)
50 The risk of being changed is one of the most frightening prospects most of us can face. Carl R. Rogers
51 Feedback Students taught to give peer feedback improve in their own writing abilities more than students taught to use peer feedback. K. Lundstrom, W. Baker, To give is better than to receive: The benefits of peer review to the reviewer s own writing. Journal of Second Language Writing 18 (2009), p
52 Feedback Reader-based feedback = to give information about a specific communication situation, not a grade/judgment Criteria-based feedback (aka assessment ) = to determine quality according to a certain system
53 Reader-based feedback Doesn t talk about how the text is, but about how you, the reader, understood it Uses I messages (I reacted to /I like how /I associated with ) Meets the writer where he/she is in the process Is concrete and usable ( looks forward )
54 Criteria-based feedback Talks about the text in relation to a set of expected characteristics Those characteristics could be grade-based, genrebased, something else Usually assumes the text is finished Is concrete, but doesn t have to look forward Ex: professional peer review process in academia
55 Bothers readers more Content knowledge and processes Context: purpose, audience, etc. Discourse knowledge and processes Structure and organization (incl. section and paragraph coherence) Sentence structure and coherence Word choice Bothers readers less Grammar, Punctuation, Reference formalities, etc. Documents Peer review guidelines Feedback request Adapted from Hoel (2001) and Hillocks (1987).
56 Receiving feedback Stay in the situation and listen actively Accept feedback as information about this specific communication situation, not about you as a person or an absolute truth about your text Consider how the feedback can help you develop as a writer and not only this specific text. Ask if you don t understand, but don t react defensively.
58 Revision To change a few words or phrases To check for missing commas and misspelled words To rethink and rework the paper s structure, delete large sections of text if necessary, and consider weaknesses in the paper s argument To confirm what you ve written is good To consider how a reader/audience will experience the text and adjust accordingly
59 Revision To change a few words or phrases To check for missing commas and misspelled words To rethink and rework the paper s structure, delete large sections of text if necessary, and consider weaknesses in the paper s argument To confirm what you ve written is good To consider how a reader/audience will experience the text and adjust accordingly
60 Ask yourself: Is my question answered/my problem solved? Which sections are still unclear to me? (Which were difficult to write?) Do I jump from topic to topic in one paragraph? Did I mean to say this? Is this necessary to say? Will a reader understand this? Requires some distance from your text
61 You might find that. Your question/problem is poorly worded or unanswerable based on the collected data Your introduction does not appropriately set up the reader for the rest of your text Your method section is too long or too short Your literature review is rambling and unfocused Your analysis is hard to follow or too superficial
62 Revision strategy: see big picture
63 Revision strategy: reverse outline 1. Number your paragraphs. 2. Identify the topic of each paragraph. At this point, you can also make note of the following: a. Is there a recognizable topic sentence? b. How long is the paragraph? i. Does the topic seem sufficiently developed? ii. Is there more than one topic in the paragraph? 3. Arrange these topics in an outline. 4. Analyze this outline, assessing the logic (where elements have been placed in relation to one another) and the proportion (how much space is being devoted to each element). 5. Use this analysis to create a revised outline. 6. Use this revised outline to reorganize your text. 7. Go back to your answers in 2a and 2b to help you create topic sentences and cohesion in your paragraphs. From Explorationsofstyle.com
65 Editing Mostly concerned with sentence-level grammar* and wordchoice issues Keep a personal log of your top grammar errors or use Grammar Girl s checklist Don t try to edit for everything at once Do choose 1 error and focus edit for it If goal is to cut words: go through paragraph by paragraph and cut 5 words each. * If grammar errors impede meaning, it s a revision concern
66 Describe how you will change your writing process after today
67 Academic Support Centre Academic writing Presenting Study skills ASCatLU
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