1 ISSUES IN DIVERSITY AT CHRISTIAN EVANGELICAL HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTES: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN LATINO AMERICANS AND CHRISTIAN EVANGELICAL UNIVERSITIES BY HEALING THE WOUNDS OF PREJUDICE AND RACISM VIA A SUPPORTIVE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT, A MUTUAL RESPECT, AND PARTNERSHIP Carlos Jesus Salazar
2 I. Introduction Emmanuel University a) Dr. Naomi incident Brown Brother b) Prejudice at Christian higher level academia c) Disillusioned d) Profiled again e) Fire lit - awoken to problems at Emmanuel U.
3 II. Purpose: To discover how increasing Latino ethnicity in the United States and, specifically in Southern California, can be equitably inclusive and thrive on a healthy exchange of perspectives (Institutional priority for diversity at Christian institutions, 2009) at a Christian Evangelical higher institution of education. By stating equitably inclusive and a healthy exchange of perspective, I mean the fostering of a spirit of mutualism (becoming one) which creates an equal respect and partnership within Christian Evangelical higher institutions of education.
4 III. Historically/Literature Review Racism is an evil weed sown in the garden of humanity (J. Barndt, 1991, p. 91). In teaching my students United States History, I make it a point to emphasize that the great Declaration of Independence -- which states, We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our posterity was initially written only for the white male of this new nation. Therefore, those who did not fit this profile were denied the freedoms of equality, liberty, domestic tranquility, and the welfare that the United States Constitution and its Bill of Rights preached, due to God s enacting what we call natural law.
5 A. Prejudice Plus Power Moreover, African Americans, First Nation Americans, Latino-Americans, Asian-Americans, nor females of any race enjoyed the blessings of liberty or equality. Barndt adds that the mere word prejudice, actually depicts prejudice plus power (Barndt,1991, p. 28). Barndt says that, Racism (prejudice plus power) develops when personal opinion and individual bigotry are codified and enforced as societal behavior. Racism structures a society so that the prejudices of one racial group are taught, perpetuated, and enforced to the benefit of the dominant group (1991, p. 29).
6 B. Fighting Prejudice As a whole, America has changed. Due to a Civil War ( ), the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments gave African-Americans and other minorities the right to vote and other freedoms. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950 s and 1960 s put to end the equal but separate discrimination prevalent in the public arena, making prejudice and racism retreat at some of the secular higher educational institutions.
7 C. But what about in our Christian Higher Education Schools? William Kratt s, dissertation, Diversity in Evangelical Christian higher education (2004), purpose of his study was to identify the factors that support or inhibit diversity at predominantly White, Evangelical, Christian colleges and universities (CCCU, Diversity in Christian Higher Education Bibliography, 2004).
8 D. Kratt s Findings: Recent studies in higher education in general indicate the existence of a chilly campus climate for students of color and other underrepresented groups. because of: a) Lack of multicultural competence of Christian student leaders. What may it hard for these leaders to comprehend people of differing cultures were: Political Orientation Gender Family Income
9 Kratt And a concept called Whiteness. a) Whiteness is an assumption, whether reasoned or subliminal, of inherent superiority, advantage, or privilege for members of the white race. b) The social construct of whiteness is a complex historical, socio political, and psychological notion that permeates society at individual, cultural, and institutional levels in the United States (Kratt W., 2004, p. 24).
10 E. Manifest Destiny Coined by John O Sullivan, a New York newspaper editor, Manifest Destiny is the social fervent ideology that Providence/God had allowed all of the Americas -- from the most northern regions of Canada to Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, and from sea to shining sea to be conquered by the white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant man to exploit for his sole purpose and dominance. The problem with this ideology is that many people, who were not white in ethnicity, or Protestant in religion, lived in the Americas.
11 After a war motivated by greed, slavery, and prejudice namely, the Mexican-American War ( ), in which the Mexican nation lost the entire American Southwest (consisting of seven current states) to the United States -- the Mexicans living in that land faced a great deal of discrimination from the American victors. Mexican people who initially resided in, and stayed within, these new American territories were either cheated from their lands or simply returned to Mexico. By God s grace and through an ironic twist, the American Southwest, which was lost by Mexico to the United States and built up by Anglo-Americans, is now the home of waves of Mexican immigrants &ei=utf-8&n=30&x=wrt&y=Search
12 Old Mexico and Texas too amilies&toggle=1&cop=mss&ei=utf-8&fr=yfp-t-701
13 F. Mexican American Flux Mexican immigration has been at a continual flux in the United States since the Mexican-American War (1840 s) due to the ever-present flow of Mexican immigrants to the US (Hayes - Bautista, 2004). Furthermore, You have those Mexican-Americans who do rise educationally and economically, but because of the ever-present movement towards a land that offers a better economic and educational life, you will always have a people movement to the land of milk and honey, namely the US. Although economically, educationally, and technologically, Mexico is moving upwards, the dream of prosperity and justice is still hearted in the US (Hayes - Bautista, 2004).
14 G. U.S. Census million Hispanics/Latinos live in the US, thus 14.8% of total population of 299 million. Also between 2000 and 2006: Hispanics accounted for one-half of the nation s growth. Hispanic growth rate (24.3%) was more than three times the growth rate of the total population (6.1%) (Bureau, 2006).
15 Latino Population Growth in US
16 H. Surprising Data The data also offer information about changes in America's racial makeup. Many of the counties that saw the largest increases in their Hispanic populations were in traditional Hispanic strongholds, including southern California, Arizona, and south Florida. But others were more surprising: Counties in eastern Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, Kansas, and Oklahoma all saw an influx of Hispanics, reflecting a trend over the last decade in which many recent Latino immigrants have spread beyond urban centers like Los Angeles and Phoenix into more rural parts of the country. Taken from: New census data shows which areas of America are growing, shrinking by Zachary Roth
17 Mural in East Los Angeles/Boyle Heights xican+american+murals&fr=yfp-t-701&ei=utf-8&n=30&x=wrt&y=search
18 I. In California The 2008 United States Census reported that Latinos are the largest non-white ethnic group in the United States, estimated to comprise 15.4 percent of the population, and are growing at a much faster rate than the rest of the nation; Latinos comprise 36.6 percent of California s population (Burciaga, Fall 2010).
19 J. Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU) CCCU is an association of 184 intentionally Christ-centered institutions around the world. CCCU research data shows that the overall percentage of students of color in CCCU institutions increased gradually from 16.6 percent in 2003 to 19.9 percent in In comparison, the rate of diversity among non-cccu institutions increased from 20.5 percent in 2003 to 23.2 percent in 2009
20 CCCU continued The lowest levels of diversity in CCCU schools are found in the Midwest, the region with the highest concentration of CCCU schools. However, this region s population as a whole exhibits lower diversity than the other regions, making clear that CCCU schools in this region will have to work harder to access the diverse students who will enhance their campus communities. CCCU schools seem to be approaching the national norm of minorities (23.2 percent).
21 K. A LOOK AT SOME SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CCCU ASSOCIATED SCHOOLS IN TOTAL SCHOOL DEMOGRAPHIC ETHNICITY ENROLLMENT STATISTICS
22 Emmanuel University African American 4% Asian American 11% Caucasian 67% Hispanic/Latino 12% International 4% Other 2% Undergrad student enrollment is 3,936; total university enrollment is 5,948 (Emmanuel, 2011) Twenty seven percent enrollment is a minority not counting International students Revival University Asian 8% Black 6% Hispanic 15.8% Native American.4% Pacific Islander.4% Other 5.4% Unknown 11.3% White 49.5% International 3.3% Total student enrollment: 9,258 (Revival, 2010) Thirty percent enrollment is a minority Enrollment Demography
23 Jonas University Asian/PI 9.2% Black 2.7% Hispanic 11.1% Native American/Alaskan 2.4% Non resident/alien 0.8% White 67.3% Unknown 6.6% Total enrollment: 1,312 (Jonas, 2009) Twenty three percent enrollment is a minority Victory University Caucasian: 61% Hispanic: 22% Asian 4% African American 6% Native American 1% International 1% Unknown 5% Total university enrollment is 1,961 (Victory, 2011) Thirty three percent enrollment is a minority Enrollment Demography
24 Franciscan University American Indian/Alaska Native: 0.2% African American: 5.4% Asian: 9%; Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander: 0.3% Hispanic/Latino: 21% Caucasian: 53.5% Multi-race: 7.1% International: 3.5% Undergraduate: 5,797; Graduate: 1,961; Law School: 1,312; Total: 9,070 Thirty six percent enrollment is a minority Franciscan University is not a CCCU school. Enrollment Demography
25 The National Center for Education Statistics Percentage distribution of students enrolled in degree-granting institutions, by race/ethnicity: Selected years, fall 1976 through fall 2009 Race/ethnicity Institutions of higher education Degree-granting institutions Total White Total, selected races/ethnicities Black Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander American Indian/Alaska Native Nonresident alien
26 L. Demographics are Changing in the US a) National demographics are changing. The number of eighteen to twenty-five-year old students enrolled in college by the year 2015 is projected to increase by 1.6 million; b) 80 percent of this additional population will be nonwhite, and almost half will be Hispanic, with a large portion of these students coming from low-income backgrounds (Merisotis and McCarthy, Spring 2005).
27 IV. Solutions in Building Positive Bridges of Diversity at Christian Higher Education Institutions via a Supportive Social Environment, Mutual Respect, and Partnership
28 A. How to build bridges 1. Build a campus with a supportive social environment a) Campus climate that values and validates Hispanic culture. b) Some students do well when they feel at home. c) Students need to feel welcomed and supported d) Have events, lessons, foods, or lectures that can relate to the culture
29 Building Bridges cont. 2. Know the role of Families (Latino) a) The University of Texas at El Paso offers a parents' orientation, in addition to its standard student orientation. Staff members provide families with detailed information -- in Spanish and English -- about the university's programs and expectations. The goal is to help family members support students in ways that go beyond providing financial help. The orientation session explains how the college experience differs from high school, and provides information about financial aid [as well as] academic and other support services available to students (Santiago, 2011).
30 Building Bridges cont. b) Several Hispanic-serving colleges have motherdaughter programs, which work with two generations to encourage girls to graduate from high school and [to] enroll in college. Organizers of such programs believe that the most important role model for young Hispanic girls is found within the family. [The colleges] work within their communities to identify Hispanic girls who are at risk of dropping out of high school and organize activities to help girls and their mothers set goals for academic and career success. Mothers and daughters take part in monthly career and cultural activities for an entire year and the colleges follow up with workshops and seminars in later years. [These] colleges also recruit community and student volunteers to serve as role models and mentors (Santiago, 2011).
31 Building Bridges cont. 3. Loyola Marymount University, in Los Angeles, is an emerging Hispanic-serving institution, with Hispanic enrollment of just over 20 percent [twenty one percent]. a) It conducts outreach activities within the Latino community several times a semester. b) It also encourages family involvement in campus events held for students, such as orientation sessions and overnight activities. c) Current students and alumni take part in these events
32 4. Pan-American [University], for example, has built an on-site day-care center to assist students who are parents. For many young mothers, the center provides crucial support that allows them to continue their education. Academically, Pan-American encourages more Hispanics to pursue careers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields than most similar universities. Once a year, it hosts Hispanic Engineering, Science, and Technology Week, which brings together nationally known speakers and students from all over the Rio Grande Valley (Cortes, 2011).
33 5. Academic programs that promote collaboration [are highly effective]. a) Latino students consistently make the point that they thrive in supportive academic peer groups which are particularly important at commuter campuses, where students have fewer chances to interact than at residential universities. b) Latinos are commonly raised in extended-family environments, and the peer groups provide a similar network of support and responsibility.
34 Building Bridges cont. 6. Education majors often cited an academiccohort program in the School of Education in which the same groups of students meet in classes -- called blocks -- as a significant step in keeping them engaged and on track to graduation. a) Besides providing academic motivation, the program helps students develop friendships and connect with one another through mutual career goals (Cortes, 2011). b) Academic-cohort programs are common in graduate education, but colleges should consider their long-term benefits for Latino undergraduates, as well.
35 Building Bridges cont. 7. Clear procedures [are needed] to simplify the transfer process from high school to university. a) Many Latino college students are first-generation, and have very little understanding of the college process. a) Unable to draw upon the knowledge of parents or peers, many experience trial by fire. As one Pan-American administrator said, "It is one thing to get them in the door, and it is another thing to ensure they graduate (Cortes, 2011).
36 Building Bridges cont. 8. Increase intercultural group and classroom interactions by utilizing experiential, active learning opportunities, such as discussions, small group discussion, small group work, paired groups, and more inclusiveness in campus activities. 9. Conduct regular student follow up, early recruitment, early talent development, early alert, and retention programs aimed at supporting Hispanic student s persistence. 10. Establish a formal mentoring program by matching Hispanic students with Hispanic faculty and coordinated by a Hispanic administrator/faculty member.
37 Building Bridges cont. 11. Hire and develop Hispanic faculty members to serve as mentors, role models, and offer diversity issues, culturally relevant courses, workshops, and seminars. 12. Create a central multicultural unit that provides academic success strategy courses, cross cultural services and assistance programs and link with community support. 13. Provide a Hispanic student drop in center for follow up, regular counseling sessions, mid term academic progress, leadership development, and initiate matriculation agreements with area schools and targeted ethnic churches.
38 Mutual Respect and Partnership Can be achieved: 1. Through listening /dialogue with community partners. a) With members of the same faith community. 2. Through critical reflection about the economic and cultural realities that have caused local and global oppression and suffering. a) Faith community members can engage in the difficult work of examining their own cultural location(s) and formation and exploring how they might engage in faithful, ethical action for social justice across lines of cultural difference. In other words, transformative learning.
39 3. Service learning alongside peers of diverse backgrounds, as well as playing on a sports team or creating a dramatic production, helped students to move beyond superficial relationships and to build genuine friendships with a common purpose. 4. Re acculturation: renegotiating memberships in groups or cultures we already belong to and becoming members of other groups and cultures, as well. a) It involves modifying or renegotiating our participation in the language, values, knowledge, and mores of the communities we come from, as well as becoming fluent in those same elements of the partners and communities with whom we collaborate (Knight, August 2011, p.403).
40 True Christian Social Justice In The Changing face of world missions (2006), author Michael Pocock says, As globalization brings diverse peoples together, God has a method to move people past the mono - cultural prejudices held almost universally. God's people - the church - live among the rest of the nations as God's "priestly nation" (1 Peter ). God keeps track of the nations; he knows their names and dwelling places. He uses his own people as a ministerial or priestly nation to minister to all the other nations. The church is thus a type of "supranation" - its people are from all nation - states, languages, and tribal groups, but their united task is to glorify God among the nations (Ps. 96) and "to live such good lives among the pagans that... they may see your good deeds and glorify God on the day he visits us" (1. Peter 2.12).
41 Future of Higher Education 1. K. Paredes Collins states: The future of higher education depends on its decision to mirror the authentically multiracial and multicultural reality in which this country exists or to figuratively revive segregation, maintaining a barely significant enrollment of Black and Hispanic students. a) When institutions of higher education employ various and effective forms of racial and ethnic consideration and inclusion, the potential for student growth and development is great. b) Research finds that students who have significant interactions with other students of diverse backgrounds show development in critical thinking and social cognitive skills and improvement in learning and democratic skills, the ability to consider values and perspectives different than their own, enhanced cultural and social awareness, and greater civic engagement. c) Students also showed an increased sensitivity toward issues of poverty and were more likely to assist those who needed help. c) Additionally, in the educational setting, students and faculty members of diverse backgrounds fulfill critical knowledge areas in areas that were previously lacking, by bringing their own background of diverse experiences into the learning environment (Paredes - Collins, 2009).
42 1. Paredes Collins adds, Higher education is one of the most important commodities for upward mobility in our society. a) It serves as a significant factor in social mobility and economic stability, both individually and globally. b) In addition, a fundamental purpose of higher education is to prepare talented young people to assume productive roles in their societies to foster the creation of human capital. c) Furthermore, the weight of evidence... indicate[s] that the college experience itself has a unique positive influence on increases in principled moral reasoning (Paredes - Collins, 2009, pp ).
43 Conclusion Therefore by practicing what we teach and preach in Biblical social justice past prejudices and discrimination will be healed. Micah 6. 8, tells us to examine ourselves and recall what God has told us is righteousness, thus what does the LORD require of you? To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God, then true reconciliation can take place.
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