Journal Article Growth and Reading Patterns

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1 New Review of Information Networking ISSN: (Print) (Online) Journal homepage: Journal Article Growth and Reading Patterns Carol Tenopir, Regina Mays & Lei Wu To cite this article: Carol Tenopir, Regina Mays & Lei Wu (2011) Journal Article Growth and Reading Patterns, New Review of Information Networking, 16:1, 4-22, DOI: / To link to this article: Published online: 09 May Submit your article to this journal Article views: 1165 View related articles Citing articles: 19 View citing articles Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at Download by: [ ] Date: 18 November 2017, At: 03:57

2 New Review of Information Networking, 16: 4 22, 2011 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: print / online DOI: / JOURNAL ARTICLE GROWTH AND READING PATTERNS CAROL TENOPIR, REGINA MAYS, and LEI WU University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA Academic libraries electronic collections play an important role in access to journal articles for academics around the world. Academics have access to more articles through electronic collections than at any other time in history. They demonstrate the value of those resources by the time they invest in finding, reading, and citing journal articles. There are some differences in reading and citing patterns based on subject discipline, but a majority of faculty members in all disciplines say that reading articles and citing them are important to writing grant proposals, grant reports, and articles. Keywords: citing patterns, collections, grants, journal articles, journal publishing, reading patterns, scholarly articles, subject discipline Introduction From their beginnings in the seventeenth century, journals have played an important role in scholarship. For authors they provide registration, certification, dissemination, and archiving (Mabe and Amin 2001, 2002). For readers, they provide knowledge of what has gone before, as well as fostering new ideas. Journal articles are important to readers for a variety of purposes including research, teaching, current awareness, writing, and others (Tenopir, King, Spencer, and Wu 2009; Tenopir and King 2007). Today, there are more journal articles available to scholars than ever before, due both to increases in the number of articles published and increases in the access to current and back issues due to e-journal systems and multiple versions of e-articles. Does Address correspondence to Carol Tenopir, The University of Tennessee, Information Sciences, 423 Communications and University Extension Building, 1345 Circle Park, Knoxville, TN , USA. 4

3 Journal Article Growth and Reading Patterns 5 this increased availability alter readers interactions with journal articles? How do readers value articles in an age of ubiquitous and immediate access? Is citing articles still considered important? This article examines these issues by reviewing recent research and reporting on details of an international survey of academics that included questions on article reading habits. Background It is difficult to pinpoint the exact number of journals worldwide, although UlrichsWeb Global Serials Directory is an accepted source. UlrichsWeb showed a growth from 22,835 active and refereed journals in 2003 to 24,059 in Of those, 15,688 were online in 2008, most in addition to being in print (Tenopir and King 2009). An updated search in 2010 raised the number to 28,325, with 20,928 of those being online, either in addition to print or online only (see Figure 1). A survey of journal publishers sponsored by ALPSP (Cox and Cox 2008) estimated that by 2008 over 96% of science, technology, and medical journal titles were available online (up from 82.6% in 2003) with 86.5% of arts, humanities, and social sciences titles online (up from 72.4% in 2003). As a follow on, a collaboration of organizations in the United Kingdom sponsored a series of studies to examine how to overcome barriers to moving toward online-only for scholarly journals (Cox and Cox 2010). 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 Active and Refereed Active and Refereed and Online 5, FIGURE 1 Growth in number of journals according to UlrichsWeb,

4 6 C. Tenopir et al. Another study estimated the number of active refereed journals in 2007 to be 23,750. From this number, using data from the Thomson Scientific (ISI) citation database, they estimated the number of peer-reviewed journal articles published in 2006 to be about 1,350,000 (Björk, Roos, and Lauri 2009). This number echoes an estimate by Elsevier that 1.2 million peer-reviewed journal articles are published yearly (2004). Considering that the number of active refereed journals has grown steadily, it is reasonable to assume that the number of published articles has also grown, so these numbers are likely larger now. With the growth in the number of journals worldwide, and in the number of articles published in those journals, has come a concomitant growth in the amount of time spent reading, as well as some changes in patterns of reading among academic faculty. Studies focusing on scholarly article reading are too numerous to mention here and have been well summarized in several previous literature reviews (see Friedlander and Bessette 2003; King and Tenopir 2001; Rowlands 2007; Tenopir 2003; Tenopir and King 2000, 2004). Studies conducted by Tenopir and King since 1977 to the present have shown an increase in the amount of time spent reading among academics in all fields of science, with a particularly sharp increase beginning in the mid-1990s (Tenopir and King 2000; Tenopir, King, Edwards et al. 2009). Calculations show that US science faculty spent approximately 120 hours annually reading for work related purposes in 1977, compared with an average of 144 hours annually in 2005 (Tenopir, King, Edwards, and Wu 2009). Surveys conducted at five US universities of all academic faculty, including the humanities, similarly estimate time spent reading scholarly articles at an average of 132 hours and 240 articles per year (King, Tenopir, Choemprayong, and Wu 2009). The average length of US science articles has also changed over time, increasing nearly 85% from 1975 to 2007, although in some fields, such as life sciences, the average article length has decreased slightly. Overall, however, the length of articles has increased and the difference in article length between fields has decreased, so that differences in article length should not be assumed to account for all changes in time spent reading (Tenopir and King 2009). As might be expected, with the increase in article readings comes a decrease in the average time spent reading per article,

5 Journal Article Growth and Reading Patterns 7 with faculty reporting an average of 48 minutes per reading in 1977, down to 31 minutes in (Tenopir, King, Edwards, et al. 2009). Although the amount of time available for reading scholarly articles may be close to maxing out, the growing number of articles published each year and the increasing accessibility of articles may put this idea to the test. Why are the changes in faculty reading time so important? While amount of time spent reading and number of readings has grown, other changes in reading patterns among academics have taken place as well. The number of readings from library e- collections and other electronic sources (such as colleagues, the open web, and listservs) has grown, while readings from personal subscriptions have declined. Faculty report more than half (52%) of their readings were obtained from the library collection by the mid-2000s (Tenopir and King 2007). Reading more is correlated with success faculty members who report reading more also publish more and are more likely to have won professional awards than their colleagues who report reading less (King et al. 2009; Tenopir, King, Edwards, et al. 2009). Faculty around the world report that articles obtained from electronic collections are essential to improving their work (Tenopir, King, Edwards, et al. 2009; McClanahan et al. 2010). A UK study (RIN 2009) points in a similar direction universities with more downloads of electronic articles had higher faculty publication rates. Budd (2006) also found a positive correlation between higher faculty publishing rates and larger library budgets in the top twenty Association of Research Libraries (ARL) institutions. One thing that has not changed is that there continue to be significant differences among the reading patterns of academic faculty in different subject disciplines. Past studies have consistently shown differences in reading patterns among faculty in different subject disciplines (Fry and Talja 2004; Kling 2004; Talja and Maula 2003), particularly in the amount of time spent reading and the number of articles read (Tenopir et al. 2005, 2007; Tenopir and King 2001; Tenopir, King, Spencer, et al. 2009). On average, faculty members in the fields of science, technology, and medicine tend to read more than those in the social sciences and humanities, and amount of time per reading varies by field as well (Tenopir, King, Spencer, et al. 2009). The average for all fields is 29.3 minutes per reading, but faculty in

6 8 C. Tenopir et al. medicine/health average just 23.6 minutes per reading, while those in the humanities spend 32.9 minutes per reading, with other fields falling in between: engineering/technology faculty (32.4 minutes per reading), social sciences (30.1 minutes per reading), and sciences (30.7 minutes per reading) (Tenopir, King, Spencer, et al. 2009) (see Figure 2). One thing all disciplines have in common, however, is that library provided resources are the largest single source of readings across all disciplines, providing 40 to 50% of readings, and all subject disciplines use electronic sources more than print sources except for humanities (Tenopir, King, Edwards, et al. 2009; Tenopir, King, Spencer, et al. 2009; Wilson and Tenopir 2008). A study conducted to measure the relative importance to readers of various journal and article characteristics also investigated the amount of interdisciplinary reading and differences by subject discipline. The number of different journals read from regularly tended to be the same across disciplines (average 3.79 journals). Interdisciplinary reading was found to be fairly common in all disciplines, but there were significant differences between disciplines, for instance a large number of respondents in engineering (38.7%) report the majority of their reading is outside their field, compared with scientists (8%) (Tenopir et al. 2010). Since interdisciplinary readings are less likely to come Sciences Social Sciences Engineering Humanities Medical/Health Average 0 *Error bars represent standard error Minutes per Reading FIGURE 2 Faculty time per reading in minutes.

7 Journal Article Growth and Reading Patterns 9 from journals considered central to a researcher s core discipline, e-journal collections and searching are essential to providing access to those articles. Library-provided e-journals are the single most important source for these articles. Several recent studies have examined the Return on Investment (ROI) of library-provided e-journal collections. Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) studied the library s contribution to the grants process via library budget data, data on grant income and proposals, surveys, and interviews. They found that the library made a contribution to grant income by providing citations used in the grants process, including grant proposals, final reports, and publications. This case study, using the total library budget, calculated a ROI to the University of 4.38:1 in grant monies awarded (Luther 2008). A second study expanded on the work done at UIUC, revising their formula and testing it in eight universities in eight countries. This second study found ROI to the respective institutions ranged between 0.64:1 and 15.54:1 just in the grant process (Tenopir et al. 2010). As part of the study, seven of the eight institutions surveyed academic staff on their use of scholarly articles in the grant process, as well as reading and searching behavior. Data from this survey has been further analyzed for this report. International Survey of Academics In 2008 approximately 13,000 academic staff members at seven universities in seven countries received an invitation from their respective library director that contained an embedded link to a Web-based survey instrument, housed on the University of Tennessee server. The seven institutions represented major universities or other research institutions from around the world with three in three different Asian countries, two in North America (one in Canada and one in the US), one in Western Europe, and one in South Africa. Approximately half (46.9%) of the over 2800 respondents came from the three Asian universities (see Figure 3). The participating institutions included a research institute, research-intensive universities, and universities with equally strong research and teaching missions. The survey was delivered in English, Spanish, Japanese, and French. Even in areas where English is not the native language,

8 10 C. Tenopir et al. 5.6% 21.9% Asia 46.9% Europe North America South Africa 25.7% FIGURE 3 Respondents by region (n = 2857). many respondents chose to respond in English and over 70% of responses were in English. The overall response rate was 22% (ranging from 8.4% to 32.9% at each institution). Since respondents were allowed to skip any question, the number of responses to each question varies. Respondents were asked to identify their current position at their respective institution. Because of varying titles in different regions, the actual titles on individual surveys varied somewhat, with the closest equivalent title in each country being used. Title names used in all surveys were roughly equivalent to Professor (27.4%), Associate Professor (20.1%), Assistant Professor (27.2%), and other faculty titles, including Administrator (25.3%) (n = 2338). Differences in the types of institutions (i.e., research institute vs. teaching university) make this an approximation, with titles of similar rank being listed together. Respondents were also asked to identify their primary subject area. The percentages in this study do not necessarily reflect the percentages in each discipline at the respective institutions. Approximately a quarter of respondents were in the physical sciences, with another quarter in the social sciences. Remaining respondents came from life sciences, arts/humanities, health sciences, and other subject disciplines (see Figure 4). The survey asked about the grant activity of participants for the year In 2007, over half (53%) of respondents were the principal investigator (PI) or Co-PI on at least one externally

9 Journal Article Growth and Reading Patterns 11 Arts & Humanities, 13.70% Other, 2% Physical Sciences, 23.60% Health Sciences, 7.90% Social Sciences, 23.60% Life Sciences, 16.90% FIGURE 4 Respondents by subject discipline (n = 2506). funded grant. For the same year, 64% were grant-active, which included submitting a grant proposal and/or being PI or Co-PI on an externally funded grant. A much greater percentage of respondents in life sciences (81.8%) and physical sciences (74.5%) were grant-active compared to other disciplines (Table 1). Importance of Reading and Citing While a recent study found a narrowing of citing patterns in the sciences to be correlated with online availability of journals (Evans 2008), citations obviously continue to be important in all disciplines. Both reading and citing readings in grant proposals or reports are considered essential. Other studies have found that over one-third of readings are reported to be absolutely essential to their purpose by faculty in all subject disciplines (King et al. 2009). The vast majority of respondents in this international survey in all disciplines say that citations are important, very important or essential in the grants process (average 90%). There are some differences based on subject discipline, however. Respondents in the health sciences are far more likely to rate them as essential (69.4%, compared to an average of 50.7%)

10 12 C. Tenopir et al. TABLE 1 Grant-Active or Non-Active, by Subject Discipline (n = 2022, p =.000) Grant Active or Non-Active Grant Non-Active Grant Active Total Physical Sciences % 74.5% 100.0% Life Sciences % 81.8% 100.0% Social Sciences % 54.9% 100.0% Health Sciences % 53.6% 100.0% Arts & Humanities % 51.3% 100.0% Other (please specify) % 53.4% 100.0% Total % 64.2% 100.0% (Table 2). This is consistent with previous findings that medical faculty rely more on scholarly articles than any other groups and have consistently over time averaged reading as much as twice what other disciplines reported (Tenopir, King, and Bush 2004). Respondents in the life sciences are also more likely to rate citations as essential, which again supports previous research, such as findings that estimate the average number of annual article readings by medical faculty at 414, with 331 by those in the sciences and 233 for social sciences (Tenopir, King, Spencer, et al. 2009). Interestingly, although those in the health sciences value citations highly, they were also most likely to report citing no references in a grant proposal (Table 3). In general, however, the majority of all respondents report citing one or more references in a grant proposal, with 69.6% citing on average ten or more references. Those in the life sciences were significantly more likely (49.1%) to cite thirty references or more in a grant proposal, followed most closely by health sciences faculty (30.6%). An average of 82.2% of all respondents report citing at least one or more references in a final grant report (Table 4).

11 TABLE 2 Importance of Citations, by Subject Discipline (n = 1911, p =.000) Very Somewhat Not Essential important Important important important Total Physical Sciences % 24.4% 17.4% 9.7% 1.8% 100.0% Life Sciences % 21.8% 13.6% 3.5% 1.1% 100.0% Social Sciences % 22.3% 19.9% 8.0% 3.1% 100.0% Health Sciences % 20.4% 6.4% 2.5% 1.3% 100.0% Arts & Humanities % 21.0% 19.0% 9.0% 3.8% 100.0% Other (please specify) % 29.3% 19.3% 8.0% 2.7% 100.0% Total % 23.0% 16.7% 7.3% 2.3% 100.0% 13

12 14 C. Tenopir et al. TABLE 3 Number of References Cited in a Grant Proposal, by Subject Discipline (n = 1700, p =.000) No. of references cited Total Physical Sciences % 20.7% 26.1% 20.2% 24.3% 100.0% Life Sciences % 6.3% 20.7% 21.0% 49.1% 100.0% Social Sciences % 22.4% 25.3% 13.7% 20.5% 100.0% Health Sciences % 8.8% 17.7% 22.4% 30.6% 100.0% Arts & Humanities % 32.9% 17.1% 12.4% 21.4% 100.0% Other (please specify) % 12.2% 17.6% 16.0% 37.4% 100.0% Total % 18.1% 22.2% 17.7% 29.7% 100.0% TABLE 4 Number of References Cited in a Final Grant Report, by Subject Discipline (n = 1627, p =.000) No. of references cited Total Physical Sciences % 18.3% 27.1% 20.8% 21.7% 100.0% Life Sciences % 14.7% 30.5% 20.5% 24.9% 100.0% Social Sciences % 15.6% 21.2% 12.5% 28.1% 100.0% Health Sciences % 11.4% 20.0% 15.7% 30.0% 100.0% Arts & Humanities % 20.5% 18.6% 14.9% 18.1% 100.0% Other (please specify) % 12.8% 20.8% 16.8% 25.6% 100.0% Total % 16.2% 24.3% 17.4% 24.3% 100.0%

13 Journal Article Growth and Reading Patterns 15 The numbers change a bit here, however, according to subject discipline, with those in the health sciences (30%) being most likely to cite 30 or more references, followed this time by the social sciences (28.1%). There is a vast literature on article citing patterns by discipline using bibliometric techniques (see, for example, Borgman and Furner 2002). Our purpose is not to replicate those studies; instead, our data is self-reported survey data on how many citations respondents estimated they included in their articles for publication. In all disciplines, most respondents reported citing at least one or more references in an article for publication (94.4%), as might be expected (Table 5) and across all disciplines an average of 87.6% reported citing 10 or more references in an article for publication. Respondents were asked how many additional articles they read for each article they cited (Table 6). Across all disciplines, faculty reported reading an average of over 24 articles for each one cited. True to form, those in the life sciences read significantly more than those in other disciplines, but respondents in TABLE 5 Number of References Cited in an Article for Publication, by Subject Discipline (n = 1761, p =.000) No. of references cited Total Physical Sciences % 8.2% 26.0% 33.6% 28.9% 100.0% Life Sciences % 2.6% 5.4% 17.3% 72.4% 100.0% Social Sciences % 9.5% 11.0% 26.1% 47.1% 100.0% Health Sciences % 3.9% 9.2% 30.7% 47.1% 100.0% Arts & Humanities % 8.8% 16.5% 24.5% 42.6% 100.0% Other (please specify) % 4.4% 12.5% 23.5% 47.8% 100.0% Total % 6.8% 14.5% 26.3% 46.8% 100.0%

14 16 C. Tenopir et al. TABLE 6 Additional Articles Read for Each Article Cited, by Numbers, by Subject Discipline (χ 2 = , n = 1689, p =.000) Total Physical Sciences % 45.5% 18.8% 9.5% 18.0% 100.0% Life Sciences % 37.3% 17.3% 10.7% 31.3% 100.0% Social Sciences % 37.7% 15.8% 8.6% 26.0% 100.0% Health Sciences % 34.9% 12.8% 11.4% 22.8% 100.0% Arts & Humanities % 38.1% 12.6% 12.1% 25.1% 100.0% Other (please specify) % 32.3% 12.3% 14.6% 27.7% 100.0% Total % 39.1% 15.9% 10.5% 24.6% 100.0% all disciplines reported reading at least 20 articles on average for every one they cited. While faculty in the health sciences were the most likely to report reading no additional articles for each one cited, overall a majority of respondents from all disciplines (86.9%) reported reading at least one or more additional articles (Table 7). Electronic Access from the Library s E-Collections On average, nearly three quarters of respondents in all disciplines reported accessing at least half of articles electronically from the TABLE 7 Number of Additional Articles Read for Each Article Cited, by Subject Discipline (F = 2.434, n = 1689, p =.033) n Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error of Mean Physical Sciences Life Sciences Social Sciences Health Sciences Arts & Humanities Other Total

15 TABLE 8 Percentage of Articles Accessed Electronically from the Library s Collection, by Subject Discipline (n = 1784, p =.000) Percentage of articles accessed electronically 0 % 1 24 % % % % 100 % Total Physical Sciences % 4.3% 9.0% 16.8% 53.5% 10.5% 100.0% Life Sciences % 2.8% 5.3% 22.2% 58.1% 9.6% 100.0% Social Sciences % 18.8% 12.8% 17.4% 37.2% 6.0% 100.0% Health Sciences % 6.5% 5.2% 22.1% 49.4% 12.3% 100.0% Arts & Humanities % 36.6% 21.0% 15.6% 12.1% 1.6% 100.0% Other (please specify) % 13.8% 7.2% 18.8% 50.7% 2.2% 100.0% Total % 12.9% 10.4% 18.4% 44.1% 7.5% 100.0% 17

16 18 C. Tenopir et al. library s collection, with an average of over half accessing 75% or more of articles this way (Table 8). Here, as in other studies (for instance, Tenopir, King, Edwards, et al. 2009), faculty in the arts and humanities tended to be most likely to access no articles electronically, and on average accessed far fewer articles electronically than other disciplines. It could be, as other researchers have suggested, that the difference is largely a matter of availability, since a smaller percentage of humanities journals are available in electronic format (Vakkari 2006). Time Spent Finding, Accessing, and Reading Articles Faculty members also invest their time in finding and accessing articles, though they spend significantly less time in this endeavor than in reading (Table 9). This survey asked about total hours spent finding and accessing articles per week, but other studies have measured time spent per article. For instance, in 2005, when faculty at five US universities were asked how much time they spent seeking the last article they read, they reported spending an average of 26 minutes when browsing print journals and 40 minutes when browsing electronic, though they also reported that multiple articles might be found during the same search (Tenopir, TABLE 9 Hours Spent Finding/Accessing Articles Weekly, by Subject Discipline (χ 2 = , n = 1735, p =.000) Total Physical Sciences % 22.2% 6.9% 11.8% 100.0% Life Sciences % 28.1% 9.5% 12.9% 100.0% Social Sciences % 19.8% 6.4% 21.3% 100.0% Health Sciences % 22.5% 5.3% 23.8% 100.0% Arts & Humanities % 18.8% 7.3% 18.4% 100.0% Other (please specify) % 22.8% 6.6% 11.0% 100.0% Total % 22.4% 7.0% 16.1% 100.0%

17 Journal Article Growth and Reading Patterns 19 TABLE 10 Average Hours Spent Reading Weekly, by Subject Discipline (F = 3.047, n = 1739, p =.010) n Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error of Mean Physical Sciences Life Sciences Social Sciences Health Sciences Arts & Humanities Other Total King, Edwards, et al. 2009). Scholars show they value articles and reading by investing a considerable amount of their time. Respondents in the social sciences report spending the most time reading (Table 10), even though they report reading fewer articles overall than some other disciplines, such as life sciences. On average, however, respondents from all disciplines spend a significant amount of time reading for work each week (average hours per week). Conclusions Over a million articles are published each year in over twenty thousand peer reviewed journals. A vast majority of those journals and articles are now available in electronic form. Academics have access to more articles online than at any time in history, and they demonstrate the value of those articles by the time they invest in finding and reading and citing articles. There are some differences in reading and citing patterns, however, based on subject discipline. Academics in the sciences and medical fields read and cite more articles, yet medical faculty members spend less time per article reading. A majority of faculty members in all disciplines say that reading articles and citing them are important to writing grant proposals, grant reports, and articles. Academic libraries electronic collections play an important role in access to journal articles for academics around the world. A majority of articles for research and writing come from the

18 20 C. Tenopir et al. library, and e-collections provide efficient access to interdisciplinary and within disciplinary readings. References Björk, B. -C., A. Roos, and M. Lauri. Scientific Journal Publishing: Yearly Volume and Open Access Availability. Information Research 14.1 (2009): 391. Print. Borgman, C. L., and J. Furner. Scholarly Communication and Bibliometrics. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 36, Ed. B. Cronin. Medford, NJ: Information Today, Print. Budd, J. M. Faculty Publishing Productivity: Comparisons Over Time. College & Research Libraries 67.3 (2006): Print. Cox, J., and L. Cox. Scholarly Publishing Practice: Third Survey Brighton: ALPSP, Print.. E-Only Scholarly Journals: Overcoming the Barriers. Research Information Network, Publishing Research Consortium, JISC, and Research Libraries U.K., November Web. 28 March < documents/e-only_reportrin2010.pdf>. Elsevier. Responses to Questions Posed by the Science and Technology Committee. Elsevier, Web. 28 march < corporate/images/uk_stc_final_submission.pdf>. Evans, James A. Electronic Publication and the Narrowing of Science and Scholarship. Science (2008): Print. Friedlander, A., and R. S. Bessette. The Implications of Information Technology for Scientific Journal Publishing: A Literature Review. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Web. 28 March < Fry, J., and S. Talja. The Cultural Shaping of Scholarly Communication: Explaining Ejournal Use Within and Across Academic Fields. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 41 (pp ). Washington, DC: American Society for Information Science, Print. King, D. W., and C. Tenopir. Using and Reading Scholarly Literature. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 34. Ed. M. E.Williams (Ed.), Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc., Print. King, D., C. Tenopir, S. Choemprayong, and S. Wu. Scholarly Journal Information-Seeking and Reading Patterns of Faculty at Five US Universities. Learned Publishing 22.2 (2009): Print. Kling, R. The Internet and Unrefereed Scholarly Publishing. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 38 (2004): Print. Luther, J. University Investment in the Library: What s the Return? A Case Study at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (White Paper #1). San Diego, CA: Library Connect Editorial Office at Elsevier, Print. Mabe, M., and M. Amin. Growth Dynamics of Scholarly and Scientific Journals. Scientometrics 51.1 (2001): Print.

19 Journal Article Growth and Reading Patterns 21. Dr. Jekyll and Dr. Hyde: Author-Reader Asymmetries in Scholarly Publishing. Aslib Proceedings 54.3 (2002): Print. McClanahan, K., L. Wu, C. Tenopir, and D. W. King. Embracing Change: Perceptions of e-journals by Faculty Members. Learned Publishing 23 (2010): RIN (Research Information Network). E-journals: Their Use, Value and Impact Web. 28 March < Rowlands, I. Electronic Journals and User Behavior: A Review of Recent Research. Library & Information Science Research 29.3 (2007): Print. Talja, S., and H. Maula. Reasons for the Use and Non-Use of Electronic Journals and Databases: A Domain Analytic Study in Four Scholarly Disciplines. Journal of Documentation 59 (2003): Print. Tenopir, C. Use and Users of Electronic Library Resources: An Overview and Analysis of Recent Research Studies. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources, Web. 28 March < Tenopir,C.,S.Allard,B.Bates,K.J.Levine,D.W.King,B.Birch,R.Mays,and C. Caldwell. Research Publication Characteristics and Their Relative Values: A Report for the Publishing Research Consortium. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee, Print. Tenopir, C., and king. The Growth of Journals Publishing. The Future of the Academic Journal. Eds. B. Cope and A. Phillips. Oxford: Chandos, Print.. The Use and Value of Scientific Journals: Past, Present, and Future. Serials 14.2 (2001): Print. Towards Electronic Journals: Realities for Scientists, Librarians, and Publishers. Washington, DC: Special Libraries Association, Print.. Communication Patterns of Engineers. New York: IEEE/Wiley InterScience, Print.. Perceptions of Value and Value Beyond Perceptions: Measuring the Quality and Value of Journal Article Readings. Serials 20 (2007): Print. Tenopir, C., D. King, P. Boyce, M. Grayson, and K. Paulson. Relying on Electronic Journals: Reading Patterns of Astronomers. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 56.8 (2005): Print. Tenopir, C., D. King, and A. Bush. Medical Faculty s Use of Print and Electronic Journals: Changes over Time and Comparison with Other Scientists. Journal of the Medical Library Association 92.2 (2004): Print. Tenopir, C., D. King, M. Clarke, K. Na, and X. Zhou. Journal Reading Patterns and Preferences of Pediatricians. Journal of the Medical Library Association 95.1 (2007): Print Tenopir, C., D. King, S. Edwards, and L. Wu. Electronic Journals and Changes in Scholarly Article Seeking and Reading Patterns. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives 61.1 (2009): Print. Tenopir, C., D. King, J. Spencer, and L. Wu. Variations in Article Seeking and Reading Patterns of Academics: What Makes a Difference? Library & Information Science Research 31.3 (2009): Print.

20 22 C. Tenopir et al. Vakkari, P. Trends in the Use of Digital Libraries by Scientists in : A Case Study of FinELib. Proceedings 69th annual meeting of the American society for information science and technology (ASIST) 43 Austin, TX, Ed.A.Grove.Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc., Web. 17 Mar < org/archive/ /. Wilson, C. S., and C. Tenopir. Local Citation Analysis, Publishing and Reading Patterns: Using Multiple Methods to Evaluate Faculty Use of an Academic Library s Research Collection. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology 59.9 (2008):

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