Gallery F

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Gallery F 15 1966-2016 A private initiative for contemporary art Fifty years ago, the brothers Lars and Nielsen Brandstrup established Gallery F 15 in an old factory building at the address Fossen 15, in the old Milltown in Moss. Lars Brandstrup's wife, Ellen, and Niels's wife, Agnete, contributed in major ways to the practical work of the gallery from the start. The brothers were born in Horten (right across the Oslo Fjord from Moss), but grew up in Denmark. All their life they had been surrounded by art, and their brother, Birger Brandstrup, also managed an art gallery in Randers in Denmark. Lars had for several years worked as the press secretary for the Danish painters' group «Kammeraterne» [«The Comrades»]. Their idea was to create a local gallery, and there was considerable uncertainty as to whether this would be possible at all in an industrial town without any real artistic milieu, and within such close proximity to the relatively strong exhibition activity of Norway's capital. In addition, they lacked a professional artistic network as well as contacts in the Norwegian art milieu of the time. When the gallery after a while ended up as a venue of national importance, this came as quite a surprise for them. According to Lars Brandstrup, there were three reasons why Gallery F 15 made such a mark already during its first year: Consistent emphasis on high artistic quality and large exhibition spaces, exhibitions with appeal to a more than local audience, and open doors to newer currents in European art. Their goal was to build up an arena in Moss, where people with an interest in art could meet and serious exhibits be shown. Not like in museums, with their ancient traditions of solemn and reverent display of art, nor as art historians and the artists themselves were used to displaying it. No, what we wanted was to tie the exhibition events closely to the preferences of the public, but with an unbreakable commitment to quality, as far as our means permitted, said Lars Brandstrup in the local newspaper Mossemagasinet in 1984. As it was, the brothers' initiative turned out to be a hit, and from the first year on they hosted impressive showings of modernistic art by the Finnish-Norwegian Irma Salo Jæger and the Norwegians Håkon Bleken, Arne Malmedal and Tore Olsen. 1 A large and enthusiastic public quickly emerged, and the press, in Oslo as well as locally, kept track of what was going on. In time, the exhibitions were frequently reviewed and referred to; even the first exhibition in 1966 was reviewed by two papers. As part of the gallery's activity, Niels and Lars Brandstrup made an all-out commitment to the news sheet F 15 KONTAKT [F 15 CONTACT], which aimed to cover the entire Nordic area and spread art news across national borders. Resources were spent on content rather than on layout and design. Articles were specially written for F 15 KONTAKT or culled from a large number of Nordic news sources. In addition, catalogue texts from the most important art exhibits in the Nordic area were re-published. Funding for the gallery's activities came from Nordic foundations, from the Municipality of Moss for individual exhibits, from sales of art, and in time also from café sales. However, the building at Fossen 15 was in ramshackle condition, damaged by fire and storm. One fine April day in 1967 when the roof blew off, the brothers made a risky but farsighted leap. They embraced an offer from the Municipality of Moss to move the gallery to the stately main building of the Alby estate on Jeløy for a nominal charge of 50 kroner a month. The Municipality had purchased the property in 1962 from the estate of shipowner Bjørn Bjørnstad, because of the high quality of its agricultural lands. However, Bjørnstad's will contained clauses limiting the Municipality's use of Alby to cultural activities. And so, Gallery F 15 on Jeløy was established, and on April 28 th of the same year, the first exhibition opened in the new buildings. Viewers came by the car-load, to see the art and experience Alby. On a single Sunday, as many as two thousand people might show up, as Lars 1

Brandstrup pointed out to the newspaper Drammens Tidende og Buskeruds Blad on May 15 th 1970. The Brothers Brandstrup proceeded at a fast pace with exhibitions changing every month. Lars and Niels themselves selected the artists and exhibitions that were shown. The gallery's profile zeroed in on Nordic contemporary art. Famous names alternated with less well-known. They quickly established good contacts throughout the Nordic art field and a number of travelling exhibitions were shown in Moss, for example Abstrakte danske Dansk kunst siden 1959 [Abstract Danish Danish art since 1959], in 1967; Kvinner i skandinavisk kunst [Women in Scandinavian Art], and a COBRA exhibition in 1968. The year after, the public could experience experimental and provocative art by the Polish artist Wadyslaw Hasior. 2 The exhibition came to Moss through cooperation with Moderna Museet in Stockholm, and became one of the most important, most gripping and most debated exhibitions in Norway that year. The informal and folksy presentation had far greater impact than anyone could have dreamt. At the time, the number of galleries and exhibition venues was not as great as now, and Norway had still not acquired a museum of contemporary art. 3 It was as if a latent need in the public was released in Moss. Lars Brandstrup put it this way in Mossemagasinet in 1984: Some have said that Gallery F 15 during its first years changed the way art was communicated in Norway, opened up new roads, and played a pioneering role. Those are strong words, but it is not my duty to contradict people. The brothers focused not only on visual art, but on arts and crafts. Just two years after the opening, Gallery F 15 introduced the exhibition series Tendenser [Tendencies], as a significant mustering of Norwegian arts and crafts. This was at a time when exhibition opportunities for this art form were marginal in Norway, and four years before Norwegian arts and crafts workers established their own union: Norske kunsthåndverkere (Norwegian Arts and Crafts Workers). The exhibition became a respected and much sought-after exhibition series at Gallery F 15, and has over the years documented the development of Norwegian arts and crafts, and the changes in the field from craftsmanship to arts and crafts production. Among the artists that participated in the first Tendenser exhibition were Benny Motzfeldt and Tone Vigeland. 4 Ten years have passed The gallery's tenth anniversary was marked with a new exhibition by Tage Törning, the first artist to exhibit at Gallery F 15 in 1966, as well as with a large group exhibition with a total of 130 works by 35 artists who had previously shown their art at the gallery. In Aftenposten (one of the largest Norwegian newspapers, based in Oslo), the reviewer Hebbe Johnsrud wrote on April 10 th 1976: The most impressive thing with this list of well-known names, is that it does not impress us, does not surprise us, that it occurs at a private gallery sixty kilometers outside the capital. The gallery has pampered us. The friends' association was established during the gallery's tenth anniversary celebration. A hundred friends stepped forward and founded Friends of F 15, with its own statutes and an elected Board. Among these were a number of the country's best-known cultural personalities and politicians, and the then Crown Princess Sonja participated in the formal founding event. In the same year, fifty artists from the entire country wrote a letter to the major of Moss City, Bjørn Barang, and to the Municipality of Moss, encouraging them to support the gallery, which had an impact far outside the city limits. The friends' association took on great responsibilities, far greater than anyone had probably ever considered. The association played a key role in the establishment of the Interest Community of January 1 st 1979, between the Brandstrup brothers, the Municipality of Moss, Østfold County, Friends of F 15 and representatives from the visual arts and the arts and crafts scenes. The Interest Community's goal was to spread knowledge about visual art and arts and crafts, arrange cultural events, and organize publications. At the founding, a Nordic focus was included in the 2

association's statutes. This became a characteristic trait of the gallery's activities in the coming years, with exhibitions that displayed e.g. Nordic glass work and Finnish visual art. In 1980, Agnete died, and only two years later, Niels. After this the gallery continued with Lars Brandstrup as director and Ellen Brandstrup as head of the café, in close cooperation with the Interest Community's Board. The Nordic orientation was continued and expanded. The visual arts promoter Tore Flesjø was hired as assistant director in 1983. He came to Alby from a position as head of Aktuell kunst [Current Art], Norway's oldest and largest arts magazine and art club. In the same year, Lars Roar Langslet, the then Minister of Culture, came to Alby to participate in a debate about art institutions in Norway, ten years after the publication of the Norwegian Parliament's first white paper on culture. 5 The new annex at Alby The Brandstrup brothers were strategists, who at an early point perceived the need for adapting the premises at Alby in order to improve working conditions at Gallery F 15. Plans were made for a new annex, which would give more space for exhibitions and offer a stronger position at Alby for the cultural life of Moss. The arrangement of the old buildings and the unique vegetation determined the location and design of the annex. A discrete location was sought, tucked away from the main building, shaped in accordance with the tenant's wing reaching west toward the traditional raised storage house («stabburet»). The main building remained the central point, and parts of the tenant's wing that had housed a kitchen and workshop, were rebuilt as offices. The annex was completed in 1985, thanks to funding from the Municipality of Moss and Arts Council Norway. Friends of F 15 also donated considerable funds to the building, 6 and additional money for furnishing. That Friends of F 15 was able to contribute such a large sum exceeded all expectations, and was due to the many Norwegian and Nordic artists that donated works to an art auction in 1984. 7 Art in lean times Two days after the opening of the annex, on September 30 th 1985, a new director for Gallery F 15 was appointed. After nearly twenty years' work Lars Brandstrup left his post and Tore Flesjø took over the helm. A year later, the art historian Jorunn Veiteberg was hired in a combined position as artistic director and editor of F 15 KONTAKT. She was now to carry on the work of the nearly twenty-year-old newssheet of Nordic art. Veiteberg brought along her experience as an art reviewer for the newspaper Bergens Tidende, and was well informed about the Nordic art field. She realized several prominent exhibitions, among them Video Art, in 1988, with works by among others Jon Balke, Kjell Bjørgeengen and Marianne Heske; the Sidsel Paaske Commemorative Exhibition; a retrospective of works by the Swedish artist Hilma af Klint, in 1989; 8 and Meta Memphis Italian Furniture Design in 1990. This period saw a slowdown in the Norwegian economy, and the Municipality of Moss was saddled with a deficit of twenty million kroner, which was noticed at Gallery F 15 as well. The gallery approached a difficult half year. Funding for the Interest Community was cut by the Minicipality. 9 In addition, working conditions in general had become more arduous during the last months, with lower sales of art from the exhibitions, reduced sales at the museum store, and sinking profits from the café (the public complained that the queues in the café were too long). The director at the time, Tore Flesjø, had a special flair for putting together good sponsorship deals, but Norway's economic problems made things difficult. The City Manager of Moss suggested entrance fees, but F 16's Board was critical to the idea. Instead, a collection box was set up at the main entrance, where the public could make voluntary donations to the gallery's work. The Board was more interested in art sales, and in F 15 KONTAKT making money by running commercials. Many were anxious that the gallery faced a parting of the ways, with more commercialization because of steadily decreased funding from the public owners: the Municipality of Moss and Østfold County Council. Art reviewer Harald Flor wrote in the newspaper Dagbladet on June 10 th : For those who carry the artistic 3

responsibility, this must imply an indirect message that ambitions are good enough, but the most important thing is to get the accounts to balance. The difficult economic situation continued, and public funding was again cut. 10 Demands for selffinancing were increased and prominent local voices called for a more clear-cut commercial profile for the exhibitions. The chairman of the board wanted to cancel the planned anniversary exhibition Det aller verste gjennom 25 år [The Very Worst Through 25 Years] in 1991, and Tore Flesjø threatened to resign after the chairman's statements and his interference in the gallery's artistic profile. In the same year, the Municipality of Moss and Østfold County Council together invested a large sum to bring order into the gallery's strained economic condition. 11 In addition, an extraordinary grant from the Municipality of Moss and Østfold County Council was awarded to cover debts. A number of conditions were tied to the grant, among others the introduction of entrance fees. Minister of Culture Åse Kleveland granted project support for the anniversary exhibition in 1991, 12 and thus, together with the Nordic Council of Ministers, 13 allowed Det aller verste gjennom 25 år to be realized. Tore Flesjø resigned and the artist Ole Lislerud, who had served on the Board for six years, substituted in the position until a new director could succeed to the office. Nordic avant garde art The artistic profile held up, and the Swedish art historian Gjertrud Sandqvist was hired by the gallery's publically appointed Board. Sandqvist had worked in the art field for many years and was a prominent art communicator, curator and writer, with high professional competence. Innovative Nordic contemporary art and an avant garde program were central to her profile, and it was Gallery F 15's Nordic reputation that attracted her to the job. Her ambition was to further strengthen the position the gallery had in the Nordic area. In addition, she hoped to stimulate young art and quickly established a Project Room for this purpose. By establishing this kind of exhibition space, Gallery F 15 proved itself a pioneer, if not the very first to do so in a Nordic context. 14 Artists such as Lars Ramberg, Jeanett Christensen and Harald Hamid Rasmussen 15 are among those who were curated in the Project Room. Gjertrud Sandqvist made an effort to communicate art to children and young people, by adapting the cellar rooms for pedagogical activities for kindergarten children and school classes. She also removed the popular arts and crafts series Tendenser from the gallery's program. Public debate around Gallery F 15 The exhibitions received broad and positive attention in the large Nordic newspapers, but in the local press reactions were negative. The love affair between the inhabitants of Moss and the gallery was troubled. Conflicts appeared between supporters and detractors of Sandqvist's artistic profile. The number of visitors declined and the conflict between Sandqvist and the public owners was exacerbated. Various limitations were imposed the gallery's work and the newssheet F 15 KONTAKT was closed down. A mere six months after Gjertrud Sandqvist was hired, the Board of Gallery F 15 decided to fire her as director. They explained the firing by reference to reduced public support and budgetary deficits. Sandqvist had at the time mostly carried out plans that had already been decided on before her time; only two exhibitions suggested by her had been held. 16 Sandqvist struck back against the Board. She was hired to keep an ambitious artistic profile, and she maintained that she had done so. She was quite conscious of the fact that the number of visitors had declined, and it had proven considerably more difficult to obtain grants from sponsors than she had assumed. Odd Raeng, Director of Culture at Østfold County Council, entered the fray, stating that the Board of Gallery F 15 had to take the responsibility for part of the budgetary crisis the gallery was going through. One must be able to demand of the Board that it has at least some kind of idea of what kind of gallery it wants, he said to Moss Dagblad on July 26 th 1993. He also expressed incredulity at the Board's drastic firing of the director. 4

Expressions of sympathy flooded in from colleagues and artists in Norway and abroad. The artist Per Maning claimed that Gjertrud Sandqvist had been the victim of spiritual racism. 17 On July 27 th 1993 he said to Moss Dagblad: Art cannot be compared to everything else. If you go in for contemporary art you must always be on the cutting edge of developments, and a lot of this may seem strange. In an editorial in the same newspaper that same day, the editor wrote sharply about the Board, which in his opinion had showed cowardice in its treatment of Sandqvist: The Board of F 15 has not taken time to become friends with Sandqvist's exhibitions. After only six months of effective exhibition time, they fire her. They haven't only considered the budgetary bottom line, but also listened to so-called «public opinion». Rumor and gossip have, in our opinion, been allowed to go a little too long unchallenged. Sandqvist feared the effects that the firing might have for the gallery in a period when the Ministry of Culture had recently taken steps to include Gallery F 15 as part of the national keypoint network, which receives at least sixty percent governmental support. 18 The ambitious exhibition Legeme [Body] with the American artists Christ Burden and Robert Mapplethorp, 19 Swedish Dan Wolgers and Norwegian Per Maning, was carried out as planned during the late summer of 1993. In August that same year, the head of the Board resigned from his position, as did the Friends of F 15's representative on the Board. Sandqvist's program with, among others, the Norwegians Ole Jørgen Ness and Anne Karin Furunes and Islandic Kristján Gudmundsson 20 was concluded in September 1994, and received flattering reviews from specialists. The Board argued for a more popular, and more sales-friendly, profile, but Gjertrud Sandqvist followed her own line. Her ambitions were national in scope, and she did not want to be dependent on the ups and downs of commercially oriented operation. She resigned from her position in the summer of 1994, and completed her career in Moss with a solo exhibition by the American artist Mary Kelly. 21 Twenty young artists arranged a «hommage exhibition» as a parting gift and a celebration of her work for younger artists. Momentum is established Tor Andreas Gitlesen was hired as the new director in 1994. He came, as the earlier director Tore Flesjø, from a position as head of the art club Aktuell Kunst in Oslo, and had has his goal to bring people back to the gallery. Contemporary art would continue to be the gallery's mainstay, and the public would be attracted back to the exhibitions with free entrance and a renewed focus on arts and crafts, and the exhibition series Tendenser [Tendencies]. He also hoped to achieve higher sales of art. Under his leadership a number of prominent and important exhibitions were realized, e.g. the photo exhibition Borealis VVII. DESIRE in 1996, Charlotte Wankel (1888-1969) Retrospective in 1997, Clean & Sane in 1998, and solo exhibitions with the then young artists Hanne Friis in 2003 and the Swedish-German artist Annika von Hausswolff in 2004. 22 He introduced a number of innovations in the arts and crafts initiative Tendenser, and facilitated Nordic and international curatorship of the series. Arts communication was professionalized and a specialized communications position was established in 1999. Gitlesen played a key role in the establishment of the Momentum Biennale for Contemporary Art in Moss. He was, along with Jørn Mortensen, the director of Momentum from 2001 to 2006, one of the main forces behind the formulation of guidelines for the future of Momentum and Gallery F 15, reorganized under the aegis of the umbrella organization Fylkesgalleriet Punkt Ø [County Gallery Point Ø]. A county gallery based in Moss had been been under consideration by the County for several years, and the trend at the time was to consolidate art institutions, as stipulated in Parliamentary White Paper No. 49 [Stortingsmelding nr. 49]. In 2006, a unanimous City Council of Moss recommended that Gallery F 15 and Momentum be consolidated into a county gallery for Østfold. Both the County Council and the government shared this view. The next step was to clarify how much the County Gallery would cost and how it would be funded. Punkt Ø would have one director, one Board, and a common budget. The idea was that the new consolidated gallery would direct its efforts at Østfold as a whole, at the population of Oslo, and at anyone travelling along the E6 highway between Oslo and the Swedish border. Gallery F 15 5

would continue its exhibition profile with regular, high-quality exhibitions adapted to the stately main building at Alby. Momentum would be retained as a Nordic and international biennale, and in the non-biennale years the main emphasis would be on Momentum-Design. Punkt Ø's experience with art communication and pedagogics would find use in both national and international contexts, and Punkt Ø would be visible and accessible at cultural arenas throughout Østfold. Critical objections to this dispersed focus were that Punkt Ø could use its resources better by attracting the inhabitants of Østfold to Moss, and the question was posed whether it might prove difficult internationally to market a county gallery with the rather difficult name Punkt Ø. 2006 was another hard year economically for Gallery F 15. The anniversary exhibition for the Project Room, which was shown in Momentum Art Hall, became more costly than anticipated. In order to carry out the anniversary exhibition at all, the art hall had to be secured against fire, and the cost of this had to be born a whole year earlier than originally planned. Increased focus on international art Tor Andreas Gitlesen continued as director of Punkt Ø until 2007. A new change of directors then ensued, and Dag Aak Sveinar was brought in from Ålesund (a town on the west coast of Norway), from a position as director of Stiftelsen kulturkvartalet [The Cultural Quarter Foundation], with the subdivisions Jugendstilsenteret [The Art Nouveau Center] and Kunstmuseet KUBE [Art Museum CUBE]. The new director was hired because of his talents as a cooperator. His ambition was to take care of all that had hitherto been built up and allow Punkt Ø to take root in all minds in Østfold. He further sought to develop gallery F 15 as a temple, and Momentum as an arena for topical contemporary art that addressed the issues of our age. Under Dag Aak Sveinar's leadership, Momentum has been held biannually since 2009 and Gallery F 15 has been further developed as an arena for Nordic contemporary art, while international art was also emphasized in the exhibition program with, among other things, a solo exhibition by the Spanish artist Dora Garcia. 23 Large projects have been started and during the national Munch year in 2013, the gallery again showed an exhibition of Edvard Munch's works. 24 This time the focus was on Munch and Moss, during the years 1913-1916, when he lived not far from the present-day location of Gallery F 15. Punkt Ø contributed the ambitious book Edvard Munch in Moss. Art, War and Capital on Jeløy 1913-1916. 25 The Project room was closed, but the young art scene has been further examined through the exhibition Ung.Lovende [Young.Promising]. Thanks to a generous gift from Sparebankstiftelsen [The Savings Bank Foundation], there has been increased emphasis on exhibition catalogues and publications. In cooperation with Østfold kulturutviking [Østfold Cultural Development] and Den kulturelle skolesekken [The Cultural Satchel], Punkt Ø produces school exhibits that travel throughout the county. Further development of the Alby estate as an art arena has been initiated, with plans for opening an art center for children and young people in 2017, in the erstwhile wagon house from 1866. The Board has decided to assess the Large Barn at Alby as a potential future exhibition arena for Gallery F 15. New approaches to the exhibition series Tendenser have been pioneered, which will be held every second year starting in 2016, with the aim of strengthening the exhibition to become an important event for the arts and crafts scene throughout Europe. Today's art field differs markedly from that of 1966, and the competition for attention is great. With its rich history, beautiful surroundings, and courage to explore trends and tendencies in contemporary art and arts and crafts, Gallery F 15 meets the future as an intellectual breathing hole for the enjoyment of the inhabitants of Moss, for the surrounding region, and for visitors. Gallery F 15 will continue to challenge and engage, to reflect on observations of what characterizes today's art and how this is expressed. Moss is the city of contemporary art, thanks to Gallery F 15. Written by Maria C. Havstam Curator and Head of Communications, Punkt Ø 6

1 2 Irma Salo Jæger (b. 1928), Håkon Bleken (b. 1929), Arne Malmedal (b. 1937), Tore Olsen (b. 1934). Wadyslaw Hasior (1928-1999): Sculptor and painter, described as one of the leading Polish contemporary artists of his generation. 3 The Norwegian Museum of Contemporary Art was established in 1988. In 1990 the museum opened its doors for the public in the building that had previously housed the central bank of Norway, at Bankplassen in Oslo. 4 Benny Motzfeldt (1909-1995): A well-reputed glass artist who started a new era in the history of Norwegian glass design at the end of the 1960's. Tone Vigeland (b. 1938): One of Norway's most respected artists of her generation, famed for her minimalist jewelery and, since the 1980's, for her sculpture. She was selected to be the main artist at Bergen International Festival in 2014. 5 Stortingsmelding nr. 8 (1973-94). Om organisering og finansiering av kulturarbeid. [Parliamentary White Paper No. 8 (1973-94). On the Organization and Funding of Cultural Work.] 6 NOK 1.3 million. 7 The auction brought in NOK 800,000. 8 Hilma af Klint was shown at Gallery F 15 twentyseven years before Stockholm's Moderna Museet held their great retrospective of Klint in 2013, thus correcting their blunder in 1970, when they declined the offer to take over all of her works. 9 The Municipality cut NOK 180,000 from their funding. 10 From 1 million to 600,000 NOK. 11 A total of NOK 600,000. 12 NOK 140,000. 13 The Nordic Council of Ministers contributed NOK 125,000. 14 In an interview in the newspaper Moss Avis, Gjertrud Sandqvist pointed out that Moderna Museet in Stockholm and Tate Modern in London established this type of exhibition space at a later date. 15 Lars Ramberg (b. 1964) is particularly known for his installation Zweifel [German: Doubt] at Palast der Republik in Berlin. Jeanette Christensen (b. 1958) has since the 1990's worked with installations, sculpture and photography. Hans Hamid Rasmussen (b. 1963) became known for his «honey rooms», large, fragrant installations made from beeswax, which one can enter into. 16 The two exhibitions that were held were: Privat [Private], an exhibition of installations made specially for the gallery by Lawrence Carroll (USA), Olav Christopher Jenssen (NO), Tony Oursler (USA), Nina Roos (FI), Marianne Uutinen (FI), and Anders Widoff (SE); and Rescuers of the Holocaust, an exhibition of photographs from the Museum of Modern Art (New York) based on many years of research by Gay Block and Malka Drucker on people who were saved from the Second World War's concentration camps (the exhibition was also shown in Vienaa (Wiener Secession) and Düsseldorf (Mahn- und Gedänkstätte). 17 Per Maning (b. 1943) achieved notability in the 1980's with his photographic portraits of animals. 18 In 1993, the Norwegian Parliament's academic committee for the arts recommended that Gallery F 15 receive at least sixty percent governmental support as a keypoint institution. The honor for this decision is due in part to a united bench of Østfold parliamentarians, in part to active lobbying by Carl E. Wang, the head of Friends of F 15. 19 Chris Burden (1946-2015): American performance artist, installation artist and sculptor. Robert Mapplethorpe (1946-1989): American photographer known for his sensitive, large-format photos in black-and-white. 20 Ole Jørgen Ness (b. 1961), Anne Karin Furunes (b. 1961), Kristján Gudmundsson (b. 1941). 21 The American Mary Kelly (b. 1941) is known for her large installations and project-based works that often explore themes of identity, language and history. 22 Borealis VII. DESIRE: A photographic exhibition from The Nordic Arts Center. Clean & Sane: An international group exhibition curated by Maria Lind. Its theme was the complex relationship between cleanliness and dirt, a healthy mind and madness, health and sickness, order and organization, control and chaos. Hanne Friis (b. 1972) and Annika von Hausswolff (b. 1967) are both acclaimed artists of their generation. 23 Dora Garcia: Well-reputed artist who represented Spain at the Venice Biennale in 2011 and participated again in 2013; also participated in documenta 13 the same year. 7

24 Previous exhibitions of Munch's works at Gallery F 15 were Munch at Jeløy, in 1974; and Munch, Jorn and Kirkeby, in 1984. 25 Author: Hans-Martin Frydenberg Flaaten. 8