The Making of Female University Presidents in China

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1 The Making of Female University Presidents in China

2 Kai Yu Yinhan Wang The Making of Female University Presidents in China 123

3 Kai Yu Graduate School of Education Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai China Yinhan Wang Graduate School of Education Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai China ISBN ISBN (ebook) Jointly published with Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press. The print edition is not for sale in China Mainland. Customers from China Mainland please order the print book from: Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press. Library of Congress Control Number: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press 2018 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publishers, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publishers, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publishers nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publishers remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore , Singapore

4 Contents 1 Introduction Background Research Origin Research Purpose Research Value Theoretical Value Practical Value Definition of Core Concepts Glass Ceiling Leadership Group Characteristics Literature Review Women s Professions and Power Women s Leadership Obstacles to Women s Professional Development Measures Supporting Women s Status Group Characteristics of University Leaders Women Leaders in Chinese Universities Summary of the Literature Review Research Design and Methods Overall Design Research Questions Research Subjects Research Methods Technical Road Map Data Collection Data Analysis v

5 vi Contents 1.10 Validity and Reliability Validity Reliability Ethical Issues Innovations, Challenges, and Limitations Innovations Challenges Limitations References Data Basic Information Educational Background Academic Titles and Honors International Experience Work Experience and Promotion Method References Group Characteristics of Female Leaders Basic Information Gender Ratio Institutions Positions Duties Age Ethnicity Political Affiliation Service Mobility Educational Background Highest Degree Earned Academic Background Academic Titles and Honors Research Area International Experience Work Experience and Promotion Method Results Group Differences Between Male and Female Leaders Similarities Between Male and Female Leaders References Differences in Female Leader Characteristics by College and University Type Basic Information Age Ethnicity... 72

6 Contents vii Political Affiliation Positions Duties Service Mobility Educational Background Highest Degree Earned Graduation Institutions Academic Background International Experience Work Experience and Promotion Method Results The Vertical Differences in Female Leadership at Different Schools Non-vertical Differences in Female Leadership at Different Schools References Differences in the Female Leadership Characteristics of Different Positions Basic Information Ages Institutions Duties Ethnicity Political Affiliation Service Mobility Educational Background Highest Degree Graduation Institutions Academic Background Academic Titles Research Area International Experience Work Experience and Promotion Method Results Horizontal Differences in Female Leadership Characteristics by Position Similarities in Female Leadership Characteristics Across Different Positions References

7 viii Contents 6 Differences in the Characteristics of Female Leaders in Relation to Their Different Duties Basic Information Age Institutions Positions Ethnicity Service Mobility Education Background Highest Degree Graduation Institutions Academic Background Academic Titles Research Area International Experience Work Experience and Promotion Method Results Horizontal Differences in the Characteristics of Female Leaders with Different Duties Similarities in the Characteristics of Female Leaders with Different Duties An Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Development of Female Leadership Exploring the Reasons Behind Bottlenecks Facing Female Leaders Analysis of Factors Influencing the School Hierarchy Analysis of the Factors Affecting Leaders Positions An Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Distribution of Duties Summary of Reasons Exploring the Reasons for Female Leaders Success Objective Factors Subjective Factors References Discussion and Reflection Professional Women Who Are Standing at the Precipice of a New Era National Gender Policy and the Evolution of the Concept of Gender Equality Overall Improvement in the Education and Academic Level of Women

8 Contents ix Changes in Time Allocation and Family Division of Labor The Change in Female Self-cognition The Significance of Selecting and Appointing Female Leaders The Selection and Appointment of Females to Participate in the Management of Colleges and Universities Is a Realistic Demand if Society Is to Achieve Social Equality and Social-Balanced Development, Which Will Help to Create a Harmonious Educational Ecology Appointing Women as School Leaders and Optimizing the Proportion and Structure of Female Leadership Will Help Optimize the Quality of Decision Making of University Management Selection and Appointment of Women Can Give Full Play to the Value of Human Capital and Optimize the Allocation of Human Resources The Higher the Proportion of Women in Leadership Positions, the More They Will Help Reduce Corruption and Avoid Risks Putting More Women in Leadership Positions at Universities Will Enhance Women s Self-Confidence, Set a Good Example for Women s Career Development, and Promote the Growth of Female Groups in Higher Education Research Thinking and Enlightenment From Women s Point of View, Quality Is a Prerequisite for Success The Social Mechanism of Equality in Society as a Whole Is a Guarantee of Women s Participation in Management References

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