Course Ends: January 10, Course Description

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1 Course Syllabus Title of Course: Aiding Students with Learning Disabilities Course Code: # P3-51F10 Course Location: Online, Instructor s Name: Knowledge Delivery Systems Instructor s Telephone #: Course Begins: September 20, 2010 Course Ends: January 10, 2011 Course Description Total Hours: 30 hours This course aims to illustrate best practices to teach students with various learning differences, difficulties, and disabilities. Exploring methods to teach to different brains serves to introduce teachers to the brain barriers to learning. The neurobiology of different brains will be presented and studied. Participants will participate in group discussions with the course administrator to further study a specific brain difference. Classroom strategies will be researched and shared. This course will comprehensively cover topics relating to research in neuroscience, psychology, and education that have merged their scientifically based results and support specific strategies in the classroom so that all students can learn. The neurobiology of different brains will be presented and studied. The format of this class showcases teacher experiences that involve interaction and practice. The instructor will model all of the techniques that are presented. Participants will be expected to contribute to the class to further clarify their understanding of the concepts. By the end of the course, teachers will be able to apply these methods in their classrooms. Session # 0 Date: Self-paced Time: Self-paced Number of hours for this session: 1 hour In order to set learning goals both for your students and for yourself read the course description below, as well as the descriptions, outlines, objectives, and key concepts for each unit, which you ll find under Objectives when you click on each unit s title. To develop student learning goals, you should consider in addition to the above the NYS Education Department standards, which can be found here: Please also consider any existing

2 classroom data you have collected from pretests and assessments or know anecdotally. To develop your personal learning goals, you should also consider the Professional Teaching Standards, which can be found here: Participants will learn skills in the following areas: Setting student learning goals Setting personal teaching goals Analyzing and aligning to standards Professional Teaching Standards: Developing as a Professional Establishing professional goals and pursuing opportunities to grow professionally Reflecting on teaching practice and planning professional development Include strategies to meet diverse learning needs (differentiated instruction). Participants are directed to two sets of standards to help them determine learning goals for themselves and their students. They record these goals in the KDS e-classroom and will be directed to refer to them throughout the course. Specified learning goals for students supported by standards alignment Specified teaching goals also supported by standards alignment cost, and where it is available. If there is a guest speaker, include the presenter s name and affiliation. The NYS Education Department standards: The Professional Teaching Standards: Session # 1

3 A Free and Appropriate Education After completing this topic, participants will understand: The role that state and federal legislation has played in defining the goals and context of special education The provisions of important state and federal laws related to special education The idea of non-discrimination as it relates to special education The ideas of Least Restrictive and More Restrictive environments for special education students When does least restrictive environment conflict with appropriate education? Describe some examples you have encountered in your experience as an educator. Learn how parents should become involved in the protections of IDEA and describe how you will encourage this type of involvement. Examples of educators answers include: 1. notified in writing of the need for evaluation 2. provide written consent prior to evaluations 3. provide written consent to the placement 4. the opportunity to participate in the development of the IEP 5. annual review Donna Walker Tileston presents this entire session. Session # 2

4 Special Education and the Brain: Part 1 After completing this topic, participants will understand: How the cognitive system of the brain affects student learning The difference between declarative and procedural knowledge Effective strategies for using organizers in the classroom Effective strategies for helping students construct their knowledge What it means for students to achieve automaticity NYS Learning Standards English Language Arts Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views. Add hands-on activities to your instructional practices to help reach all students. Understand in detail how these methods will aid students in their learning. Examples of aids to you help students follow through with their assignments? Strategies to help students store information effectively. Understand what types of learners will benefit from these. (Examples include) 1. Provide a connector 2. Use visuals 3. use mental models 4. Use movement

5 5. Have students teach the information Donna Walker Tileston presents this entire session. Session # 3 Special Education and the Brain: Part 2 After completing this topic, participants will understand: How the cognitive system of the brain affects student learning The difference between declarative and procedural knowledge Effective strategies for using organizers in the classroom Effective strategies for helping students construct their knowledge What it means for students to achieve automaticity NYS Learning Standards English Language Arts Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views.

6 Understand the difference between the way the brain stores declarative and procedural information. Strategies or activities to your instructional practices to help students learn declarative information. Learn ways that you can help students to gain automaticity for process skills. (Examples) 1. Provide scaffolding with heuristics or rules 2. Provide ample opportunities to practice the learning 3. Use mass practice 4. Give feedback 5. Use goal setting 6. Use formative assessments throughout Donna Walker Tileston presents this entire session. Session # 4 Attention Disorders After completing this topic, participants will understand: The characteristics of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder; Some of the things you may be currently doing in the classroom that contribute to students inability to attend to learning; Strategies that you can use to increase the ability of students to attend to and stay focused on learning.

7 NYS Learning Standards English Language Arts Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views. Learn classroom strategies teachers can use to help students with attention disorders. Examples: Use visuals to facilitate understanding, change strategies every 15 minutes, provide information in manageable chunks, use high interest activities when possible, and be sure to challenge the students, not frustrate them. Learn and understand characteristics of hyperactivity. Reflect on which have you seen exhibited by students in your current classroom. 1. Talks incessantly 2. Leaves seat in classroom 3. May dash around or climb 4. Difficulty playing quietly 5. Fidgets with hands or feet 6. Motor excess Discuss how have you dealt with these problems in the past, and what new techniques have you learned that you may implement in the future? For participants seeking additional information, we recommend the following supplementary readings: The Gift Of ADHD: How To Transform Your Child's Problems Into Strengths by Lara Honos-Webb Amazon.com $ 8.99 Learning To Slow Down & Pay Attention: A Book for Kids About Adhd by Kathleen G. Nadeau,

8 Ellen B. Dixon, and Charles Beyl Amazon.com $9.99 Donna Walker Tileston presents this entire session. Session # 5 Attention Solutions After completing this topic, participants will understand: Ideas for getting students on task; Ideas that can help students stay on task; Ideas that can help you get you students to complete tasks at high complexity levels. NYS Learning Standards English Language Arts Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views. Learn about how to have students make a contract for the learning and the steps to describe the significance of each key component. 1. Provide the skills

9 2. provide the steps needed 3. provide a timeline 4. provide benchmarks 5. provide time for feedback 6. provide place for student to sign 7. provide a method for the structure Discuss how you have used cooperative learning in the classroom? Why or why not? (If yes, how did it work?) If one were planning to use this strategy, what are some pieces that are critical to include? 1. Structures in place 2. Timing 3. Who works with whom 4. Modeling 5. Feedback 6. Cruising 7. Accountability Donna Walker Tileston presents this entire session. Session # 6 Emotional and Behavior Disorders After completing this topic, participants will understand: The effect of the emotions on the brain; How emotions affect behavior; How behavioral problems affect learning; Strategies you can use to deal with students with emotional disorders.

10 NYS Learning Standards English Language Arts Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views. When dealing with emotional and/or behavior disorders it is crucial to create an environment is conducive to learning. Participants will learn classroom management techniques they would use to create the appropriate classroom environment. Discussion of experiences you have had with these methodologies. 1. Appropriate use of humor in the classroom 2. Mutual respect 3. Having a few rules that are consistently enforced 4. Having appropriate training 5. Teach students choices 6. Praise Discussion Question: Learn major responsibilities of the school when educating students with emotional and/or behavior disorders. Assess to what degree your school currently handles these responsibilities. In working with school administrators, how might you help strengthen this in your school? 1. Have high expectations 2. Communicate expectations effectively 3. Include all staff, students, and parents in the process 4. Consistency 5. Provide alternatives to suspension 6. Ensure students assess the school as a safe environment For participants seeking additional information, we recommend the following supplementary

11 readings: Help Me, I'm Sad: Recognizing, Treating, and Preventing Childhood and Adolescent Depression, by David G. Fassler and Lynne Dumas, Amazon.com The Childhood Depression Sourcebook, by Jeffrey A. Miller, Amazon.com Donna Walker Tileston presents this entire session. Session # 7 Autism After completing this topic, participants will understand: The definition of autism; How autism differs from Asperger s Syndrome; What research says about the causes and treatment of autism; The characteristics of autistic children; Strategies to help children with autism and/or Asperger s succeed in your classroom. Learn about the symptoms and the ways to work with children with Asperger s Syndrome. Examine some of the characteristics of students with this disorder that could be perceived by an educator. Explore how this differs from autism. (Example:) It is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder that is similar to autism. Asperger s is characterized by

12 normal to above average intelligence, while those with autism have below average intelligence. Students with Asperger s tend to go undiagnosed or under diagnosed as they have social and communication deficiencies which are not readily recognized by teachers. These students usually have an underdeveloped imagination. Explain about discipline techniques that are suggested to use with students with autism. Have you ever taught an autistic child? If so, did you try to implement any of these techniques in your classroom? Were they successful? (Answers may include the following:) 1. Be prepared (especially important when working with students who may become aggressive) 2. Have a designated time-out area 3. Explicitly teach social rules 4. Keep parents informed (of both appropriate and non-appropriate behavior exhibited) 5. Give the students space when appropriate 6. Protect them from emotional abuse 7. Directly teach them to interact For participants seeking additional information, we recommend the following supplementary readings: Blame It on the Brain?: Distinguishing Chemical Imbalances, Brain Disorders, and Disobedience (Resources for Changing Lives), by Edward T. Welch, Amazon.com $10.78 Helping a Child with Nonverbal Learning Disorder or Asperger's Syndrome: A Parent's Guide, by Kathryn Stewart, Amazon.com $9.72 Donna Walker Tileston presents this entire session. Session # 8 Speech and Language Disorders After completing this topic, participants will understand: The history of research on speech disorders;

13 The natural progression of language development; The characteristics of specific language disorders; Strategies for working with students with language disorders. NYS Learning Standards English Language Arts Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views. Learn specific suggestions provided by the presenter that can be used to help children develop language skills. - Talk to children - Read to children - Make reading interactive and positive - Cultivate phonological awareness with auditory and visual word games - Demonstrate that learning follows a pattern - Provide a stimulating, enriched environment Explore some possible reasons why an adolescent would have a language disorder and reflect upon which sources do you feel most effect the students in your classroom. 1. Received no early intervention. 2. Received early intervention that was terminated too soon. 3. Experienced a disruption in language development due to mental, physical, emotional, or traumatic event.

14 Donna Walker Tileston presents this entire session. Session # 9 Reading Disorders After completing this topic, participants will understand: The history of research on reading and the brain; How children learn to read; What can go wrong during the reading process; Types and symptoms of reading disorders; Strategies for working with students with reading disorders. NYS Learning Standards English Language Arts Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views. The lecturer presents eight ways to improve Reading Comprehension. Participants will choose three of them and describe the technique in detail.

15 1. Preview, review and predict 2. Ask and answer questions 3. Summarize 4. Synthesize 5. Preview 6. Click and clunk 7. Get the gist 8. Wrap up Participants will practice using learning logs to help with reading comprehension to help students. Provide questions to spark interest, help students look for information, for anticipation, for clarification, for wrap up. For participants seeking additional information, we recommend the following supplementary readings: The Gift of Dyslexia, by Ronald D. Davis, Eldon M. Braun, Amazon.com $10.73 Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level, by Sally Md Shaywitz, Amazon.com $10.85 Websites Why Einstein's Brain? by Marian Diamond The International Dyslexia Association Dyslexia Teacher Donna Walker Tileston presents this entire session. Session # 10

16 Learning Disabilities in Mathematics After completing this topic, participants will understand: The deficits that affect mathematical ability; How to best diagnose mathematical disabilities; Strategies for working with students with mathematic disabilities; Guidelines for working with students with mathematic disabilities. Mathematics, Science, and Technology Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design Standard 3: Mathematics Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions. Students will understand mathematics and become mathematically confident by communicating and reasoning mathematically, by applying mathematics in realworld settings, and by solving problems through the integrated study of number systems, geometry, algebra, data analysis, probability, and trigonometry. Standard 7: Interdisciplinary Problem Solving Students will apply the knowledge and thinking skills of mathematics, science, and technology to address real-life problems and make informed decisions. Learn about mathematics disorders in students and some of the individual skills that should be examined. 1. follow sequential directions

17 2. recognize patterns 3. estimate by forming a reasonable guess 4. visualize pictures 5. have a good sense of spatial orientation 6. do deductive reasoning 7. do inductive reasoning Absorb techniques you might use when teaching mathematics to English Language Learners. What are some things that will help them in regard to learning and recall? Share any experiences you have teaching mathematics to ELLs (or teaching a content-specific area to ELLs). Explore techniques used across curricula. (Example:) - Use visuals rather than so much talk - Use hands-on activities - Use movement - Teach the concepts in a context or story format - Provide connectors for the learning Effective communication and collaboration with parents is key to helping students, particularly those with special needs, succeed in school. Participants will outline a plan to work with parents who have such children with special needs. Include how you would make initial contact, what you would ask parents to do to support your instruction, what personnel you might include in meetings or as resources, and what types of follow-up assessment you would suggest. Practice scenario: Marvin, a third-grader with ADHD, appears easily distracted and has tremendous difficulty staying on task. He rarely pays attention or follows classroom rules. What classroom management strategies would you implement to help Marvin to be successful in class? What accommodations to curriculum and planning would you use to help Marvin succeed academically in your classroom? Donna Walker Tileston presents this entire session. Session # 11

18 Brain Structure and Development After completing this topic, participants will understand: 1. The lobes of the brain and their functions; 2. Brain cells and how they make connections; 3. Windows of opportunity and when they open and close; 4. How enrichment helps the brain. The lecturer explores why it is important for educators to understand the brain. For example. since the brain is the organ that learns, the more we understand it, the better we can be at helping students learn. In the case of learning problems, it is helpful to know about structures and functions to provide proper strategies to aid those brains. Everyone benefits from understanding the brain. Understanding and dealing with relationships can be enhanced by working with the brain and its needs rather than against it. The lecturer explains that the brain is a chemical soup pot. She illustrates that everything we eat, the drugs we take, the hormones that are released, and the brain chemicals themselves go into causing our behavior: attitudes, memory, attention, emotion. These substances change on a daily, if not hourly, basis. The ideal is to keep the chemicals in balance. Participants will respond to the statement above and relate it to experiences they have had in teaching. For participants seeking additional information, we recommend the following supplementary readings: Becoming a "Wiz" at Brain-Based Teaching: How to Make Every Year Your Best Year, by Marilee Sprenger, Amazon.com $27.95 Magic Trees of the Mind : How to Nurture Your Child's Intelligence, Creativity, and Healthy Emotions from Birth Through Adolescence Amazon.com $12.95

19 Websites Why Einstein's Brain? by Marian Diamond The International Dyslexia Association Dyslexia Teacher National Institute of Mental Health Marilee Sprenger presents this entire session. Session # 12 Brain-Compatible Teaching Principles After completing this topic, participants will understand: 1. The importance of emotion and novelty; 2. How meaning is made in the brain; 3. Strategies for creating patterns in the brain. Learn techniques educators can use to increase retention when lecturing to students. (Example:) Students need a focus. Graphic organizers, questions, and other strategies will help them focus on the important information. How does asking students how they feel about their discussions help with retention? Assignment for teachers to ask your students during your next class, and summarize how they have responded.

20 Reflect on how you used this strategy in the past and how it affected student learning? (Example:) When students reflect on the discussion, they are rehearsing the information. The act of determining how they felt adds emotion to the learning and increases retention of the material For participants seeking additional information, we recommend the following supplementary readings: Differentiation Through Learning Styles and Memory, by Marilee Sprenger, Amazon.com $61.95 Memory 101 for Educators, by Marilee Sprenger, Amazon.com Engaging 'Tweens and Teens: A Brain-Compatible Approach to Reaching Middle and High School Students, by Raleigh T. Philp, Amazon.com $ Marilee Sprenger presents this entire session. Session # 13 Wiring the Brain for Literacy After completing this topic, participants will understand: 1. The steps to reading in the brain; 2. The five components for reading; 3. Activities to physically prepare the brain for reading; 4. Strategies for comprehension; 5. Steps for teaching vocabulary. NYS learning Standards Applied:

21 English Language Arts Standard 1: Language for Information and Understanding Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to acquire, interpret, apply, and transmit information. Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views. Learn physical activities in which students can participate to prepare for reading. Have you ever used this in your classroom? If so, what was the result? If not, how would you integrate the activity into your classroom, and what do you expect the result would be? (Answers may include:) Running, skipping, standing on one foot, and other coordination activities are good for reading readiness. Peripheral vision checks and practice may also be helpful. Discuss why is it important to keep focus time in mind when preparing and teaching information. (Example:) Since students cannot focus longer than their age in minutes, it is necessary to keep teaching times within the appropriate range. Any lesson that exceeds this time limit may ensure that students will lose concentration and then have difficulty with comprehension. By changing the lesson to coincide with their focus time, students will have the opportunity to rejuvenate the areas of the brain that are tired from use. For participants seeking additional information, we recommend the following supplementary readings: Brain Literacy for Educators and Psychologists (Practical Resources for the Mental Health

22 Professional), by Virginia W. Berninger and Todd L. Richards, Amazon.com $72.00 Marilee Sprenger presents this entire session. Session # 14 Introduction to Inclusive Teaching: Classroom Strategies for Effective Instruction After completing this topic, participants will understand: Federal laws protecting the educational services for students with disabilities such as Section 504, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which affects all children and has important implications for children with disabilities; Participants will be able to describe the continuum of services available to students with special needs and the least restrictive environment concept; Participants will be able to identify the disability categories served under IDEA. The issue of fulltime placement of special education students in general education classrooms and the attitudes of teachers towards full inclusion. Compare and contrast positions for and against the full inclusion model for students with disabilities. Pros-Full inclusion is a civil right, separate classes or schools are not equal to mainstream environments, students learn more in integrated settings, develop better working relationships and social communication skills. Inclusion helps to reduce stigmas, is more time efficient, and helps to promote equality for all students.

23 Cons: Continuum of service levels needs to be maintained for students unable to be successful in general education classrooms. Some teachers are unprepared, have inadequate time for training and planning, adapting curriculum, and do not have personnel resources and support. General education classrooms may not have sufficient resources such as varying readability texts and access to adaptive and assistive technology equipment. General education classes may be too large to support students with significant special educational needs. Research has not provided the evidence that supports the superiority of full inclusion for all students. Describe key differences between resource room services and special education services provided in a self-contained classroom? Which does your school currently have in place as a structure for special needs students? Do you feel this is the right choice for the special needs students of your school? Why? Resource Room: students with disabilities leave the general education class for a designated time period to receive specialized instruction in academic areas. The resource model is often referred to as a pull-out model, indicating students with disabilities are pulled out of the general education classroom. Some resource room models now include a push-in model where the special education teacher goes into the general education classroom to provide special instruction. Self-Contained- Students with disabilities receive all or most of their instruction from special education teachers and teacher assistants in a classroom that has a limited number of special education students. Students may have opportunities during the day to interact with non-disabled peers in activities such as art, music, gym, lunch, and recess. Rosemary Planz presents this entire session. Session # 15 Collaboration: Partnerships and Procedures After completing this topic, you will be able to:

24 List the six major steps involved in effective communication to establish collaboration; Describe the general education pre-referral process such as establishing timelines, intervention strategies and consultations; Identify the educational evaluation steps, the members of the Committee on Special Education, and the development of an Individual Education Plan (IEP); Gain an understanding of the importance of partnerships between special and general educators; Understand the roles and responsibilities, background, and importance of communicating with paraprofessionals; Describe the importance of positive communication and collaboration with parents and families. Learn several ways to ease the concern of parents and students at Committee on Special Education Meetings (CSE). (Example:) Make all committee members feel welcome and comfortable; present information in comprehensible ways; describe class activities, student performance, and behaviors using very concrete, simple, direct language. Avoid using abbreviations or acronyms; distribute brochures of common disabilities; provide relevant phone numbers, addresses, web sites, and printed handouts. Learn and explore the guidelines you would use when establishing a co-teaching relationship. Mention any such structures that exist in your current school situation. 1) Decide goals and objectives for co-teaching; 2) Obtain support from building and special education administration; 3) Inform parents and request their support and permission; 4) Build in sufficient planning time; 5) Develop measures to evaluate the effects of co-teaching; document how instructional responsibilities were shared during co-teaching, adaptations to the curriculum, and how instruction changed overtime. Rosemary Planz presents this entire session.

25 Session # 16 Teaching Students with High-Incidence Disabilities After completing this topic, you should be able to: Describe and discuss the characteristics of students with communication disorders; Describe and discuss the characteristics of students with learning disabilities; Describe and discuss the characteristics of students with mental retardation; Describe and discuss the characteristics of students with behavioral disorders and emotional disturbance; List and describe the adaptations and modifications to promote inclusion of students with higher-incidence disabilities. Learn some classroom and instructional adaptations for students with mental retardation. Careful preparation of students in the class, monitor peer relationships, instructional modifications, prioritize objectives, adapt materials and instruction, communicate with families, adapt evaluations, and use a specialized curriculum. Learn classroom and instructional adaptations for students with emotional disturbance. (Example:) Prepare the class, enforce rules and consequences, maintain positive relationships, be tolerant, watch for specific fears and anxieties, teach general social skills, monitor and make positive attributions, use behavioral contracts, adapt the physical environment, adapt materials and instruction, help students focus, and adapt evaluations. Absorb crisis intervention strategies for students who are a danger to themselves or others. Assess whether you school currently follow such procedures. If not, how do they differ?

26 Never touch or grab and acting out student (unless causing harm to self or others) Send for assistance immediately Keep a normal distance Speak in a normal voice tone, repeat instructions until student complies If student is violent yell stop with student s name and then lower voice Remove aggressive student into isolation Discuss behavior and consequences after student has calmed down NYS learning Standards Applied: English Language Arts Standard 1: Language for Information and Understanding Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to acquire, interpret, apply, and transmit information. Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views. Rosemary Planz presents this entire session. Session # 17 Teaching Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities

27 After completing this topic, the student will be able to: Describe the characteristics of students with visual disabilities; Describe the characteristics of students with hearing impairments; Describe the characteristics of students with physical disabilities and other health impairments; Describe the characteristics of students with autism; List and describe adaptations and modifications to promote inclusion of students with lowerincidence disabilities in general classrooms. NYS learning Standards Applied: English Language Arts Standard 1: Language for Information and Understanding Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to acquire, interpret, apply, and transmit information. Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views. Learn some classroom and instructional adaptations for students with Autism. Establish effective communication Develop social competence Create predictable learning environments Watch for signs of stress Use pictures to illustrate sequence of activities Enlist peers to reinforce appropriate behavior Group with higher-functioning students

28 Use cooperative learning groups Maintain effective communication with student Maintain effective communication with parents Name some behavior techniques that can be used with Autistic students. Engage student in preferred activities (computers, movement activities etc.) rather than nonpreferred activities (such as reading, writing) while providing frequent social attention from the teacher. Teach needed skills through preferred activities and when non-preferred activities are necessary, have student select an activity from among 3 non-preferred activities. In addition to preferred activities, use communication cards or boards to help facilitate language and communication between the student and teacher. Frequent reinforcement of positive behavior is key to eliminating problem behavior. Have you had any experience teaching autistic students? If so, what techniques did you teach them? How did they respond? Rosemary Planz presents this entire session. Session # 18 Teaching Students with Other Diverse Learning Needs Effective Instruction for All Students After completing this topic, the student will be able to: Describe the characteristics of students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Describe the characteristics of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and list general classroom adaptations; Describe the characteristics of students at risk for school failure; Describe the adaptations and modifications to promote inclusion of students with other diverse

29 learning needs; Describe the characteristics and issues in identification, and general classroom adaptations for students with ADHD and ADD. NYS learning Standards Applied: English Language Arts Standard 1: Language for Information and Understanding Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to acquire, interpret, apply, and transmit information. Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views. The lecturer will explore and demonstrate some of the most effective teaching strategies for all students. (Example:) Maximize academic time-on- task Make effective teacher presentations Provide feedback and praise Design relevant practice activities Monitor practice activities Provide frequent reviews Use formative evaluation Streamline Transition Activities Reduce Inappropriate Verbalizations Minimize Inappropriate Social Behavior Use Strategies for Individual Cases Assign work compatible with student s abilities Try simple strategies (direct appeal & proximity) Provide simple rewards or consequences Notify parents or guardians

30 Participants will learn about classroom adaptations for students who are from diverse backgrounds. Choose a technique that you have not used and describe how you might incorporate it into your pedagogy. Open & Accepting classroom Complete a needs assessment Include multicultural curriculum Teach sensitivity & acceptance Pace of instruction Multilingual pocket translators Concrete examples Hands-on activities Use multiple modalities Adapt physical environment Adapt instructional materials Adapt evaluation procedures Maintain communication with family Rosemary Planz presents this entire session. Session # 19 Improving Classroom Behavior & Social Skills & Promoting Inclusion with Classroom Peers After completing this topic, the participant will be able to: Describe how to observe, record, and manage classroom behaviors; Identify effective classroom management strategies; Discuss less-intensive as well as more formal management systems;

31 Compare different methods of assessing social skills; Describe interventions to improve social skills; Discuss and evaluate important considerations of social skills training; Compare and contrast the uses and features of cooperative learning and peer tutoring; Describe the procedures for effectively employing a peer-tutoring program; Compare and contrast peer assistance and peer tutoring. Learn about the steps for employing an effective peer tutoring program. Have you established a peer tutoring program in your classroom? If so, describe its impact. If not, why might you want to attempt to build this structure? Clarify tutoring objectives Identify objectives to be measured Select peer tutoring partners carefully Establish tutoring rules and procedures Train tutors & tutees in procedures Implement & modify program as necessary Evaluate program & monitor effectiveness Participants will learn about the classroom activity called Circle of Friends and explore the purpose of this activity. Circle of Friends-activity where students are given papers with four circles drawn around a stick figure in the middle representing their mother or father First circle-family members Second circle-best friends Third circle-other people they like Fourth Circle- people paid to be in their lives such as doctors, teachers etc. Students discuss what it would be like not to have anyone in their circles. The point of the activity is to demonstrate that everyone needs circles of friends, with people in every circle. Not everyone needs to be a best friend with a new student to the class, but all can be friendly and interact well with the student. Rosemary Planz presents this entire session.

32 Session # 20 Enhancing Motivation and Affect Improving Attention and Memory After completing this topic, the student will be able to: Describe the preconditions to improving motivation and affect in the classroom; Identify techniques for improving and enhancing student motivation and affect; Identify and implement strategies to make learning more fun, exciting, and meaningful; Describe the uses of praise and reward to reinforce students success in the classroom; Describe strategies to improve attention and memory in the classroom; Describe the effects of extreme cases of attention deficits the effects of stimulant medications; Describe, create and apply mnemonic strategies to improve and enhance memory. NYS learning Standards Applied: English Language Arts Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views. Participants will acquire strategies to improve attention in the classroom.

33 (Answers may include:) Reduce number of problems on worksheets Construct windows for students to place over words or math problems to isolated one thing at a time on a page Reduce rate of speaking for students having difficulty processing language Repeat directions, clarify steps Provide visual charts for curriculum units Provide language cards containing pictures illustrating the concepts of new vocabulary Explore strategies teachers can use in the classroom to improve memory and plan how would you incorporate this strategy into your current classroom. Develop metacognitve awareness of memory-knowing where, when and how to remember. Use External Memory-refers to the use of devices to increase memory. (Writing things down in notebooks, appointment books, physical prompts such as attaching notes to clothing or backpack) Enhance Meaningfulness-make learning more meaningful by providing specific examples that are directly relevant to students experiences. Use Concrete Examples, Pictures, or Imagery- bring in examples of the topics being studied rather than rely on abstract information. Enhance visual images through CDs, videotapes, or pictures. Use video presentations or illustrations-drawings or graphics helps to enhance the concreteness of information being presented Rosemary Planz presents this entire session.

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