Autism and Child Psychopathology Series. Series Editor Johnny L. Matson Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA

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1 Autism and Child Psychopathology Series Series Editor Johnny L. Matson Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA

2 Brief Overview The purpose of this series is to advance knowledge in the broad multidisciplinary fields of autism and various forms of psychopathology (e.g., anxiety and depression). Volumes synthesize research on a range of rapidly expanding topics on assessment, treatment, and etiology. Description The Autism and Child Psychopathology Series explores a wide range of research and professional methods, procedures, and theories used to enhance positive development and outcomes for children. Developments in education, medicine, psychology, and applied behavior analysis as well as child development across home, school, hospital, and community settings are the focus of this series. Series volumes are both authored and edited, and they provide critical reviews of evidence-based methods. As such, these books serve as a critical reference source for researchers and professionals who deal with childhood disorders and disabilities, most notably autism, intellectual disabilities, challenging behaviors, anxiety, depression, ADHD, developmental coordination disorder, communication disorders, and other common childhood problems. The series addresses important mental health and development difficulties that children, their caregivers, and the professionals who treat them must face. Each volume in the series provides an analysis of methods and procedures that may assist in effectively treating these childhood problems. More information about this series at

3 Stephanie M. Hadaway Alan W. Brue Practitioner s Guide to Functional Behavioral Assessment Process, Purpose, Planning, and Prevention 1 3

4 Stephanie M. Hadaway Bartow County School System CARTERSVILLE Georgia USA Alan W. Brue Bartow County School System EUHARLEE Georgia USA ISSN X Autism and Child Psychopathology Series ISBN DOI / ISSN (electronic) ISBN (ebook) Library of Congress Control Number: Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland is part of Springer Science+Business Media (

5 Stephanie: I would like to dedicate this book to my husband, Lee, who never ceases to amaze me! Thank you for always seeing the best in me. Alan: This book is for my wife, Jett, who is always so very supportive of everything that I do. You are the best!

6 Acknowledgments We would like to acknowledge and thank the parents, teachers, and administrators with whom we have worked. We have learned a lot from them and have incorporated this knowledge in our daily work with children and adolescents. vii

7 Contents Part I Introduction 1 Introduction to the FBA Process: How to Use This Book... 3 What You Need to Know... 3 Strategy One: Understand the Basics... 3 Strategy Two: Understand the Scope... 5 Strategy Three: What to Do... 6 Strategy Four: Application... 7 A Before-You-Proceed Checklist The Basics of Functional Behavioral Assessment... 9 What You Need to Know... 9 Strategy One: Understand the Basics... 9 Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behaviorism Functional Behavioral Assessment and Education Strategy Two: Understand the Scope Strategy Three: What to Do Strategy Four: Application Process Purpose Planning Prevention Strategy 5: What Not to Do A Before-You-Proceed Checklist References Part II Phase I: Process 3 Process: Preparing for the Functional Behavioral Assessment What You Need to Know Strategy One: Understand the Basics Who Should Have a Functional Behavioral Assessment? ix

8 x Contents Should Only Children or Adolescents Have a Functional Behavioral Assessment? In a School Setting, Can Only Students Receiving Special Educational Services Have a Functional Behavioral Assessment? If All of This Begins by Identifying the Student, What Comes Next? Strategy Two: Understand the Scope So Who Are the Team Members? What if the Individual Is Doing Well with One Staff Member Should that Staff Member Still Be Included? Is the Parent a Team Member? What Is a Parent s Role as a Team Member? What Is a Staff Member s Role as a Team Member? Strategy Three: What to Do What Am I Supposed to Do? But, What Am I Supposed to Do? Strategy Four: Application Prior to the Meeting During the Meeting Strategy Five: What Not to Do A Before-You-Proceed Checklist References Process: Identifying Target Behaviors What You Need to Know Strategy One: Understand the Basics What Is a Behavior? Strategy Two: Understand the Scope If a Behavior Is an Action, Then What Is a Target Behavior? Which Behaviors Have the Greatest Degree of Intensity? Which Behaviors Are Most Frequent? Which Behaviors Have the Longest Span of Duration? Clarifying Questions Strategy Three: What to Do Strategy Four: Application Refusals Physical Aggressive Behavior Out-of-Area Behavior Disruptive Behavior Strategy Five: What Not to Do A Before-You-Proceed Checklist References Process: Record Review What You Need to Know Strategy One: Understand the Basics... 52

9 Contents xi Strategy Two: Understand the Scope What Are Records? Since We Are Focusing on Behavior, Do We Only Review Disciplinary Records? So, What Else Should Be Reviewed? Strategy Three: What to Do Strategy Four: Application A Before-You-Proceed Checklist References Process: Interviews What You Need to Know Strategy One: Understand the Basics Strategy Two: Understand the Scope Strategy Three: What to Do Strategy Four: Application Five Responses to Interview Challenges Strategy Five: What Not to Do A Before-You-Proceed Checklist References Process: Informal and Formal Assessments What You Need to Know Strategy One: Understand the Basics Informal Assessment Formal Assessment Strategy Two: Understand the Scope Strategy Three: What to Do Strategy Four: Application Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST) Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) Behavior Assessment System for Children, Third Edition (BASC-3) Beck Youth Inventories, Second Edition (BYI-II) Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scale (SSIS-RS) Conners Comprehensive Behavior Rating Scales (Conners CBRS) Burks Behavior Rating Scales, Second Edition (BBRS-2) Formal Measures for Specific Problems A Before-You-Proceed Checklist References Process: Observation What You Need to Know Strategy One: Understand the Basics... 83

10 xii Contents Five Recommendations for Observer Conduct Four Guidelines for Successful Observations Strategy Two: Understand the Scope Strategy Three: What to Do Data Collection Methods ABC Data Collection Strategy Four: Application Refusals Physical Aggressive Out-of-Area Behavior Disruptive Strategy Five: What Not to Do A Before-You-Proceed Checklist References Part III Phase II: Purpose 9 Purpose: Analysis of the Data What You Need to Know Strategy One: Understand the Basics Strategy Two: Understand the Scope Strategy Three: What to Do Organize Data Link Data Descriptive Analysis Graphing Strategy Four: Application Linking Strategy Five: What Not to Do A Before-You-Proceed Checklist References Purpose: Development of Hypotheses What You Need to Know Strategy One: Understand the Basics Strategy Two: Understand the Scope Strategy Three: What to Do Characteristics of an Effective Hypothesis Strategy Four: Application Approach A Approach B Approach C Strategy Five: What Not to Do A Before-You-Proceed Checklist References

11 Contents xiii Part IV Phase III: Planning 11 Planning: Deconstructed Functional Behavioral Assessment Part 1: Assessment Procedures Part 2: Referral Information Background Information Part 3: Operational Definition of Target Behaviors Part 4: Previous Intervention Strategies and Consequences Part 5: Assessment Summary Part 6: Hypothesis Part 7: Recommendation Planning: Willow Wilding Case Review (FBA and BIP) Process (List Target Behavior(s) Along with Operationalized Definitions.) Data Collection Indirect Assessment Direct Observation Purpose Planning Prevention (Changes Made to the Environment s Climate, Culture, and Community.) Planning: Writing a Behavior Intervention Plan What You Need to Know Strategy One: Understand the Basics Strategy Two: Understand the Scope Strategy Three: What to Do Strategy Four: Application Strategy Five: What Not to Do A Before-You-Proceed Checklist References Part V Phase IV: Prevention 14 Prevention: Climate, Culture, and Community What You Need to Know Understanding the Present Understanding the Future References Appendices Index

12 About the Authors Stephanie M. Hadaway Ed.S., LPC received her Master of Education in Guidance and Counseling from the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga and her Educational Specialist (Ed.S.) in Educational Leadership from Nova Southeastern University. Ms. Hadaway has a rich background in child and adolescent therapy. As a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) in Georgia, she has worked with adults, couples, adolescents, and children with a variety of mental health needs. Specifically, Ms. Hadaway has specialized in serving children and adolescents with severe emotional disturbance in both outpatient and day treatment settings. She has facilitated groups, worked with families, and provided individual therapy. In addition to providing therapeutic counseling services, Ms. Hadaway has spent more than 10 years providing educational and behavioral support within the public school system. She is a certified teacher who has worked in both elementary and middle schools in the inclusive, resource, and self-contained settings. Currently, she is a behavior specialist within the public school system and serves all grade levels. Alan W. Brue Ph.D., NCSP received his Master of Arts, Education Specialist, and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in school psychology from the University of Florida. Dr. Brue is a Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP) who has worked for more than 15 years providing a wide range of school psychological services to metro-atlanta school districts. He currently works as a school psychologist and has extensive knowledge of and experience with children and adolescents who exhibit behavior problems. In addition to his school-based experience, Dr. Brue currently holds a core faculty teaching position in a school psychology training program, where he develops and teaches graduate classes, such as Functional Behavioral Assessment, Psychopathology of Children and Adolescents, Psychological Assessment, Exceptional Children in the Classroom, and Child and Adolescent Development. With Linda Wilmshurst, he has coauthored A Parent s Guide to Special Education: Insider Advice on How to Navigate the System and Help Your Child Succeed (AMACOM 2005), The Complete Guide to Special Education: Expert Advice on Evaluations, IEPs, and Helping Kids Succeed (Second Edition) (Jossey- Bass 2010), and Essentials of Intellectual Disability Assessment and Identification (Wiley 2016). Dr. Brue s website is AlanBrue.com. xv

13 List of Abbreviations ABA Applied behavior analysis ABC Antecedent-behavior-consequence ADHD Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ASD Autism spectrum disorder BACB Behavior Analyst Certification Board BIP Behavior intervention plan CECP Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice FAPE Free Appropriate Public Education FBA Functional behavioral assessment FERPA Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (also known as the Buckley Amendment) IDEA 2004 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 IEP Individualized Education Program LRE Least restrictive environment ODD Oppositional defiant disorder OSEP Office of Special Education Programs OSERS Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services PBIS Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports RTI Response to Intervention xvii

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