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2 .. 1 Pronu.nciation for Sngers (Curwen Edition 5385)? - With Especial Reference to the English, German, Italian, and French Languages With numerous Examples and Exercises for the useof Teachers &? Advanced Students By ALEXANDER J. // ELLIS B.A., Litt.D., F.R.S., FSA., F.C.P.S.,-$.C.P. Lalc Vice-president (formerly President) of the PhiloloRical Society ; memher of the Mathematlcal Soclety; Member of the Musical Assoclaflon; Honormy Member of the Council of lhe Tonlc Sol-fa Cnllegc : former& Scholar of Trinity College; Cambridge : Author cri Elrly English Pronuncially ; Translator of Helmholtz s, Sensations of Tone. TENTH EDlTIQN.....LONDON J; Curwen & Sons Ltd., 24 BernersStreet, W.I. Price Six Shillings Net Cash T.-:..., I

3 + I CONTENTS. The l e k o, b, following the nuruber of the page indicute kt and -cl mlumns reapwtively. Preface,, p. x. - NwrI0.y I.-Spealdng sud einging Contrarted,. pp dip and Bpeskers, p. la. f l) Singing and Spkiug mer in Compasa, p. la. ( L) Binging in at Bustained, Bpeaking at.gliding Pitch, p. lb.. (a) Binging IWI~I~E a Clem, Speaking an Impeded P a w for th6 Bre.ath,.p. 2a. t4).8iging h to be Rapid or Blurred, wher6 apwg CBILnot be EO, p. an. Vow& must be arranged in Genera or Kinde, p. 2b. The Eelationi of Vowelu to Pitoh, p. 36. Eht of Pitoh m the word Peep, p. 46.,. Mwt of Pitoh on tho word l hrough, p. 6a. When Pwp 1 arid Pool should be Pip and Pull prolonged, p. 66. Me& of Pitoh on the word I Glase, p. bb. E M of Pitoh on. Peep through glass, p. 68. Mett of Pitch on A11 on. Thom, Door, Rushed, Panes, Fence, p. 6n. i buh of the preceding Examination, p, 66.. I - bcrlon II.-VOWel QU8lity O! Tone, pp &uaical Qualities of Tone hat explained by Prof. &hholts, p. Ila. Siph Vibration, p. lla. *pound Vibration, p. llb. Siple and Compound Sounda, p. an. Eqpiuients on Renonahce. ResonRnca Chambers.. Vibrational Number und Pitch. D..Ba..I Natnre of Musical Quality of Tone, p. 9~ Quality of Tone of the Binging Voice,. p. 96. Vowel Qrdity of T one due to Ite8onsnco, p. loa. Experiments on the Natu= of Vowel Qnnlities of Tone, p SEcrloN lii.--short Key to alosric, Diegrwm, Syrtematic Arrangement of Bpeech-roandr, pp Description of the following Tables, p. 12a.. English (floesic, p. 120, b. Foreign Gloesic, p. la#., b. Diapams of I oditions for Vowels and Consonants? p. 14. Descriptions of the Diagrams,p. 16. Systumatic Arrangement of English, Germttrl. Italian, sud Fronoh Speech-aoundn, p SBOTION IV.-Mode of Prodaoing Speeoh-roandr,, pp Flatus or Audible Breath, p vocal chords, p. lea. Whiuper BB distinguished from Flatus, p. leb. Voice and Origid Qmlity of Tone, p. 18). The BesonanccCavities,p. I9a. Brief Definitions of Braath, Flatus, whisper, and Voice an Originahre, and Throat, Noae, und Mouth LLB Modifim of Sound, p. 19b. How to Study the Effect of the Modifiers, p. 2Oa; Throat Modifications, p. 200; Nom Modifications, p. 201; Bouth Modifications-Action.of Teeth md Lipa, p. 22a; Mouth Modifications-Action of. Tongue, p Object of thorn Experimenta HII~ Ohjervutions. 1 p

4 Sscrlor V.-Vowele, pp 'Definition of a Vowel, p. 24a. 11 Gcnem" and L'Speciee'' of Vowels, p. 24a. IIow the FO~E of the beonnnw CIJVïtiQE for VOWQ~E are to be Described, p. 26u-Thr0at, p. 2fia ; NOW, p. 2Sa ; Houth, p. 25b; &.SE, p. 266; Cheeks, p. 26); Teeth, p. 2bb; Lips (open, high-round, mi&-round, low-round), p. 26a; Tongue (back, front, point or tip),. p ' Dedcription of systematic Arrangement tif the Vow& o8 p. 16, p. 27a. Mode of Obsarving, h r and Probe, p. Y7b. I. High-kont and High-mixed Oral Vowels, pp EE, p..2ßa; I, p. 28a; EE and I, p. 286; I', p. 2914; UE, p. 29a ; EE, I, UE, p Na-front Ob1 Vowels, pp AI, p. 30a; E, p. 306; ZO, OE, p. 3in; I, UE ; E, OE, p Low-Front Oral Vowels, pp A, p. 316; A und AE, p. 3la, and heir Rounded Forms; p Mid-mixed, 6. Low-mixed. 8. Mid-back, 9. Low- back, Oral Vowels, pp AA, AH, A', 'p. 33b; U, UU, p. =a; U, U, E, p. 341;. AO, p. 3Sa ; AU, O, p. 35a; OA, AO, p. 351 ; U TJU, A' AA AH, OA A0 AU O, p. 3Ga. 7. High-back O d VOWdE, p , 1). 366; UE, UU', 00, 0'0, p. 37a: UO, TJ', p. 378 ; u', p. SEU; uo;, p. aea. The Hiueical Vowel Scale, p. 38a und p brich Orind VOWQ~S or Nwle, p. 391-N', p. 396; AEN', p: 40a ; AHN, p. 400; OAF, p. 406; OEN', p. 41n. Chnrader of French Naeality, p SEIXION VI.-Vowel Olider, Diphthongß, Triph- ' thongß, aid Vooal B, pp l'ho Nature of Qlidue Pitch Glides, p Vowel Glides, p Tmprnry Symbolisation of Vowul Cflídea, md.. ' Effecta of hacendo und Diniinuendo, p. 42b. Nature of Diphthongs; p ' I'ormnnent Sgmbolimtion of voo\vd Glidea, p. 43b. Urianalysed Glosaic niphthonge, p. 43b. 1. First Class of Diphthong with weak EE tht, p. 448; EI English, spoken=rri. dí, permimibly rani, nl, never ahã, mgrï, oni, never,na;, p. dh; EI English, sung=nni or an-di, p. 44); EI (fennan=udë or dëë, sometimen no%, p. 44h ; EI Italian, Vowel SlukE=an-ëë, n';-se, p. 45,1: EI l?rench=aa-èë, p. 46b ; 01 English=ccwi, c r 4 ; oë; never nni, p. 451: 01 &rman=oi, p. 45h : 01 ltalian=ao-&7, p. 465 ; 01 French, dttred to ouëë, p. Y7n.,Abbreviated Analytic POITIE for EI Diphthongs, as aay, try, &c., p. 40n-AI.P English '' vanish," p. 46n-AIY GCIIIWII, p. 466 ; AIY, AEY Italian-ai-ë, ae-z, p. 466; AEY Fmnch= ea-b, p. 466; OAY German, p. 466; OAY, AOY h&, p. 46b : OOY, German, p. 466; (JOY Italian, p! 46b; OOY,l"rench, p. 466; OEY fiench. p. 478; UEY French, p. 47n. 2. Second Chs of Diphthong' with weak O0 final, p. 47n ; OU English, 'spoken, p. 47n; OU English, sung, p. 47b ; OU German, p. 476: OU Itslim, p. 476; OU, French, p Abbreviuted Analytic PormM of OU Diphthong, p. 476; 0A.W English 'I vnnish," p Third Class of Diphthongs. with weak EE initial, p. 48a;.EU English, p. 4&1; EU Gernum (none), p. 486; EU Italian, p. 4ßl; EU Prcnch (none), p. 48b. Abbrevi&ed Analytic Forms of &I7 Diphthongs,. with initiul Y, pi48h. 4. Fourth cl- of diphthongs with weak 00 ' initial, p : In English, 1). 49n ; in German (none), p. 494; i,n Italian, p. 4%; in Fwnch, p. 49a ; ÜËEE French, p Abbredabd Glosaic Forna for thc 0'0 and U): ' WQ& 'initial Diphthonga, with W and WY'; p. 60a. Triphthongs; p. 6Ou. 5. Fifth Clase of Diphthongs end.ing.in HII ol~ecure U, and hence. called Murmur Diphthouq, y. 600; Vaniah Murmur Diphthdnga AAÜ, AUÜ, p. 606; T ~ U Q Murmer Diphthonge EEIt, AIR, OAR, OOR, p. SO!. Insertcd It', p. 51). llules for thu ljsu md Avoidance of English Dhr. mur Diphthong, p. 51b. Murmur Triphthongs, p. 52, ; EIR, OIR, p. 5% ; ELRR, EIERR, EIUR', p. 526 ; OUR, OURP', OUERP, OU.UR',p. 52b; EUR, EURR, p \'od R or ER, equal to U-, UU- long, p. 53n; Vocal R or ER in Weak Syllablos, p. 626; 'Distinction between weak Final A and Weak. Final ER, p. 52b ; Dissyllables in ER diethguirhcd from Murmur Diphthongs and Triphthongs in R, p. 54b; No Vom1 It in Germm, Italian, and French, p. 55a. 6. Sixth Chas of Diphthongs, arising from Tongue Glides, Tip Glides, Throat Ulidoa, and NOEQ Cflidcn, :IS rriy, rio, 611, oww, irc=irrc, io=ciieo, ée, p. 65n. - Sscrlo?. VIL--Qlottidm,' Attack and Release of Vowelm,Anpiratem, pp. 5G-GO. Glottids Defined, p ' OH, Ratus, glottis opon, 1'..56v. Oll', Whisper, glottis contractcd, 1, H', Voice, glottis cloacd, thc cdgcv of the vocal chords hing in contact, p. 5GB. 1, Urudual Glottid, p. 57*. 1, Clmr Glottid, p ;, Chcck Glottid, p. 58a. H, or Jurk, II"I.1, Hl, 11, Aspirato, 1). 58h. Crwk, Bleat, Wheozc, p Why II is tho only alottid writtcn in ordinary Glosnic, p. OOh. ~iscl.lur'vl11.--~onronantl, pp. GI-86. Voicod Consonante, p. 6:n. -l&tcdconsonuntfl,p Whispered and Gradual Consonnuts, p. 61n. Muto.Consonante, p Systernntic Arrangement of tho Consonants, p. and Nmal Consonants, p Oral Consonants, p shut On11 ConmnrmtS, Mute, Imploded, Nonant, p. 62n... htnd OrnI Conccoriinta, IIisscs nnd Bueses, p. 626 Laterd Oral Consonantn, or L Cl;t~s, p Trilled Oral Consonants, or R' Clus, p. e3* Contacts and Approximations, p. 63n. 1 and 2.,Oral Consonante with Lip (1) llo.~nd, and (2) Flut, pp. 63)-666. P. Shut Mute, p. G3b. B. Shut Sonant, p OB. 8hut Implodent., p. 64n. W, V', Central BUZZCE, and \\W, F', Ccnlwl Himes, p 'BR, IWR, Lip-trilled 13uezcs, and '1'11 lip trilled Hias, p. G6a. ' l. Nasal Consondnts with Oral 1L;sonnncc li~nitcd by Round Lips, pp.. 6Gb-67b. V Shut IInm, and AlII Shut Snort, p Oral Consonants with Lip8 and Tecth, pp G7b;Gßb. F Contra1 Iliss, und V Ccntd P,nsr, p. G Oral Consonants with T&h and l'oint of Tonguc, p. 68). TI1 Ccntrnl Hiss, und UH Central Uum, p. Wh. 8, (i, 7, and 9. Orrtl Consonants, with (5) GII~IIE and Point of Tonguc, (G) l'date and Point of Tongue, (7) the Front of the Tonguc A~cIILxI, or Convex to;v;wds thc IIml l'datv, and (A) the Front of the Tonguc liollowed, or Concnvo towards the lard Palate, pp. G9n-iGB. T, T',,T Shut Xutcs; D, D',,D Shut Honmtn, ODj Oï)',, W Shut Tmplodents, p. 0'3~. S, MI, S', T'JI Ccntlxl Iliums, and Z, ZIT, Z', D'li Central Ihzzes,'p. 7Ob. L, L', 'L,,L IArtt(:rttl JIurmurB, ;md Ml, T:II. 'LH,,L11 Latcrd lisscr, p. 73a.. It', It",,li Point-trilled Buzzcs,,,It l'oint Nec, and ll'11, It"H Point-trillcd Hisses, p. 74b. 5, G, and 8. Nasal Clonaonnnts, with Orcd Ito- nonuncc limited by (6) Gums and l'oint of Tongue, (G) Palate and Point of Tongtlo, (8) Palate and Reverted Tongue, pp. 77a-7Rb. N, N",,N Shut Hums, and NH, X"II Sh!lt Snorts, p , 10, II. Om1 Cunso~~unts with ('Jj Prolit and l'oint of Tongue and Palate, (10) Pront of Tongue and Palate, (II) Front and Ih:k of Tongue and l'dntc, pp. Sb R2n...

5 Y Central Buz, and YH Central Hiss, p. 78b, CH Shut Mute, and J' Shut Sonant, with t he Consonantal Diphthongs CH Hissed aud J Buzzed, and their true first elements, "Y' Shut Mute, and DY' Shut Soet, and m a d elements, SH Central Hisa and ZH' Central Buzz, p. 79m. KY' Shut Mute, and GY' Shut Sonant,. with, their derivatives KY'H Central Hiss and GYH Central Bwz, p. 8Ob. LT Lateral Bum, p N d Consonant with Front and l'oint of Tongue, p ' ' NY' Shut Hum, p. 8%. l2 and 13. Ora-Consonants with (12) Bnok of. Tongue, and (13) Back of Tongue and Lips, pp a; K, Km' Shut Mutes, G, GW Shut Sonants, and OG Shut Implodent, p. 82b. EH, KWH Centrul Hieacs, and GH, GWE Central BUZZOR, p. 83a. 'R, 'GH Back Trilled Buzzes, "B Uvula Rim, 'RH, 'KH BackTfilled Hisses, p. 83b. 12. Nasal Consonant with Back of the Tongue, p. 84n. NG Shut Hum,' and NGH Shut Snort, p. 84u. Musical Qualities of Consonants, p. 85n. Grndunl Transition from Vowele to Coneonante; Vowels,Vocals, Glide, Buzzes, Sonants, Slurs, Hisseg, Implodents, Mutes, p SECTIOX IX.-Yired and Consonant Wider, Syllablem,.pp Vowel, Mixed, and Consonant Glides defined and dietinguished, p. 87n. N&ur Triphthonge roconsidered, p. 87b. Action of n Vowel between two other Vowels- Syllables, 87b ; Substitution of Silence and Blur for Qlide, p. Wb. Action of n Vocal between two Vowels-Spllnblea, p. 88n \. Action of a Baed or kbnsnt htwoen two Vowels p. 89n. Action of Æ Hiss between two Vowela, p. 89m. Action of n Mute between two VoweL-Recoil, p. 89b. Vowels running on to Consonants, and convemelp. Open and Closed Vowels, Final and 1niti:d Glides. Medial, Double, nnd Split Consonnnts, p. gob. Tight and LOOSU Mixeci Glides, p Initial Mixed Qlides from Voiced Consonants alrd Hisses, p. 91b. Initial Mixed Glidcs from Mutes, p. 92b. Final Mixed,Qlides on to Voiced Consonnnts nnd Hisees, p. 93,. Final Mixed qlides on to Mutcs, liecoil with Flntus, Click, or,voice, p. 94,. Cansonant olido from Vocal to Vocal. p..d48. Consonant Glide from Vocal to Buzz, p. 96n. Conaonant Glide from Buzz to Buzz, p Consonant Glides from hmnts to Vocale at tho end of words, p Consonant alideu from Sonante to Vocals, and to the BUZZCE W, Y at the beginning of words, p. I)6/1, Consonant Glida of Vocal to Sonant nt the c:td of words, p. 97n. Consonant Glides betweon Buzzes and Sonnnta, and between Sonants and SonantR, p. 97m. Rule for Consonant Glides'when one Conson:tnt is Voiced and the other Voiceless, p. 98e. Iuitial Consonant Glides from Mute to Vocd, U1 to, the Buzzes W, Y, p. 98n.. Find Consonant Glides of Vocal on to Mutt nnd Hiss, -Ip, -It, -II$ -mnp,--nagk, p Initial Coneonant Qlides of B Hiss on to a Vocal, or the Buzzes W, Y, p Consonant Glides between S and Mutes, p. 100n. Treatment of Combinations of Two?dutos, and of Initid Muto before M, N, 8, p. loon. Principle of the Divieion of Byllables, p Special Rules for Dividing Consonants botween two Byllablnm, p.. 101b.. LlrtC~row X.-Length (or Quantity), Pitoh (or Ynrioal Aooent), Pome (or Ordinary A,ooent and Empharie), Quality of Tone, Weight (or Im- ~~rtrmw) and 8ilence (or Panne), ne Elemento Of Speeoh, pp Introduction, p. 103a. Length of Spoken Sounds and its Notation, p. 103u. Pitch of Spoken Sounds and its Notation, p. 104n. Force of Spokcn Sounds and its Notation, p Quality of Tone in' Spokcn Sounds, and why it is not furnished with a Notation, p. 107n. Weight of Spoken Sounds, p ilence as an Element of Speech, nnd its NoMion, p. 107b. - SECTION SI.-Exeroimee, pp Introductory Remarks, p. 109,. A. ENOLISH EXENCINES, pp. 110n-143. I. Avtijcial Strong Syllmbler, pp. 11On-,1288. General Tahlcß of English Sounds, p. 110n. Chnrt of English Sounds, p. 110b. English Initial Combinations of Consonant,s, p. IlOa, b. Englimh Find Combinntions of Consononts, p. Lllm, b. Mode of Marking Time in the Exercises, p. llfn. Ex. 1. To Discover any Defccts in Pronunciation in oder to direct future practice, p Ex. 2. Tho Vowcl cc, and Dfixcd Glidcs for Mntes, p. 113a. EX. 3. The Vowel ai, and Mixed Glides for Mlntes, p Ex. 4. The Vow01 na. nnd nlixcd Glides for Mutts, p. 114m. Ex. 5. The Vowel nu, and Mixed Glides for Mutes, p. 114m. EX. 6.!he Vowel oa, and Dlixed Glides for Mutes, p. 114). EX. 7. The Vowol 00, and Mixed Glides for Mutes, p. 116a. Ex. 8. Mieoelheous Vowels, ec, ai, no, au, on, 00, and Mixed Glides for lutes, at different pitches, 0 l;i6u. Ex. 9. Thc Vowels m, ni, no, (tu, om, m, and Mixed Glides fdr Sonants, p Ex. 10. Mixed Qlides for Yutes and Sonants compared, p Ex. 11. On the Effect. of both Pitch and Glide on each TAong Vowel, p. 117b. Ex. 12. On the Short Vowels, lengthcncd in singing, p. 118n. Ex. 13. (In thc Hisses, p. 121). Ex. 14. On the Buzzes as contmstcd wit,h the Hisscs, nhtrs, and Sonants, p. 12%. Ex. 16. On the Diphthongs ci, oi, DU, m, p Ex. 1G. On the Aspirnte, p. 124n. Er. li. On the Vanishca aiy, onw, p Ex. 18. On tho Compound Hisses and B~rzees ch, I: p. l25n. Ex. 19. On tbc Vocals 7, (II, 18, $tg, p Ex. 20. On the Trill v' and Vocal r, p. l2gb. Ex. 21. On Initial Colnhinlltionv,of Consonants, p. 12ïrr. Ex. 22. On Finn1 Cornbinations of C!onsonnnts, p. 1978: Es. 23. On both Initial and Final Cornbinations of Consonrnttl at once, p. 128s. II. A ~ I ~ 7r7uvt/a, ~ ~ ~ pp. I Ex. 24. Contrast of et! and (, p. 128b; \n On open ee and i, p ; (h, On closed ee and i, p. 1288: (c) On opcn cc fol1owcd.b- i, p : (d) On long i before vocal r, p. 129n : (e) On short weak i to be distinguiahed from?i or èb, p. 129). Ex. 25. Contrast of ni, e, n, p Ex. 26. Contrast of nu, o, p Ex. 27. Contrast of au, on, o, 16, p Ex. 28. Contrast of oa-er, om,; azr, p. 131n. Ex. 29. Contrrwt of weak ou and er, p. 131n. Ex. 30. Contrast of on and 00, p Ex. 31. On 00, p. 131b. Ex. 32. Contrast of 00, uo, u, p t Ex. 33. On long W or vocal er, p. 132li. Ex. 34. On the Diphthong ei, p. 133n. Ex. 35. Contrast of ni and ci, p. 138). Ex. 36. On the Diphthong oi, p. 134n. En. 3ï, On the Diphthong or#, p. 134)..

6 ISX. 38. Contlust of on.and ut^, p. 136n. Ex. 39. On thc Diphthong etc, p. 135b. 15x the?hrmur Diphthong and Triphthongs, or Vom1 1E and Trilled R, p Ex. 41. On Words of Two Syllables apt to be pronounced as Words of One Byllable, p. l38a. Rx. 42 On the Nixed and Coneonant (Jlidee, [J p x. 44. On other Weak Endings, p. 14nn. I h. 45. On Weak Beginninge,p. 14ln., Ex. 46. On Weak Words, p. 1Clb. Ex. 47. On Alternations of Strong and Weak Syllables, p. 142b. B.. GEMAN Enmcisss, pp Ex. 48. On the Elementary Gorman Speechsounds, p. 144n. C. TALIA AX EXEUCIEIZS, pp Ex. 49. On the Elementary Italian Speech-sounds, p. 147n. D. FUENCH EXIULCISES, pp Ex. 60. On the Elernontary French Speed-sounda, p. 149f6. - SECTION XII.-Qlonnio Index. pp Explanation of the Arrangement, p. 151a. Letters and Combinations in Alphabetical Ordcr, p 152a. Signs, p SRCTIO~XIII.-E~~~~~~ Pronouncing Diotionerien, pp English lhnouncing IXctionxriea neceeeary, p. 182n.,Walker, p ; Walkor s lccy Words, p. 184b. Sm&, p. 186n; Smart s ]<ay Words, y Worcester, p. 187b ; Worccster s Kcy Words, p. 188n... I>gilvie irnd Cull, p. 189.; Osilvin knd Cull s Key Words p SECTIOX XIV.-Alphabeticel Keyn to Qerman, Italien, and Frenoh, pp Introduction, p I. German, pp ,i. A. The Orthogruphical or Low Saxon Syatenl of Pronuncietion, p. 190n.., B. The Histonil 8ysm of Pronunciation, p. 191n. C. The hdical Byetern of Pronunciation; D. 1918; Explanations of Foreign Sounds, pp ix. Vowcls, hard in Provincial English, ae, B?, 50, W, 60, Odi p FolIr Nasal VOWOIB peculiar to the E rench, am, ah, o&, o d, p Six German Consonants, BA, gh, ky h, gy h,.f, u, p. 194n. Two Liquid Consonants peculiar to Itulian und French, p. 194b... Two Coneonantel- Diphthongs, p. 194b..Clrutions f0.r English Speakers, p. 194b.. 1.,+ph&etical Key to Gcrman Pronunciation, pp Alphabetical Key to Italian Pronunciution, pp Ecclesiaetical Lutin, pp III. Alphabetical Key to French Prmnnciation, pp Nota on Iiaieons, p SE~ION YV.-Examplen of Bonge ~JI Qsrman, Italian, end French, pp Armngement, p. 212n. 1. lkft hand column, Original Orthogruphy, p. 212a. II. Right hand column, Pronunciation in Gloasic, p. 212n. (1) German, p. 212b. (2) Italian, p. 213a. (8) French, p. 218b. III. ßottom of pge, Tr;tnelrtion, p , I..GEILUN SOSQS, pp I Maigkckchen und die Blümelein, p I Ich wollt moine Lieb, p I Wie kann ich froh, p r. O Isis und Osiri~, p. 219.,. 1. In diesen heiligen Hallen, p O. Dm Edkiinig, p Der Wanderer, p Adelaide, p O. la Lebewohl, p. 224., I 11. ITALIAN SUNOS, pp I. 1 Diserto sulla Terra, p n balen del BUO eorriso, p L. l Stride la Vampe, p t, &ave imagine, p II Laacia &io pianga, p. 22i. B. I Non pih andrai, p I Xun è ver?! p. 229, Pur dicmti, p. zig.. 9. I Poeeenti Numi, p See German, So. I 10. I Qui sdegno nop B accende, p SW. German, No l StËbat Mäter (Ecclesiastical Latin), p :. PILESCH Soxos, pp I Oil voulez-vous aller? p: Sérénde (Berceuw), p l Robert! toi que j aime! p La Nanola, p Partant pour la Syrie, p: Ln Mmeeillaise, p SECTION XV1.-Pronunciation of the Names oi Qermen, Itelien, and French Componers. wirh e few otherr, pp: Introduction, p. 242a. Myhubutical Tist?

7 PREFACE..On 27th, 28th, and 29th of Deoember, 1871, I this suggestion WUE that thore ehould k an gave three lectures on Pronunciation in Singing abundance of examples Hence ame the preeent at the request of Mr. John Curwen, the president, work. before the Tonic Sol-fa College at its Christma For more thnn thirty years I have been paying grtthcring. Part of the mater of these l &WE attention to the subject of spoeoh-sounda, as a was subsequently worked up by Mr. Curwm, and soience and as an nrt,dior the purpose of teaching corrected by myself, for the last edition of his to read English, and for tho purposes of compara- LNtanchrd Coume, and is again explained nnd tive philology. I havo resided three yeam in illnthrrtted with di~grams in hie l Teaoher s Qermapy, a year and a half in Itsly, ind nlow Manual. To thie last work he asked me to con- than six months,in France Z have been.quite tribute Tables of the hnunciation of the German. mntly studyingprovincial pronunciation through- Italian, and French languages, to enable any out Enghnd, for the purpo~e~ of my treatise On Tonic Sol-faist on taking up a song in those Enrly English Pronundation, with especial rcferlanguages to hare some clue to the sounds he had ence to Bhakspere and Chaucar, of which those to utter, even if he were ignorant of the language dudies will form thc fifth volnmc, lind in pnwuinp After them were completed, homver, fi. Curwen thom T have had to pay moat particalltr attention felt that it would be adviisable to add a few songs to the variutles of English spewh, and diecriminlrle in cach language with the pronunciation fully betwoen the.comptrrativoly modorn, liternry, or explained and the translation annexod. But when thij was done, he found that the result would be too much for a mere insertion into another work, and ought to appear as a separate treatise. I then 1 reoeivod form, which prevail8 among educated lrpeakere especinlly in the Bouth of Enginnd, and the comparatively anciont, illiterate and provincial forms which prnvail among the uneducated suggested that surh a treatise should contain a or untravelled.in other parts of the country. I um very full account of English pronunciation, and. not a singer, although I have hud sufficient voice I the mode in whioh both, tho acknowledged and to try all the ncmssary experiments,. and in the the nnacknowledged sounds of speech are pro- winter of , I went through a course of Tonic duced, to enable the teachor not only to shew Sol-fa instruction to nlake myself familiar with I what WS right, but to correct what was wrong, this scheme of teaching vocal mumic. But my by instantly pointing out the vicious nction of t,hr principal assistance in understanding the relnfiom I speakor, and thus leading him to set it right. The of singing to speeoh, ha~ been derived from only condition Mr. Curwen made in agreoing t0 l Professor Helmholtz s greet work On the SenPrr- r t e section of the book is ~peciallg devotecl to I runuociation, tiuns of Tonc, of which a translation by myself W ~ published E by JLcasrs. Longman, in July, I have also, of courae, stndied all the principal works relating to speech-sounde in various languages. hare had especial instruction from natives of various countries, and have made practical observationi in great detail and with great cam on English provincial speakers, and havo beon familiar for mpre years than I caro to rcmcmbcr with the process of repreacnting spokon sonnds by symbols which shoidd exprese not merely tho separatc elemente but tho diffcront modos in which they are put together by different spiakers. J%CEC are my qualificatione for attempting to carry out Mr. Curwen s wishes.. The objoct of this book i8 to shew Lhe come of training which a ainger should undargo in order to enunciate his words cledy and accuratoly, so an to be intelligible to,an audience that hltd no book of the wordu Throughout the work, the singer, 88 distinct from the spoakcr, ham been kept in view, and for this purpose attention htta been drawn in the opening Section to tho principal points which dietinguish singing from speaking. All the exercima are supposod to bo sung. At the sumo time, the work will boof great UEO, I hope, to all who kre to tmin children to speak English correctly, or to acquiro IL corroct pronlmcintion of German, Italian, and French Bnt as the book was not written for spotikers CLIpOC U11y, much has beon omitted which would be mom or less useful to them, and much hm boen insortcd, which a speaker, who is not a sinkcr, may find unneccsaary. Attontion is also paid oxclnsivdg to tho receivad pmnuncitrtion of the English, German, Italian, and Fremh languages. Such varieties LLB it would intcrreat u singor to know am mentioued incidentally. but the whole subjcct of comparative phonology IW boaring un comparative philology, has been moat carefdly avoidcd. Studcnts of thie imporlltnt linguistic inquiry will, however, necesplrrily Wnd much assiatanco in tl~e following Ws. The following pap arc, of cowso, not mrant for young beginnure. They are written for thow iidvanced students who have suk icient determination to instruct themselves, and who wish to understand the subject in order to instruct others. l hwc is not a passage in this book which ought not to bojhriliar to :L teacher of singing, although vcry little of what follows has hithorto found ita way into manuals for the singer, and that lithle is scldom accurate. But, of course, theru is much concerniug the voicotrnd its management, which docs not enter into the purpose of a treatise strictly limited to pronunciation. Hcnce tho following pages qe really supplemcntary to dl treatises on singing, while they are introductory to all treatises on English elocution and on the pronunciation of the foreign languages named, and also to all treatises on comparative philology. Thc principal new point which is here treated at lcngth is the action of vowel on vowcl, and con- aununt on vowol, to which I gave the nanw of I glide in n tract on English Phoneticrr, published in 1854, long bcforc Mr. Mclvillc Boll uaod tho term in his Visible Speech (1867), with tr slightly differcnt sense. On these glidce doponds dl intclligibility in singing, 1Jcr:rusc they determine the principal audible cfioct of consonants, more ospccially final consonants. Hence I have proparcd an olnborato series of exercises upon thcm in tho I Glossic Indox (pp ). A systematic method of representing spccch- soun& irr indiapcnsable for any work likc the prescrit. My Glosaic effects t.his object by mcans of tho ordinary lettere of the alphabot in thcir mostusu:rl English significations, EO fax BE these would serve, eked out by German IIYX~CY occauionally, and sametimes by other contrivancos This mode of spelling is so simple for ordinary English rcadcrs that I have never found ono who oxpcrienced the least difficulty in reading off sentonccs thus writton, even without spocial instruction. Glossio hae also been usod by M;.. Curwen in the Standard Course and LTcachcr s Manual, and hence will be familiar to the majority of advanccd studonta who hkc! IIP this book. As \

8 I It xii FRRFACK. Oloabic -was specially invented by me for the purpose of writing ali English dialects by one nlphabet, ovwy mund which WRE required for this tmkise hnd alrendy been properly symbolised, and hencc tl~ere WBE no objeot in introducing any OtherSet Of Thc amangement of the work is as follows: - Aflcr drawink attention (in 8ection I., pp io tho contrast between speaking und Cnging, and sketching a number of exercieos to impress theso differenras strongly in the reader s mind, provided ho cnrry them out (which, once for all, I may st&?, I srlppose thllt n11 readers who wish to derive prout from the work will. do with all oxcrcises), I pwuceed (in Section Il., pp. 7-11) to consider the mum of those difiiculties BB reapects the vowels, nnd shnw thnt this is to be sought in their peculiar nnture na modificationrof oripjnal qualities of tone. Then, provious to a detailed expoaition, I give,in Moction III.,.pp ) a short key to the method of. notatlon employed, md R systematic arrangement of all the sips u&, together with diagrams of the positions of the mouth subeequently referred to. The Bloseic Index (insection XII., pp ß1) gives the exact page and column where the mode of prodncing the eound repreeented by eaoh individnal sign cun be found,. in proper connection with its related sounds. After thin (in Becth IV., pp ) n brief acoount is furnished of the nnture nnd action of the organe by which speechsounds are produced, limited to what is neoessary for properly understanding and obeerving the following cxpbtione. SectionV. (pp ) is deroted to tho Vowels, nnd Section 42.66) to the mode in whichvowels are combined into diphthongs, by the generntion of the vowel glides, which arc EO important to uingers. Bection VII. (pp , takes into account a series of actions óf t,he glottis in oommenoing or nttaoking and onding or relwing vowel sounds, which were firat nnnad glottids in my Early figli& Pronuncirition, (p. 1129) under which heading it ie her6 oonvenient to includo aspirntes nnd the bellown-rrtions of.the hngs or I physnms ff6imrmw), thbugh the lstter would be eepnrated in a mote exnot claaaiflcstie.! lese lead on to the chu30ude proper, which oocupy the -whole of Saction VIII. (pp :,.and&odd be studied completely even by thm who do not immediatdy desire to laam German, Italian, or French, be-. muse the introduction of the consonante peculiar to thee; languages given n far more complete view of the relations of speech-eounds than woqldbe possible if nttention were confined to on? langunke onlj-, and when studiod thus in proper connection, the sounds, which singers are nure to require some &y, m by no mean s EO dscult rs whenthe_\. are taken afterwards as strange and isolatod phenomena. The glides betweenvowelsand cmsonanta, which form the subject of Section IX. (pp ) ara of extreme imporlance to singers, and hence pent pains hnvo heen bemtowod on furnishing examples, especially in the olossic Index (pp to omble the reader to bccome thoroughly familiar with tlle phenomena, and thus learn to sing the efects of consonants which are themeelvea urrringrbk. In Sedion X. (pp ) Eor the eake of readers rather than mngers, but dea espedy for the um of those who set WO& to mumo (which ahould include all.singers) n rery brief account is given of the principal means rdopted for making one syllable in a word, or one word in n scntence, more prominant, than all the rest. For spesker~ this wouldevelop into n trentina on elocution, for singors (except in recititive) the composer has practically determined the length,,pitch, and foroe, and often the quality of ;ono nnd expression to be given to ench syllable, md what remains belongs rather to a treatise on voice-training than oneon speech-sounds. But it is wful s.ven to n singer to know in what the rotions consist, how they are performed, and how ;hky may be written. It ie, in fact, indispeneable lor anyone who wishes to sing as a humnn bcing, mnd not as n machine. In all tho preceding +tiens, the exercisaa and :xamples giveu ns each matter mises. arc sufficien t ;o i//mtratc the subject, but not enfficient to render Jrnrrnilinr to IL student who h e to be trnined l hk is lcft to Sections XI. pp ) and XII,. (pp ) where n SllffiCiUnt scriee of exerciser b. sugpted, or written, to enable a tcacher ta htruct n solitary. pupil or n clnse, without pling tho learner by u systemrtic trcatibo. bse. exorcises m divided into four principal ilte, mcording to the four langunges considered, but for the three foreign hnguagos they we of comparatively limited extent, suficiont, however, for an.vone who had gone well through the Bhglish, to aequiro R dccent command over the foreign sounds. It is strongly recommended that thc hmer should, if poeeible, get a nntive with a good,pronunciation to red to him the foreign wad platea against oaoh foreign Gloeeic lettor (which is for that purpose given in ihc ordinary Y well aa the Glowic apdling), and to repeat each ret, iuustrating u single sound, mnny times over l racticuli I find six timos in succession advisable-. The learner should liston without imitatina till he LE formed IL complotu notion of the sound, which he ehould thon attempt to reproduce, and not mind &l& with respect to tho other RoundN with which tho one undor trial is mnvoidnbly mixed up. Thc marda thus sorvc n8 Kcy Words, which with the Uloesic spelling annexed, pcrfoctly oxplain the nystem of writing used in giving the pronuncintion 6f the songs in Section XV. (pp ). The gr& bulk of tho exercises is dcvoted to Engli~h, with the intention of c+ing good hd)it,u und facility, nndof correcting errors of pronunciation. Th0 we of thc Gloasic systorn of writillg hau enabled me to divide them exercises into two very distinct pt~rts. The flrst twenty (pp ) consist of Combinations of vowels and conmnant!4 independently of meaning, EO thnt t6e whule attention af the singer is directed to the accumtc production of sound. They arc erranged so as to includc n11 tho combinations in our language, to be smg at dehite but very V~I~OUE degrees of rapidity, and particular attention is paid to bringing out thc glides, ana thus distinguishing final ronsonmts. A simple chart, with lists of n11 the initid nnd final consonnntv.and combinutions of consonants in our here given, wili enable the tencher (as explainod in the 21Et to the 23rd Exercise, pp , to.cxtempnriso an infinite variety of ways of pwctice, without using a book at all. It is suggested thtt five minutes daily should be devoted in schools to thcsc,vocal Oymnnstics to -make thc delic:tte muaclea of tho OrpnE of speech familiar with the production of the sounds, and thus enable the puptls to pronounce with brightness, ense, nnd certainty. Exercises 24 to 42 (pp ) are dcrotetl to actual words, contrasting nearly similar sounda. especially vowel sounds, whioh are apt to be confumd, toqether with the VRI-~OUE diphthongs nnd.the extremely complicated use of the letter R, each word heing given in both spellings. Some of these Exercim having been prepared some years ngo, were given. but with a different arrnngement, by Mr. Curaen in hia I Stnndard Com. The 42nd Exerciso (p. 138)) properly conists of thc English part of tho Blossic Index (pp. 151,181) in which WO& are given fully illustrating every vowel and. diphthong a8 actsd on by every final combinntion of coneonantsknown in the languege, and by R peat numbcr of. tho initial combinations, while evory consonant is illustrated by WO& in which it occum initially beforevcry vowel and other. consonant with which it is found in tho Innglmgt:. Thesc lists give tho 1mITter Rn opportllnity of feeling nnd practising thc initial and final effect of every poesible consonantal combination upon cvery possihlc vowcl sound, and thus learning to sing initial and find consonants intelligibly. All the proccding Exercises are upon strong - syllahlcs, or those which bear the strew. But the threc next Exercises (43-46, pp )den1 with I weak or uanccented. sylhblei, whctllcr find or initial, nnd Exerciso 47 (p 1428), which is intended rather for the spcakcr tlun thd singer, deals with th- alternations of strong and weak syllnblen which occur in ow longer WOdR I

9 By thcsc &oxciws, which are far more extanmm 3 only, by way of an exerciso, nrrmged in it cou md systematic than any yet attempted (although l vmient form for reference nnd pructicc, Thorn I wish particulary to draw attention to who have an opportunity should not fail to hm by Mr. Nelville Bell in hie rinciplw of Sp& I these read over to them by nativa, and to and Elomtion, to which I am much indebted), 1 practice rusding them themselves till tse natives it is to tie hoped that the learner will be nblo to are satisfied with their pronunciation, nnd thcrl to kain a msstery over the production of the sounds of his own language, and a decent commnd ovor i; commit them to memory, and continually rcpout them, with or without the music, to acquire thorn of Ctennan (p. 144). Italian (p. 147), and facility and certainty in the uttortince of connected French (p.,149). But they will not Wh him words. All pronunciation is muscular, and the wim to urn them. The wpelling of a word is I organs of speech require the same constant trninsupposed to do this, md in ßerman and Italian it hg as the muscla of thc hnnd for playing on nny is tolerably succ8~efu~ in so doing, although in musical instrument. English and French it fails wofully. Hence in Tho book concludes with a list of Gclmbn, YectionXIII. (pp I give an account of [talian, and French Composern (pp ), the systems of indicating sounda in the best or I dectod by Mr. Curwen, with the native promost convenient English pronouncing didionariw, I luncintion added, and likowho a convcntiollnl wrjting their key words both in their own spelling l?ronuncintion, harmonising with that now giwn to and in Glossic. This will enable all those who 1 tbndol, Huyan, Mo?.nrt, nnd Beethoven, which have studied this little book to condt those t,horoughly adapted to English analogica, hnbit~. authorities in case of need. And in Ckction XIV. a md organs. (pp i I have given Alphabetical KOJE ta In tho summcr of thc ~ttmc c:tr, 1876, in nllirll Ocrman, 1tfi.m (including Eecloaiastical Latin), t he Tonic Nol-faCoIlego, ttftcr n successflll period, and French, whioh will enablo the reader who %BB a If probation, WBR finally incorpornted, this littlu a writton word in any of those langua~es, to b look WLLE put togcthcr :M tho nuthor s contributior1 discovor its nound within vcry s d l limits of t1 ownrds the good CMISC of difftleing eonnd rnusir:ll cmr. But cvm for these hgne.ger, refwoncc to k.nowledgo among the rnwm of tho pcoplc, in. :t dictionary is often indispensablu as no rules can C. Luding thc youngest, for which that Collogc! \vils ho laid down which are SUffiCiQntly comprehensive, 01 rigidly fonndcd by ita first president, Mr..lohn tho exceptions am so numurous and irregular. C urwm..4fter this, in doction XV. (pp ) follow AIJGXANT>Hll J, lcll,ls. Germnn, Italian (including Eccleni~~slical Latin). md French songs, selected bv Mr. Curwcn, and 26 I, AHUII.I. Ii4lAll. 1A)Xll~lX, \v. givcn in both the ordinary.and clossic orthography, d1.p,ßniahcd 39 Ai?wmbrr; 1875; with a verbal Englißh trnnalrtion, spcllcd in Mosaic PririnlingJiniskd II Angr186 lrï7.

10 - 8PIAICINQ AND SIXUQING OONTRASTBD. (3). requires a Clear, Bpeaking an Impeded Pannage for the Breath.-In singing, I good quality of musiwl tone can only bc attained by pecaliar ndjontlncnts of t.ho cnvit,ics bctwoon tho larynx and the lips, which generally imply that they are ulrchokcd or unimpeded, and by a pcculiar urrangement of thu larynx itself which implies, on. the contrtw!-, tl~vt it is 80 choked and impdud that the wind hm to forcc its way throngh it from the lungn. III spaking, the upper cavitiea hrre to bc choked nnd inlpcdcd in mm)- wap moro or less injurious to muicul qualities of tone, und somctimes entircly destructivc.of uny musical tom whabvcr. allowing mere noise to pms, or actually preventing any sound at all from passing. And the larfnx has occasionally to bc HO opcn thnt no musical sound whatever can be produced, uxccpt by a further adjustmcnt of the lips rtnd tongue to produco whistling, an effect not udmittd in speech. Tho windruhes, hisses, bnrres, whispers, and silences thus produced (forming our conlonailte), altlrough some of the most important und dintinctive elementn of npeoch, arc entirely un. musiotl and cannot he sung ttt all. The difficulty of indicating them is one of the greatest triala t.o the singer, because their omission occasiona totnl *tnintelligibility, and their introduction interrupts 'the flow of music.. But even those spoken sounds which m most musical in their chwwter :the vowels, arc not equally capable of yielding good qualities of tone on account of the nemssity they imply of more or' lees choking the paasago, of the wund through tho mouth or lips,.rind tho singer has to exer&e himwlf in producing sounde mgnisable RB intendcd for certain vowckl, which are nevertheloas modifcations of them fold to 110 more suitable for mnsical ptteranw. All lltnglulgm prenent these difliicultica, but perhaps non(! mort than English... (4). Einging han to be Bapid and Blurred, where Bpeaking.cannot be so'.-in singing, thf melody oftcn rcquircs tho notes to lm eung with poat rapidity, nnd at other times'to be slurred seo. 1. into cach other. In any languagca, as the English, whciv tho vowcla areparutcd by numerow. coneonants, this rapidity is impossible, ltnd the slurring bccomcs cqwi!ly impossi1)lc from the necessity of separating thc musicd by lumnwical sounda. Who could sing : '' 'rho strongcut plicst stands still," with cither great rapidity or grcat smoothness, cxcept by miking mnny of thc consotunte inaudible? It is, of COU~EC, the busincss of writors of words to mwic to uvoid WIII:~ difficultics of cotn1,inntion in spoken sounds, ;tnd it is the bosincss of coulposcrs of music to :Idjust their notcs to the cnpubilitics of thc words. But neither writers nor comporers obscrvc thcir dotics, I d when the words OF II song arc tmnslatcd from one langnagc to rmothcr, or thc Bnmc melody is sung to diftcrent wordrr (as in succcssivc rcrsc~ of IL ballad, or hymn) this conbidcmtiou is cntircly ovcrlookcd. Vowela murt be Arranged in oenera or Kinds. -It id neccssrrry that tho render should rcnder llirnself practically ftlmiliar with these diffcrences. 'hkc the two sontencos :- Peep through all thone glaan door panes. ' HM bull rdnh'd on that fenoe. The first contn& all tho scvm long vowcls,and the second dl the six short vowels in om lnngnagu, without my ropetitions. Sp~k them with wriolla oxpmsions, first as rt simph convcrsntiond rommnnd and :ríiimuttion ; then in toncs of stern command, cxchmation, interrogution, disguit, feu, horror, indignation, cxpostnlution, lidicule, banter, luughter, wwping, pain, joy, disfaction, orntory, solemnity; with the utmost slowness, with thc greatest'possiblc rapidity, and so on. Obwrro in cach case that thcre is not cven an tlpproach to.r musical tonc or to singing, and that :my sing-song in'thc utterance rvonld bc provinci:tl, snch :LY thai whines and Ilrnnts i1nd rising intlcctiona of many of our provinces. Observe, tuo, that thc 1utt11ra1 chnracter of speech nnd t.hc sound ot the vowcls is mnch allcrctl by qome of theso cxprcssions : th:rt the oratorical and solemn tones really nlt.cr dl Lhe lounds in comparison wvith tho conversational or ridiculous and comic tonc, although the vowels rcmain rccogniwblc, no that though qyrecinbl!y di,bsrent to those who compnrc and cxamine thorn, they are apprecimbly tlrc s1611te Lo those who, accustomcd to hcar tham.under dl thesc circumstances, have fuscd the pnrticnlatr pcrccptiona into.y general conccption which partnkcs of all the chzracter8 without being contined to any one. This meuns that even with thc samo spcnker euch vorel represents only :L gronp of specifically diffcrent solmds, which :W gr;~~pcd by the hearer na a genua; just no WC think of n dog, withollt distinguishing it Frcnch poodlc from a mastiff, or u pug from a bqcyhound; WC ilre, so to spcak, eltisfied to know that a dog is not :L cat ; thongh both dogs and cats arc qu:tdrupcd.u. Extcud thc ohserration from the same spcakcr to different speakers : lot a doop and thin voiccd man and woman and child rcpeathe samc sentcnccs in different manncra, imitating the expression ouch of crch, and obscrvc the ncw diffcrences which arise. We seem to get boyond dog and cats, into mcrc qimdrupcds. This ohscrvation on the EpCCifiC dserenccs, trnd gcncric or family salmeness, of vowel- sounds recogniaed in thc s:tme language to be identical, is of the utmost importancc, both to the ningor und thc lcurner of langoagcs. '~IC singer lenrns from it thlh hc may alter his row01 nounda (which are those on which ho sings, and which most mcrtcridly lnflucncc thc qdity of his tones' within cc.rtain limits, to snit tho rcquisit,ions of his voicc or of thc unl1su:tl pitches at which he h to deliver them, without becoming unintelligible, and without ccasing to utter them as an Englishmtm. The lcarncr of foreign 1angn;tgcs bccomcs tlwarc of the nccessity of hearing the new sounds from numerous speakers, and not from one tcachcr only, md of hearing them undcr the most varicd circumntanccs of expression, before hc can at all grasp thc unity of genus amid varicty of spccics. Indeod, on extending his observations to forcign Lmguagcs, the student will find that n11 the varicty of orpressions alluded to vary Prom Lmguago to language ; that not, only the genera or kinds of vowel vary, hut that thc mode of forming thn spccies varies. and that on these two circrlm- stmccs depends in great no means donc) the characteristic n;ltion:ll hbits of spwch. Hence the nccossity of continual intercourse for somc; considcrltblc length of,time with mriow speakers of a language which WC wish to ;rcqldre. The Relations of Vowela to Pitch.-'Yo return thc to Excrciso. IIaving first spoken the two. santenccs. of English vowcls, sit8.q thorn to B very easy chant, as tho Tuning Exl;rcisc! flij in 'I Standard Course," p. 27, giren helow. E;~ch part should he taken scp;lratcly, and should be 811ng at various pitchcs of onc roicc only, us high :tnd aß low as tho singcr can ratch, na wcll its in thc middlc nntl CRS? ~~itcl~as with which ho sho111,l bqin. Divide thr! WordE thus-- Two important observations have to be made-on further brought out hy first chanting and then this Exercise. First, that the effect of spcnking and chanting is entirely different. This should bc I spenking the passage at :chout the same pitch. It may 8180 hc enhnccd in x class by directing

11 ', I...._. them to speak altogether at the #ame rste BE they chanted, but these Exeiciues are much better done, at least at firat, by single member8 of a dass, while the others listen, becallue the combimation of different voicer.of differont qdities confusae the nbservcw, and when he is,himself a perfomor he does not hear tho rest sufficiently WOU. The second observation (which will be dwelled on moro at length presently, is that tho diffcront vowel sounde cannot bc equally well produced at diffemnt pitches, and that the short vowels when prolongod, although in that c888 nearly tho sumo ns the aorresponding long vowels (compare p p hiu, panes fsnc6, glans th.at, oll on, pagres fencs ; the long voweh in those, door, nnd the short vowel in g'udh'd, have no correspondence), are yet so,diffe~nt that (with the.exception of that) they am much more easily sung ut different, especially at the extreme pitchos, than the naturdy long vowcls. This may be ' verified by einging the long vowel uentence with the short vowcls lengthened,.and the short vowel 'sentence with the long vowels substituted for the 'short vowcls lcngthoncd, as indicated by writing- i II O U Q peep through all thoso glaes door panes his bull ru~hd on that fonce cc ou U a n meaning, sing pep with the i in his, that is, &Il pip lengthened; und sing his lengthoned, with in peep, that is, as hem, rhyming to fleece; and EO on. Othor obwrvations may bcreadily made,especidy BB to the offeet of tha eeparation of pcep and through ' by the complote cutting off of the note at the end of peep, and at the commenmmunt of through, frst by a completely unmusical him, and next by a beating r. By hurrying. and slwkoning the' time theso effocts of interruption8 cnn be more clearly brought out. Apin the effect of the monotone on the rwitingtone, to which all the words have been purposcrly aeaigned in each cnse, should be noted, and its extreme differenm from the constently though slightly changing pitch of ordinwy speech. met of Pitoh on the word Poep.'--The effect of singing-pitch on vowol-qdity must now 130 studied. First sing th? word PIEP on tho scale from the highest note in the voico, takon as dl, down to the lowest, whatever it may be. Form n crescendo and diminuendo on CRch note, and suetain thrvoicooneach UE loug UE can be conveniently done, taking a fresh breath for onch. Observe thut on the very highest note the vowel is quite claar, though, it generally improvos slightly whentho vnice is not near its oxtremity. (On the ohange of register there will be a difficulty felt immediately in producing tho vowol with tho BR~O distinctness as before. The vowel' will nnsume a somewhat different character whenovcr this change takes place, and whatever the rowel may be ; at,prosent, however, the observation of tho offcct of change of robistor may be mergod into tho offoct of changa of pitch.) About tho middle part of tho compaw, the vowel, if kept quite clear and not allowed to degenerate into i of pip lengthened, ' becomes slightly but m~nifostly clouded, und thore is a tendoncy almost to n beating roughncss in thc note. ]3ut 11s the voice sinks still lowcr, mnd cvcn more whon it reaches its lowcet tones, this bcuting character bocomcs mom prominent, producirrg sorno bydhcw. If anothcr aingor of H, similar quality ofvoico (it willnot be right to contraet even bass and tcnor) tlrkcs the Octaveabove the note then reachcd, ;L Inrrnifwtaifferencobetwoen the vowel qualitiee will appear. When mother singar cannot bo had, thc mmc singer should. take his note an Octave higher with a'sudden jump and observe the difforencc. As a sccond triul, when the singor hna reached a rough and gruff sound in attempting to keep peep with its propcr vowel sound, let him change it suddenly to the i in pip lengthuned, by imagining thnt he is singingpip on a very long note. He will flnd tho wholc quality of tone most matcrirlly improved ; thc heating. glltfness will hnvbeen ncarly mmorcd : the --I I. EPEAKINQ ABD SIhTOWQ CONTBASTED. 5 I whole musica! inetrument will have been changed. fm the better. Having reached this lowest tonc on p p altared to pip prolonged, let the singer m d the acale with this sound instead of peep. He will find that up to alout tho middle tones in blr compaae, the dect of pip prolonged is rather better and roundor thon that of y-, but that as the voiceproceeds higher it is docidedly duller, md in the high t.ones is considerably wanting in brighhcse. This deet will ho mudo Inom evident by changing on each nolo and in tho anme breath from-$mp to pip prolonged and conversely. Thew oxcncieer and obsorvntions ehould bo conducted Mth great w e because they are fundamental. -t of Pitoh on the word 'Through.'-Next dng the word thmglr, beginning at the lowest note In the voice, calling it d,, and ascending the scale mplarly to the highest. Observe first thnt though the tone muy not be very good on the hest tone of the voice, it is verymuch better than for peep or oven pip prolonged. Contraat tho three by singing peep through, pip through, oach pair in one breath, nt the lowest note. After quito the. lowest note, the tone becomes botter, but it nrpidly thiclions, EO that through approaches in ' wund to tlrrow, and much effort is required to keep the worde tolerably distinct. But when we get towards the top of the voice it bccomos extremely dií6odt to get out uny real sound of through at dl. dlso obnerve how much the quality of tono detariorates aa you amnd the Ede. It gobsoff into a ílutines8 dtoge.ther unlike the best qualities of the hiunan song-tones, and approaches to a pdean pipe. Here again by taking. peep through In one breath we perceive the great difference in the quality of the tone. Now take the two words pwl &Z, which contain the same sounds as #bqh bull, but are more convenient for the next mperiment because thoy uve tho anme consonants. &t sing pool from the lowest note to at least an Octave or a Twelfth higher (from d, to d or n), and having reached this higher pitch, change the word from p l to pull prolonged, by an effort of utten- tion which after a little while the mueeles of the throat will obuy (the nature of the chwge is purposely loft unconsidered for the proeent). It will be immediately found thut tho quality of the upper noto is materially improved, thut the fluti- nenn disnppanrs, and much more fulness results. Having then reached iull prolonged, descend the eale upon it. It will be found that all the uppcr notes are improved in quulity, and that the lower and even loweit notes are not much injured, although a dight gruffness begins towards tho end. Completo the experiment by singing pool pull in one breath to overy note in the voico, up and down. ' When 'Peep I and Pool nhonld be 'Pip and ' Pull ' Prolonged.-The experiments jnst made lcad to a very important practical result, namely, that peep should be taken pip prolonged in the lowor parts of the scalc, and pool as p d prolonged in the ilpper parta of the scale. Words containing thcse vowclß arc the pentest plagues to a singcr. nnd hp will find himself relicved of much difficulty by this simple observation. BEeot of Pitch on the word 'Olans.'---These oxpariments must be continued further. Sing qbns (taking care to make it rhyme itith farce with an unpronounced r, and not with gn~, two sounde which may be distinguished as glnn~ and glm respcetively) to a nliddlc notc in tho compuss, and run up and down as beforo. Observc that a good tone can be brought out for glann at ncarly overy point of thc scale, although the quality of the vowcl slightly alters. Chango the sound to glrrr (huving m in that prolonged), and obscrw that at every pitch the musical quality of sound is dccidedly doteriorated. But it is so disagreenbly provincial to interchange these sounds, that the faulty musical quality will causeless annoyasce than the faulty vowel quality. A way out of the di5cnlty will be afterwanla indicated. meat of Pitoh on Peep through glass.'-taka the three wo& peep throrrgl, glass, and sing the -leup and down, giving all throe Worb in om c

12 ' 6 ' 11. VOWEL QUALITY OF. Torn. th. 8Xhltl8 unpht action of the mnmmpnb, which in nuch R nord mn gknr mnn tho oonridcrnhly, W ßbwn by hving off ono 0th or both of 60 fh, kmr, gh, h., Of which the Inat in by far the brat nound known for trying thm dect of. mimic indopedently of wonb. But it in not nough for the ringer to knnw thræulta M fnctd. 110 rcquim to know on what natuml relations "thny dcpend. And ho a h req- to know whltt am. the procina npemh mundo with whichho han to dwl, why htr my taka lih&ka.with nome und not with othm, md how he CPIL rrmdrrr tbae awlnrrrd.intorruptionr uf VOiOB, the CoMrmanta. nu5iciantly uuaiwo mithout ommpicnoun, nnd thin not onlr being di-bly for hin own langoyle, but!m thorn f- hgrw. in which he may bo osllsd upon to ding, of whid l ' & m a n, Italian, and Freneb am the principal, Gwewr, tho swing ~rml swnng are of the mm kind, though in cfiffmnt directiono. Hut when un ononnoun hammer io dowly rained by LL dine, nnd than the hwd dowd to fall nuddenly by itd own woiyht, tho awing, cr slow motion of tho h e of the hammer up, is very di&rant from the nwmg m rapid motion of the hamrner down. &mihrl> if in driving in P pile, a weight is pdlcd np by m men tugging at n rope panning ovex a pulley and than let fall, the ßwing and nwmg of the vibration are very different. Such vibrstion~ am called mmporrw/, bcause although actually M mingle an rimple vibratirmn, mathmaticiano ham dirantaed thut the lawn of compound vihtiwr mny be dcdlloed hm the 4wo of neveral imph '

13 ......C..-,-_..~. - - ~.._. m 8 vibrations. This is a rnnttor which must here hc takon for grantod without furthor oxphnntion. Simple nnd Compound Soundo.-Now aortnd is tl eneation duo to tho motion of hir communicated through the drum-skin of tho enr, and u cornpli. cated internal apparatus, to the extremities of tllcl nerves of hearing, which, in put, ~nuy be comprcd to a microscopic pianoforte with nbout string tuned to different pitches." The sensation of a musid tono is experienced only whorl tho particles of air make very small periodic vibrations. When those vibrations are simple, tho sounds heard we called eimple ; when they arc cor~apormd, the sounds heard arc also termed compound, and the internal apparatus of the our, cspecially its microscopic pimofortc, enables the mind to mpurate tho compound sound into n number of simple sounds, exactly corresponding to the exceedingly difficult and complex muthematicnl separation of the compound ribrution of the nir into simple vibrations. This nmlyeis by the oar amounts to saying that when any myical sonnd is madn by an instrument or the humun voice,, the em experiences the mmc effect as v a cerhin series of sinlple tones having dehite muaical pitches, and vcry different dcgrccs of loudneea were sounded togethor. Of coursc, no such tones m mally sounded, but as thc mbntal offect is the mme as if they wcre, it bocomes. convenient to speak of the cos,pmad musicnl tono' na comistivg of n SC~~CS of sit~ry& partial tones, and to' reason upon these partid tonea 8s if thoy ulone existcd, instd of the compound tono itself. Experiments on Beronance. Benpence Chamberr. Vibretionel,Number nnd Pitch.-Beforo 'proohding further, try thu following cxpcrimcnts, which ari ver!- important for singers. Strike n common tuning-fork, and hold it in tho air ; its A~cording to the latest remrchea of Hmmn &C hfeu30r h y e r ' m 'pamphlet Uhr dia ßrami dvr Tonmohrnmhaun (On the Limita of the -n if YIM ~ Tone!, fm. 1576, p. 41. VOWEL QUALITY OY TONE. sound will ECmcd?. 110 hcrrd. But hold it with Lhe flat of one prong or thc cdger of both prongs ovbr. the mouths of differont tnmblors, or wide-nocked bottlcs (picklo or prnnc or presorvo bottlos or jlm) and a cerhin amount of minforcornont of the tone will bo head. A widc Inouthod bottle ubout six inches high will reinforce tho CI of ordiluury tuning-forks vcry fairly. Now try the effect of pouring n littlc watcr into the bottom of the bottle and observo if tho reinfowomont is grontor or loanm If the minforcemont is grontor, continuo to pour moro water till thc ~oinfomcmont roaches its grcrtest ded and thun loasons, and koop in only 80 much of tho watcr ns gives tho graute& dbct. If pouring water into thc cmpty bottlc rmtkos the reinforcement of the tone of tho tunink- f or k less than hfore, cmpty tho bottlc, und with a piuce of tin, wood, glus~, or pnstcbonrd (tho cover of a book answore very well) forming n hard, flat covm, gradually diminish thc opening of the mouth of tho gllurs. Tho reinforccmont will cortrinly incrcw up to L cortuin dopeu of covering, nnd then &+in diminish. Itctttin thc amount of covering. giving tho pntcst rcinforcoment. At least on octave of diffmnco WII LC producd in this wuy, so thnt forks of vory difieront pitchrs can be reinforced by thc sit1nc botllo diffcwntly loaded with wntur nt the bottom or corcmd nt thc top. Thu effect of wuhr at tllc bottom nnd un open mouth is gcnornlly frtr supurior to t,htt of u covcred mouth. Aflar the boat reinforconlunt,im thuu )btnincd, try the cffcct of partially obetruutink the intcrior of tho bottle by piocas of pnpor, wood, &o., which do not ultor tho height of tho wutcr ; these may be suspended from a thin stick luid over tho mouth of the bottle, EU 11s not to mach as far as the wntcr. In cvcry caso th cffcct will be found to impair the beauty of tho tolle produced. Th reinforcemont of swh bottles in duo to letti~g thc air within thelu into viblution by meutle of the tuning-fork, and is termed wao)tawe, and the bottles are rcaujtam? chrrarb6ra or cauilico. The tane ta which such n cavity rcsowrda bcdt is rrttid lo m. II. a?e. CI. VO\VE,L QUALI'PP OF TONE. 9 dl d S dl ri SI td d' i 2 : t i 5 H (where ta' ia :t littlu Hattclr Llutn tho trnc: mlwical ta) before propcr rcso1utnco cavities, with covcrs, which he could partly closc by tingur kcyu to any amount he pleued, EO an to incmltxo or diminish tho degrcc of the oponing of tho mouth of any onc or mort!. The vibmtion:rl numbors of thwu lwtl!e 111'0 in tho proportion of tho figurca writton undor thcln, so' that if tho ribrutional numbcr of dl WWI! li4, that of d would bo twico ti4 or 128, Ll;xt I J E ~ wo111d be 3 timos ti.1 or 192, tlut of dl 4 tim:w 64 I J 256, ~ that of ml 5 ti1nt:s G4 or 320, Llutl CIE d ti tilnvs (i4 or 384, that of ta'' 7 times ti4 or 4.18, ~ r r d that of 63 8 times 64 dr Gli, tho ribnrtiond humbcr of tho simple tono obtained from :t COI~II~~II Cl tuningfork. Iiolmholtz thcn found that by m:rliing u11 the forks sound at oncc, hrt by rnryi,rg lhcir dcgrscs pf Zoid~ross, ho was ablc to rcproducc a satisfactory imitation of the qualities of tonu of moat m~~sical imtrumcnts nnd of sevurd Curmm vowel sounds. And (by culullmting similur uxpurinruotn with great care) ho ostnblished that /LC qrmlily of' n COW poraad tolle corrsirtn rolcly i11 &he various degrecs qf atrc,rgth of tac system of sierplc pnrtinl 6011~8 inlu obich it is reaolvcd bu th? ear. The vnrious paxtiul... i1 be its own tono (or ono of ita own tonos, for mod tones have always the relativo pitches thus found. cavities of various shap~s will resound to very and are henco called the let, 2nd, 3 4 &.,.partials dithent ton-), The tono hoard in them expori- respectively. Thc 1st is also callcd thc priwc?, and menta is a aimpb tone, duo to n simple vibrntion'ol the othercl the t611per partirla. The prime is the air. Tho numbor of vibrations which Such B L pnerullp (not always) much stronger than the tona performs in a sumor~d of timo is.called its I ether notes, and honce being most distinctly 'vibrational 9azrrnbcr~, or somotimcs simply its pitch, heard, determines tho feeling of pitch. Hence the becnuse tho sonsation of pitch dcpcnrlw solely on vibrational numbcr of x compound musical tone is. the vibrational numbor, und o u perccption of What tnkon to be that of its prime. When the prime is prticulnr nurvous fibrc in the microscopic pillno Of not the loudcst partial, the ear is frcquently the internal onr already mentioned corrospor1da t0 deceived as to the real pitch, and, ne in that ense that nnmbur of vibnttiona. thc 2nd ptrtid o: 0ct:lm ot thc primo ia gcnwally l the loodost, tho 1ls11a1 crror is that of itn Octave. The Hnture of Musical Quality of Tone.-- Eelmholts arranged tnning-forkn, lcopt in conktnt Quality of Tone of the Singing Voice.- All motion by cloctricity, and corresponding to the wrttvicnl torm o d dl rrrq eoruuk hass yualilira 01 not=- tone d8pendirrg r6po:a the velntivc lowfmsx of the simph psrlinl lolua q/ &he?rule8 to which they are w ~ q, And this rokttivc loudness is dctcrminccl p:trti)- by thc Inoh in which tho air is crcitud by H vibruting body directly, nnd ptrtly by thc ~CSOII- :tnco of tho air in n cavity through which the vibmtiorl of thn air uxcitod by thc vibrating.body in conducted 1wForo it rc!:lchas thc: outcr air, and 1xtrlly 11y otllcr CMHW which nced not bu hero COU sidorod. I11 singing, tho vibr;tt,ing body consistn of thc two clastic chords which form the cdg~:s of tllc ylot/is or brtxtthing hole in thc hyz, and the mode of action is io :tllorv puffs of air of v;triow descriptions to ptss p:riudidly from thc lunp into the rosonanco cavities ctborc. All Bounds producotl hy emitting it scrica of sncccssive pdfs h:tw 1 L wry grcltt rwnllcr of p;trtid tones. Good btm voiccs hvc at lonst 20. Tho dccp toncu of the -onium htrw nt least 16 vcry sensiblc ptrti1tis. "hc rcsorutnco cluunbcrs iu specch aro wry nnmorous and vory v:wi:tblc in form, nnd thew (tre various constrictions and vdws on the way. Tho conscqucnco is thut thcrc'arc nnrncrons rction:mccs which reinforco ver>- diffcrcnt partialq, prodllcing mostof the qunlities of the humtn!-oice, includ- i I' ing tho various vowcl quditics : I I ~ their varietim ' duo to pitch and exprossion.

14 10. VOWEL QtlALITY OF. TONE Bec. 11., Vowel.Quality of Tone atm to Basonurce.--Tho nction of the mbwance chambers in producing vowel qualitiw ir rather complicated, but we may, state generally that every mpecific vowel quality haa its own opecial reeonance cavity adapted to minforce to'the greateat extont various simple tones of exactly defined piteh. Noy tho pitch of the notm sung by the voice at any th, (that is, of its prime partial,) ie seldom ur never the came BB. any one of the pìtchea which could be reinforced by the %esonance cavities. Some of 'the higher in1 tones will, however, be tolernbly near to hat pitch. In making the experiments with B r tunurg-fork 'and a renonanca jar the reader ail1 have felt the diffence of effect BB the rasonance of tho jars npproached to or receded from the pitch of the'fork, and havd found that in 8ome cama the tone of the fork wea almost quenched by the inability of the air in the jar to resound to it. l!he name thing happene when the mouth is put into the position oorresponding to any vowel. All the partial tones of which the pitch is tolerably noar to those which the reeonance cavity is rtdaptbd to reinforoe best, will be more or leas reinforced, and the othm will be either loft untouohed or more or lesa damped. Hence every tone sung will have ita quality of tone altered by the nature of the vowel position of the mouth, and this altoration of the original quality of tone is that which we mgnise na B vowel. The different vowels in speech differ, BB if, for example, we played for peep, a picolo Hute ; for though, a deep organ flue pipe ; for glass, any conical organ.reed pipe, and EO on. Or na if for the vowels we substituted entirely Merent inatnimenta. Just na wu know a violin A from a flute A; or from a pianofoh A, or from an oboe A,.and EO on (all of which are compound musical tones having tho same pitoh), by their different, qualities of tom only, eo we know the vowels of speech whm anng 'to tho Mme pitob, eolely by their difference of quality which we have been taught to hweise 'hm childhood. We thus, too, are able to underetand why eome vowela ah ay and n d l y give.. a bad quality of tone, nnd why by a slight alteration of the ragonancc caritics of the mouth, kc., we am improve the quality of tone without rendering it EO different RE to bo no longer recog. nimble. We can also understand why it is that by other changea in the position of the month, BC., wecan entirely chango tho quality, and mako it unfltted for any musical purposes. Sing on my pitch to the vowel in glane, Hnd while keoping the voice steadily at thnt pitch, and purposing conshntly to pronounce the mame vowel, moro or less close tho tecth, raiiscor twist the tongue, clos0 or twist tho mouth, making the nperturo of very varioua shapes and d,;mensiona, or open the entrunce to the noae, leaving tho mouth either shut or open. Observe the groat variety of qualities of tono, some good, others bad, and all more or less strrmge, which will thus result. This oxmzise in very important for making the singer feel the meaning of quality of tona, and the extcmt to wni& it is under his command. He will thus gradl~nlly lonrn to understand that for every musid note which can be produced in the larynx, there is an original quality of tono, which, howevor, it is impoaaible for UE ever to hear, bocause we cnnnot remove all that portion of tho hcnd which lies above the larynx, without destroying tho powcr of the larynx to produce any tone at all. W o arc, thorefore, constrained tp hear only ita lnodificntion by the reeonance chambers through which the viliating air must inevitably pass. But we can perfectly well understand that these act just BB varioualy shaped organ pipes fitted to the ame ioed (which, unliko the larynx, m a be made to sound independently of the pipes). We are thus able to deflne that a VOZM~ is a modijmtiora fdrrc to resosaame i#a th8 cavities abwo the lalywx), of an origilml pucrlit# of lone fpmdwed by th8 vibrations of tils vocd cords in tho lary*s./.. Experimento on the Nature of Vowel Qualities oi Tone.-It my be observed io Fing. that concoh, when the notes sung are in juet intonation, ire really qualities of tone. and that the.....b. II. VOWMI. QUALITY OF TONE. 11 roughneas arising from.discords und from tcmpered 'inlisic is due to the introductiop of sounds not belonging to the series of pratiah 1, 2, 3, kc., or..&e to the beats of the partials of the tones which are eounded together. Procure Bamn voicea which 'cm sing dl d o dl ml d d2 in pol-fect tune at the name time, and then let them vary the strength greatly, singing, for examplo, in succcssio~t us marked by the letters pp,p, snf, f, f, and O for If voim cannot be procured, produce the tonus in them different degrees of ~OU~INSS on a quurtet of viola, which, however, is not quito so good for the p-. The two first trials give the full deet of the chord, but not of any usual qditius of tontr The E U last give effects not at u11 like chords or qualities of tonc, but differing much in the Mme way BB vowels. ' As tho notes used are all compound tonos, and not simplo tonca, the effect is not prcciaelythe Mme nain vowels, but it of is the Bame kind. Raise tho hmpors on a piano by the forte-pedal, and aing loudly and suddenly any vowel to the pitch of some note la beas note is the best), directing the voicc! against the sound-board or strings, which l ahould be exposed, at letut in part, bp opening the I pima.' After a littlo puae the vowel will be echoed back from the piano. Damp the strings entirely, and sing a dberent vowel in the rame way to the rame note ; dter a pause,. this new The usual cot- pian? in which the 'I' action '' covm the cannot be d m front. U the back ldlk nemen be-ved dthelloundmgbcurdexposed theyadhtter ut tbe beai ~mtmmenta m flft piaurn, andeapecial~g well: tuned V d pianoa, with the h& ruined, no that the sinw am ling right down on to the stringr. vowol is re-echoed. The re-echoed vow& are loud enough for a whole roomful of people to hear, and liko enough for them to recognise, but they are ' not perfect, partly on account of the impcrfcct tuning of the pianoforte, and partly on account fo the sluggish action of the strings. The effect arises from the fact that strings vibrate sympathotically with the human voice, but only those partial bnes of the strings will sound sympathetically which are of the same pitch, or very nearly 80, as aumeof the partial tones in the voice, and thc pause is due to thc circumstance tllat strings requiro time to get into audible vibration. This is a highly interesting experiment for singera, because it shews that vowels nre fedy only q!lnlitios of tone whioh cm be mechanically reproduced. And it is still more interesting generally as showing tho prociae way in which qualities of tone are communicated to the ear by the microscopical piuno already mentioned, which form the extremities of the nerves of hearing. Thcse nre set in motion by the vibrations of an elastic fluid in which they are immcrscd, and which has had its own vibrations commonictrted to it by thc clwtic cxtcrnal air. In the utual piano the strings are ßet in motion by the vibmtions of the sounding board, which again has had its own. vibrations communicated to it by the external air.. Yr. A. Graham Bell, son of Ah. A. Melvillo Bel! (ta whosu labours on speech I shall often havd to slludc), in thc Ccntcnnid Eshibition at I'hilttdelphia, in 1876, exhibitod a means of conveying the complex vibrations which produce the cffcct of vowcls, and musical notcs, tht is, of vowcls spoken und sung, through tin. electrical telegraph,. to an ear placed at the other end of thc telegraph wire, simply by making an elastic spring vibrate in sympathy with tho.vowels. This extraordinary fact, which is of great importancc in clearing up our notions of tho nature of vowel qualitica of tonc, was vouchcd for at the GLasgow Yeoting oj thc British Association in 1876, by the groat electrician, Sir William Thompson, who hnd himself heard the vowels prodocod.

15 12 SNORT KEF TO QLOSSIC. 111,' SHORT KEY TO GLOSSIC, 1)IAGlIAMY, YYBTEYATIC.4BRANGEMEX'11 OF. THl4 8PEECH-80UNUS. Derodption of the following Table#.-In thc : tinguicihod by hing in Ilrclicr or elrio betwcon preceding 8ections it WM suffie&$ to indicntc onr sqire, bruckcts [ strong or accented voycb by 13 words contain- The diagrams are sufflcientlydescrihcd on the ing them. But beforo proceeding to oxpltin tho pago which fnces them, and will bo froqlmltly nature of particular cipeech munds hcro considcrod, it is neccesary to give some notion of the systom- MferrOd to hmftor. Thoy ~mly 110 disrqprtld nt first. atic method of writing them hero adopted, nnd The l' Sgstcnmtic Arrungemont "' includes a11 callod I' Glossic." In the Tables of English and $hesoundstroatodin thia book For an oxplmna- Foroign Glossic " there is given a collunn of wo& tion of such symbols m aro not found in the in small and largo Ct2pitd3, anch followod by it word in all lettera. The largc or small capitah following ahort koy, EOO the psng~s rofcrrcd to in the Gloeeic Index. Thoy UM) collcctcd toyethor in indicato Gloaaic, the small lotterci custo+ry or thia p h for future roforenoo, and m g bo ontidy Nomic spelling. and eaoh word is written in both passed o.ver nt flmt,.ns thoy will bo mintelligible spollinga. The Glowic larye capitala shew thc combinations of lettere which repreeent the sounds dxprearrod by the Nomic Italic lettors. Tllc turncd period (.) or eoccnt mrk shews that tho preceding vowel is strong, and, whon the uccont mark,follows the vowcl immdiitcly, the vowel is lory, but whorl a contj?mtit intervenes, tho vowel is shor:. By this moans a gonoml idea of tho sounds will bc obtained, sumcient for undmtanding tho pronunciations occraionally inserted. For numerous without the following oxphnation. Note, that th, dh, kh, 814, ah, uh, rag must be soparntcd by :I hyphcn whon they hnvo not the followingm~nin~s,~pol-~~ouo,rnar~-lbnus,~ni~k-~orm, bug-hoal, oain-ibnp., ira.-gonming, RE poth-oua, rnndh- OZU, baikh-ozu, bqlb-ou. rraiah-ap, irrg-owirag wodd reproscnt quito difforont soundn. Note EO that the acccnt mark (3 is generally sufficient for this purposc, ne pnt.hop. The accent m d is plmd immediatoly after L long vowel or dinhthona. and immodiatdv aftor the eorrnormzts EIl ire ENGLISH GLOSSIC. ' For-eigsa alrd Prouirrcial B~glioh lro~ela. HAET b&e. F. DUE drl. F: RIOKAETcoqubtte. F. UET hrctto. F. LAAEH liche. F. FEO fcu. F. KAEIIIAI cusser. F. GEO.TU. Geothe. G. NAO, nò. I. roer vcr,f. F. IIOEK'U bb'cko. G. French Naxal lror~~els VAEN' vin. F. OAN' 091. J!'. A H N an. Y. OEN un. F.

16 m: I1L &t. m I L 1. Yom.-* Valcd Cmmnmtn. ( Roundcd Vowel. 1 Wida Vowol. ( ] Wid0 Round Vord.

17 16 muom KEY M ammtc. Ilo. III. BYSTEN.4TIC ARBANQEMENT OF ENOLISH, GERMAN, ITALIAN AXD FRENCH SPEECH-SOUNDS. hs. III. BHOET KEY TO QtoasIC. O. CONSONANTS. SECTION V1.L Capitals, Englib. ItOman ninn11, additional Gormnn, Italian ruld French. Italic smnll, Incidental. t, not tronted in these pagas. Call the lcttora by their usual numas, oxcapt v, which cnll uir to prevent confusion with aa; and 911, wllicll is bost cullad am, LUI #III and c18 nra difficult to distingnish. Call (') baforc nnd (') after n lcthr 'l hook,",) before :, l+j latter '' "slur. Thus curve," (") before a lcttcr,, : I' e16 CM," W "doublc W, 'bci+,i' h circlo 0) "gradual," (~)ii1lcle~," (;;t) nieh hook," k~ n~ck clm..r",~lidc," Cllrve air," 'r" hook air," r" ''.. air doable-hook." Height -- Tongue. 1. High. Front. 2 Nid Front. 3 Low Front. -_-. 4 High Xixed. 6 ' Yid Mixed. 6 : TAOW Yixad High Emk. 8 Mid Ihck. 9 Low ßrck. A. VOWELS. BECTION V.. I. II. m. IV. V. 13. GLOTTIDS. SEC'lXON VIL 1. 01, opon glottis,jacua : 6. 8, clear attack or release, glottis closcd for 1 i voice from first to litst. Y. Oh', contrlteted glottis, uhirpsr. I 3. A', dosed glottis, uoice ;, cluck, closed glottis, bltrring cxpixdioll by I offedunlly rosisting thc pressure of thc air. 4. t, grndrurl attack or rclensa, glottis moving I 7. E, jerk; inchding h/ jcrked pdnd :Iltatck, from open to close. or from close to open, I and h1 jerkcll clear xttnck, tho two forms of position. I. uspirate. OBAL. SHUT.,Muto. Imploded Voiced. >ENTUL. Flnted. Voiced. LATEUAL. Flated. Voicecl. 'IlILLED. FhtCd. Voicod..P. NASAT,. IIUT. Flated. l :! D. GLIDES ANI) BLURS. SECTIONS VI S- IS. 1. Vowel h ki+u. 2. Mixed, Ii+l+Z+I+r,+I. Consonant P+L! I i C

18 IV.. MODE OF, PRODUCING,. SPEECH-SOUNIN. Platun, or Audible Breath. -Breath driven hm the lnngs ves,through the - Mn% flalor..ingksl lrnd.thmat, intu the mou,th ur nose, or both, and SO rcuchee the air. When the lqnx is unobstructed, and the form with which breath is ejected is moderete, no sound is noticed. When the breath is driven more sbarply through the unobstructed larynx, and the other paewyes are more or leas cornpremed or obstructed, it, is called LLhtUa f$ai twj, and pmduces VariOUe kinds Of him.. Both Lreath and flatu are muitable for binging: although flatus is vq immnt in speech, and, when the cavity of the mouth is properly ndaphd, can become mueiertl in whistling. : Vood Chordm.-The opening of the larynx is tiaversed.by two highly elastil! bands, called the. wcsl chords. A good notion of their ahape and action is obtainad by extending the fore and middle h-9 of the left hand (the other flngers. and thumb heing doubled.in), and resting their tipe on the lowest joint (that nearest the palm of hand) of the foro and middle fingers of the right hand, the mt of, these b, p s and d tlie other lingers beillg bent down, and the palme of both. handa hing the ground. The figure thua formed, is lozmge-nhaped, with two long aides (the left, fingers repregenting the v 4 ohmde) and two short sides replwenting the (1 arytenoid cartilageg (+w.idwnoid kaa.r.ii&ieee/, or hdle-shaped piem of gristle, by which the ohod can be opened or brought together $mitated by the motion of the right fingers). The point or vertex of the ingle fonned by the chords, which are horizontal, lies in the front of the larynx, just where l Adam e applo can be felt in the throat. The variable tongusahaped oponing between the v-l chords is cmlled the 1 glottis fgkkis) Whimper an from Flatus. -Whn the ahords and eartilyos we both open, there is R perfect p a w for tho breath, and only inaudible breath or audible flutus is poeeible. When the edgea of the chords aro hrought near, but not in contact, there is a fluttering of the edges of the chorde, which, though ineuffioient to produca voice proper, a118e~ l whisper, which is felt BB a mixture of voice and flatus. This is also quito unsuited for einging., Voioe and Original Quality of Tone.-When the edges of the chords absolutely touch, forming a complete barrier to the breath, but are not held tight and rigid, BO that the breath is ablo to opon them slightly, after which they.elye again by their own elaaticity, the air pasees out in regularly recum& puffe. The rapidity of thwo puffsdepende on the tightness with which the chorda nre stretched; and the IL cleannese of the puffs [th:rt M, their harp separation from each oth&) depends upon the exactneaa and duration of the olmre of the chords, tho length of time diring which they d n cloaed, and many other circumstances. The rapidity of the putts (that is, the numbcr OP them whioh occur in a eecond) dhrminw the pitoh of the compound mueioal tone, as deftnod in Sec, II., p. 8. The I cleanness of the pu&determines the initial quality of tone, that is, the number of parta toriee in any musical tono of the voice (alwaye very large) and their relative degrees of loudnwa. The natural formation of the chorb and the perfect exactnw and nature of their elrrstioity m the main ingredienb in a good mice. This quality m, however, greatly influenced by a little, but extremely variable, cavity, juet above the ohorde ( l the ventricle nf Morgagni, ou Maor gaa.rry es) Ly the box of the larynx the dotted line cuts the front wall of the uppey itself. nnd especially by ita lid, the, epiglottis pharynx), into the complicated nasal cavities rtpiglot-ia). But though all this apparatus p t l y above the hard plate, and finally esmpcsby chnngea the quality of tane, by which we ex~~rcss the l front nostrile,., the various kinds of emotion montionod in &c. I.,. p. 2, and hence becomea of the greatest importancc.both to the singer and the orator, they do not Brief Deflnitions of Breath, Flatar, Whioper, m& the modifications recognised in epeeoh proper, snd Voice 8s Originators, anrl Throat, Bore, and and they cannot be described with suffihntbrevity Mouth BE Modifiere of Sound.-The points to be m clenrness for practical purposes. All these borne in mind by the dnger or epeaker who wiahea, modificitions of quality have, therefore, to be to underetand the nature of pronunciation are bed by apecial training exercises, pottcmed by these :-- a skilful teacher, WE& it is not our busìnese at present to consider. It is, however, i-mportnnt to Breath. Quiet,noiselessemiseion of air from the. how, that the singing and speaking voiceissues lungs through the open glottis, and unobstructed from the larynx and enters the throat or phwpx mouth or nosc, or both,-unvocal, unmusical. ffai..ingks) with a determinate quality of tone and á determinate pitch, and that the quality, but not Ratus. Audible omission of ni, through the open the pitch, has to be subsequently moditled by the glottis, and more 01 less constricted or obstructed reaomnt cavitiee through, which it passes, and throat, mouth, or nose,-unvocal, unmusiml,.. that this modifi.mtion tnmsforme the merely vom1 more or less hissing. Round into intelligible speech. The Besonance Cmvities -The reader should now refer to the rough diagrama on p. 14, with tho explanations there givcn, which willbe rehered mow intelligible by what follows. The wavy lino at the bottom of diagrams 1 to 7 indicatea rudely tbc top of tho cpiglottis. The voice (or rccumnt pu& forming the dir within the cavities into wares) passes between it and tho line to its left, which forms the back wall of the pharynx. These diagrams Bhew a-little shaded tongue, the uvula ferrueula), lying against this wall, EO that the pr~ffs of- air have. t0 pass into themouth, through a narrowing passage (not shewn in the diagrams) eslled the archos of the palate. These and the uvula are eaaily Becm in a amdl looking-glass when thmouth is opened. If, however, the uvula lie free from the back wall.of the phnyns, n8 in M~s 22, 53, 24, thc voice or p& of air can ale0 PUS behind it, 11s shewn by the dottcd line and mow hm&. through the pear-shaped l upper pharynx rad tho l bkcir nostriln (which lie where Whisper. Audible cmisaion- of air, t,hroueh a glottia nearly but not quite clod, thrown into imperfcct puffs by tho fluttcring of tho cdgcs of the vocal chords, but allowing much flatus to pass without sensible aiteration by the pulfs,-unmusical, bat occasionally used in speaking, more or less vocal.. Yoitr. Audiblclnissinn of air through IL complotclg closcd glottis, forcing tho chords asunder, and wholly rcduced to regular puffs, that is, without allowing any ecnsible flatus to pass, with n variable, but in each case dcfinitc, original quality of tone and pitch, prodncing sonorous undulations (80mon-rr u8 ~t~~rkdai~.vhe~~:) in the resonance cavities, which modify the quality of tom (but not the pitch by altaring the rchtivo dcbgrco of loudncss of the uppcr partials (p. B\, and send out the lmdulations to the Atmosphere, producing the sensation of IL more or lesa musid sound with (t definite qudity of tone,-vocal, munical...

19 JO XODR OP PRODUCINQ IIPRliCK-BOUNDS. Snc. IV. Bsmarrres Cavitiea.--Besidee the sm11 cavitiw of the lnrynx which determine the original quality of tone, there are thwo principal cavities, under the voluntary control of the speaker or singer, which modify it. Thcse may be called, Tlwoat. Tho lower phnrynx from the epiglottis to the part where thg uvuln cuts d the entranco to the nom, and the 'arches of the palate form the ent~ance to tho mouth-all breath, flatus, or voice must enter this cavity. Nore. The upper pharynx and the cavities abovo tho hard palate, from which all breath, flatus, or voice can bo cut off at plene11ro. &auth. Tho cavity between the nrches of the palato and the lips,-the most modifiable of all tho resonance cavitios. How to Study the Effect of the Yodillers.-'l'he first buainese of tho pupil in learning to piunounec iocurately, whethor in speaking or in binging, is to 3tdy the method of altering tho form or action of thwe throe modifying cavities,. throat, none and mouth, and the &t of their varions chanpu in modifying the quality of tone. NUIIIO~~UE exercines will be suggested for bringing these adions home to the consciounnese 'of the learner, 88 particular cam occur, but.it is flrst advieible to obtain a general notior. of the action. AE this book is intended especially for singers, the singing voice will be alone coniidered, and it is fortunately dltogether simpler than the speaking voice. TlrrvutMod$catiqns.-Durinring quiet resp&ttion plam a 6nger gently on the hard lump of the Adam's apple, or grirtly box forming tho lar-mx. Cloee the mouth tightly and swallow. The larynx will be felt to juinp upwvarde, quite above the point of the 6nger. After 'practising this once or twice, till the action of the muscles bocomos understood, naine the larynx withont swallowing. It is ovidont hat when the larynx is raised the whole of the pharynx is shortened, and hence its nhpa is ' mnterinlly altered. Next placo thc thumb and two finprs lightly on the throat above the larynx, close under the jaw, ands\mdlow as before. It will be found that thc tkt, which was bofore soft and loose, becomes suddenly hrd and tight, nnrl projeoh considembly. Honce whcn the lqnx is misd then, is a grwt contraction of the muscles in this region, whioh makes thcm swell externally, and also intedy, constricting the pharynx as wcll as shortening it. Sing to the vowol na, a middle note in you1 compase and at11 it d, and thon take s above and ßI below, both na nearly as poseible to the sama vowolnound aa, whilo holding. the thront in the two ways just mentioned, and observo mnerally that the higher noto rniscs and constricts the pharynx, and the lowor note lowers and h o e the pharynx. In actual singing and speech very great varietios in thc length and dope of corntridion of tho pharynx take place, but it is found sdìoient for the claasifiwtion of speech-sounds lo distinguish two C ~ W S of mods&tion :-ThrMt prirraary, that is, with tholarynx and pharynx in about thc ordinary position of quiet respiration ; Throat wide, that is, with thc Lmynx lower and the pharynx opeper than bofore. This rcfers evidently to the ordinary range of pitch in speech. Io singing, as h38 just beem seen, theso distinctions cannot be satisfactorily carried out, an the pitch nnturally alters the position of the larynx. Ilut distinctions moro or lese equivalout to theso can be made, as was intimated in Soction I., and will be mon, particularly alluded to afterwords, and hence we may. retain the rough distinction of the terms primary and wide, which were introduced by fi. Melvillo Boll in his I' Visiblo Bpeech," when he for the first time drew a&tion to the effect of phaqmgul action on speeoh-eoundsi. ' Nors Modijcaliorrr.-Open the mouth a8 widely an possible, facing the full light of n window, 'with tho hend well thrown bsck to admit the light, and with a,very s d picco of looking-glaas, whioh will notanstaehadowinthethroat,obsorvetheintmiorof the mouth. Note cepccially tho arch of the palate, and the uvula hanging from the middlc of it like H k c IV. MODE OP PRODUCINQ BPEIFÆH-8OUNDS 21 ' attempt to utter it. Now brcnthc quietly through the now only. It will bc ECCIL that tho tonguo 'immdintely rims, and clings clone to the top of the arkh of the pal&, complctcly conccaling the uvula. This action closes tho mouth against the pasnage of the air fiun1 the throat, and forccs it thrbugh tho nobe. Then drttw breath though the rwou6h, and the tongue immcdiatcly sinks, and observe ita alternate risc and frtll for a fow respirations. Change tho modcof rcspiration, inspiring and expiring by tho nose only. The tongue will be neen to remain fixed nbove. Again change the mode of respiration, and expire by both the nose and the mouth. When thc motion i!, gentle, you will we the uvuh gently advance evory time you expire, and if you breathe with n jerk, the uvula will be absolutely jurkcd forward, together with d the looso folds of the "soft palato " forming the top of tho srch of the palute, nnd the point cf the uvulawill bo thrown upwards. This is produced by the rapid passagc of tho air both behind the UVII~ and below it. Stand as before, with opcn mcnlh and ghs, and breathing quietly for one or two respirations, suddenly any or sing the vowel nrr to a short staooat0 note nt an cuy pitch, and then proceed with the easy respiration. I)o this several timcs in succession. Observo :and don't CC~EC experimenting till you havc clcarly obscrvcd, thnt evory time ua in sung there is formed a suddcn dimple or caucer-shaped ddpmssion in the uvula just below the arch of thc palate and some little way from its tip, evidently arising from bringing the back of the uvula against the back wall of the pharynx, as shewn 'h the diagrams 1 to 7, having the effect of stopping off the paasage of air into the nose, just ab the tongue in a former experiment stopped off the pawtge of air into the mouth. Next, etanding ae before, sing aa steadily ut an easy pitch, and observe that the uvula is drawn back.as already mentioncd.. Then in tho same brinth and with the samo degree of forno (trying immediately the quality of tone change, the uvula again dcsccndll frculy, as in tllc quiet wspiration through mouth and nose. The dcct is not 80 strong or striking tu before, because the voise doce not admit of bcing emitted with EO much forcc as the unobstructed brcath, but if Earefully observed for sevcral successive r~ltmtions of aa,rra RQ au, it will be quite unmistakable. The greatest difficulty will be felt in keeping tho tongue down to its proper poeition for na, as it involuntarily rises to check the air from untermg the mouth, and, if the tongue is not kept down, the uvula cannot be properly wen This exercise will also shew that nasality cannot bu prevented by throwing the hcad well back, but that a muscular action is still necedry to presa the uvnln against the back wall of the pharynx and kecp.it there. After this. haen practisod before the gli388 till you are familiar with the action, practisc it without and get to feel the action of the muscles required to draw the uvula away from the wall of the pharynx. Pmcticc also to fcelthedifference bctwecn a small and'a peat dcpcc of nusxl twang. Practico also thc cff&of closing the front nostrils with the fingcre, while einging nu and while singing,na, and obsorvc thrtt thie clusurc lcnvas na :Lbsolutely unaltcrcd, but changes p, not into QR or any untwnngod vowel, but into a diffc~vnt nasal twang, arising from the circumstance t.llut the resonance in the namlcuvitios,which still takes place, does not frcely communicate with the outer air. The powox we havo of altering the depe of meality depends, at least partially, on the degree of opening bctween the back of the uvula and the wall of the pharynx, and the slightest degree of opening during tho sound of a vowel 18 unendurable in English, German, or Italian uinging, though occasionally necessary in F'rench. As many English, and especidy Americans, nnd even &~&m are apt to ndise their vowels, and most especially this vowel un, the nwst careful praotice

20 22 is required to avoid it, and the valvular action of the uvula should be thoroughly understood by much repetition of the experiments here sugetcd, which may be easily considerably varied. Mouth Modifiutior1s-dction of Teeth mrd Lipd. -The size of the mouth may be greatly changed, without much alteration of its form, by the opening and closing of the jas.?dan)- speakers are in the habit of keeping their teeth cloen. In the experiments of Section II. we eaw how much the cloeing of the opening of a resonance cavity alters ita pitch, and hence its modifying power.. No good clear tonc can be produced vhen the teeth are clad. Sing in with lips and teeth widc open: endenvour to letain the tone, pitch, and fom absolutely unchanged; while the jaw is suddenly closed and the.teeth locked, the lips remaining as far.open aa.poasible, and observe the difference of'dect. AE a general rule the singer should always keep his teeth far cnough apart for him to insert the first. joint of his tlrswnb between them. For high notes a widm opening is required. But the opcning shouldnever belesswhile a vowel is sung. All cloayre should be made by the soft lips only. Sing the vowel au with wide tceth'and lips, and then, while endeavouring to keep the tonc, pitch, and force constant, alter the shape of the lips &E suggested by the diagrams II to 14, paaaingelowly and gradually from 11 to 14, 13, and 12 in this order. Alno try the effect of protruding the lips in a funnel shape, and of bringing the inner parts cloie and projeoting the onter margins. Also try the effect of large and small si& opnnings, so that there ie lefi only a amall opwing at ono corncr, and make this opening at one time BB round, nnd.at another an flat as posmble. Also try the effect of drawing the lips tightly in, while closing them, $ringing the outer margin as near the inside of the mouth BB pcanible. Try also to palls by insensible degreen from one position to the other. Observe very carefully the great modi6cutions produced in this one. dear vowel au by this alteration of the lipa only, while the 'teeth and tongue are kept absolutely fixed, and t'ne miud itltsnds to IItter the vowel un all the time. The open lies, +Y in diagram 11, arc considercd by Mr. Melville Bell as ordinary, and. not to. require noting. Closure of the lips in any way is termed rorrnding, and threo degrees ofroundare recogniaed, BB in dhgrams 12, 13, and 14, :18 USW~~Y accompan)-ing various heights of the tongue. This may still be retained as convenient, though the oxperiments just made will shew the learner that it is only a rough classification. Nouth Modifidima-Action of Tongac.-The chief EOUTC-~~ change in the shape nnd rcsonance power of the large cavity of the mouth arise; from that extremly movable, fiexible, extensible, contractible plug, the tongue. Thmughout all the explanations of the next.suction it will be advisable to watch. it with two smll pieces of lookingglass, one held in front of the mouth, and reflecting the opening and tongue direatly to tho eye, and the other hard at the side, and EO turned as to rofieot the tongue to the first glasl, which reflect.s it to the eye. There will be found some dificulty at first in managing these glasses, and in kceping the lips and teeth sufflciently open to see che' action,. but it is a difficultyworthovercomingtothoso who wieh to understand the unruly instrument with which they will hnve so much to do in spc:rking and ainging. The. upper surface of tongue is roughly divided by Mr. Dfelvillc Bell into threc parts,-buck, freut, and tip ; the buck being that part which is nearest to the throat, the tip that which is.neareef to the teeth, and thejvont the intermediate portion. Mr. Bell also recognises three degrees of height of the tongue, low, mid, and high, and this height map affect either the back.only or fvont only, or both together, producing a cnized position All them distinctions are very rough, of oourae, but alno very convenient, and su5cient for most purposes. But it must be borne in mind that they do not pre- tend to be accu+e or exhaustive, and a few simple exponqents will hew that numerous addition# wmlld be required to make them nt allmmplem.. " &g the vowel u4, with open teeth and lips, and with the tongue in the freest and easiest position capable of producing a good tone, and keep up the intmtion of pronouncing this same vowel while the teeth and lips are kept fired, and only the tongue ir moved, the nose being constantly shut Off by the uvula. Fir& erdually protrndc the tongw out between the teeth as far aspossible, keeping it clear of thc upper tecth ; the quality of tone will be found t0 alter sensibly for the worse.-noxt, bringing the tongue hck to its usual position, wund uu clearly, and make the tongue BB small and an low as possible; observe the new altenltion of tone, which decidedly thickens in quality. Pnsn rapidly from this to the forrncr position with exbnded tongue, and the BU soundwillseem.to become entirely ob1itcrated.--lie-assuming the nu pition, bring the tip of the tongue well up, so that the under surfacc of the tongue is easily soen, but the tip does notouch the palate. Observe that this again roughens and thickens the sound, but in a differont way from that msulting froln lowering the tongue, and that the vowel would Le dearly recopisad.--nos carry this further, bend the tcngue EO round Ihat the rmdov surface of the tip gats firmlyon thc hard pnlatc, and obscrve ' that the lmt change of quality is also carried, furthcr, and thcmosicnl characterof the tone greatly altared for the wcwc. This differenco of quality I is best npprcciatod always by rapid changea to the extreme positions.-l~e-asslimc the un position, PME the tip of.the tongue firmly against the lower gum, and endeavour to glunolrncc aa while you raise the back of thc tongue only. Observe that the intention to pronounce un in such a posi- I tion muh in complete failure, a mere abortive noise resulting Rnd dying rapidly off.-re-assume the m position, alid mova the tongue about fantasticrtlly, obacrving the changes, till occasiondly either with the back or broad front and tip of the tongue thc wllolc passage of air is stopped, and observe the mdden cessation of somd. Objeof of there Brperimentr and Okerrations. --Someof the nbove sounds are more or less used in some lnnguages, but the experiments suggested have been purposely selected EO as to avoid known sounds, in order that the learner mag feel for himself the meaning of sudden and gradual alteration of the resonance cavity of the mouth by the action of the tongue and lips. Absurd as many of the mults may appear, they will all prove useful in fbmiliarising the mind with the notion of the modifications produced in one original quality of tone by voluntary modiflcations of the f0i" of the cavities through which voice or flatu has to PBBS, andwill render the following explanations perfectly eacly aud silnplc to comprehend. Tho actions of the tongue, lips, and throat bccomc almost involuntary, and certainly unconscious, through habit, and are performcd with EO much. rapidity, that thcy arc cxtremcly dificult to analyse. But such an analysis must bc attempted when any IIOW solmds have to be produced, cr familiar Bounds corrected. Hence the necessity of first, performing such -extreme experiments as are here suggested, which, lying altogcther out cf Ilsutrl 11R1JitE. require a conscious uction to rcpro-. duce. The examination of the thront b!- touch, and of the vula la, lips and tongue by sight, will aid materially to a right conceptionof what is required., The desired result, however, will not be gained unless the learner finally attains the same unconscious power of producing the deeired result#,m he ahead!. does for ordinary speech.

21 - through nasal * 24 TOWELS. V, VOWELS. Deiuition of n Vowd.- l he cxperimenh in Beotio~s II. and 1V. lead to the following primary principles :-h original quality of tone is produced by t,he vocal chorda and the cavities of tho larynx. This quality of tone is modifiedby the peanagc of the undulating air from the larynx the throat, none, and mouth, jointly or sevcdy. This modification varies with the nhapes given ta tho cavities of the throat, nose, and mouth, and is, in general, differant for cvcry difference of shape, although, exceptiordly, Werent shapes may produce the name, or at least, indidinguishablc modifications. The modification may leave the original quality of tono moreor less mwical, or render it more or lese nnmepical. d Vowel is a fu& viamica1 of an original quality oj tow, produced by a dsj~rils shape of th cawitica of the throat, noss arad mouth. l hat this modihtion should be appreciable it must last for a llensible tim6, which may Lw very variable. Hence we here short, medial (that is, middle length), and lag vow&. But if continued for a very long time the modification cesaee to impresa the ear, which perceivw only the persistant quality of ton?. It in by a.tolerably rapid,hange of quality unly that the difference of rnodiflcation is felt, and the sepmation of the S ~ ~ 811 O telegraphic ~ S marks of thought, is thoroughly appredated. 0 enern aid Bpeohr of VOWeh-Slight variations of the debita shapes of the throat, nw, and mouth, p.roduce slight ohangee iu the modiflentionsof quality which produce vowel decta. Each such is dy n separata vowel. But when the daerence is small, tho ear fails to appreciate it, ovcnwhen the sounds are uttard very closely after one mother, without Bevern training and practice, such aa is never undertaken cscupt by invostigatom. The listener merely wants to know those broad distindionn which indicute dihwncee of thought. National habits, nccurate% cdtivuted, and local habits of mull rommuniti=, where the speakem cannot even read and write, lend to very fine distiuctions, which serva to Beparate the native from the stranger, who seldom or never attains the precise native sound. It is sufficient for the stranger ta be readily understood by the native, and for the native to npprehend without di&ulty, whut is the vowel modiflc+ion intended by the strangor; because in that cane thought is reciprocally communicated. This is n most important consideration in the pronuncintion Of hguabwe. Each VOWOI, &E usually understood, is therefore not one single deflnite modification of the original quality of tone, that is, ono single species (npwshieez), but a whole set or kind or genus {jsrrua) of modifications strictly separated by the conmioumesa d tho speaker and the listener from other kinds or genera fistrsr a). The speaker und singer has therefore to study the (I generic /joaer.ik/ chracter, and learn the permissible amount of specific fspisifik) variation from the type. This ie espccidy important to the ringer, BB appears by Section I., becamehe has to produce recopinable vowel modifications under cimumstanccn for which the u~iginal type wua noi --h b ira v. VOWELS.. 25 framed, and for which it is sometimes not well Pm gonerally reaounds in part at least of the adapted, as when singing c8 at a very low pitch, closed mouth), or through nose and mouth ut the or 00 at a very high pitch. : ame timc; thene cases will be distinguished as It becomes necessary, therefore, to give the ~ firai.sel, grai.:el), and I orinasnl typical flipifid) forms of the cavitice of the j (oe~l~r irfni-ael, onw i#wizd). no% ltnd mouth, for producing B MuatA.-\lrhcn tho cavity of the nose is cntirclv genus, and to learn, ao far aë is ne&sary for cnt off, the sounds are oral fonn sl). But practical purposes, its admissible and inadmisaible i vhtions, of which the flrst form the vowel species I lhis is tho usual cm, and the whcre tho cavity of the nose is not cntirely cut off I1we becn of that vowel genus, and the sccondformvowcl :rlrendy distinguished, tho term om1 will not be qpeciea of some other, often unknown, vowel employed except on special occasiona. and all genlis.and these typical formsmuet be such as sounds mostbcconaidcred to bo l 01-al Imleua will produco the typioal VOW& recognised in the they nrc specially temed l nnsal, or orin:d. The cavity of the month is bounded by the arches of the palate, the cheeks, tho teoth, and the lips, received, refined, l literary, l educated, cultivated, or rathcr central pronunciation of any langmge, as distinct from the U vulgar, U rude, illiterate, uneducated, unodtivated, or rather I local pronunciations still head in different part^ of different countries. formmly much moro prevalent than at present, and apparently destined ta cxpirc. In the prcsent wurk the I ccntml! pronunciations of English, Qarman, Italian, and Fr~nch, alone, will bo ddered. Other languages, and local varieties will be noticcd only in passing, for illustration or warning. How the Pormr of the Beronnnce Cavitiea for Vowelr nre to be Deroribed.-In describing tho forms of the cavitiea I shell. adopt dmost exactly the terma used by Bk. Melville Bell, who has pointed them out more accurately and definitely than pwceding writers. See his Visible Speech. Throat.--As WC have Been in Section IV., dl mds are guttural /gut-del) or employ the tht, hence the t h t need not be expdy named, but merely its states, distinguished as primsry fpivnur ij or usual for any particular solmd, and IL wide or enlwged somewhere. These dintinctions are suficiont for our prescnt purposes. Ness.-When the nnrurl clrvity is not cut off by the method shewu in Scction IV., the mouth eithcr may or may not be shut off, that is, the voice mny pm cut through the nom only (in. which am it ILI+ is more or less obstructcd by the tongue. Archs.- l hesemaybe in the usual or l lax condition for the. sound, which it is therefore not necussctry to mention, or may be constricted, so that the pamage from the thrazt to the mouth is n:rrrowcd. Mr. Bell does not find it necessary to mention this at au as o specific varicty, but we shall find it convcnient. Cicckg.-Theae aro ~rssunlcd to be in thcir uoud condition, neither hollowed by hing driiwn in between the separated jaws, nor puffed as in blowing the trumpet. In gencrd tho Etato Of the cheek need not be noticed. Hut it produces spcific varictics, and in singing the cheeks require ta bc 11 tense or hardcncd mllscularly, to produce good resomncc, by rcotticiently resisting the vibfatione of the air within the mouth. The singer must ncvcr forget thtt he is for tho timc a musical instrument (and, of course, a good deal more), and is subject, therefore, to all the acoustic (dou alik, dowgtik) laws which regulate musical instrumenta Tectlr.-A~ already stated, the upper and lower tceth 1l;rvc ta bo hcld well apart. Those hard boundaries of thc mouth at its sides and front are veryimportlrntto the singer. Any ppfl are apt ta impsir the quality of tone, and produce unpleaeant hisses and lisps, and should, theretore. he l

22 26 fllled up immediituly. It u-ill not be noceerurry to mention the.&th in describing the cavity of the, mouth. Lif&,-Oyarr, l iga-,aumf, Xid-raw~d, Low-round. -The closure of the mouth mom or lese by the lips hae a most important effect on the remuance of the mouth, and must be accurately described. In the uaualaaw the lips are I open, us in diagram 11, whore it will be observed that the mera of the mouth do not form a shq. mgle, but are. terminated with a kind of stiinq. Observe.this form in the glass. For very high notes the einger will often find it necesearp to open his. mouth 80 wide that the vertical exceeds the horizontal opening. Various other forma of the open lip also occur und,produce small speciflc varieties, which need not be noticed Diagram 11. shews tho typical form. Three degrees only of closed or I round lips need b e noticed, though, of come, a vnst vuriefy really exists. Low.round shews that the mrnm are slightly brought togother, the opening remaining conaiderable, BR in mying au. Eea diagram Mid-round shews that the edges of the lips touch for a raneiderable distaice from the corners, opening is much contraac.ted, &E in esying OO. Eee diagram 13. U High-round ahewe that the lips are stiil more in contacthan in the last cm, and that the opening is very mnnu indeed, as in eying oo ; the contraction is often much greator than in diagiam 12,:and the lips are often protruded dightly, while the whole width of the mouth between the cornera of the lips ie much diminished. It ie not mual, nor gene&- necewry, to. mention them degrees by the additions. high, 1 mid, and (I low, when theae are used with the corresponding heights of the tongue, 88 is usuell?. the onse, and Mr. Melville Bell, considering no other case, doea not employ them qualifiations. But varieties occur in wme parts of England even, in which the different degrees of rounding e not oned with the c o~~oding height of the tongue. V0WBL.s. 60c. V. and in Lhin CUSO, 8s well es for toaching purponen, it ie nccewry te distinguish these three principd degrees. It should ale0 be borne inmind by. the teacher, in order to enable him to recognise nnd correct errors of pronunciation, that the typica! forms of amaging the lips, as shewn in diagrams l1 to 14 aro constantly departed from. As the lip can be always readily wen, the teacher should watch them closely. Tho pouting of oithcr lip separately or of both lip together ; the. pursing in of the lips, gi9g them the effoct of being gathered in by an inner pum string, forming a round and much crumpled orifico ; the 9athing of the opening by bringing the lips cloeer together in the middle, although no contact or no greater contact is made towards the cornera ; and +hove all, closing of the aperture during the time of utterance, 80 as to beginwithcorn- paratirely open and end with closed lipa, either for vowels which should huvo throughout their utterance, OF, or else deflnitcly munded lips ;-all th- are varieties.actually obeerved in different speakers, and all tend to alter and obwure the sound to be.produced. They ara also n11 of them habits very difficult to mrect, as the speuker is usually quite unconscioua of them, and hra been accustomed to them all hie life. Tongue,-Back, Front, Point, or Tij>.-.The upper surface of the tongue. is divided into three parts, back, front, or middle, and point or tip, and when the under surface is exposed, by tunling the point upwerds, it is said to bo reverted. Other forms of the tongue must be specially dencribed in particular WE. The tongue may be raised at three principal altitudee- low, c8 in dia~3and7; mid, ssindiagrams2and6; and II high, as in diagram 1 and 6. And in each of them M, either the back alone may be particularly affected, in which cum we hava G high-back, diagram 5 ; mid-back, diagram 6 i low-baok, diagram 7;-or else the front alme, producing l high-frd, diagram 1 ; I midfront, di- 2 : or # low-froollt, diagram 3 :- soc. v. or finally, both front ind back.may be raised EO thut the tongue is tolerably- flat with a little, depression in the middle, and in this c me Mr. Bell calla the position mixed, as the mid-mixcd, diagram 4. The poaitionm of the tongue having the prineipal &ct on tho monance of the oral cuvity, and hence in producing vowel modifications of quality, the vowels me naturally arranged by Mr. Bell acoordiny to the positions of the tongue,which produce 9 Merent forma. Each of tho resonances thus produced may be modified by the prim* 6r I wide.condition of tho throat, giving, therefore, twice nine, or 18 resonanraa. But each of these resonancem again, may bw modifiedby the I open or round condition of tho lips, 80 that ifwe suppom the threo de- of rounding to correspond to the three degrees of height of the.tongue, we shnll get twice eightcen, or 36 resonan&s. Thee0 give the 36 vowels of Visible Speech. They are in rcality only typical forms, which are each capable of numcmus modifications, but thesa noed not be here considered. And m all the 36 forms do not occur in the 4 languages here trentid, they need not be all etudied. In order not to confuse the learner, 12 of them will be entirely omitted. Deroription of the Byrtematio Arrangement of the Vowela on p. 16.-The 36 forms of the maonance cavities thus indicated, for oral vowels only, me sy&ematically arranged in the columns I. to IV. of division A of the l ablc on p. 16. The 9. heights of tho tongue, numbcred from the high& to the lowest, each with its systematic name, occupy the two columns headed Height and Tongue, Thcn cohmns I. and II. shew modaclttions of the throat. only, tho lips being open, column I. givcs tho primary, and. I Oolumn II. the wide forms. The hext two oolumna contain the modifimtiona producsd by high, inid, Or low rounding according to the porition of tho tongue. The symbols contained at vowme: the crossing of the lines und columns ure the Glossic symbols of the comspondidg oral vowcls, the marking thosewhichwillnotbeconsidered in this treatise. The systcrmttic name of any vowel is the name to the left of the line c&.aining ita Glossic symbol, and at the top of the column in which it lies. Thus A is low-front-wide, OA is mid-back-round ; O is low-back-wide-round. The column v. gives four orimaal vowels to be subsequently considered In this table the- nature of the type, as Capital,Small Roman, Small Italic, points out certain classes of vowels which will require different degrees of attcntion. CnpitaI +~rs denotcthe 13 accented EngLiah vowole EE, AI, AA, AU, AO, OA, 00; I, E, A, O, U, UO. These must be well studied in the method to be presently pointed Out. SJMU Bornaa Lctlers denote, first, thc t wo vowela ae, uu, which am oftcn heard in received English in pkce of E, U, in ncccnted s,vllablos, the first. IL no being also common in Italian and French, and also four vowels, ph, eo, Oe, ue, which are common in Qermnn and Ehnch, and are morc or ~CSS closely imitated in locsl English, but arc nnknown in received English and Italian. These must bo also well studicd. 61nnll Italie Letters denote four vowels, i, a, e, (h, which are ntlcnstsuppoaod to IJC hcnrd in uniccented Englieh sylhblcs, nndwhich it will he tocerrsary to consider, hut thcy will not require nuch study, except in caac of a ; and one ftd, which occuru provincially in glides, p. 37n. lode of Obaeiring, Mirror and Probe.--To %amine these positions use a I mirror, or small ooking-glass not exceeding B?r 3 inches square, md a probe, for which a small bone paper knife :generallysoldfor B penny at stationers), or B.arge bone knitting needle with a nob at one end, Ir a long tapering wooden penholder, ewn B ightly rolled piece of paper, may be conveniently wed. 27

23 / 2 ',VOWELS. Bec. v VOWELR High-Fmrt Oral Vouala. I. II. III. IV. Primary. Wide. Round. Wide-med. Symbol EE I t ue Diagram 1,Ekll. 1,Bkll. 1,8&12. 1,8& Higll-Aliibcd Oral YoweL Symbol t a t t Diagram, BB.-Tho front of the tongue is high, diagr? 1, p. 14, vory near Co the hard palate. The point of the tongue is low, just behind the lower pm, but not touohing. A little way from thc point on each &de, the tongue touches the lower teeth, and p- d n g towalrle the back, it will be found to prese firmly against both upper and lower teeth, and each eideof. the hard palate, leaving a narrow, channel in the middle, diagram 8. These partic- ulars should be determined by sight in the looking-ghs, and by feel with the probe. The probe being placed below the front teeth. and pd tbhtly againet them, should be punhd gently above the tangue as far ag it will go, and then prsaeing the thumb nuil against the probe and the upper teeth to mark the place where they touch it, withdraw the probe and mmure how far it had entered the mouth. In my, own we the distance is an inch and three qnartera. The inaertion of the probewill not injure the vowel sound of.ne, which will.have to be continued in a singing voice throughout the operation 'to prwerve the position. The lipa are wide open. The throat is compreeaed and shortened, tho larynx being raked. There is, therefore, au extremely d maonance cavity in the throat and thh a very narrow paeeage ovp the back of the tongue, emding in a wedgeduped cavity toward^ the teeth und lips. l'hereault ie EE. Soe Seotion XI., Ex. 2, and also the examples in (;ilossic Index, Section MI. undor E;E. I -&=p the throst gently above the larynx, andfeel that it is fully hard and swollen. Then k g the vowel ta R note of a tolerably high pitch, till it m e s out clearly and ringingly. Descend gradually in pitch, but endoavour to keep the tightening of thc throat the Mme. This WIU be found almoat imposeible, and any attempt to do EO will mn render the quality of tone unmuaical and unpleaeant, and at the time alter it materially from the. original rowol quality. Then allow the larynx to sink, and the tightnese to dieappr gradually, RB the voice desconde in pitch. 'rho quality of tone alters decidedly, but not disagreeably, and, although the vowel sound is not EE, it can still be recognised as intended for EE. In performing this experiment, wjich is very important for sing.rs, the throat should still be grasped, and the probe inserted to feel that the tongue retains ita ponition. It will be found that there is a tendency to depreaa the tongue very slightly as the pitch descende, and although this does not materially ulter the &e&, it ie nicewary to endeavour to keep the tongue in its high pition. The altared vowel sound is no longcr EE but I, the " high-front-wide" vowel, the tongue remnining flxed ahd the throat enlarging. Obsarve that in.spking,ee isgenarally long, and I short, but that in. einging no regard ie paid to tho length of vowela U E ~ observed Y in speaking, because the dlration of the note, which is fixed by the composer, determines it, and hence EE, I, aro for singera precisely the m e sound, that is, they may be confused, according to the pitch. This 1s not the case ror speakera. See Ex. 12h, Section XI., to which all referncm to exmiees relate. EE and I.-Now take I at a middle pit&, and amend, keeping the larynx, down as much as poaaible. It will be found that as the:pitch r i ~ s the larynx ale0 rises, and the. quality of tone naturally into EE, uhss.certain other changes are made, as by slightly lowering the tongue (so that the' probe can cnter about oneeighth of an inoh further), and by endeavouring to make the lower part of the shortened pharynx less conahicted. Try by this meana to sing to n high pitch B!E, I, EE, I, keeping the pitch eteady +:' - ' (forwhich purpore it will be found best to check - the sound by an instrument with ~uatained tones), and making the vowels long, but the ohange from one. to another npid, without any S ~ M. Fm1 by paping the throat that the chief change takes place there. It is worth while practising this ' exercise frequently, and learning to sing I up to any pitch, eo.that in singing an ascending passage writton for EE, but taken RB I, the quality of tone may remain recognisably the same. The quality 1 cd tone for I is almost always better than for 'XE, md even Italians and Frenchmen, who do not I know I in speald~g, will be found to fall naturally into I in singing. Although in eicging it becomes y to,confuse EE, I, in order to obtain good qaslltles of tone, this must never be done in I EXE. 24 a and b, must be pmtised atith care for correct speaking. The important modifioationa by cxmon8rtte are exomplified nrldcr EE. I, in the Gloasic Index.., I'.-In mcented' syllables the 1 is somctimcs #till more obscured, by dtering the positim of thc part of the tonpue between the high back and the hw point, so y to make it more straight. This is effected by.bringing the point of the tongue up nearly into the position of diagram 2. with the b8ok BE high 88 in diagram 1. This produca the high-mixed-wide rowel I', an important vowel in Weluh, where it oocum in accented syllables, and is written u or y, but for the languages hore connidkd no pajne need be taken to. separatc I' from I. See Ex. 44 under -y, -ly, -ty, and Ex. 45 under e-, bi-, di-, and ala0 Gloaeic Index under I and I'. UE-Haviq learned to aing EE, I, or rather I, well at all pitches, then attempt to ring them with the lips brought into the high-round position, diagram 12. Observe that it becomes quite impasible to maintain the m e quality of tone, and that an sxertion is required in the larynx to maintain thc ame pitch. Take I al; any pitch and bring the lips gradually into the high-round form ; observe thc corresponding chup of sound, which will somewhat resemble an eu diphthongal sound, as it hgim with, i and p e s off into a sound not far off 00, but quite distinct from 00 if the I-position of thc tongue is well maintained. Then make the change rapidly, keeping the tonye and throat fixed, and maintaining pitch by an effort, while rapidly changing from perfectly open mouth to the high-round form. Tho new v,owelsound thue prodwed is UE, or the Frcnch 16, which is ofton considered a peat difficulty to Englishmcn, but thus produced it is very easy. The speaker and singer should practico this exercise till hc can rea& the UE-position without the ßlightest Cifficulty. For singing French sone intelligitily, this vowel is of pat importance, but so large a number of C~TMUS have the bad habit of not distinguish- ing UE from either EE or I, tht the singer would be intelligible, although he might appmr vulgar to an educated German, if he ueed I for UE on all occaaions in German songs only. There is a light difference in the boat central Germnn and French pronunciations of this vowel,which may be dimgarded, as.unimportant. See EXE. 48 and 50. Practise first, however, singing the scaleupon I-UE. Observe that UE is not quite so easy to sing on n high pitch as I, and that whcn I fdh naturally into EE, UE falls into n rclatcd sound, tho high-front-round vowel, which thore is,no occasion to not.ice further. At a low pitch OE is softer and eksier to sing thnn I, and has n bott.cr quality of tone EE, I, UE.-Htlving clpmly ascertained the exact positions for EE, I, UN, take any simple air with which you ara familiar and sing it, first with every note to EE, as nearly as possible, thcn with every note to I, and lastly with overy note to UE, and note thc difference in the quality of tone produced, the sole means of distinguishing thc vowels. To make this dearer, sing the meaauren altmtely to I and TJE, and observo the instant change of quality.

24 30 VOWBLB., Beo. V. 2. Mid-Front Oral Vow& I. n. m. IV. ' l'rimar).. Wide, Hound. Wide-round. ay~iole AI E eo Oe Diagame 2,9&11.2,9&11 2,9&13. 2,9&13. ' The front of the tongue is mid," diagram 2, not nyly EO much.raked ae for the high-front vowde, dingram 1. The point of the.tofigue is more rais1 d, 80 BB e be seen over the top of.the lower teeth, and hence'there is by no meane euch a sudden fall h m the fronto point. Past the point, on each side, the.lower sl~rface of the tongue reste on the lower teeth, andproceedingbackwarda, pressee again the ide teeth, but the pmsure does not extend higher than the upper gums. See diagram 9, and compare with diagram 8. The consequence is that the probe can be made to enter much further than for high-front vowels, in my o m Case about two inches, or two inohes and a. dnteenth. The peage leading from the pharynx ' is not so narrowed, and 'it becomee much broader. in pawing over the hut of the tonme, and does not widen vertirdly although it widens horieontally BB it approachee the mouth. AI.-'l'he throat being. somewhat constrained, the lip open, diagram 11,. and ihe pitch a little Bbove, the middle of the roice, the vowel AI. reedb. In producing this vowel Englishmen hve to flght againet Che' tendency to raise the position of the tongue mechanically, not by its own.musclee, but rather by rai&g the lower,jaw, which earriee the tongue with it more or lesa towards the high-front poaition ~ O S uncon- L sciously. This must not be allowed. The singer.. muat practise maintaining the pition 'of the jaw and tongue steadily during 'the whole continuance. of the sound, otharwiee he will alter the quality of his tone, while maintaining hie pitoh, and prodnw diphthongal &=t, which, however much. it may be tolerated in.englieh ~pdkg, in simply oxamable in German, Italian, and F'rench, whether for einging or speaking. The singer, therefore, should practise t,bie vowal before hie mirmr, tiu he c m maintain the eingle vowel quality AI for a full eecond 'of time, or more. bme Engliahmen, eepeciully Londoners, and inhabitants of the,eaet Conat, have SU& an inveterato habit of passing from the AI-position W, or nt leeet towarde the I-position,. thkt they will hardly dwell an appreciable length of time on the flrst element, and &US produce to other eure the &ed of a diphthong, eo that the Eutern. " thcy, bait,.pain" sounde to othe persons like '' thy, bite, pine." They do not eo sound. to the Eastern speaker, becauee he pronounw the three latter words with a diffmnt, diphthong, and. never confoulids them. This will be considered her&. At preaent, it is perfoctly unobjectionable in any English word to avoid this tendency to end AI with I, and utterly objectiop able in any foreign word to indulge in such a tendency. See Ex. 3. E.-Now sing the d e on AI. Obsorve that AI cannot be sung quite 80 easily on a high pitch aa EE or I, and that when th3 middle pitch of tho voice is Fed, the quality of the tone becomes more and more reody and harsh. To my own CWE, although AI can ho sung t0.a lower pitch than I, ita quality of tone ia much more dimgkeeable. Ita recurrence is always unpleasantly felt in all l dnging. It is, however, greatly improved by lowering the larynx and 'widening the pharynx, precisely as in paeaing kom EE to I. As the larynx naturally falls with the pitch, there is ale0 a tendency to iuiprove the AI quality in the low notee by thia means. On indulging this tendency we change AJ into E. Practiw einging AI, E, AI, E, graaping the throat lightly, and obeeme, the tightening for AI and the relaxation for E- evident, though not 80 strongly markcd BB for EE, I-and the improvement in -the quality of tone when,you pass from AT to E. Then sing the ', scale down on AI till it insensibly changes into E, and having reached E eing up on E, takin4 care tc mist the tendency of falling into AI. Obnerve, tht E can be sungko u high tone m- eaaily +Rn... =. -. _. -. *. v. AI to a low tone. In EngliNh speaking AI is generally long, sud E ie short, but length of voml depends on length of note only in singing. hace both must be Bung long and both short, and in singing Elrglivh'it is quite intelligible if E is always w d for AI. This me of E has also the advnnhge of preventing the bad tendency to end in I, except among inhabitants of the North Eaet Coset. For English singers it is, therefore, permissible. '.hg E d e occur in English in there, dare, fair, but never except before vocal R. In German the &,ange is of no.consequence) nor even in Italian and French, provided the open e of these languages be takpn aa the low-firnt Towel ae, to bo presently conaidered. &-c Ex. 12b and 25, and Glossic Index under AI. E, EO, OE.-Having secured AI, E>.endeavour to aing them, kept strictly separate aa primury and wide, with the lips in the mid-round position, ' diagram 13. Observe thathe quality of tono immedi+ly changes,. and approaches the sound of. UE on the one hand and of U on the other. It should, however, be carefully distinguished from.both..when AI is thus rounded it becomes EO, the flne French eu in feu, the German long I' in schön. When E ia thus rounded it becomes OE, the broad French eu in oeufi and Gemn short ü in &he, könnte. Here again the distinction betwean EO and OE is constantly ignored. Some Frénch and German writers do not remark it, and there is certainly no very strong distinction in ordinary speech. Singera seom to take whichevor i! m& tuay at the pitch at which they arc singing. Hmce although the speaker should endeavour to preeerve the distinction which is obeerved by all careful speakers of German and French (the SO-& are. both unknown in Italian), yethe is at liberty to sing EO at tho higher and OE at the middle and lower pitches, in ainging the aame worä. He will romain perfectly intelligible. h t i d y then the mid-front position yields only two genera of vowels-e, OE each with two, species cnrofully obaorved in speech. Any change to LI or UU is quite inadmissible. But in nedg two-thirds of Germany the middle and lower clasees have the' habit of using ai, ne for eo, oc EO that Engliahmen can treat them so, or 88 ai, e without danger of being misunderstood in Gcrinany. In Fmce such a pronunciation would lead to interminable mistakes. I, UE; E, OE.-Now having got 1, UE ; E, ON, sing a simple air, or even a bur, or morely a chord d, m, E, dl, takerr at different pitches, first to I and then to E; to I and UE;' to E and OE; t6 UE ' and OE, and. obaerve the changes of quality of tone. Sing on a singlo note the whole four vowols I,. E, UE. OE, in various ordern, as i W e oe; i am oc e, i e W OE, i e 00 W, i W W e, i oe B ue, Ife i e W, ue i oe e, ud B i oe, (LB e OE i, and 80 on; the object being to hit the pat differences of quality with ease and certninty, at different pitchea. Singing thus without consonants will lead to taking the vowels more clearly and accurately. See Ex. 48 and 50 for tie, eo, Oe. 3. Low-Frortt Oral Vowels. I. II. III. IV. Primary. Wide. Round. Wide-round. Bymbols ae. A. t t Diags. 3, ,10&11. 3,10&14. 3,IOC14. AB the vowel A is hetter known in English than the vowel A E, except by those speakors whouse ae for e, it is better to hegin this series with the wide vowel A..A.-'Jh tongue is altogether very low, but its front is perceptibly higher than its point, which still remains just abovo the ' lower teeth. The depreaeion of the tongue is produced by removing it altogether from the upper teeth, as shewn in diagram 10, where the upper surface of the tongua has no connection with the palate or teeth, compard diagrams 8 and 9. The consequence is that there is a low flat passage ahove the tongue, with two

25 ' side ~ RBEE~E m u d it, nnd n 'compamtively wide pawage from tho pharynx., The pbbe in my own we will enter nearly two inches and n hnlf into the mouth. 'rho round or knob end of the knitting needle d ne a probe should now be employed, as,them ie 80 littlo obstruction, that the soft pahte will be hchd and irritated by the point. Keep tho phtu-ynx low and unwnstrickd, and sing. The mault i# tho received English A, or a in bat lan&'thoned. In the town of Bath, this long sound OCCIIIB in speech, for they call it there Ba.tlb and ' not Badh, aw in received tpmh..in the whole of the South of England, and eren as high tu1 Shropshire, nnd probably right through to Norfolk, the short form of this vowel is heard, varying, however. with n'. In Cuithnoap, Northumborland, Cumherlnnd, and 1Vestmorhnd a' verging towards an, is morc common, in Yorkshirc, and Landire tho oldor vowel aa is retained, and in South Bwtlund even ah is used. Tt is, however, not permissible for n singer to substituto na for a notwithstanding the oxtreme pleasantness of #a, a d tho oxtreme unplensantnuss of a, bccausu the effect is pnrely provincial. But as' will be seen hcrmfer (p. 34), he may use a', which is much mom a ~mblo than n. Seo Em. 128 and 28. voww. A, AE. -The quality of A when h?ngthenod hss 6 very strung reeembluncc to the bleat of an old ewe, and when tho throat is constrid to pduw AE, m muy 110 felt on gnuping it lightly, the qdty.of tono BB nearly resembles the anewering bleat of the lamb. It is true that the bleat involvos another element (namely, a peculii periodic intcauption in the glottis, which occurs in Ambic speech, and need not be further wnnidered), but the voweh heard ramble A, AE nearer t.b any other that I know, and I have lidenad to hop and lambs most attentively with a view to testing this reaem6hnœ: The similarity of AE to A is shewn by thc frequent pronunciation of 'l thank, mk, cab" BB thasngk, baengk, kaeb,apd then n8 lhmgk, bsngk, keb; by the usual confuaion, that foreigners mako of our A with th& AE, and Bac. v by the frequent subetitution of A for AE (which ie juat the reverse) in Scotch. Many English epeakers, almost all thoso from the proiincee uai: AE for E in short syhblee, and thie pronunciation is rocommended by EO high an authority &E Mr. Melville Bell, so that in the Short Bey in Section III., p. 12, I hava given it BB an alternative in flet hg, nnst.iflg for " netting." Hence in AE, A we have a primary and wido vowel with the Barne position which muet not be interohangeed in eh-. ing. Tlm um of a for E is botch; and quite I inadmisaible. The most 'that.can be done to, improve quality of tono in singing, is t0 avoid AE altogether, replacing it vifcrrmly hy E, and then to employ A' for A. But for foreign languages this is not su8iaiont. AI and AE we sharply distinguiahod both when long and short in b c h and I+linn, end oven ambiguities of meaning arise rom confwing them. Henw dl singera &odd carefully learn to distinguieh them. But even in Gem, Italian. and French, tho UEQ of E for AE in short syllnblcs, would be intelligible though E would sound.' thin," and tho use of A. for AE in long sybblcs would be intelligible, though it wollld sound broad and coarse. &a Ex. 25, whem ae may bo used for e, and should bo so wed BB an exercise. For AE BBB EXE. 40,49, SO. The voswald form of these voweh can be wily produced, by using the low-round form, diagram 14, with dightly protruded lips, but they need not be studied, as thoy do not occur in the languages here considcred. - b. Mid-ALkd. 6. Low-M~xc~. 0. Aíid-BWk. 9. Low-Back Oral Vowels. I. II. III. IV. Primary. Wide. 6. Mid-Mized Oral Vowclr. Bound. Wide-round. Symbols U. a'. t.t Diagrams 4 & & T.-, G. I.orc-Mizer1 Ornl Vowt~l..,-. Symboli t e' t t *:- Diagramß I S. Mid-BncR Oral Voourcls. Upbole uu AA OA A0 Dingrams 6 t B II. 6& 13. 6& Low-Buck Oral Vowela.. Bymbols t ah AU O Diagr~r~~s 7 & & &'14. i k 14. The mixcd vow01 poitions are MO inailcqutrtcly mpme.cntctl in the languages here considered, that it Seerns best to takc the mid-mixcd form in con. junction with thc Inid-back series, which is wry fully developed, and slso with the low-back scrics, into which tho lut.te1' is apt to full. Far tho back voweh the tonguc nevcr riw so liiih BB for thc front vowels. Ehen tho highest back position (dingrum S) is scarcely higher than for the lowest front position (diagram a), and hence the dope of the tongno for thc mid and low back positions (diagrams 6 and 7) is scarcely nlorc than for the mid-mird positions (dmgram 4). The mid-mixcd position (diagram 4) is, however, higher than the mid-back position (diagram a), and hence the quality of tono is much tiner. l'ho. pat change of position of.the tonguc in pnssing from tho A position (dingram 3) to thc -4A position ldiagrim 6) ie Gell men in tho mirror, on singing. I, E, A, AA. The tonguc wms entirely to dis- app... for AA, und the archcs of the palate and uvula, which were previously quite invisible, come wellinto sight, though the tonguc is dill too high for me to ace the tip end of my own nvuh, which is naturally rather long. If m the other hand the tongue il raised to tho mid-mixed (diagram 4) position, only a small portion of the arch on each mide 'of the n\-uh bocomcs vieihle, whereas if it fulls to the. low-lmck (ditrgram 7) position thu whole uvuln is quito exposed, md thc back wall of VOWELB. the phnrynx can be easily soen.* In u11 thrcn cama thc tongm is 80 low thnt thc probe can ratch tho UVII~, und cvun be inserted under the arch, hut as the probe thcn tcnds td produce nausea, and ths distance of the, tongoc from tho ptdute is pcrfectly Visible, this cxperimerlt ncd not ho tricd. AA, AH, A'L-Begin cxperiments with the midback wido which giiw the extremely pleasnnt und musical quality of AA. Tho widoning of lhe throat is not felt as anything but an easy position. Tho rowcl can be sung and should bu sung at nll pitches, and the learner should wutch his tongue and jn\v in thc mirror, and take care that they do not mova RR tho pitch altors. He will observe that for deep tones the tonguc at least hai a tendency to fall and bewme completcly hidden, assuming the low-back position (diagram 7) and giving tho broad vowel AH, frcquontly wed in South Scotch and French, and often replncing AA altogethor with wnlc German speakom. In high tonos, on the contrrrry, tho tonguo has n tendency 'to rise to tho l micl-mixed position (diagmm 4), giving the fine t.hin vowcl sound of A', much used by dclicate English speakers, especially ladica, in such words b as "ass, pas, staff, laugh, path, bath, plant, com- Inand," in place of AA, and common now in Paris, whcre the aounds which writers on pronunciation generally ass11me to bo AA, are divided among A' and.au. Even in Italian them is rather a Lcndency to use A' in place of AA, but all approach to AH is held to be odioue, as it is in refined English speaking. Singing is, however, another -Thiardmumsta no8 h often been of usetomewhen1 wished to ehmine either my own throat m Snother peraod's thmat to ea if 'it were idamed m relaxed. It is well known that there ia a pat ddficdty in indu p~~tientespecially düld?, to keep the tongue down, 3 that t& invo~untcrril rsslst the aetlon of the spoon u~ed to it. M ~ I Y i them to open their.mou*?na aay and %e to e dias pem EU qa reveng the while inalde of% mod. Bnt myhe adnt wdl then be breathing ntmngly the obeerrer'a.!up, and hin +th m y be lnfeotious (LLB m scarlet fever, dlphthena, putnd n m throat, &o. 1 the obaerver ahodd dully acrean hm ow0 face and nose wlth hin hand while the patient is under eraminatlon. Safety from infectiou is not seaured by simply holding the breath. I).,,. /- l.

26 a4 ' v0 I\' ELL. IlW. v. affiir. IL will bo fonnd that the attempt tb sing pure AA at dl pitches results in much womc musicd &e& thnn arc proda&d by tho use of A',in thw higher, AA in tho middla, and AH in the lower notea of tho voice, and RB thoae sounda may be all cmployed in nny word without bger of wintelligihility in any of. the four languages hen) considered, the singer.id at porfect liberty to adapt his pronunciation to' his musical wacts. But hc should do it consciously, and know :why and how he doqs it, nnd be scrupulous to avoid it in speoch, where thc ame CUUECE (grottt diversities of pitch) do not exist, and where tho rcquire~n,cnts of pronunciation are more severe. On singing in succcssion and to the enme middle pitch ah, nn, a', a and a, a', nn, ah, it will be felt that thoy form' a progremive ucrics, SÇI closely rolated onc to the other, that it is sometimea difficult to say where one begins and the other ends But if we skip over any onc and sing a na, a' ah, qnd still moro a ah, the change is folt to be 'very grmt indeed. No singer should be guilty of the fault of wing thc bad vowel quality B for tho good vowel quantity a', or an, saying glas ank 8h1f laf path for gla's a's% stu'f lay ba'th. or glans nask ataaf laaf baath (tho. vowel bcing long or short erding to the length of the note', but no Ringer would offend who said Jbn'nd pa't ba'd for had pnt bad, although the munde Aaand pant baud would be qnito intolernblo. This allows a way f6r the singer out of a great di5culty. The vowcl n, as almady mmarked (p. 32, is dimgreeable for thc singcr, but a' ib vory agreeable. Hence he should pmtisc every word given with A in tho *lossic Index, first with A und then with A' nnd then with AA, ratch for the difference of, effect, watch the position of his tongue by his mirror, and try to hit upon A' without falling into AA. See also Exs. 120 and 25, which contain W O ~ E that my be pronounced with cither A' or AA, contrasted with words containing AI and E. 0, VU.-Now sing AA to IL middle pitch, and paaping the throat lightly, tighten it so m to n:hrrow the thmt ne usual, lrnd thus modif?:ita rcmnnncc. Tho cffcct is quitc.oxtmmrdinary. The IJcnutiful qlldity of.4a dis:tpporrs 11s if by mngic, and u dull obscure sound rcsdts, which is not bad to sing Ilpon, Imt in nothing like 80 musical am AA. This i# UU, a wutd much uscd in the provincu3 and in Bcotland, and even rccommcndcd for gcnontl use by Mr. Malvillo Bell, for u in rut. But the fincr. sound which I prefer, and which I hcnr from most educated Southernom is U, which is obtxincrl from A in tho mnc way M UU from AA (ly narrowing the pharynx), and bcars to UU the samo rolation ns A' to AA. EO fttr ILE the position ia conccrnod, but to my own fcoling tho differenco between U ml UU is almost that between A' and AH. Then, is, howuvor, II sound of this character formed by n:trrowing thc Rharynx while snying AH. This (wrild.cn un in GIOSS~C) occura at moat as a rn~m provincial sound, and honcu need not be further comaidered., U, U', E'.--(3peakcrswho we UU in aocented syllables, generully finc off the sound to U' in unaccented syllables, as hu#.zbund, maen shuun mnennhzw, for I' husband, men shun mention." And thoso who use U uleo flne it off by raising tho tmck of tho tongue to thc high-back position, pro. ducing U, which will bo described presently. Thna it scema to Mr. Melville Bell, that I mysolf pronounce the words lust &itten am hzu.bu'~~d, men ahun m3wshu'l~, which is altogethor Aner than the other, because the tongue is one stago higher for each vowel. This is, however, entimly.a mattor of taste. For the singer, however, I nln inclined to think that the second set of sounds is prefmble. In every caae the,vpwels UU, U, U' &TB very important to the singer, and require careful study. AE a gend rule u, U' need not be distinguished. and he danger of using UU ié-ite confluion winith OA when short and stopped by a conmnt. Sing all the words in Ex. l%, and under U in the.glmic Index, both with U and with UU, but at the Borne pitch, throughout tbe scale, till the ear become8 familiar with thodifference of queliby English U or UU &c! alwt~ys le&thened whcn baforevocnl R, which uslutllp tottully.disappears. "he mid-mixed vowel nlso often falls into a lowmixed rowel E bcforc this vocal It' by dropping the tonguo verv nearly to thc lay-bnck position, but keeping it ntthcr mord forward in thc mouth. See tho account of vocnl 11 bclow. A0.-Now siilfi :\A to it middle pitch, and ' mddenly bring thc lip into tho mid-rolmd position. diaprm -13. The rcsult is tho round vowcl AO, which has n very splendid quality, and is quite as musicd 11s AA, and has in soma respects wml a better quality of tom for singcls. l'mcticu AA, AO, AA, -40, on tho wmo broath till the duct come# clcurly. This sound is thc common &ort o in 'l cot, knot " hut, rrnol, in mnny of our provinccu;,111~ rcgul'w short o in Germany, ils in "holtz" lraollx, tho open o both long and short in Italian, LLR " poco, sciocco " pnwkoa bhynokkoa, tho common short u in French, as it1 I' homme, ccl-ps I' nonz, knor'. Sc0 Exs. 48, 49, 50,,.and SIEO Ex. 9s should IIOW bo aung with m for W, In. reccivcd English it OCCU~E only as long before vmal R, as in I' more, sorc, oar," which in English Glossio am written mwv, son'r, oa.v, with thc voatl I:, 'which eftects the chango. Seo EXE. 'LO nnd 28. Tho trne sound of these syllables is mthcr COW Glicated, and will bc crplnined in Scction VI. AU, ~.-~cr): clomly lo1trtcd to '\O is our o\vi1 pcculirtr 'Englirh vowcl O, which is not found in the reccivcd pronunci:rti.on of my contincntal lnnguagc, although it may bc heard in North Cfcrmnny. This is formed fmm AH by bringing Ihe -lips into the low-round form (diagram 14, being careful to bring the inner parts of the corners of the lipa n litth mom closely together thrrn could be shewn in tho diagram, md to ndvtlnce thc wholo lips alightly. This vowel is 80 coiunon in Englinh that English pcoplc have no di5culty in speaking it short, akhough thcy often takc cam that no tightming is felt by'thc hnnd, that is, that then, is no constrict.ion of the pharynx. Then sing tho Rame vowcls with a constriction of tho pharynx, which is easily felt, and the result will be!'awn, cnnght, pawcd, stnlk" aloa, knal, yaud, stnrrk, t,hat is, thc vowel AU ia gencratcd. Tho singor must pructics singing thcso words in aucccesion to the m c notc, with his hand on his throat; 11s OR nun, kot hut, yod ~IRII~, stob slmk, and feel the differenco in the action of the throat its well HS thc differcnco of the sonnd, ii he wishes to make thc distinction, clcnr. In endcavouring to avoid ~ z 6 n kaal, &c., ho mnst be cweful to avoid falling into cither aun, knot, kc., or oali, konl; &c. Thero is one 'word in which thc distinction is of great importancc. No singer of hymns should nllow cad to sound as cither gnd or gocul, which have swh di1hrent meanings. It is much better to uso quod for Cod than either of tho two other soundm, bucausc gnod has no other possible meaning in English. The pont rcrll diffcrencc htwccn AU, O, which are both utterly etrangc to Gcrrnan, Italian, and French, i,s shewn by the attempts of foreigners to pronounce thcm. hey %' generally make the AU into,aa, or nt hest AH ; and the O almost alwaya into 210. See theru contrnst.ed in Er. 27. Ob, do.- Sing UU to a long note of middle pitch, and bring thc lips into thc mid-round position (diagram la), tho result is the common OA in rond. Now m.my English speakers, cspccially most of those in tho South, educated or nnsducated, have such a tendency to miso tho back If tho tongue, or else to contract'thc lips to tho iigh.round position (diagram 12) drlring Jhc time ;hat they fmcy thoy 81'8 eaying 0.4, Lhirt they?ractidy begin with OAund inscnsihly end in IO. Thia is similar to the tendency. already nentioned to end AI in, I. Some speakers,!speoially the lass educated, tly off at once from

27 tho OA into.00, and EUY almost 01. for on. This wi!l be agein roferred to in Section VI. Singers should be extrcmcly cmeful to guard against hoth practices. The changc of quality from OA to O0 is generally for the worse, especially at high pitches, 60 that the merely musical effect is injured. l'rrrctise singing OA up and down the Ede, watching carefully in the mirror to see thnt the jnw does not ascend or the lips clme 88 the sound continues. This is :m important.exemisc. Buch woda as ronm, room, aro useful to sing. Obeerve whether when you $/riah the word roam, you utter %c same wund W when you finish the word mmn..\ list of such words is given in Er. 30. It is much better to use A0 for OA thronghout (Idthough this is not permissible in speech) than to sing OA with II mpid fding off into O0 In low pitehea A0 will nlwnys be found prefkble to the singer. In somo \vor& there is a tendency to confuse 0.4 with UC, and ptwple often say hrl for houl, " whole." In einging there is not 80 much tondency to do so, but.ex. 27, where words iike eawed, sowed, sod, sud," rad, sood, sod, srrd or ruud are conlpared, will be kound useful in this respect. 1x0 distinction between Ob, A0 is as important in Italian ind French, as our distinction between OA, AU. Ae un Erlglishman would never confuse coat" koa? with caught'' %awl, so an Italian would never confuee koa-llon cultivated " with kgo'lh3 yathcrcd," though both are spelled 'I colto." h e ER. 49, and Section XIV., No. II., Alphabetical Key to Italian. The Italian Ob is sofnowhnt nearer O0 than th English sound, but &in is a distinction which need not'be attendcd to. U OU. A' AA AH. OA A0 AU O.-The Of VOWCh series l'rirnq-. Wide. ' Round. Round-wide. Mid-nlixed U A' - - lid-lack UU Ah Oh A0 LO!\'-bilCk - ' AH AU O ato extremely importmt and should be \wll distingllished., 'lhp can rll be sung with tolerable VOWYLn. ease :md bpod elfact lrt ;my pitch. Genorully, howcrer, U will suit high, and TJU middle or low pitches; A suits high, AA middlc,and AH low pitches; OA, A0 two both. better nt high und middle pitches. und AU, O at low pitches. But CIVC must be taken never to use AU for OA even at low pitches, where ut most OA mny fall into A0 _- i. High-bnek Oral I'ou*~.Ix. I. II IV. l'rimary. Wide. Round. High-round. Yymbols f d ' U' O0 ' uo. Diagrams 5 t & IS. 5 & 12. OO.--The rounded foinv being vory f11milittr nnd the un-rounded forms litth known in English, it is beut to begin with the rounded forms. The lipn are put into the high-round yoaition, diag. 12, whichmaybemuchcloser than in the.dinpm. By this means the whole int,erior of the month is concealed, EO thnt the proper high-buck position of the tonguo (diagram 5) cm only be felt by the probe. There is HE wide a paaaagc between the back of the tongue und the urula, as in diag. 2, but the tongue is lower for ding. 6, and its upper part reaehes just RE high as the top of the archen of the palate. On inserting the pmbe and pasing it over the upper surface of thc tonguc, yo11 should feel that the tongue is quite below the upper teeth, even at the side, though in contact with tho lower teeth. The probe can be inserted fully two inches and R half in my own caw, but tkcrc is generrll~ a litth difficulty from the lwistnnce of the tongue, which does not allow the prolm to bo properly directed. In feeling the distance is better tu insert the hob end of the hitting-ncedlze EO na not to irritato the soft palate toomuch..but in some respecta the position of the tongoe is not of much consequence provided it be not higher than the high-back position. Even a mid-back, or low-back tongue with the proper high round fom of the lipa, will pmduce n vosvvel.qnolity which au henrcrswill at first take for OO. Hut Lhc high. kc. v. VOWPELB. 87 back O0 is the genuine finu wund of English and Itoh speakers, and should be always used. Some GCIQUUM use a thicker, deeper. hollower, low-back O0 ; and in Sweden they have a midback 00, which bears 8. considerable resemblance to OA, and is not unlike the Italian form of 0.1; the lips remain in the high-round position for J1 of these fomis, which, however, need not be further studied here. On the contrary, the high-back O0 must. be carefully studied, and its affect must be distinguished from OA on the one hand, and U13 on thn other. WE, UV', 00.-Thevowel UE Mers from tho vowel O0 merely by having the high-jmd instead of high-baekposition of the ' tongue, and, there is much. provincial tendency in England' to nuhtityte UE, or somo very similar vowelr (which will not be here particularised) in place of OO. This.&ses from a bad hnhit of raising tlm tonguc to the I position before closing the lips for 00, which is not at all uncommon, cvcn yhcn the tongue is subßoquently dropped to its proper place. This error must be carcfully.avoidcd by singcrs, RE it probably generates the p;ovincial peculiuritiee of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Dmonshire. The importunt direction to those who'have R tendency to slry U, is, 'I ICeop the tonguo down," and they should be made to feel with thc probe that their tongue has come up to tbc! high-front or T position. It is very much better for such Hing-' at first to sink the tongue into the mid-back or Ob position, or even the low-hck'or AU position, than to raise it to tho. UE position. 111 many parts of Bouth Lancashire, of Derbyshire, und of Cumberlund, epeake? have a hubit of beginning their O0 with,the mouth wide open (producing the very peculiar vowel UM'), but they rapidly close the mouth as they go on. The result (which may be written úo) is here merely mentioned by way of caution, and the bad habit which generates it must be most wluloudy avoided. Singers who aro in the habit of using óo mumt be made to bring their lips into the position for oo before uttering the vowel. U0.--8ing O0 up nnd down the d e..ou will be found very difficult indeed to take in the upper notes of the voice. Loaving this difficulty for the moment, gmp the throat lightly as usual, and, singing O0 nt an eaay pitch, widen the pharynx, which will be felt by a relaxing or falling in of th6 muecles The result is the vowel U0 aa heard in.'i pull " pud, distinct from I' pool " poo.2. Sing io succession 00, UO, 00, UO, and feel the muscla of the throat tighten na you pass from U0 to OO. This contrast of 00, U0 should be well felt, and enflily made, for it is especially useful to the singe1 (sec Ex. 34). And it is also vcry necessary to dis.. tingnish U0 from UU. There does not' 8wm much resemblance to u eouthcner bctwcm " dull " and " pull," clul or dttd and po1, but many pro- - vincinls reverso the sounds, nnd eay dud, p r d, and others are EO accußtomed to (JO that they cannot. lcarn TTU. Yet for, GO the lips arc closely roundod, diug. l2,.nnd for UU they ought to be quitc open, diag. l I. The transitional form, which maybe written ri, occurs in Lnncnahirc, lhbyuhirc, und probably Cheshire and Northumberland. It comists in giving the tongue amid-back position, and, rounding tho lips 11s for ou. It is very difficult for IL Sonthern enr at tilnee to wag whether i is?&t( or tm. for it sounds like both, and is neither. But AB it iß really a hnd sound of 110, and much less musical, thc singer should dwags endeavour to obtain a pure au. Thcic is ttlso II possihility of imitating tho sonnd of U0 with open lips, which may sometinles prove of use to the singer, especially when he wishes to sing O0 or U0 on n high note, and will therefore hc erplaincd presently. But first observe, by singing up the gcnlc, that U0 will give a much bettcr quality.of : tone in the high notei than 00, just as the vowel I gave better low notes than EE, and that hence au U0 would not bo distinguiahcd in a singing roice from 00-indeed it is often confounded with it in lhc speaking voice--the singor will find it as grcd an ad\-antnge to use u0 generally (that is, for hoth. 30 and m) as hefound it to um the Bound of 1 Fenerally (that is, for both e# and i). See p l

28 .. Y8 may be sung, cspeaially before l, oz, n, in those indistinctly spoken unacminted syllables, to which mngem have to give a clear' full note. llorc of this when treating of l, m, II. ßat at prvlwnt the &%er?iee of einging uo, U', UO, U' must be taken carefully, and tho di5culty of bringing out a good ringing tone on u', when tho condition8 of maonancc are so suddenly altered, muet be got over by ptient' trial and practice. By this. sudden revelation' of tho inside of the mouth tho truc position of the tongue can be mnde visible, nnd, if the tonpe were too low, we ahould get out more of un C U sound, while, if it wem too high, we should I' sound. when tho sound of U'.has once becn wtfcly hit, the singer &odd diligently ImRctisc it on all yctrts.of the scale, with sustained, forto, cromndo, and diminucndo notos, remember-. ing that he hm' to make use of it in overconling futurb diíficultioa. UO.-WhiIe singing U' with the,mcuth opon, sa&auorrr to change to u0 witw clorirrg the lips. An imitation of U0 can be affected thus. Tho contral'parts of ench lip are kept wide apart, but. thc cornors are brought much nearer, and' tho insidm of the lipa am made visible, till the upelling of the mouth asnumm M oblong &pc, longest from top to bottom, m that the front teeth nlu woll seon.. At the. m e time, there.is. a. munculer contraction of the arch of the palate, which E felt but cannot be mu, an it is EO much mncealed by the tongue. This double rounding,.sztorml of a poculiar kind (not shewn in any of Lho above diwms, becauee irregular), and intornnl of tho paaaage leading from the tht to VOWLLS... 8ec. V. '.U'.-Next, rhilc a1,nging the wide U0 at an ~nsg the' niouth, secms in solno rcspcct to wrw tho pitch, euddcnly opan tho mouth quite wide, as in former purpose of partly closing the nlouth by the diag. 11. 'l'ho wholc charactsr of the tono is lips only., The pharynx is narrowcd for high changed, and it sooms to lose all its previous notes, nnd widened for low notos. The vowel is.roundnens and bocome obacure, not unlike lj, but neither precisely O0 nor UO, lmt.is sufficiently Lomething flner. This is u', n very useful \-oavol like both to 1ws in singing, and mny be written to the English singor, and which he should them- UO' or wi, :ml cdlcd "~lcutc TJO,".for eonfore cultivate. Whore tho speaker, for accented venicncc. Tho advflnt;tge of thin eollnd to the Eylhbh, would use u or oven uu, lhìs vowel U' dnger, indicutcd by tho :tcntc :mont, is thnt he can sing on it nt the highest pitches of his voice, and even in faleetto, with B mnch bctter qunlity of tono'than he could produco with either the propcr O0 or U0 positions. This imittltion is thcrcfore recommended to the nttcntion of thc singer, ne i mcnns of overcoming a 'very scrio~~s clificulty. It \VRB suggested to me by observing p:~nots, who cnn sai "Poll," although thoy hve no lips nt rtu. They ~eem to produce the labial rffoet by mcann of u back mcmhnc, which answrs the pwpw of O U soft.p&to. The Musicrl Vowel Bcde.-h lhu Syatnnrlie Arrnng6ment, p. 16;A, tho vowels jlrst conßidclzvl were rulnngcd in a systomntic tablo nccorcting to the poeitions of tho tongue by which the rl!sonanee thnt producd them WUE gonorated. Sn conclusion it mm8 beet to arrange them in R kind of nu sic al d e, descending from. EE to U0 and then, &pudually rising again throngh tho indistinct forms. The m'mning of this is that thc ti~t row& on tho list nru most easiiy produeed at a high pitch, and that thin pitch gradually lowera from EE to UO, nnd then again gradually risos to UE, which approaches nearly to the pitch of EE, and thus complctcs tho circle, EE, AA, UO, TJE, EE. If only th positions be nssumcd, and flatus be drivcn through the mouth instead ofvoico, the neakr natum.of the amngement will be still better felt. 'Each form IS here providcd with a key word to-its left, and ori the right 'is plnced the ringing substitute, which may.be ueed for thoee oh to which it is bracketed, according to-'thc intimation8 givon in the nbovo didcumion, with a rcfcrence to the p~ge and cohmn (a left hand, I right hand) in which the oxp1:mationr will be found. Seo also the Gloaaic Indcx:. hgc 3On. hait.,, 306. bet. f 1 E. Page 306.,,,32n. bete. F. ae Rge.3lb. bat..q. n' Page 336. l-' 33b. ask (thine.f.t.)a',, 33b. lnlr I AA i AA. Page 336..,, 33b. ldche. B'. ah Pue 35n. gnatrcd. AU,, %a. nod. o 1 AU. rage 36a.,, 3Qb. nò. I. A0 Page known. 0-4 On. Page 368. Page &b. pool. g 1 UO. Page 37b.,, 376. pd. 'Page 34a. cut (trand E uu,, 346. hvrd (oco. 1.1) E'.. 34~: cut (thin E) LT v. Rmch Orinnsal vo~ce~s or Nnsnh ymbols Am' AHN OAN ' OEN' Diagrams 3~11,112. 7, Il, Tl. 6, 13, 2'2. 2,13,22 N,.-In the wries of vowols just doscribed tlie. naeal passage W&E ppposed to be entirely cut off DY the pressure of the uvula- against the back wall 3f tho pharynx. Section TV, pp. 20) to Ban. In the present serios thc voice has to pas through both the nom and the mouth, p. 21a. This opening >f the rulaal passage necessarily modifics thc position of the tongue, EO that it becomes impossible to refer the orinnaal precisely to corresponding oral vowels. Bnt this can be done yith sullìcient accurac,~ for the purposes of notation nnd instruction. ' 'l'ho ditticalty consists in obtaining tho right amount of nasalisation. For French the nasality greatly exceeds that used for &gli& by Borne Americuns, or that given to German by Bavarian peasants. Probably ono wusa is that the pssage behind the uvula,diag. 22) is very much larger for French nasality. The momnce in the naml cavities, howovcr, vnrics much, and cannot bo debd, 80 tiytt the following directions mquiro to be eupplanented by hearing many exampla of the Rounds (see Gloysic Index) pronounced by different natives, male and female, young and old, as well as lncn in their primo. The letter N' after tho Gloesic vowel murk significa that the nose pas- is fully opeu, as in diagram 2%,23,24, but that tho pawage through thc mouth is not obstructed, as it is in those diapums. Observe the apostrophe. N and N differ in this rcspect among others, that for N the voice paws through the nose only, and for N through-both nuae arad mouth. The OA~ paasago is to be made 88 nearly m possible in the same way. m for the vowel pm.dihg N'. Herice N does not indicate any sound, but a mode 'of modifying another sound, and tho whole of each symbol, suoh RB AEN', must be considered to represent a single orinasal,vowel. What tho English speaker hus especially to guard against is any confusion of the '' direction" N with the. consonant NQ. The l l!

29 ~impl9 EOUII~ MN' and Ihc eombir;rrtion of Munds.4E:NG, which Gerrnnne are apt to use, are, m will bo -n, totally different in constrhdion. The oral voweh m, ah, on, oc to which the four nasals am', ah2, oar,', om' RIW hore rufed arc thoso to which French writers refer them. To Englishmen they Beem to be rather msalieatioll~ of a, o, on, u, EO that they might be more Bimply written ad, on', om', um'. But ae three of thwe o d vowels, I, o, (6, do not exist in French, it is better to follow tho feoling of French phonetists. AEI'.-Smg AÈ and, while singing,,open and oloae the n 4 pasaege seceml timea in succemion, producing alternately the French vowbla in I' bête, vin," brict, vuehn'. The whole quality of the voica is chanied, and an Engliehman will flnd it difficult OAl'.--Sing OA, und, while singing, open and without much practice to produce anything like H close the nad pamap Rlternntely, producing good murid quality of tone out of it, especially alternetely the French vowels OA, OAN' in to give it a soft Rffoct without a dieagreeable 'l beau, bon " boa, boar,'. Practise alternately 0-4, twang, and to hit it with ease und wrtuinty when OAW, OA, OAN', till the sound is hit with singing. The practiae AE, UN, AE, AEN, &c., certainty. Engliahrnen generally find a difficulty will be very good for this purpose. The vowel in dintiiguiehing the two voweh AHN', OAF, bears a certrinrsacmblance to the syllable actg, canf~~ing them both in the deformity ong. At which would be understood, but would be quietly least they might become IIAOM intalli~ble by thought hidcow. That the sound really pa~sc~ crrlling tho present sound oaq. But it should be,through both the mouth and nom, and that tho observed that.in oa~y there is no naml vowel at dl; opeming through the mouth is even more important there is simply an ornl vowel followod,by an than the passage through tho nose, is well shewn by doming the mouth with ane hand, and pinching the front l~o~trils with the fingers of the other orinnsal resonance, tho month being entirely hand. When this is done EimUhnWUdy the whole sound rapidly ceaaee; not immediately, for the air in the mouth and noue will remund till tho air becomce too condensed. When the mouth only is covered, there is only a dull nasal hum. When. -the nostrila only are pinched, there Etill remains a distinct though slightly al* sound of AEN',.shewing that resonance irr the noue can nearly. quite an well effect the reeult 88 monance thtwtqh, the nom. AEW.-Sing AH, and, while eingipg, open nnd alme the nod p~seap alternately, producing alternntoly the French mweh in lache, an, Iak~r, R~JI'. Practise AH, AHN, AH, AHN till the sound is reuched with certainty. Looking in the' mirror, observe the motion of the uvula in pan~ing from the oral to the. opnaaal 'vowol, which can be well men in this case.. 'Chen sing AEN', AHN' alternately, and observo in the mimr that the tongue changoe in position precisely RE it does when AE, AH are sung alternately, tho little pmjection of the uvula not being noticeable. Try the exporiment of dosing the nostrila for AHN, undobsorve again that it prodmes but n slight ded. 'This vowel bean a remu~blance to the syllable ohg, which is an intelligible but hideous. substitute mnch used hy Enghhmen. obstructed, so that if we prolong oa we have no approach to om' nt 1111, and if wo.prolong rrg'we have much the nmo cffcct as would be produced by dosing the mouth by tho hand whon aaying om'. observe that though closing tho n0etnle while saying nei, ahd did not vury materially affect the saund, closing tho noatrib while myiq oan' almost totally destroys it. In fact, there is pat difficulty in bringing out ony nad sound at all.!t'hie vw singular effect seems to depend on the insumcimt outlet throngh the rounded mouth' for both We oral and nasal monancea. It is weful &II a charucteriatio distinction betwoen ah' and oa),'. Pmtim- aha', ORI&', ah', oad, &c., where the prinoipd Rction zonsists in rounding the lips fm I

30 . I VI. -VOWEL QLIDES. DIPHTHONGS, ' TRIPHTHONGS, AND VOCAL IL Thr latare of ßlider. one. the lowcr jnw at the eame time, thouyh with a ilnggr on H violin string, bow it for an instant, nnd little predice this can ho nvoided. Then between ' then, without coasing to bow, elidc the fingcr the BA and tho EE, and throughout tho chango of along the string for some littlc diehco and Etop poeition, a serios of cllanging vowel qualitics nre rgnin, st111 bowing. 'hen n determinata notc will heard, which conititute a " glide,'' didingeishod in be hruwd flrst.nnd laut, and between them a YI'iCE this caso a8 a IL vowel glidc" hecmao both the of noten, following one another so rapidly, and extreme sounds nre vowels.' ' diffcring from *ch other so slightly that it is Temporsrj Symbolisation of Vowel Qltdea, and inqmssiblo to dirrtingaish them, &hough the effcct Meotr of Creroendo and Diminnendo.-Reprcymtof a rontinunlly nltering pitch, and, necessarily, of ing a glide for the moment by placing + between a mntinudly -nltcring quality of tone, will he ' the eymbols of the tirat. and lust sound; we rimy 'heurd. This intcrmediate effect is called a " glide." vrrite tho effect of thc abovo glidc, thus- ~ m ~ -, dcterminatc tonc to thc hat by a jump of the tingor wi~hollt eliding. 8Rme fict can be, Now perform tho EIIITIC oporation with B crescendo produced in dnging,,when! a voice can " (A,riaknilrrdon) in forco, and also viih I diminuondo from d to I, for exnmplo, producing Sn inten::et: (daemea~~wui~rldon) in forcc from AA to EE, prcserving tho pitch. W C may for tho moment writc serica of nota varying in pitch md quality of th& operations thubtow, nnd the offect is wlled I' portamento " Crescendo -=z AA + EE, dirninucndo > Ah + EE. pnor'tannrniwton. Incrennc tho rapidity of the changc in two wuys, first Vowel OUder.--Hut in the voice it is posaible to ding the AA vcry long, and EE very ahort, and make a glide of qlurlity only, retaining the pitch, htly making the AA very short 'and the EE very. bwanec R chango in the.form of tho reeonancc long. Indicating the long nnd short vowels fol chamber necwawily producen n change of qualidy. the moment by adding the WO& lorlg and dort 8ing AA, and continuing to &g at the name -.* 80 far na I how. attaution wna &nt ded to tbe rnoderntc pitch, mim tho tongue quite gradually to mtm and eriahce of and the nuroe for tham the position for EE or I. It will be found that the propored, in my little tract called Phonetima." r.ridng ot the tongue is mostly effected by mining i# pnbliuhed in 1E4. I '.. ufter the letters rcpreeenting the vo~vclt~, snpposing ' that in the first cae they had cqual length, both ' long or hoth short. W o hwo the four additional case-..,c M h g EE short, 2- AA lujrg EE SI IO)'^.. < AA rhorl + E15 <mg, li AA Slru1.1 + EE long. ' ' in all of which thc vowel l may. be used for EE. On einging thoso it will bc found thrt tho eresmndo < hl18 IL hü effect, becauso the fcrcu is thrown on t,he leiwt lyrecable vowel, and thnt thc crcwendo with IL short vowel ut the end is worst of all, becauac thore is no time for the ear to 'rest after the glidc, nnd this ~ 8~808 a continoal #train of attention. Por the mmc reason a ehort glide is prcf&blc to a long ono. Tho diminuendo or > glidea,in \\.hichthefirst,oroporringvowel islong,prodi~w the beat effoct in rbrging, becnub they nrc more muaical, and, though tho voicc glidcs off to a short vowel, the Tesult is not felt to bc diwgreeable, as il was before, becrtusc tho djminid~ing force nmdm it unattractive, and uscn difficult to apprehend. But for the glido to bo properly 'heard, it must bc "a&." On the other hand, in æpeakiry the diminuendo or i glide with a sh,ort first and long necqnd eloment is best ; for tho force being put on dtronyly to thc firnt elcmcnt, which is held n very'.short timo, the glide comes in for n large sham of it,.and is made conepicuous,' while, the second dement, continued quietly for' nny length of time, givea repoao and!at sustnina tho action., Somewhat of -tho ame effect is also pmluced whcn tho flmt dement is long, provided the sedond element il ale0 long... liture of llipbthongr.- Two terminal voweh connectcd with R: glide in th # wag form a diphthong (difthoq; this is thg recent pronuncia- ' tion, though formerly' dip.tkolrg was used, and tho proliunciation of tho word is BO given by Walker, togethcr with trilrthong, tmpthn, optlrat.srjk, dl of which hase now.f and not p). The essential chniader of a diphthong is the "glide," the length and qunlitics of the two vowels arc in- different. The "clearness" and "slnit1tnons" 01 the glide nre important, a18 othcrwisc thc union ia. not perceivcd. There must &ays be it crsnwndo or diminncndo in n diphthong, EO that ono of thc two extrcmes h118morn' forco thtm thc other. Thc strcm is guneridly on the vowcl neiacst to AA or ' to UU in thc Vowcl Scale on p. 39. Tha glirlc is. longest and most intelligible, trnd hcncc bwnmdly thc union is clos& and bcst, when thcrc is II con; midorable. diffcrcnce bdreerl thc heights of thc tongue at the commenwment.md clom of thc glide: Diffcront spenkcrs, provinces, and colmtlies have, howc\-er, vary diffcmnt habits in theso I W S ~ C ~ and ~, WC must not ho guided by our own foeling nlonc. All, however, regard diphthongs ns single syllables. Permanent Bymbolimtion of Vowel Cilideß,- Although tl~c fnll suy of writ.ing tho glitlc ia that nlrwdy indicatcd, n bricfor ~ IIL cqunllx syatcmltic method is to write tllc two cxtrernc! \-owc!ls togcthcr, and plncc tho short sign osur thc firrjt lottcr or both I. lotterh of t110 elcplent which is cceals or has hasr Jhc, \dmn it followlr, or ovnr its lust lottcr or both. i letters when it precceds, quite indepcnrlcntly of th(! l length of thrt clement. Thlis. rrab, arrrio. and ezu#, oku (or n&, auòõ; %an, &n) arc diphthongs having thc 'stress on ad, which is the fitst elcmcnt in the first two, t!nd tho last clcmcnt in the last two. It is not rloccwnry to mrlrli the lcngth of any but the clerncnt which has forca. :~nd thcn W(: writc ntr&, M-Óo, Jon., ou'ae., for :I long clcrncnt uudcr forw ; and, using a conwmant for illuntmtion, naert, aaõwt,.daut., o&mt for H rrhort olcmcdt under force. In speaking, tho clemmt without force is generdly short when it comesfil&.. and long when it come8 last. Unaualyred Olosric Diphthongr.-In ordinary (Ilossic the diphthongs un: not. complctoly annlywd, because of the great variety of sounds in common ' IIS~ aeeigned to each clws withold nny intcntionol variation and without any chnngo in thc mraning attributed the to diphthongs. lht the clswlsrrs.

31 , VOWEL OLIDP.8, IJIPIITHOBQS, TRIPII ~IiOXR8, AND VOCAL B. #eo. V1. thamsolvus am ospocially dietinguished by unanalysed" forms, as EI, OT, OTJ, E[J, orby nffixing Y, W, or 11 to cortdn vowel signs. The difficulty. fclt by those who havo not beon accustomed to obewv0 spoken so11nd8,or to nnalyso diphthongs, rendors this symbolisation of h s vory useful :md important. But as it is importunt for tho singer. to understand hów all t.hcsc cffects produced, und to know how to aroid thc nnmcrous unpleasant vnrietiea in common IISC, thc prcciso mcaning of these forms must now ho conaidered, in all thc four hngunges here trentcd. 1. Fll1S.T CLASE OP DII~IITIIONRR, WIT11 WsAK Nb: FINAL. This olaes embracea all tho forms in which tho lant position of tho tongue is thnt for EE, I, or -ITE, ditlgram 1. The res1 find is EE in Italian and E ronch, gonorally I in English and perhaps Ucmn, and in eome cascd UE in &I-. EI. Englieh, Bpoken.-- i ho best formi for speakers am Uï or Xi, the first clement loud nnd short, the glide conspicuous and diminishing in force to the second clomcnt, which may be long or ehort at pleasure, and is W often one as the other. The whole diphthong i6 oftun pronounced very &oit indood, ns in first pomonal pronoun, singular mmber, whon in coullcction with vcrbs, as I I saw it, n i gart it, or rri narr it, but may be vcry much Icrythoned, ha in fle! su ;. or firi.. The sounds AAï, UUi nre just ndmissiblo, but not pleasant to my m, although Xr. Melville Bell gives the preference to AAï. But AHÏ, ATJï, OAi, must bo 'carefully nvoided. Many Amoriwns and Germans (p. 394, and cvcn Englishmen, have a bad habit of not sufficieritly closing the nasal paseage by the uvula for AA, nnd hence will give a nad twang to AA, written,aa, which is carried over to the :followini I, especially when an N follows, thus English I mine and German llmcin will be cnllod cn,naba. This ia a specially disagreaable f;lalt,.which dl English singcrs must wdalollß1y avoid. 1 :v~n R tnwu of ncldity pntly injurcs the fine qnality of tolle ill lho vow01 AA. Sce Ex. 34. EI. Englieh, Bung.-Tho h t form for singen is AAï or,a -T with a long first element, and a short sharp glide leading up to the I at the end to nrrrlio the union evident. The sound AA is rnther bron4 and hence it is advisabio for the singer to get away from it into A as as poesiblo, and dwell lhe greater part of the time on A, till he closes op suddenly with the glide and I, tllue.: ncr short + er long + short glide on to i short. 10 thns gets tho bod tone to sing on, and tho glida from na to n indicates tho coming flnal glide suliicicntlg to prevent confuion with simple AA or A, and produces the montal off& of prolonging the whole diphthong (whioh is, of come, imporsiblo) instcntl of one of ita elements. Tho sung diphthong is, howcvcr, very differont from the spokcn on(!, OxCopt for tho word uyc] which is usl1:rlly 0n.i in spoeoh. Tho sounds : 16 long + i, utr long + i, wonld ba vcry dkgreeablc in singing. EI. ßerman.-Tho German spokuu diphthong writtcn oi, cy, ai, ay, is AAäß or AAi: or dhte, AHï. The flrst element is decidedly longcr nncl moro prominont than in English, and never risca to A or obscures to U, UU.. But as already Incntioncd, in Qermany, 11s in Amorica, thc flmt clcmont is apt to bo napmliscd, and this defect must be avoided. The siryer, thercforc, cm tako the German EI precisely ~8 tho lhglish; bnt an Englieh spuker who IIW~ it Germall AAï for :LII English Ui or Ai is rtpt to bccomc ludicrous. The peculi:rr Gelplan diphthong AAÜ5 ia theoretically admitted by all German writers on pronunciation, for the written fonna eu, äu, but I do not remember ever to havo hcnrd it in nctud use; from ordinary speukcrs, or evcn in thc pulpit, or on the stagc. In middlo Gormany I generally heard nhk, from ordinary speakors of the middle cl as^, with a very long nib nnd a conspicnona Rlidc, thun dlstinguiahing the sound of OII, iiu Rom Lhntof ui ante, mvhich hnd H shorter glide. But, in Nnrth Gcnnunyurëe,~s used, liko English 01, nnd this hod better bc used by all English eingors. BI. Italian. Vowel Blurr.- l he elcmcnts in Italian diphthong are nearly equally conepicuous, and the connccting glido is very short, 80 that thc union appows crtromely lax, and the effoct is more like two separate syhblos than a single sylhble, whcrcas the monosyllnbio hructor is alwvrtys wcll marked in English and German. The Italians distirlguish four kind8 uf diphthongs-(l) S&UCcioli zdronl.chocdcc or gliding, having tha forcc on the flrst rowel, of which IL aere, laido naniwi, huëëdocl (nir, ugly) comc very nclw to bcing El:.diphthongs; (2 I piani pyuec.~ee, or oven, having tho force on tho second element, and bcing really two syllables, because there is no glido at n11 between the vowcls, 11s laitrt na-re:tetgl (holp); (3) quilibrati ai~brreelcc1raa.tr.r (equally bahnccd), which II~C mercly two nnl1ccentc:d vowels spoken in mpid ~ucccssion without n glidc, as Borea Bao-vcri-au (Borcas) ; (4) raccolti. ruukkuuktee (cloee), in which tho first vo\wl is it very short R, R, but thoro is IL rcnl glidc, as piunbr p%cmwtarr or pyanwtnrr (p1;mt). Of thesc th second und third Ure not ppcrly diphthongs ; thc flwt belongs to this scrim, and thc third tu tho EE irritial rrrmccerrlcd or third ecriw below. he Italim gliding ni may ;IC mrig ;IS English cruï, but it is ellfcr with all thc 1tal1:m combimtiona of vowcls to pronouncc both vuwcls clearly with sdrccly any glide, or rather with such IL climinutlon of forcc dnring the glidc 118 would nuke it almost inaudible, but would not ocorsion any real silenco or total seprfttion. This may be called n l slnr, rtnd written at full by an interped j (which represents tin imperfcct +) thus; +e, or by the usual diphthongal fom, with ri hyphen between, thus nàjz, indicating IL kind of broken glide. l ho close Italian diphthongs muy,be indicated, when thought noccesnry, by putting the short mark on tho first ulcmont and adding the hvphen. L hue thn fnnr Italian OUWU would be fully. mpresentcd by--:l) cru-dirtri, lan-eb.doa, (a) ÜJ-ertncc, (3) bno.rzi-n c7, (4) pëëanrl-tnn. In singing, lay the stress as here markcd (in the second and fonrth CBWS on tho sccond elcment), and tnkc the wholc to onb. or. two sj.llablom, according ns tho cornpwcr hm assigned onc or two unslurrcd notcs to thrm, but dwaya make both von& qllite distinct. EI. French.-- lh Frcnch haw no originnl diphthongs of this clnsa ; their. aï bcing more like an Itnliltn,ti an-;;. Hat thoy hare savernl rccent diphthongs of this dass. Thus c aï cul^" is nntë-yoel (xnccstor). ns well as an-pd. And from thosc finnl il, illc, whichused to be callcd l!/, and hnvc nowbccome Zë or y or yk, several EI diphthongs hnvo hccn formed, ns I goilvernail goovmr wrcrr (ruddcr), émail h8nnëz (enamel, Vcrsaillcs TTncr sane; and with other first vowols, l nccueil nax.0~2 {reception), l mil ocë.! (cyc),. vieillc rgnrr (old). All thcsc aro trne EI diphthongs in the sense just oxphincd. 01. Eng1irh.-In speaking, this diphthong, when dnal, and in some othcr casea (as before z), bccomes twi with lond first clemcnt, n~ in boy butri, boys Bnrc-I:, noise trntciz. This ie wcll adapted for singing, nnd T-I:tndcl has Romctimcs many bars on the ntr. Tho singcr mmt mind to ~IOEC with II smart glido nn to the i, or the offect of th diphthong will bc loat. Ihforc R, howcvcr, the fimt vowcl becomes short, and although it map remain m, more rcfincd cffcct is produced by changing it t.0 o. :IS oyster rrrri.&r or oister,. rcjoico rn&7jnlri.s or vg00i.s. Tho singer must, however, use atri before. Spenkers nnd singem must nlitc guard against the vicious pronunciatior. as an ci diphthong, thus rijunï.8; and foreigners huvo to guard against using on; or noi, n8 rijoai.8 vijn0.7~. Sec Ex ßerman.-The syllable eu or au is called oï in North Germany, na exphincd abovr, (D. 441) may be wmg LE nwi or auï.

32 46 \'OWEL GLIDES! DIYIITHON0S, TEIPIfTHOKGS, AND VOCAL II Seo. VI. 01, Itslisn. occurs only in tho morli6ed. form AR, arman, occurs only provincially in th6 ao-ii, which preaents no di5culty.. I form aiï or aei for tho usual eaì in mmu particulur 01, Frenoh, doa not occur, being altered to Wëë, s(lb OOY, \lolo\v.. Abbreviated Analytic Formr of EI Diphthongo. -In lcw sy,&omatio writing of Olossic, it is llsuul to write tho EE-final diphthonp with final a Y, 11s au-y "ay, ~ h iy y 1 g rrrq, crrvy my oy for either na-;, ani, alri a'i ri rruï, au-ï'ad oï, or na-ëë aaz, &h2 a'ë2 uëë t&?, at& a& oüë ; and the Italian are not distinguished from tho other diphthongs..thif vory convenient,symbolisation will bo gcnernlly empbyed in the oxamplos of songs given below, and in espccinl cnscs the form nay will be uaed for,l' aye," which ehould not be otherwise pronolmcod, as in the Short Koy, p The systematic form is, howetcr, nocossnry for full intelligenco. Trhis will appear in discueaing tho following forms. APY. EngUrh.-When AI has to l)c longthoncd thero is IL tendoncy in Southom English to nay si.ï, soa p. 3Oe, dthough tho i is seldom quite reached, end tho glido is not sindrt. This is uunlly callod the "vanish," nnd sjmo writers reckon it as a defect, but othcrs ne tha only correct pronunciation in all mes, while othors allow it at some times and not nt other=. It is no doubt very common, end accnrnmoat friquently ut the cnd of F word, or before t. Some speakers even shortan the flrst olemant and my ni;, which then rapidly degenaratea into e;, ne-' ai, a';, and even nui. I havo not heard nï, aai for &i, but om familiar with ad, ai, and poseibly within a hundred years honco m EI sound will be UEU~UY substitutcd for long AI in Southem Englinh. Tho EI sound, where now uaed, will then probably be altered, und. Lw always nei, as it is in &hex, whore tho aci sound is moat frequently uscd for ai,. but all them matters, though very important t0 the spenkcr, are ind8erent to the dnger, who 'trrrrsl my AI, an$ mwer me A1.Y at dl, if hc winhes to sing agreeably. See Ex. 36. words, und should bo gone+ly ignored. AIY, AEY, Itslisn, occur in the forms &R, ne-;;, which prencnt no difielrlty. AEY, Frenoh, occws in.tho form ne-.%, IIN consuil kom'sm-zz or koarb'uney, tho firnt ploumrt somowhat long, tho Mond shnrt, tmd tho glide almost rodwod to a slur, for which reason tho Itnlian form is hm usod, hut konta'miy woilltl be quito sufficiont to indicato tho sound. OAY, Qerman, occurs perhttps only in tho word bojo borryyrc (lmo).) Itnd its related words, but tlme are proporly Dutch, nnd tho form blljo booyyr in also used. OAY, AOY, French, occum (mom oanfllly 110 ay) in tho pronunciation only ofson18 speakerr, whm IL oy " prcccdce n vowel, n8 royaume raoyyonm for v'rra~yynrm (kingdom), hlrt QE tho latter pronunciation is alwaylrudmisuiblc, singers aud speakers need not troubln themeelvos nbout the former. OOY,.Qermen, occurs only in tho exclamation pfui &y. or moro prop~?rly pfooi (tie!) OOY, Itslisn, occurs RE n very distinct ow-ë;, in lui hoy, thnt is, loo.-zz (him). OOY, French, occurs in tho form oow, with O very short first elrnnent in the word '' oui".(yesj, which must not be confounded with the Englinh " wm', we," and, although in einging is it gencrauy takan õöe9 with the second olemcnt lcngthoncd, the first element never dagrades into tho consonant W. In converaation and deolamntion tho fealing of the moment much altern thc sound of thia vory comnum word, which is almoat'an inkjedion. Sometimes the second elemont, and &metimba both olemanta. and,hence the glido between them, aro spoken without any voice at dl, rnefely by driving flntm through the required positions. See OH in Sectron VIT. Diatinguinh oog 'I oui " (yea) from tha dimpllable oq-se ouï (heard), 'trnd tho It.ali;~,n hi revulsion agminst it, tho first element isoften tuken Jooy, from thc Fmnch Louis Loo-ce (Lcwis). This too thin, rising from n' to a nnd oven ad, B, ai, diphthong also occura insuch words as d6podler giving the porfcctly hidcom forms asõ, net% daipoyyai or daìpodë-2ëai, &c. ' (common in Norfolk, Lancashire, and elsewhere), wihh eïï or t&õ (some of the commonost London OEY, Frenoh, ocours in auch words as (cil oey,,and North Kent forms). These should be most, that is, ocëë (eye) which Englishmcn have a! carefully avoided by all spoakers and singrse. To tendency to confue with thoir HZ or 1ruï or nrrï, and hcnr, about the house " called rairio'ad call si2,'that is, dl, uuäl, or sail, a pronunciation ltbnirio't dhu haiiiõs (even an unnspirated ai& abaolutcly unintolligiblo to Fronchmcn. Such occurs 1) is most distressing to the ear, yet nothing words BE nccueil, cueillir, nnkocy, beyyew', propcrly is more common fmm spenkcrs born in London, a'koe-w, kdz-üzmr' (rocaption, pthcrr must be cven when well educated. well studied, and must be carefully diatmguished from akeil, akcilyew on tho one hand and akerl, OU, Englieh, Sung.-Tho form inüö is now akerlyeer on the othcr., preferable, and the first clemcnt should bc prolonged. Also we 'may employ tho device alretldy UEY, French, OCCU~E nrostly W a variety of 2ee. (p 49b) in lui hey, that is, lzu-zü (him), which ia,moro proporly IdZee, but I havo mentioned it hero to draw nttcntion to tho grcat difforonco botwccn.finch lui lrrcy und Italian lui hg. which English people oonstnntly confound. The form &dea belong to thc fourth claw of diphthongs, seo p. 49. Thew are n fcw worh in which guee occurs..seo under gui, in Nec. XIV., French... OU, Englirh, Spoken. -Tho fornra prcfcrrcd ttrc uüö, a'i", md oyen auriü isadmieaiblo. but rwüü has a marse sound. The first element is always short, hgt the socond may be prolongod ; nnd B; m y ho need in place of Zö, but it is not common. The qlide is here mainly due to the ootion of tho lipa, and is therefore. very marked, buthere is a tendenoy in conaequenca to " rouad " the fiist dement, thnt is, to begin closing the lips before the second element is reuched, and suoh folmu as roa, aurx ou.üõ nre common ïn the provinces {even orüë is said to occur in Devonshire). This amor must be carefully avoided. Possibly BB a recommended for si when eung, p. 448, and quit aa rapidly for a' on which,we dwell fòr tho chief sound of tho note, and thcn pass over to uo with a quick short glide, thus n4 short + a' long + short glide to Gõ short.. OU, German, is now dwaps nah or alrüo, with tho first clemcnt more conspicuous and more lengthened than in English, and no other form in ndmissiblo, but it may be sung (never spoken) an the English sound. SCQ Chmnn EI, p. 44. OU, Italian, has a loose slurring glide, like the EI, so0 p. 45n, in fraudefraaõödui (fraud). OU, French, cannot 'be said to occur: as the word cuoutchouc kaaõüchoo is quite foreign. Abbreviated Anslytio Formo of OU Diphthonga. -In lcss eyetc!mtio Glossic we write W for either final 3 or M in these diphthonga, thu AAW AAW, AIW, 'AEW. AW, OAW, AOW, for ani", anrio', aiüõ, acrio', RÜÕ, oaiiõ, aoiiõ respectivoly, which is a great convenience, and is wed in tho follosing songa. Hcnoe WC write OAeW, Englirh, meaning o#%, or long m, gliding off into 140, forming tho I' vanish" of oa, UE explained on p. 36a. This form pass& readily l i l l \

33 ' into oat28, uuõx, nuóõ, BO that oqccomes transfumed to ON. When the transfomtion.is completed, the dect is extremely dimgrueable in speech. I have head children id Hydc l'ark talk of ki.diz i~ 16 bout for lai.dis ia u kn.1, or'at most Li.ydiz i98 t6 boa'wt, and the effect waa almost ludicrol~s. Those English speakers who um si ou for ai oa or ai.y on-w, generally use nay or d g and ucw or (tim.for si ou, and thus avoid the ambiguity. AB waa observed on p. 46a, it is possible that at Bome time these changes aury be wnctioned. At p-nt, although writers uru still divided in opinion as to whether ou' or oa'w is morecorrect, there is no doubt that ow i shocking to educated earn in speech, and that no singer shouldallowhimsclf to UBC this 'I vanish '' at all 'rhiltd CLANS DIPHTHONOS WITH WEAK EE IXITIAL. EU. Englirh, when not following another consonant, either stands for simple yw, as in L you ' or ehe for ysu, na in ' ybw,' and is employed merely for convenicncc. After a consonant, the actual sound preferred is bo, with often a very short i indeed, aa in tune táwjr, dew diao. Cure haa to be taken not to omit the, ï and nay toow, doo, both of which are very commonvulgarieme ; or to pass through tyoo:n, dyoo into choma,joo, or even chioolr, iiw, all of which form my (unfortunately) IC heard. When a consonant has been altered by tho insertion of i before any vowel, the tendency of English speakers is to omit tho i, which appears to be sufficiently indicated by the hge in the con- wmnt ; but i isometimes retained. We cali motion rnoa~rhirn, and ocean owshun, but fuchaia ia fioo'shiu, not f ïoo.sirtr ; again, we call Aaia Ai.shtr, but Asian Ai.ahïun, not Ai.rhurP; And with the unaltered a the i becomes a distinct syhble i in Asiatic Ai.ri-at%k, though some prefer Ai.dbi-at.ik. After a trilled r' the i ie loat, thus true hth Woo tr'oo-th, not tr'ïoo tr'iro.th, and rule r'00.2, not r'ioo.1, whioh is provincial. After I, howeyer, thb i i8 En+h pew pioo, and Italian più ~ W U O, tune generally lightly h d,.si lute lioot, but may be ' tyoo'n, dow dyoo., dyoo, piano pyttuvron, Itdiftn omitted, ns hwt. Be particular not to confuse miei cnyasy, meaning nz&czz. This is a very connews nïoo-:, with rime RW'E. Be pdrticular also. ', ve&t notation, and will be used in the following not to changa loo into 8088, uspeoially in case# imp, but it in not strictly nccurnte., where tho i is properly lost, os truth tr'ceöoth for tr'oo-th, rulo r'eeöcy for v'ool, gunan &stb'.:rrn for Soo-zm, all of which are very dinagreeable.aiso be particular not to ebge loo into the French ttc or SOIIIO sound like it, na in Norfolk and Devonshire, and oceesionally in Lancnehirc. And finally be particular not to ohange a pure oo sohnd into ioo, as too tioo for too, afternoon aaftcr,ab-s for nafterraww, a habit unfortunately gaining ground 4. FQUIITH CLASS OF DIPIITHONOE WTII WEAK even among otherwise pod speakers. Very few speakers distinguish yew yioo from you yoo, or hew yhoo or yhioo from hïoo or goo. The word humnm is,usually hïwmun or yhoo.m?rrr, but humour often retains tho older sound of goo'mcr. The Hction of the i in ïoo has been so little studied that neither cducated speakem nor orthoepists have como to an agreement on the subject. This diphthong err is often very shoe in Englieh, RB in unite srrnsi't, meaning yioontiit., monument rrm-srr~snt, metuiing man%m+ncnt, that is, with n media! n, M explained in Section IX, not rrson+yoo+nent. EU, Qermnn, dom not oc ou^ in any form, but for fofign worda tho Germans write " jn," moming yon. EU, Italian, as in (more), is very com. mon. In theae CWB the ë8, though very short, is distinctly different from i, giving H peculiar brightnear to tho combinatim, which is one of the Italian close diphthong. See p AU the other Italian diphthongs with this short G initial are treated in the nameway.. EU, Fmnoh, does not occur. Abbreristed Anrlytio Formr for EU Diphthongm -Generally in less systematic Glwsic we *te B simple P for this initio1 i or 88, thns pya0 for botb 00 INITIAL. In Eqlimh this wpk oo initial is, ussully conddemd to be W, and when not following a conmuant it really becomes tu, but only in English. *en these diphthongs follow a consonant, os in tein, dwell, quell, written, twin, druel, %web, tho qect is at times tõõir,, kõõe2, but perhaps tliis is not such genuine English as tw'in, dru'el, kw'el, where the W' indicates that an attempt ia made to pronounce the W at the same time as the consonant, hy bringing the lips into the W position before. the eonsonant position is changed. For.singein, howevor, the forms tõjirr, dõõ82, k8üd are important, because they greatly facilitate singing, and do not render the sounds unintelligible. In Qerman no such diphthongs occur; tho Gcnmtn 6' quelle " being distinotly iirr'aeh. h Italian them nrc very common cluse diphthong, p.45ai and they cvcn occur initially without by prefixed W, na in uomo Õ ~ ~ O ~ I(man), I I ~ U uova üöao.uoa (egg). After k they are frequent, as quanto k~8uar8'too (how much), questo kõüais.toa (this) where the vowel effect is clearly heard. Rut in the following mugs I haw followed.the custom 'of writing W. as waowwa, wuo'uoa, kwaawtoa, trairtoa, which would be more generally intelligiblo to Engliah readers. Singers, however, must remember that õl is both easier for the voice and: nearer to the correct sound. In French these diphthongs are very frequent, sinince "oi" is nlmost always ded Waa, as oie &a, doil iöaua, croix k958au. The word "oui" WUE given os oob on y. 461, and this is perhaps the commonest sound, but it is a h often üõse with the ce lengthened, and then it sounds to an Englishman like his " we." Other common French forms are : öüae, as PO&,stove pu'õnel, often dlcd pdõnrl, and thus confused with poil (hair); fouet (whip) fü'baet, often called fõüaat, and õõned, na point põünw', coin (corner) küõaeu', Roin (care) ~üõwrew'. ÜGEE, Fronoh, is the common pronunciation of "ni," RB lui lgsu (him), nuit ~rczes (night). Engliahmen have to guard against saying ooy on the one hand, and wee on the other. Such pronunciations as bog, nooy, or dwse, rrlvw arc simply unintelligible. It will be found easier to practise m+es at first, and then tre+& in order to hit the tu firmly, and, after these &M BCCU~, to fall.gradually into ü.%e. The final form requires much prictice to hit well.. ', It will help the student to remember thnt the tongtre remains&ed for both elements-zre and eeand tbt the glide, or connection of the elements, is made with tho lips only.. Hence in saying idee, begin by putting the tonye in the position for ce (diagram 1) and lips in the position for 00 (diagram 12, and then, dwding on the resultant tre (p 29a),! just long enough to make it senaible, open the lipa suddenly to the position for 'ce (diapam II), leaving the tongue steady, so that B em& glide is heurd in passing from tre to ee, and the full ee sound rceults. Them is of collrse nlso n r!hengcof throat, which is wide for tu and primary for M, Eut this willoccasionno di5culty when the student can once move his lips without any motion of the tongue. The following words should be practised both in speech und singing, till this diphthong (easy enough in itself, but pnarally taken very badly becaure its mechaniam has not been understood), becomes perfectly my : puis (then), puits p well) plëes, puiné (born-aftcr) pigemai, pulm (to draw, 8s water) yribeeai, puisque (Rince) plbeakë8, puissant (powerful) psmsohd, buia (boxwood) btiëss, buisson,buah) bikeaoad, bruit (noise) br'ribe (the v' occasions gcnt difficulty), bruine E l i I

34 (dn'dzle) tuile (tile)' tüjoc2, tuilerie (tilo manufactory) ttïëedr'ec, truite I trout) tr*'~geet, indu& (to induce) ama'düzeer', cuiller (spoon) k&?eeyiel*', cuirasse kucer'nax, cuisinier 'cook, kü fee#eenyni, cuiase (thigh) ki%w8, cuivre (copper) CZeevrZ, cuir I1e:rthcr) Æü&er' (obwrve, not k ~u'e~, IW Hood rnukes his Englishmkn any of the French : l' They call thin'lonther pacer, And half theirsh?eh.are tcoods~ ''I; fuite (flight) J'zUeet, fruit fv'iiëec, nuite rüëwt, suivant (following)- xiikeevnbs' juif (jew) eh%?ecf, juillet (.July) shüzeeymt, ruisseau (stream, gutter) rqëeemn, luir (t4 ehi.na) Zt7ëcer, muid - (hogshead) mmm, nuisant (hllrtfnl) rrirke;n/nr'. Abbreviated Olorrio Formo for the 00, WE Weak Initial Diphthongr -Tho Jü is usually written W, thua the French Rnn, üüncn' become waa, 1of1ed in oic doit croix soin lean.dwaa kv'crcrn muam'. And ori the, mne principle thc ÜJ shodd become wy', which t)m% the wmc relation to u- as ue'to 00, thua hi cuit koy'ee J;foy'ee, but to provent any confusiori with wee, toyec, this notation will not be ~lsed hcrcnftm... Triphthongr :trine by tlw union of nn RE or O0 initial yith :III HE or.o0 find diphthong. Ii1 Englieh and Qorman they do not occur. In Itulim they are frcquent,. na miei mëznizë (my), vuoi. vridnoëa (wilt thou, suoi sõõnd [his), for which WC write, FE an :thl)reviation; Wp7iY, vwnoy, 8lOnOg, but the other S)mbOlB indicntc cxnctly what must Lo mid. In Frcnch occur ouaille oincrec (sheep', doyen dodnn.?qc7err', &c., written tuna?/, dfl'm7~fl~jl', &o. The singnr will nlways ilse the vowcl form F~TH CLASS OF DIpt[Ttfosas ENDINO IN AS O14SCUIlN u, ASD IIUNCE CALLRlJ ~1UllMUlL DIPH- TIIONOS. l'hcse conaiat in gliding from an origìnal accented vowel to II, ehort obscure II, or an indofinite obscure murmur written Ir' RB thc mcrp qmbol of voice. They nre very irequont in English, both rcccived nnd prorinci;~l,.tho~~gi~ they nrc unknown in rcceirod German, Itnlinn, and'.fmnch. In receivcd English thcy occur in two forms. Vaniah Murmur Diphthongr, AAÜ, AUü.-First RB r I' vanish " of BR, m, thus nn'lf, nw~, which :trises from carelessly mising tllc tonguc nnd grcutly diminishing force whilo finishing off ctu, tot, and as snch are compamble to the othcr " vsnislm " ni'ï or niy pp: 30n, 46n), otr.8õ or on'zu (pp. 36n, 476), and sholdd be as cnrcfully a\-oided hy the singer. True Yurmar Diphthong?, EBB, ALE, Om, 0OB.-Secondly they occur aftor these nnd other VOWO~S 11s a substitute for It', which ~17y be nl\r.u,vs ndded un nftcr them, nnd wrwl bo so addod on when :L vowcl followr. In ordinary Glossic we write EEll, AIR, OAR, OOR, in order to convey to English renders, who lut\-e ncvcr studicd spocch, the nature of the sonnds hcnrd. But these symbols would crltirely mislcnd n foreigner..when no vowel follows, no 11' is holvd in Southern pronuuciation, but in phce of it simply ft. to which the voice glidia in tho tryo diphthongnl fuahion. It is ;tlso the rcgulnr habit of cducated English speakers to chnngc the quility of the vowcl in euch cnse fian primary to ronnd, nnd in placc of ccü, ni%, on.;, oo.tï, which hrve become old-fnshioned, or vdgar, or provincial, to say i%, CG, no.;, fro.;, and it is thus only thnt no OCCUIW in received Englinh. Thus ' I peer, pl&, pour, poor," written in English Glossic us pen, pair, your,.poor, arc mlly to bu pronounced na piatï, pmï, pno.ü, gn1o.i. And. when a rowel follows, na when thc syllable l' ing " is added, the trillod T' must be annexed, EO that we say pi.ür'irtg, q~rtïr'i~tg, paowbig, pwwivtg. Thcre is indeed no objection to saying]1i~ïr', ~'.u".',pflo~li~~,puo~üv', ovcn when no vowel follows. But the ü with tbo glido lending to it ~ nmt beinserted in each cngkl 8% it is this vowcl and glide which indimtea thr pmnce of r to an English ear. Ta aayyec.r'irg. pni.r'ilig, pon r'ing, poo.r'irig, os mny bo hclmd from foreignorp, and even occttsiondy from Mcotchnlen and r\~noricans, hns RII cxtrcmely stmnp und ever1 $: +x!ducatedcffeet to Southern Englieh ara. The words "glory, glorions," which often occur in kmed music, must never be sunggloa-#i, glon$ius, but nlways gito%r'i, gho-tïr'inx. With this par- * ticubr diphthong, containing thc beautiful vowcl.b" no, another error is also committed, as (tu is not hmiliar to 11s in other combinations. The whole ' oombinntion cru4 * is cllnngcd into m, and thus you.+ may heur glnwv'i, yhwr'iiix Hhonted out, and -. "oars," properly R O. ~, spokun of as nwa; and ".tore," properly tnn.17; mduced to hr. All this ' ahould be corrictcd. Tho English sinpr should : not only be ahle to sing i%, CG, rto~!, uog, but be " HW&W that thcsc sounds nrc.mom adapted for ringing thnn thc i~~admianiblc sounds ew', ni#, oar', W]', from which thcy wore derived, and even than the admissible i.zïv', c.&', mir' W&. 'l'lm)- form dificadties for foreipcm, but thc Engliehman finda even greater difficnlty with the foreign munds, '. Ivhcfc no chango of the vowcl is allowed, and thc v' is trilled, To ir Gclmun, dir (to thce,, mehr (morc),rohr (hbc)., uhr,clock), arc pure &er', rnair',.. roar', UOJ-', and di4, me.d, vno5, IMG, would bc' nlmost unintclligihlc, and would be itartlingly strange to his ears, unless indeed hc accepts them na forms, of the common, but faulty, Gernutn uvlilar 'T, na ddr, mnilr, r~~n'r, oo'r. In'Italinn, whcrn only n trnc trilled 1.' is IISC~,' they would be still worse, although thc vowels ni, on sometimcs bicomo nt!, no bcforc v' ; compare.dire dir (to say), volere volcr (to wish', amore amor (lovo), pure pur (howevcr, mestiore meatier (business), oro or (gold., which are rlwv'ai dee.,.', vonlni.r-'cri voalni.r', aaaaoar'ai nnoaod poo.r'ai pwv', rrmiuteeae'r'ai aaistceaisv', no.r'on nu+. In French also, though the uvular Ir is common, no ü must be ineerted, but we mriit call dire (to say), fuire (to do), ignore (is ignorant of), corpa (body, four (oven), sure (emre), leur (their!, aimply dear', fan', epay'aor', kmr', foov', xuer', her'. The English learnor will find much difficulty in keeping these vowels pure (that is, primary and not widened), and at the anme time not introducing hin favouritu ü, as well as in trilling an v' which does not prccedr a rowci Inrerted B'.-In cnse of such ~ords ns IL prr, north " it is of courw allownblc to ILBC the "vanhh" ' nnd sa~pnn.8, rrnrrüth, but in the South of England it is usud to say simply pan, rrnwth. The na.;, nit% mng, however, be hoitrd nt the crd of phrrees,. W: below par, in war, bilorr pan%, in -wnzrt. This leads to a curious misapprehenaion. 'lb speaker, proceeding by natural nnalogios, entirely, loses sight of spelling. To him.' papa, law " hvc just.w much right to this ' I vanirrh" rs M par, war ; hence hu sap pup'aavï, Inrrli. Immedintely someone learned in spelling laughs at him for adding on an 1.' or ctn.8, as the objector calls it. But the speakor has meroly mado a natural l' vanish " and has never thonght of nn v'. But worm.romains bchind.. Thc spemker hrs always kcn accustomed to add nn r' after tho murmur dlphthonga i%, CÜ, ao'ü, zmg, when a vowclfollows, and says ehr ir (cheer) but di,ü #up, (cheer up), fe.ü (tear) but tevi v'r6p. (tear up), bao% (hore) but baoü r'ifb (bore in!, raum (moor) but muog r'up (moor up:. Why then should we not avoid a disrye*blt, gap botween two vowole, and ay : pup.ü r'is dhei (papa,-there), dhu' 2ra.ir 7"dV dhu' land (the law, or lore, of the land, the true cockney would make 110 diflorerice', n' drntru'r'ing room (a drawing room). Or rather, as we English generally have B dislike to nn.2 and nu; before v', he loaves out thc ir as soon as ho puts in #, and say^ pu'pna. r'b, law v'u'v, drnu.r'ing. It is 11sual to say that this is very horrid, and the singer who has nny desire to bo thought educated must not for ono instant fall into it but it is very natural, in strict accordance with our prssent'habits of speech, and cnn only ba correoted by an entirely extraneous and very difficult study of orthography. When spelling is known we have the following des. Euler for the- Ure and Aroidanoe of Engliab Yurmar Diphthongr.-Never make a murmur diphthong in speech when.r doer not appear in th spelling. Never make a murmur diphthong ' I I :Q.. '..

35 by putting A vaniah to aa, au, or even by adding J to aa, au, when a following Il is not written. Never fail to make a murmur diphthong when R is written after 66, ai, W, OO. Never fail in such a case ta mako n trilled It' precede the vowel follow*- ' ing the murmur diphthong. Never introduce a trilled R' whon R is written nnd no vowel follows. Thcm rula are difficult, and the system of English Gloaaic avoids them ea^ and without notable alteration of the spelling. But the rules must be well maatered by all singcl%. To prevent any misapprehension, the apostrophised r' has been uwd rhanevor the r is trilled, thronghout this treatise. Yumur Triphthonqr are frequent in Englil. They are formed by gliding from an ordimy A, oi, ou, eu diphthong, in whatever form, it occur^, on to a short II. EIE, OIB.-h &e aase then of the two first there is a '1 ravins" glide, BB it may be cded, for the tongue first rih to the high-gont or es-position, and then einh to the mid mixed or u-position, or at leaat,$a far &E the high-back or u'-position. 'fiun firejuzj or fa'ïs, lyre luí% This producea a cheok or constriction in the flowof.sound, and readily, gives rise to two syllables, -88 ftjï+, :u"*. Hence great confusion prevails. But in singing, euch Worb form strictly one syllable, and hence the singer should pdise the glide carefully. The. first glide to the i must be tnken sharply and strongly, to bring it well out, the second form i to 1 should be weak and just.indicated, in fad, BB our writing shewe, it is not more than a dur (p. 460) and above all.the final i should not be dwelt on, an otherwise the effect oj two syllables will be produced. If the seme eeemu to require a ntrong ending, add a dightly trilled r', as fuiúr', luiür'. l'he o -diphthong &dom rum on to a glide. The word " moire " is occasionally called moiü, but it is not an English wurd, md ii it should occur in English singing the word ha better be treated BB a Frenoh word, and dlei Maar', or BB an nnglioised French word, an adled oawauü. Simi.larly, memoir mewrwau, devoirs kvwl~ws, rccservoir rezüvwawtj. Choir' is now rlways kwuiii, and is even spellcd 'I quire" in the 3ook of Common Prayer. EIER', EIEBR', EIWR'.-'h''hcn IL vowol follow! his combination differant uaages prevail. In fiery " the custom of insertiny tho 'l e" shows ;hat three syllables WCM meant t0 be taken, ae Gu-r'i, but in singing only two are ueually &en, RB fu%.r'i. In '' tiring, inspiring, dailalla." mdsuch-like commonworde, the glide must be used, aa luiü-r'blg, irlsprriü T'hg, di~aiii-rrrs; indccd,' to split the UÏÜ into two syllables, uï-a, has a vmy slovenlyeffect. To dietinguiahthem ~BB%B easily incommon English alossic wu write feir, bir, fsi-rr'i, impei-w'iuq, dkei.rr.'trs for tho true triphthong, and fefiew'i, imdpciv?w'ing, or jii.ur'i, inrpiding for its division into two syllables. OU& OUBB', OWERR', OU.UB'.-The ca& of OU is nearly the enmc. We say hour uüõ2 in one syllable with two glides,,from u to uu and theu back to rr'again, making the Blgt eharp and &a, and the second relaxed nnd faint. But here on munt of the ronnding of the lipa interposing betwoen two unrounded vowele, there, is still more di5culty in keeping the monosyllabic effect pure, and persons hesitttte much betweon uüõü and yütiia+u, running off into the second on the slighteclt inducement. In this CRBB, as in the former, the older English writore of. veree generally make two syllables. when LL vbwol fohws, this effect is more ready to appear. Using ths common Englih Glomic method of writing ou+ for t&g, and ouw for uü5+u, as more easily understood by the eye than the true E Y E ~ ~ D writing, ~ ~ C we heur flower ßour, Jbuou'er, flowery $ouew'i or ~Iou.tr,.'i, power pur, pus-, ovorpowd '~~u~pwad or powrd, shower shy, rhouer, showery showdi or rhur'i. But in einging BB a general rule the trae triphthong has ta be taken, and hence it huld be much practised. LVB, EUBB'.-The caw of bw offm no more difficulty than the ordinary triphthmg ; it ir simply irr04.with two glides. the first quite dintinct, the secondmore lax. Thns cure kruo-ü, pure pãuov2, or in ordinary Glosaic keur, peur. There ought to be no difficulty ala0 in keeping tho triphthong pure when a rowcl follows, BB ouring Huo.J-r'iflg (which is written kewrr'ing), never kkwr'irrg (which is written heu-r'ing). Observo then the necessity of writing W' to indicntc this. Vocal R or ER, Equal to U., U8. Long.-In all these caw of murmur diphthongsand triphthongs we havehad the degeneration of an original R into a pure vowel u, on to which a preceding vowel glidee. ' How this could arise will be seen hereafter. (Bee Glossic Index, under J.) It is now the only received pronunciation, and must Lw drictlv observed. Short VOWC~S do not occur before thin Bound, 'but as this sound ia really a vowol, it may be, and oftcn is, lengthened. The singer haa already lecunud to lengthon it liko any other vowel. It is quite easy for him to sing ka. p1r fuor kuu' puu..fiw, and he should even know how to say h'. p'. fe'., hì. pu", fu'.. These four VOW& u', u'., uu., e'. are different from each other, and yet. very doaely relatcd in sound, tho two fist, u', u'. are barely distinguishable, lut the two h t uw,.~'., although also barely distinguiahable from eaoh other, forma contrast with the other, being deeper and thicker and broader. Now in many urcented syllable8 "er, ir, JT" are written, as in II wrf, stir, myrrh," and in othors '' 111, or, our" ure amployed, M in " eurf, CS,; attorney, joruney." Soot& spkere; who do not use the vocal R at all, here make n great distinction, and say uw', in thc hst and trur' in the second set, although not uniformly. In many provinces, whom the I' r" IS diiterently pronounced, speakers make a similar distinction. Hence, apparantly, writers on English pronunciation have sometimes insidcd on the '4 COrreCt~SS'" of a similar dietinction in ordimy mpeech, and would pronounce tho first set of words, my, BB swf, &tu, mu., and the second aa SUU% 3w. dwni, jur.ni. It is certain that whon such a dietinotion is made, it does not strike the em UE unplonaant. To call the hat set ofw011s swf, atw, muw would be unpleasant, because it is an unusual broadcning of the vowel. But to refino the vowel in the second caw, and say swj, krv. ahmi, jrrni, although it may sound 'I thin " to thme accustomed to uu', ha8 not at all 811 ill effect, and, so fnr ne my observations extend, it has ' '. become the general custom of educated speakers to renounce a difference of uaage, whichwas very difficult to carry out strictly, and to employ the finer sound w in all cam. An this finer sound is represented by l' er " in most caso8 in older spelling, the symboler has beenused for it in ordinary English ctlossic. This er, however,does not simply mean u', but it implies tho liberty of lightly trilling an r' after it, when no vowel follows, and the mmssiw of trilling an r' after it if a vowel follows, thus 1 write rerf for both " serf " and L' suff," and also Ster, mer, ker, atmni,.&ni, implying u' in each case certainly, and wr' in each case permiesively, but not ur', which would have a thoroughly strange effect. 1, VoCd R or EB in WEgk Byllab!el.-~his COVWE all difficultiea in accented syllablcs. In unaccented i syll&b,bles tho rango of vowel writing is much greater. According Melville Mr. Bell to the!. sound is genorally u', which necd not be anxiously distinguished from fb, as the difference is more felt by thc speakcr than heard by the listener. Henco I shall heroaftor uae 16 only in auch cases. Thus, doller dol?c, observer obzwuu elixir eelik.ar6, captor kup.tu, murmur mzc'onu, honour maw When the trilled r' is added, which is always allowablo where thcre was an original I' r " in the writing, it is very light, und the glide on to it is so weak, that the effect ia not at all like an accented ur'.. Hence Bere again in ordinary Glossic we write dopsr, obaeruer, selik,ser, kap-ter, mercnq., ova'er, the mere position of er in an lmaccented sylla5le tolling the whole hiatory. Dintinction of Weak Final A and Wank Final =.-But now a difficulty arises, which is felt BB a great difficulty by persons of iolp&fect education.

36 . '. I 51 VOWEL OLIDES, DIPETBOWS, THIPRTUONQS, AID VOCAL 'II. Seo. Vl. Th; lid uiuncwntcd cc in a largc number of words is pronounced pwcisclg as W' or u, that is, ymiwlg as the Vocal I' in the words just cited. T ~ U E pica pu;.ku, sciatica swï-.ut.iku, idea uãdae'u, sofa soa.fu, acacia ukai.akir6, umbrella umbr'elu (not urwbr'slu),. villa uih, drama dr'arnw or dr'ua-gnu, eethmrr ar'aaw, China Chd.nu, era iwu, hegira Rq'-ru (not A~uÏ.Br'u),, 'sonata soagrawtu (as an English word, sonnawtaa in Italian), diva 8ulw2wu, and so on, which we write in ordinary English Qlossic with a, thus pci.kn, sciakika, sidw.a, sotzfa, nkai.a]bia; urnbr'sla, Vila, dr'amr, dr'awsan, nsvnn, Ciroi.na, wrr'a, h,g'.ra, soanan'tn, æalsiva. Why should them not be written pi.krr, IC., or poi.ker, BC. P Why, for oxample, should not Ir dear idea" be deer sidecr9 In the laat caw the aounds are dike ; wo really say di.ü, a monoagllaklo, containing a murmur diphthong, and üiukw, ending in &CU, a dissybble, with at most a slur between ee and u, not rridi.c with a glide. Ccmpare wueh an exclamation an 'II, deai! what an idea!" eil &er-.j whot un ei&e.a.j For the other words, though " villa " may rhyme pcrfcctly with " distiller," " drama " with " hammer I', and Flora " with I' restorer," ea uilu; dislilu, drawu, hamu, FIao-Wu, r.e&taowu, thcre are dberent pernaiaaiwe pronunciations in the two Caees. "Yi&, draina, Flora," nmny he pronounced uiln', &wa', Fhisür'a. They are indeed not, unfrcquently so pronounced, and the pronunciation is mteemcd as omïnently elegant and refined. The singer, too, m comaeyed to sing theh always in this way, beeewe the a' is a much moro plmmnt quality of 'tane than u to sing upon To write Olosaic a in an unacconled or weak anal or initial syllable pointa this out perfectly, because a iw would never be sung npon if it could be avoided, and n' han been already mentioned BB an allowable subatitute for a evenin clod accented sybblea (p. ara). But to sing a' in EU& words ea '' dintiller, hammer, redorer," thw dietila', Aasra' rertawra', is 'considered very bad indeed, and to Show either p t igaorance'or pat dedation. Again, thme thm woda not only inay end in a trilled r' at all ti&, but mnst dogo if :I rowcl fo~lows, 11s dixlitar' ~10 apir'-its, #c. But to add on il' trillcd v' to " villa, drama, Flora," us dhia uikao' iz iripi, this drctvrwr', i.: hevi, dl& Fiaoiir'ur' ir browktr, is looked upon BR cxtromcly vdglw. Bencc, although in ordinary C;LEY.E~CIX~ Lcfore consonants there is no diffcmncc hotsecn thc onaccentcd or wonk terminations written -a, -er, in ordirhry Glossic, both being cullcd -II, thuy htrvc diffcrcnt tcndencios; and are hence novor permitted to rhymo, cxcept when :h IurlicFua cffcct.is intcnded. llcnca thcy will ir1 future be distinguished as n, e,: Dirryllabler in EE Distinguished from Murmur Diphthongs end Riphthongr in B.--'1'6is vocnl syllabic R or er enables us to draw somc importnnt distinctions. l'hw ower (one who owea), tow-er (one who tows!, row-cr (ono who IWVE), hllvo each two syllables,, ou-w, loa-u, ma-u, with pure vowels before u, but oar (of a boat), tore (did tear), roar, have each only onn syllable, as no-% lia-4, rwt7, with a murmur diphthong in which the vjirei is changcd before ir. It should be remarked thut in Mr. Smart's Pronouncing Dictionary tho dist.inction hero insisted on is not clcarly mndc. Sce Noe. S3 to 64 of his signs, as, given in Section XI [I bclow. Again, pople arc apt to at11 a *' drawer," :tnd n chest of I' dnmvors," draw, druzrz, in plnce of drnw.z, drrcrrsiz, thc mlurmur diphthong rrrrii bßing unpleasant ; but this 'I drnwors" onght not to rhymo with " ChwE, 1)R\VE," because in thcsc thc " vanish " cwti,which has tho samo sowd) would he out of phce, and I' druw, druws" should never be called drawü, drawüz for thc reason. But drawer (one who dmws) is always dratd. Hencc we write in commonglossic draw drau, drawer dray, draw-er drawer, draws draw;, drawers draum, not only to shew the distinction, bnt to point out whore an added trilled r' is or is not permiseiblß. Of course, all these "permimione " and."pmhibitions" to add un r.' depend upon an older dite of the and at a future period customs may ontircly change. But the singer hen to learn the educatcd litemry received pronunciation of and no other. V'', '. '. ' ' Beo. VI. vowm QLIDES, I)Irumoms, THrrnmoms, AND VOCAL IL. 55,. ' lo Vooal R in Qerman, Italian, or Frenoh- do (p. 474, which is arc'+oo, or ui'oo, the glide being Thm is no such thing it8 a, vocal r in rcccived ' formed only by closing the lips from the widcopen &nuan, Italian, or F&ch ; but in,,qcrmm in to the higb-r6und folm. This is a Lancashire ind unaccented syllables, the common r " often Derbyshire "lip glide." Similarly, uu+oa or ;lion renlers the pmceding e " obecurc, that is, like 16 is. n wry common '' lip glidc " diphthong in the ' or.w!. "hus German eior (eggs), feuor (firc), South of Engllmd, and may be const;mtly heard bhder (ribbons), miinner (men), arc naïd,jobi.ro', in tho oxclamation, " Oh! " and in a doubtful bnwch', tnae~r.ur', with a very faint teak glide on " No!'' On tho mlogy of do it may be written to the which, howevcr, is never IoRt, so that da. Tho common " vanish " ouw is also sf the 'find " c", and. II er,'' on which much of the sense rio CltLaE, for it is generally madc by bringing the dßpends, are never confused, lhlw fran (H. lips closcr together, while prono~~ncing ocr, without. pod woman), ein guter mann (a good man) am raising the tonguc, and hence is not completely distinctly aai.ntr' gwtrr' fraag, saïsa goo'tttr oatïï. Both rio and ;n should be avoided, and thc maaw. Similarly faint trills exist in Cumherlnnd, full 00, OR Rhonld bc struck firmly and, clearly. A Derbyshire, and mnny provinccs. The Germ;Lus, similar 'l lip glidc " would occur in i+m or irta howover, very frequently me thc uvular 'Y (wo (comparo Frcnch Bke, p. 49b), and in ni+ro or &o p. 51a, and 'r in Glossic Index, Section XII) and c+oe or Eoe; also in an+no or ii8uo., And in in placc of the trillcd T', like ow own Nnrthlunl,er- the same waywo might alter othor vowels. Many hnd speakera. of there occur RE provincialisms, and all have to be sedulously avoidel, except IL^ exercises to LICCOIIIO - acquainted with thcir cffcct and k!srrl how to coltcct it by lmnwing its nittltrc. There :tre :dso 1, 6. SIXT11 cl.:iss 01.' 1)Il'ILTItOSGS, AlllSlSG 1x051 " throat glidcs," where the lip ;ml longue remain,. los-nvp. (+I.mEs, TAP GI.II)EE, 'L'1utoa.r GI~ES, at rcut, rind th(! cshlngo is cffected in 1111: throat. i ds1) NOSE (;li.ll)ee. The most markcd of thew is ;+ce or iw, written Tho cltsscs of diphthongs hcrc cnumcratcd ilrc h,, where the throat id narrowecl dllring utterance!, properly apcttking not t.lw only ones which can or This is also 11 Dcrbysllirc and South Lancashire do OCCIII'. In moat of thcac C;ISCE lhcrc is 1111 solmtl, which s11011ld bc :tvoided.! a1ter:ition ofponition n1 the tongllo, or of ldh Thmo arc also nssal dlphthonga, in which onc or tonglglw :ud lip, or of toque, lip, and throat. The both elciuents alre ~radiscd. This iti. pni-ticularly tongue? mtv mow nlonc:, t'ornling " tongue Elidcs." thc cas,e with ei diphthongs when :m II - follows I. whkb is tho hm natiire of tho '' vtmish" niy lsce, p In this c:m we have, therefore, 16now!p And thr, lips may also move alone, as in glidea," which should also be carofully avoided.

37 b6 VI I. GLOTTIDS, ATTACK AND ltelease OF VOWELS,.\SPlllATk:S. Qlottidn Deflned.- l he, subject of the present : from a tap into a jug, or decanter, as it flh. bis Section is of cxtreme importance to the singw, and cannot bc- wed b; the Einer ; it is as much a noka it should,bo well studied. l h? speaker ab0 will and an annoyance as the wind-rush over the find it useful in corrcctiny many faulty methods of mouthpioco of a flute. Hence the singer hns to commencing. voweh, especially aftor consonants. avoid it LLB much aa possible. In other positionu, l ho nature of the I glottis. ie cxplainod on it foims consonantal hisses, to be connidcrcd p. 18n. I Glottida glot.ide are actions of the hereaftor.. glottis tmd the parts connected with it, as the vocal chorda, which compose ita sides, and the omiseionof air whichpw~ees through it,, and is especinlly regulated by it, on its way h m the lmya to the outer air. Thoir action is to start and end a vowol or othor wund, not to modify it, that is, they dealespecially with the I attack and release of vowels, and the emienion of unvocalised breath, with its pa- to vocalised breath. OH, Whisper, Qlottin Contraoted.- J!hcedges of tho glottis aro brought nearly in contact, so that the division of tho air into puffs (M p. 186) is vory imperfect indeed, and the result lien between the former flatus and the subaequent voice. It is much usad in speech, becausc it is sufficicnt to mako tho vowela distinctly intelligible to an ear which is closc, and even, with an dort, to a wholc thcatre, but it is very fntigning, especially to thc lungs, aa it consumes n very large quantity of air, even when it is not intended to be henrd at a dietance. and it is totally unfit for OE, Flatnr. Qlottis Open.-Keep the glottia aide open, nnd force tho air from the lunga rapidly thrpegh it (see p. 18a). Whon this &tus pimes &ging. Wkispered vowels aro written thus, O ce, subsequently through any vowel position, as cc, na, lac, O on, BC. 00, it producos a pcculiar sound, which ia an indistinct musid note, giving the notes of the resonance cavities through which it psscs, mixed H, Voioe, Qlottin Cloned, the Edger of the Vwd Chords being in Controt.-This is the voico with more or less unmusical wind-rush. Them connidered independenlly of its modification by.the flated voweln ; my be written by preflxing the upper resonance chamber (see p. 190). The symbol o to the vowel, thus Om, nu, Ooo, are.rruch is uneful to expreas an obscura utterance through an. flatuses flai.tusss/ derived from vowel positions. indeterminata position or glide. $I the CBEQ of Thus the voiceless odj of p. 461 might be dialectal murmur diphthongs, not arising from a written ooooi%. If we thus produce ODO, %u, %u, suppreseed Ir, which BM numerous, and often %a, Oai, PCC, we shall hear a docidodly ascending very short indeed, lading to the feeling of siaple roalo of notee; reminding us very much of the effect of turning wahr under tdernhle presrnlre voweln, this h may be used 88 the eecond elemcnt, and contwtcd with tho true murmur diphthong#,. Sm.,v11. QLOTTIUS. Armm AND IELEASR OF vowma, AYPIH~TOE. 57 thun i.;, irs, ih, of which the first hes the host,dietinct and the last tho most indistinct termin. ation to the glide. Writcrs of dialectal specimens often use ea, oa to express eelr, oar, among other sonnds ; somc, horcver, writo em, ear,..ah, and so on, where no r mikht be sounded, while the presenco of r in writing neoesaarily implies Eome pormission at least to sound v. In euch WEeE ed, aili, &c., or edì, aih,.&c., are tho propersymbols, an they forbid the u88 of v in speech. As all vow& require this kction of the glottis, the vowel signs cc, na, on, &c., are suppoacd to include it. on dxjving puffs of air through thc vocal chords, finding a clear passage, produra a much more audible flatus, and the result could be almost written feelh. Ringers should never um the gradual gloteid, and speakere in Englmd are recommended. to discontinue it.. In the relesse oqh, if the vowel positions are maintnined, we obtain affects like evyh, wkh, which me cxtremoly unpleasant, although in some langnages (as Dmish) thcy are received. a Clear.Qlottid.-The glottis ia closed to the voice position, befov~ the air is driven from the lungs, but tho chords are held only loosely against each othor, so that the air cnn immodiately force I Oradnel Q1ottid.--The glottia is open, or in the state for producing flatus, when air first issues, pnd is rapidly contracted ta the whisper state, and thcm tuunder, thus $86. The effect is thllt the then closed for the voim stato. The vowol position voice begins instantaneously, and without any. of the reaonancc cavities having been assumed, say preptory flatus or whisper. similarly in releasfor M, the mault is that wo hear a I glide in the ing, the air shouldcease to be forccd horn the quality of tone, of which Oce, O ce, eo are parts, the lungs before the vocalchords are separated. The Bated vowel Oce gradually paeaing into the result is like a clear or clean I edge to the vowel rhinpered vowol O ec, and this again gndually at both ends, thun gee), as distingukhed from the i. ping into the.ful1 vowel ce. This givcs an in- I burrcd odge of the gradual glottid pi. This distinct, blurred kind of, commenccmmt of the is the true method of attacking and releasing I. vowel, dled thc gradual attack, and written rowels for the singer, and all speakers whowish!; IDS. It ia common onough in carelcss spcech, but to be heard wo11 at n distance should cmploy it. 1 it is wanting in precision for the einger, because l hc dect is extremely neet and pleasant, from tho l his true singing tona cc is prcrccdedby an un- absencoof unncceseary noises. It ehould bomost munid sories of sounds, and nlthough they &W iiligcntly practieed, nnd grrat care. should be much nhorter than tho note thomeolvee, tho)- are taken to avoidnotonly the padun1 glottid but alwayn more or less offensive. If, as ~ometimes the check and jerk prcaently to b: described. An h.ppens, the Entus is made morc.prominent, which may be written the, a eort of aapirntion is produced ßvery vowel is supposed to begin and end with tho dear glottid, unless some other method isindicilt,ed, where none should be Iltterod,!md this has a very it is not necesmry generally to indicate it. Lt bad aect both in speaking and singing. After dearly separates- syllables between two voweln the vowelie established it mayleavr, off in, the which do not glide or slur on to each other. This (ame way. the vacal chords qadually.mparating hae been hitherto pointed out by the hyphcn, H) that we have a reversed glide or Lgradual which, however, indicatea.properly a union and deane, W, O OO, Oe#, which may be written eel. not a sepamtion.hence in plam of chaos kni.oa h whole dect is tharefore written 104. release in still more common than tho wual attack, and produces cven a worse effect, It would be proper to write kaiyx, or if there ia ;he usual slur kai+oa, but for general purposes the lyphen or accent-mark saces, as kai-os, kaim buse the force of the wind, previously expended rhe difference of tho,slur kai+or and the clear

38 SB OLOTTIDS, A ltack AND IlKLgALlK OF VOWELS, ASPIPATICS. Ero. VII. attnck /;ai./ur, is something likc thut betwecn.tnking hyo notea to one bow or to two bo,w on ths violin. ; Chek O1ottid.-Lct.tlw vocal chorda be W tishtly compre+, that it requires more than ordimtry force ofwind to be scnt from the lungs in ordcr to selulate thcm and allow n puff tu pass. This produces n staccato fatnnkkna.ton) cffect. When a stone is sent from n-ding, it lonvea the thong with n clam, well-defined initial volocity, very diffcrcnt to the sndden nction produced by driking the she with a very,hard htmmer. The former caae reeembles the clear glottid, and the lntter the check glottid. There is n kind of cxploeion about tho check which iu disapeabio to English, speakem, brit it is very characteridic :of the German habit. of upeaking. It is not commonly used in German for every initial vowel, but prinoipally when it is hirublo to show that a Consonant does not glidc on to n neighbouring vowel, RE in I erinnern (Find) cter. ;ssn rv n, not rr-r irr.cn as Engliehmen laually pronounce it ; llnausstehlich (unen- dumblc) oo.n;naö~r-rhtai~~~ky h. This l check is not considemd a beauty in German, and hcncc need not be imitatod by Englishmen, who, however, should put on the clear glottid 1 to indicatc the division. It may be intercsting to know that the chock ir usod RB a means of accentuution in Dnnish, aa l mand (ma.) nrda;rz, and it is one of the Arabic lettcrs, called haam.sna. It is quite nnknown in Italinn md French A vowel may be released upon the check, as wcll an begun upon it ; this is accompliahed by closing the vocal chords suddenly, and 80 tightly clomthat the air, which is dill driven from the lunga, is condend and checked suddenly. The &t is heard in speaking when a vowel ;e suddenly iubrppted, ns in mying : Did p u eee the CB... P I meaning I cut, supposing that the speaker wem suddenly unable to finish the word. It is also not much dissimilar to a hiccup. h E rehe it forma one of the Chineae kmea at Canton, eallod the Ihoo;. The double eífect of tho check attnok and chock releaee, as ;de;, is mefu1 in singing extremely ntaccato notes, nr it effcctudy sepnratcs tho notes, with mora suddenose thnn the clcar glottid, though not M plenmntly. H or Jerk, PH, HI, Ha.- l%e air from the lnnge may be kid un gdully, clearly. or suddenly. In singing and speaking the!l cloar mcthod is genemlly pursued, the IIIII~S being well intlutcd, and only. just 80 much wind being. turnod on by the action of tho mllscles of the ribr and 01 tho dinphntgm, fdei-tfmm, or muscalar separation batwoen the lungs and stomach, kc.), as will suffice to kecp the vocal chords in proper rtction, nnd force rcgulnr puffs through thenl. Tho padun1 method is not convenient for speaking, and impracticablo in singing. It would imply imperfect \-ocalisation. The force of uir set on by. the clear method may wry considernbly, producing mom or less loudness, 118 in the crescendo lrnd diminuendo of the singer. The mddon method of setting on the air impliea a jerk, or an &tion mddenly made very greut and 17rpidly diminishing to aomothing small. Thirl jork is mude by a nuul with his diaphragm, the action of whích IMY be felt by plucing tho hnnd on the pit of tho stomach. Bv n woinun the jerk, is &ectad by the museles betwocn the ribs suddcnly contracting the lungs. By n pír of ordinary bnllows wome). illnstr~tto this action rcll. After oponmg tho bollows in thc usunl.,way, we may comprcss them very gently, and thus mako.n faint ßtream of air cwe out, scarcely moving a cnndlc flame.. TlUs answers to quiet respiration. We may gradually increase the force, producing i stmng motion in the flame. This mwers to a creacendo. Or we may compreaa the suddenly, producing a violent jerk, which, will blow the candle out. This is IL strong H. But we make thc jerks slight and sumasaive,. which will blow the flame. aside and allow it partinlly to rocover, without extinction. This is an ordinary quiet H. These l bellom nclious of tho lungs (or phy~ßmsfei.anrn) require much stlldjr by tho singer, but belong mort? to the,-ment of thc voice and bmth thlm to pronunoiation simply, nnd must cousequent.ly not be.further tpatcd here. Now euppose that the glottis WUIW opou, the rcault of a jerk in wsc of &ual speech would be to producc flatus h, nith mnsiderablo initial force, which may for the qnment be writtcn hok, where the first JA representa the jerk önly. If then the mouth wem plnwd in the position for any \.owcl, lm m, we &odd have hoe#, insteud of an hol, which does not, distinguish the position of the vocal orgllns above.the vocal chords. If then WC paaaod on rapidly to O.,and ce an in tho g~d~ml glottid, WC should have an effect which.might be writtcn hp, as distinct. from tho ~kw bofore emyloycd. Tho diffegnco betweon Jbps and llrcs consists in this, thut Jqee bcgins with a ruddcrr large amount of Hntus, and hcncc with a very perceptiblo noi=, whereaa Le muy bcdn with mcroly such an amount na is perceptible, without being very strifng. The &?e is an nspirnted fas~pi, ni.lcd/ ed in the ordinary meming of the word. It hm the manifest didvantage of introducing an unmusical amount of btu8 quite unsuitable for singing. This Jq is, however, regularly used in l~erman, and in Bcotch,, and is nscd by so many Englisll speakers, that it is nwcr wrong to cmploy it, however disapenblc it may be. It is quitc unknown in Itnlinn und Frmmh, ancl mttny other languuges. Mut just 8s h] is :t jcrkci gnrdual glottid, we may evidcntly hro JI], n jcrlred clcar glottid. ThïÈ would be plqduced by bringing the glottis into tho position for the clear glottid, bcforc setting on tho air from the lu~~gs, and tjmr Betting on that air with a jerk. Tho consequence would evidently be a vowel-mmd beginning quite clearly but very suddenly and rupidly diminishing in force to the usual amount, thus RICC. It ie quite evident thpt this is the proper mcthod of marking lho plncc of tho aspirate by n singer, becauso it rnnkes the effect perfcctly perceptible, and adda nothing unmusicul. The singer should carefully practiso this dear jerk with rill the,,vo~~~clw cnding with a simple clem reloasrr, as hleeg Aleel hleej, Irlcrnl klau! hjnnl, to quick and cllow notes. The lwt gives the singing I laugh, which would b thus quitu clcar and rin~ng. It is my own practice; I bclicvc, no far 8s I have watched myself; to UHC J L rtrther ~ thm LI initially in spaking, and I find it n very common custom in England. It RP~C;LI LI alw, to bo the cnstom in India, as I hiive lrccn told by ednmted nntivw, to uae the char jerk h] only, and certrtinly the.old Sanscrit witors un speech-sounds, do not justify thc ilwanmption Of it p~evious h2 in that lungunge. In ordinnr) Glossic JI? and II) are not dietinguiahed, and Ir simply is osed. lenving it indecided which form shodd be bmployed. But in almost all English words which bcgin.with h in writing, oithw hg or hl must be pronounced. Thc exceptions m very.few, and hnve diminished of late y-. Even now hour, honest, honour, and their derivatives, havo no aspiratn, but humble, hospital, herb, hotel, have it almost nlways (thongh l hostler is now writtea ostler, the, IL h * having dirwppecud even in writing). Atten- l. tion to the propcr inscrtiou of h hns become a kind. of test of education, pcrsons who drop their ~i.cacz being considered owt of the pnle of society. Hence the gmtcst possilde attention mwt be pddto its duc insertion. Thosc who do not usually cmploy lb :wo apt to substitute B chcck, ;rnd my ;nl for Ird. l llib: onlx scrws to call tho cqmkl nttcntion OE hwrc!rs to thc spcukw s dcfcct. Others glvo R CtlrCleEs padud glottid 1/14 88 if there nover had be011 i111 Ir. This must 110 overcomo. Thc high Germans, like tho Scotch, nevcr fail to inryintte. The Italians own that they hnvc no aspirate at all, The French, who talk of their h napi* /anah naepeer ai) gcnerally rephcc it by a clear glottid g, HE l le héma bo luirvn (the hcro), the main test to their cars being tlrat the prcceding vo\rcl is nol olidcd, or a p%- ceding.consolrant rnn on to it. This tat fails fol thc single word * onze (eleven), for they my. he ~onrr z ow, leo?can s dw Nuan for l h onze heures. le onze du mois (eleven o clock, the

39 60 OLUITIDS, ATTACK AND RELUE OF VOWELB, ASPIRATES.. seo. VIL - eleventh of the month) althoullh the word WB8, with li. French actore try to pronounce the fhted jerk h?, but they Lpnerdy fail. In the South of France, however, I told that li1 is common, but that is not the mived prontulciation. A ourioue fault with m y Englishmen (and nome Low, not High, -8) ish omit the h where it ought. to be munded, and sound it where it ought not to be heard, and this especially happea when the speakera are nervow, and wish to speak particularly well. This only be overcome by patient practice on the we of the open and closed. glottis without reference ta particular words. The first great difsculty is to make such speakers bar thedifferencc, and this is besteffected hy mema of, artificial wo&, to which no aamoiation is attaohed.,see Rection XI, Ex. 16, and Section XII, Qloeeio Index, under H. COntIdE are useful in- cane of much difficulty, as :-ce ee CC : hee he8 he8 I 66 be ce hee :! JMe ee heb ee [ ce hce.ce : be ee hm! ee hee lice : : h W ce I and m on with all the vow& and t diphthongo, and care should be taken to produce the &eat of the clear jerk on weak or unemphatic oyllnbles without produang the slighted &ect of EtreW. Croak, Bleat, Wheeze.--There-are several other important glottids, such m the Danieh croak,t, or letter lr, the Arabic blht t, called koyn, and. wheeze h, called had, but 88 these are vary diflicult sounds for Engliehmen, and do not occur in the languages hero treated, they need not be further mentioned. Why H ir the only Qlottid written in Ordinary Q1orrio.-Of the gluttids here tmted, the uspirate h is the only one indicated by a special letter in ordinary G~os~~c. The clenr glottid 2 is sufficiently indicated by the abbsenceof any letter or symbol of glide. It is only in diecue.siug pointa of pronunciation that the clear glottid bns to be distingllished from the check on one hand and the elm on the other. Voioed Conronsntr -- he VIII. CONSOXANTS. nature of consonants is in EO far the amne na that of vow&, that for one whole series of them the vocal chorde ure set in nction in the Mme way, and the voico resounde in the mme cavities, m that the only real Yfforence canmints in the modiflcations of those Cavities, whi& are.of IL nature to, render the emitted voice in most (not. dl, WP, entirely unmusical and unfit for singing. These are cdlcd voiçcd coneonants. Plated Connonsnts.--In rrnothcr series of con- Eonants, the voice is not set on at all, but the Larynx beingopen,mercly flatus is mollified by remnunt p ~~ag~s, 80 that the only real difference of the resdting sounds from flatcd vowels (p. 56n) is that the remnant chambers are morc obstructed. These will bo cillcd I fluted consonanta. Whispered and Qradnal Connonante --Of course the flatod cousonant wn glido into the roiccd consoxht, which has the m e reaonance cavity, precisely in th; ame way as the Hated vowel into the completa or voiccd vowel, and in the interval a I whispered consonant will be generated. The glide may also take plam in the reverse order, h m the.voioed through the whispered, to the flated consonnut, and this transition is moro common in English, the first case being comrnon in Cisrnad, and neither occurring in Italian or French. In the case of vowels, m only the voiccd vowel W~LB recognised in writing, this gradual ohange was wked by prefixing or aílixing the gradual glottid to the vowel sign. The =ma may bedonewithconsonants, but u8 the llated consonant is 80 common as to have a special ßymtol, it luny be phced before or after that of the voiced conacnant to shew the change; thus in German Rie s (she it) pxr or szcea;.and in English, wa~ (plural of sea ) secq or sccz.v. late Connonantn.-Both of thew series of consonants have decidell munda of their own, which can always be prolongcd for a sensible time, und in maut casea quite LLB long its any vowcl. Hcnce the ordinary definition of eonsonmts, implying that they can only be soundcll with H, vowel, is incorrect. I, But thcre is H. third Neries of conaonmta which have absolutely no sound of their own, which arc I. merely positions thut entirely obstruct tho pswge!, of sound, undwhich ilru thoreforeonlycffactive by forming thc initial or find point of n glide of voiccd or flated somd~, loth OE which glidcs occur, the latter hing vary conulnon in English finals. Thcsc consonants arc cnllcd.mute. Both the 1 flatcd and muta consonants are l voiceless. Syntematic Arrangement OP the Coasonants.- Consonants have been classifled in numeruus ways. Wh& all the consonants used by diffarent nations whose speech has been invcstigatad, are taken into considerntion,.or even all the consonanta used in the received and provincial pronunciations of the four languages here considered, they are 80, numeroua W to renderanyclassification diecult and complimted. It will be necearary hure to coneider all the received consonants in Englieh, German, Italian, and French, and Rome Othon.

40 .. 62 COYSOSASTL1. whicm occur provincially or arise from imperfoci lttc!rancc, bgcausc they must IC noticcd in an) lireetions for perfect specch and studied whcn they occur, to avoid them. The f3ystematic Tablc of Consonnnts on p. 17 contains only SO out oí much mora numerous forms used in varioas langllagea. Che capit.al letters in. tho Tnble. indiate the 23 English consonanta, the srnall Roman lettomïndimte the 8 additional consonants used in (Xorlnnn, Italian, and French; and the Italic letters shew those 49 further consonants which occur regularly, occasionally, or only p?- vincially in all four 1ang~1ge.e~~ but will have only to be incidentall? mentioned. Oral and Harol Conronanta.-The linoar division is firut into two pat groups of 70 oral, and 10 nad con,sonants. In the 61nt the nose is entirely inactive, tho. uvule being pressed firmly Rgainmt the back wall of the pharynx. In the ~econd. bhs nose is open, but more or less of the on; cavity is allowed to a& with it, the peouliarity hing that the waveu of sound pa= into the outer air through the nom only, by the entire closure of thn mouth it different places, as for the mute conaono+s, but tho rownume is partly ornl. In bo;h.divieions the VOiCdeEE and corresponding l voiced consonants are placed under e d other, :he three greut.divisions of voiced, flaked, Òr imploded, and I mute, being disf;-.guiahcd by these names. Some roiccd consonants hrve no corresponding Wed forms in the Table, hcausc such forms are not in me, although of coulnc they exist..... Oral Conaonmta.-In. the i0 om1 consonants four Merent grades am dietingnished-- shut,... centnrl, later+, trilled. Shut ConswuUn, Yute, Imploded, Sonant - be 22 I ahut COnEOnqtE,cl& aperture of the plouth aglrinst MY pawxge of flntue or voico. Tho roicelenu eoriee contains tlre 9 mutes proper, as P, T, K. The voioed WAE cunhins the 9 sonante, or voiced shut consonants, as B, D;G,.in which the roico is. ect on, but. tho au forced sao. VIII. from tho lungs is unrblc to cscupc by thc mouth or nose, nnd conmquently such a condenention of tho air is rapidly producod within the mouth as to prevent thc production of any wund nltdiblo externally. Hencc for B, D, G thcre is an audible voice sound which cannot be continued beyond H vory brief period without altaring the positipn which shuts it off. Bot there arc evidently two othcr means of producing sound, by driving flatus into the aame aportnm, or by suddonly rniaing tho kryns, or otlierwieo condenaing thc :!ir. ha hat of these might bo dietinguiehcd ILB flrrtrmta fjai tenta), and tho sccond 11s implodentn firnpnploa dn,ta), which is the name given by Dr. Merke1 dmner.,wj, tho first person who drew attention to them..the second only are known to.exist in Gemmy, and also (e I apdyqe. the effect of the definite article for t my~=~d maan) in Yprksbire, kc. They may be written as OB, OD, Oc), shewing that the condensation of air, which id the peculiarity of B, D, c), ii effected not by thr entry of voice, bnt by tho contractiun of unvoi,xa air in nn enclosing cavity. These then form the 4 implodcd shut coneonants. These sounds are of conalderable importanco diulectully, but tho singm to avoid them. Central Oral Connonanto, Bis;ss and Bm8eo.- In tho 26 l central consonants there is an uuobstructed narrow paeurgc left bctrucn the tonguo nnd the palnte, forming more or lcw of a central groove, os foc tbc EE-position (diagram Sj. This gives to the 13 Lvoiced cnnsonants NBIW or less the charactor of a IL bum, of which Z is the typo; and t0 the 13 Id flatad consonnnb moro or less the character of a hias, of which 8 is the typc. The groove, however, may be almost obliterated, as when the soft lip or tongue touches the teeth, and thc breath can only get through by the yielding of the soft part, in. the hisses P, TH, and tho buzzes V, DH. These. WCM placed by Mr. Melville Bell, and after him by me in the Standard Coume, p. 61, in the next division, but 1 think that they are far mora suitcd to thil division. Lateral Oral Consonants, or L Claas.--ln the 8.g IL laternl fktlry cll consonants thero is a centml.*... I ob&wile, thc point of the tongue closely pmwing mgainet thc hard palate, round which thcre is a tolerably frco pnssagc. Thc type of the 6 L*voiced form is L, thc moat vowel-like of all the oral voicod consonnnta The type of. the 3 flntcd forms i. is the Welsh II or LH, in which one of the lateral pasa~gce (thc left) is gcmerally blocked. / ; Trilled Oral Oonnonmtr, or B Cka.-In the I4 "trilled" comb, tho central passage i s obstructed by a flexible ~ V C which,,is madc to vibrate by the action of tho pawing air, very much.- in the tame wny 88 the vom1 chords themselves, but aa tho vnlvc acts much more duggish1y and imperfeitly, tho result is a periodical interruption of the passing flatus or voice, known as 8 tlill. The typc of tho 7 voiced forma is F, the 6 flntcd forms nre only incidentally in uw. Among these am included two rudimentary forms,,t and r,. which aro not trills proper. 1 & 2. ORAL COXHI)SANTS wrti h e (1) Rowan, ANI) (2) FLAT. P. Shut Ynte. &s. Bound mrd F at.--the lips arc bronght into closo contact (diagram IS), as.ivhell breathing through thc nose, but the teeth are kept ftpart, und the nad nperture is closed, unlesr thc following somd is meant to be ori-nasal, as soketilncs happens in French only, as in paon pzhd (peacock), hencc it is genorally closed. The.. glottid is also closed for tho clear nthok g on the following vowel in received English, Italian,. and. French, but many English spenkcrs hlrvc the glottis open for thc gradual ttttnck 1, thc cffect cf which must bc considcred in the next ficction, and those (chiefly Northern) Germans who distinguish l? and B, also generally me the gmdual attack 1. The lunga arc mdy to emit breath directly the closure of the lips is relaxed, lzrt #lot na brelrrst beyn~a ; this is 1111 important pint. With the clear xtt.qck, the only ono that singom Bhould use, the lips open, the lungs arc comprcssed, and the voice acts n1 the same mment. This should be C~Mild~y Contacta and Approrimstione.- l he 13 columns in the able indicato an.arrnngemept by thc parts studied to ayoid l breathiness. Say. ylaa, not of the mouth wvhioh wme either aotually or nearly ppa, nor p. hgna, nor p-hps. In closing with the in co+at for the formation of theae shut, central, c1e.w relewe, tho compression of the lungs ccam i18 Interal, or trilled, opening! or ohtructions. The thc lip position is reached, as &$p. If thia is, flint 12 are arranged from loft to right, so thut thc the closeof R Mentence or phrase, gencrally t.he point of approximution of the organs ~OSSCS from glottis is ilnmeditrtcly opcncd, and n certain the lips to thc cxtrcme back of the mouth ; for thc nmount of flatus is drivcri ont to relicvc. the thideenth hoth tho cxtremitica come into action. speaker, written thus r~u~p~lr, or n slight click is - &e nameri written over each column shcw hy hwd, written thus R R ~ this ~, is neither always what organs the approsimltion, is effuctcd. The nor most frcquontly tho caae. l hcsc pccdiarities woda l.point, front, back rcfer to the tongue. will be examined and explained in Section IX..The pfticu1;tr action for each UM will bo Tn the mcnntimc observo that when pnn, aap are explained afterwards. This Tuble o 80 con- writtcn,pgan, aa~p are meant, the clear attack being donants may be compared, with that in tho the only proper mode of spnech.for singers, nnd Standard Couras. p.- 61, for the English 23. the fitd.windrush or click being unmusical and, maonants only. In desoribing the modc uf permissible only an special1 occasions, to be hers-. forming these consonats and their pea&: Idter examined. po~-m, it will be moet convenient to tako them in the ordm of the cblumns, which is that of their B. Shut Sonant.-Nose shut off, lips firmly. physiological formation by contaota and approxi- closed, voice aet on and forcod by the lungs into msfjoll8, the csrity of the mouth. which is placed in 63

41 CONSONANTE. 65 readinem for the following sound. AB long as the recognise cither a 1 or a B sound. When P irr lips arc tightly cloeod, the voiw pmduccs a dull expected u B seems to be said, when B is expected muffled sound, rnther of the nature of a punt, a 1 seemsto strike tho ear. But at the end of which can be considerably altered in effact by syllables no implodent is possible except as followhollowing or rounding the cheeks and the lips ing a mute, and hcnceonly P in said. On this (keeping their edgee closed), and m be continued German peculiarity are founded miny bits of fun, for about a second, or at mosttwoseconde. but the Qerman bciqg dways made to my exactly will always be finally stopped by the condenmtion contrnry to what an Englidman would my ; but of air in the mouth becoming too great to allow of the fun is often driven further than actd UBC the proper formation of -waves of sound. In allows, us in Lel~nd ~ I Bqitmann Ballada. actual prnctice the sound never huts beyond II vcry Attention is drawn to it hore for the use of English. smnll fraction of a second, but it is always enough singera, thnt they mayknow that thir is a local to distinguish P from B, that B, a glide on to a peculiarity which need not be imitated, and that if following vowel colnmencing with absolute silence, they cling to English use, pronouncing I or U RB for P, from a glidecommmcingwith a con- according to the spelling, they will be as well tinucd voice sound, 11s for B. B is quite clearly understood as Germans themaelves, and merely be produced in Englieh, Ihlian, and French, and no considered to have u refined pronunciation. Three Cficulty is fclt with it in these languages. But yeam residence in Saxorry, hm rendered me Germans do not usually dirtinguish P and B, and thoroughly familiar with Y confusion which at when they are nnxiouri to do no, they tue pl or flret aserns incredible to an Englishmen. p-hl for l, and in case of B continue the voice or I grunt for wnlc time. Both this gradual or W, V Central Burrer; nnd WE, F Central jerked gradual attack and grunt should.bc avoided Eillern - It is in thcse that the round and flat PE quite unmuaicd and unneceesury, even by poaitions of the lips becomeof importance. The Germans, nnd Rhonld never be acquired by English position of tongue is also different for the W and singels of Qerman. No Germans learn 50 dis- V. The voiced forms W, V are taken first tinguish P andh when final. They profees to nay because they are best known, but the action of the P but very nften.say B, according to the glides lips is shewnbeat in the flated forms WH, F. whichoccur.seo Section IS. The W is a peculiar English consonunt which I have not met with clueahere in.europe. The 9. ahnt, Implodent.-- his is the sound sub- WH seems to occur in some pronunciatione of stituted hr P and B at the beginning of words in 8panish, as Juan Whaaw, but whether this is a hge part of Qsrmany,and more especially in roceired or local or provincial I do not know. Saxony. The entranw to the nose and the paseage Even in English WH is passing away, and is little through the lips are closed as for P, and even the 1 heard even in educated Southern pronunciation. kynx is completely closed by the epiglobtis, so But many wo&um distinguished byita use, that the air in the month is thoroughly inclosed, wheel weal whed wed, which should be no more and has no mom to encape. Then by a strong l :onfused than: feel vwl. fer2 awl Hence the muscular action the larynx is raised, forming a I linger will have to deal with it an he doale with F, piston; which wmpreesee the air, as in a condens- I md make ita flatus Ssnsible, though he must ing pump, or a co~on a a popgun. The result I Qwaya make it short, lecauae, na long ns it lasts, is a dull thud, which somewhat regemblee the 1 Satus is always a positivo interruption of the I grunt of B, but in yet too different from it to I music. For W and WH tho lips.wre brought flow, those who know P und :B familarly to!i together nearly in, the high-ruund poaitim (dia- 12), but the aperture is closer. The air is drivon between the lower lip and the upper tongue is high-back or, in the oo-position (diagram teeth upwards to the edge of the upper lip. If 6). If t4e aperture of the lips were the name for the hand be held just before the lips when saying. W and W when the voice is set on, an oo vowel wa and f.forcibly, the different directiou of the would of course mault. Germans, Italians, and flatus iewell felt. For f, aa is well known, the Frenchmen, not perceiving that the opening of the lower lip touches the upper teeth, and the flatus is lipn is too mail to admit of mything but a buzz, forced between the lower lip and the upper,teeth, hat. our W,, thereforo, as s*ply the unaccentcd BO that not only is the lower lip mom contractod initial 68 of a diphthong. This is of course under- than for f, but the hiss is much stronger. Tho utmd, though felt as an inexplicable foreignism by blowing for wh is like that of heads of Boreas or PII Englidunnn, who himself hws the Italian other wind gods, with puffed cheeka and lips ; the uomo odho.moa am wew(non, a sound which would blowing forf is like the blowing with a thin flat be ale0 understood, but &o felt aa a foreignism by Stream of wind to coolhot tea or SOUP. For V nn Italian. The Eng1:lieh feels the Italians õõai for it is only neceswy to set on the, voice inutcad of, hie wei much too thick. The real daorence the flatus, but the effect in moving the lips is not liee in t& lips. When 00 is pronounced the lips EO appknt. mequita stiff and motionlese, their only action is to round I or d.imininh the cavity of the mouth The Germans always use V in place of English.to make its resonance deeper. But for W when it W, and cf English V, neither of which they are is pronounced forcibly (and this is better felt for able to pronounce without much practice. The wh, W flatus ha more motive power than voice). consequence is that thcy scem to say ru in English the edges of the lips tremble slightly, and the air when v is expected, and u when W is expected. It im& itself between the teeth and the lipa is possible that the Zondoner e and Kentishman s (specially fhe upper lip, and just be)-ond the confusion of his I W, v r~lay arise from his cornas of the lips; blowing them out liko a will saying u in both cases. This was asserted hy Dr. as may be in the mirror, and easily felt by Beke, but it is so many YOIWS since I have. been p- the tips of the Bngers lightly at one time ablc to hear the sound from lips to which it ww ovor both the upper and lower lip, and at allother native, that I cannot say positively what they do. j& beyond the two corners of the mouth. while At any rate when a German talks ofone vulgar UtGng WA and tu forcibly for as long B time aa woman, saying u aoga.uu ual.gar u twmma, the poesible. Of couise, when u) is pronounced in the Englishman is apt to hear um wuolger umn a. I brief manner this bagging of the upper know two or three Germans, long resident in lip is 110 longer uïsiblc, bllt it can be just felt with England, excellent linguists, whospeak English tht, finger. By uttering õõai ruai, õõea waa, &c., well and with a good choice of words, who have in rapid succession.this effect may be better got over other di5culties, often thought inauperperceived. It was for this reason lips able, and who cnnnot,(or at last du not) pronounce eaid to be. round for W,perhaps inflated the English W with certainty. In the North of & U bagged might have been more expreesive. Germany V is said to be used even speaking On the contrary there is no bagging of the lips for High German. I have never yet heard V from a v, F. The lips are by contraat la flat. The German when speaking his own langußge. The tongue is not nemmarily raised, as for W, to the noundof V is BO much more musical and better high-bmk position, it seems indeed to be rather in suited to the singer than v, that singers are the position for the next vowel. The corners of recommended to we V for V even in Engliah :h math rather pinched in than not, and the Binging (,WC speaking, and at any rate to beatow F

42 6 (i CON8011ANT8. ho. VIX1 P t w e upon its acquisition if they wish to sing German songs. W and WH occur in Engiish whenever they arf. so.writton RE the beginning of a word (exoepl. WOI~E beginning, with who, in which. the UI is not, attcndfi to. V occurs ir. German wherever W is written at the beginning of a word, and also in the initial combination qu, called h-. E occurs in Qerman only after P, aa in. pfahl (post1 lfnwl,. whom tho combination is much msicr than pf 84 pfaa.l, for which the under lip had to be suddonly drawn back and premed against the upper teeth. But most of the educated Middlo rrnd Upper Germans are now learniug to um pf. Soma German theorists UBB f whexpwer a German wordbegina with W, as von (of); vtiter (father),.thus f.am, f wtur ; but I cannot recollect noticing this in practicc ; it may exist in some districb. Bothf and v occw na the sounde of written f, Y in Hungarian. The v OCCUPB also for written b, v in Spunieh. But all four consonants W, WL, u, f, are.absolutely unknown in Italian tmd.hnch. BB, WE, Lip-trilled Bums, PB Liptrilled Hia-For yw &tue being driven.forcibly through the lightiy closed lipa, they a? made to open and ohut with great rapidity, thus interrupting and checking the current of air alternately: Babies delight in the sound d pr, but the principal rason for. calling attention to it here, is that it roughly represents the action of the vocal chorda in the larynx, whi& open and shut in the eame manner, only with much greater rapidity and perfection. The lips are sluggish and require much force to move. By controlling the extent of their vibrations by muscular btion, or better dill by a ring of metal, the vibmtionnmay be confined to the extreme edge.. The mouth-piece of a trumpet, French horn, or Trombone, is a contrivance of this kind, and it ie this vibration, this. &es of puffs, which produces tho musical tone. This tone, therefore, receives ita originnl pitnh from the tonsion of the lipa and force of the wind, ia then reinforced nnd qualifed by the resonance of the cavity of the horn iteelf. In the me of the French horn, tho ~I~OI-UW S hand insorted at tho bell opening, enabl& him to alter the pitoh and quality of the tones. The,analogy between this and the motion of the vocal chords, the cdty of the mouth and action of tongue, is complete, and may serve to rondcr tho oporation more evident. For br voico ttrkcs the place of flotlu. and considerablexortion is required. This sound is interesting BB the void sound of %r, and also for being used in a very forcible stato, with Q cloar and almost motallic rattle, for stopping horses by German coachmen..in a very tight stato,. it is a defactive -utterance of l r in England and probably everywhere, written W in Glossic. The lips for wr are tight, not loose na for W,. with which it is usually confused,, especially in print,. because W is the neareat sound to it, but those who really use this Iwr, resent the notion thnt they say W. The tightness of the lip much limits the amoune of trill, and hence makes the, sound more like W, but the sound is generally muchmoro lengthened than W. This is tho drawler s vory ~ d~e wt-i e -dl UBUdly written vewy wude in Punch. It is needless to say that singom mus1 have nothing to do with p, bp, or wr, which are here explained merely to be corrected NASAL CoSSoXANTS WITH OUAL lk3onaxcx hm1tell HY bwnvu LIM. M Bhut Hum, and YH..khat Bnort.--Por Jn the lips are &E for t,.but the uvula is advanced (diagram 22:, so that the voice pan- to the outor air through the only, but is permitted to resound in tho whole interior &-ity of the mouth, just as it does for b, but with thb advantage of a free outlet, whm the nome is in a healthy ad unobstructed state. If the nosebe obstructod by piqching the uostrils tightly, the mme sort ol mu&d sound will be heard na for b, but decidedly -. qaaliaed by the resonance of the nose, and it \vil1. rspidly ceme by condensation. Various other. changee of quality can be &&ed by compressing..,. the nose at different places and with different. degree^ of forco, from the end of the bony pad, down to the nostrils. Such experiments ghow tho meening of naeal resonance When there is much, n~wous hwwkuaj in the nose owing to catarrh, flaraa-r), or cold in the hcad, the resonmce is muoh injured, and )II comas to sound rather as R. defeotive b, whioh may be written bu!. It may be imitated when there is no cold in the head, and ia. neìd to exist BB a usual sound in Westmorland. The cn itself is m vow1 that completo airs can be exeouted upon it, which aw then said to be hummed. It will bo found, however, in running the scale up and down upon m, that the tongue is very active. The lower jaw is depressed and the tongue low, in tho low-mixed position for the lownotes. Aa the pitch des, the jaw risen, the teeth look, and the tongue risa in the. mid mixed form (diagram 4), the rosounce,being muoh injd, if the tongue is not kept in the &ed position. The peculiarity of tho tone makes it desirable that sinpm in general should not dwell upon it, although as an omasions1 variety, musical prts h&ve even been writton for huiming ; thue Mozart in the Magic Flute hua given a few bare topapageno (Italian Pa0-pnnjai:noa, but in the origipal German opera, always Pip-puayai.nat~),.which are entirely sung on m, his mouth being supposed to be closed with a padlock. Hencecn acts as a true nasal (as distinguiahcd from a French ori-nasal) vowel. The reason why it is usnally alaad, BR a consonantdopendsupon its mode of gliding, hereaftor doacribod. -It occauiandly forma a syllablo in English, as in rhythm ritkna, ohasm karm, spaam spa~rn, prism pris.m, and our numerous -isma; na sophism aofizm, where it forms B diatinot syhble. But in the tarmination -ha, it ought not to do so, as elm ehn 00t e h, 6lm jiur not Jhn, because the I ir also mael, and glides on to if as if it wem a vowel.., Some persons even, my cl.urn,jl.tm, which elmds miwtbe carefully avoided. But when m forms a syllable by itself. singeers will find it convcnient to follow this hint, and say knru m, %c., making the e burr very short, taking thu chief length of the note to tho vow01 tr or 16 at pleasure, and ending with R sharp glide on to m. which will be just faintly touched, so as to haro as little of the disagreeahlo nasa1 hsonaucß as possible.. In saying karaa properly, the buzz of the e is heard till the mouth closes for ~JS, and the uvula bcing immediately opened for tho nasal sound, there is merely a nass1 glide while the tongue is remol-ed from the e position, no that no- vowel ut all is poenible. For cnh, flatus is treated in the same way as voioc for m. It is not an acknowledged elommt in my mode speech. of But it. is recognised in. English by Mr. Melville Bell in l lamp, which he writes hnhp. Thc heacing of this will lm understood hercnftcr, when WC come to treat of the glidcs OllAL ~OSSOSASW W1T11 LIPS ANI) TEETH. F Central Hiss, end V Central Buzz.-Theso are the only consonants formcd by the joint action 3f thc lips and tocth. The lower lip is somewhat retraatod and prcsscd more or loss tightly against ;ho lowor edgo of the upper toeth (diagram le) and ;he flatus or voice being forced bctwecn the teeth md the lip, blows the lowcr lip slightly upward3 md outwards. Tho pressure of the. lip on the ;seth may bave any degrco of force, and as it.ightens the lowcr lip is less retracted, till finally ;he flatus and voice passes thc teeth so easily thna ;he ear cannot tell whether f or f, v or v were, intended. Hence it is not 11sua1 to find both v and U recognized. in any language (as they a r e. il Dutch, where, however, v is rather p or fu, sen p. 61b). In German, for example, khough v is extremely common, u presents such peat difficdti.cs (p, 63) that crcn Dr. Merke1 in doecrihing..,.

43 . I 68 COX#ONbsn. Sec. VIIL it ahewa that he did not appdte it, and heim we may believe that those who asdert the presence of v in German am m error. Engliah, Italian, and French have distinct v but no u'. erm man has f in general um, and f after p, but even this is becominglost. The E U forms wh W, f' v', f, u, are thus distributed- Bhgesh Wh. W - - f ff Ge k f v'-f Italian,,.... f s French, f u In mod& Qreek where v and not u' is recognised, I have head all formn from v' to u, the dental character inoreasing with the vehemence of the speaker. Probably the name may occur in Spaninh, and poaeibly the Iwan v is thua descended from at1 older Latin V', a chsnge whioh hae also occurred in the Indian hguagea. The singer h to use f in all four languages here treated, and v in all but German, where he employs the much pleasanter v'. Of colme if the. singer or speaker has no front teeth he must use f and v' in all languages. But singere are bound to fill up MY gap in the front teeth at least, to prevent any deterioration in their quality of tone. In singing, the sound of f being entirely unmusical, muet be reduced to the sdle~t posaible dimenaions, sufficient to make it audible, but real audibility muet be seoured, even at the expense of musicalsound, or distinctnesa of speech will be altogether lost, because the glide from f would be confused with the glide from p. The learner must practise Ruch exemks as faa fa& faa, pan paa paar jab pna faa, paa faa paa, with all vowels and at all pitchea, alowly and with great rapidity, taking care not to make the hias of f too prominent, and mhould placa L friend at a dietanoe to inform him by siht rignab, which is heard in each came. Soundo without meaning aould be ohom for this purpose, in order that the ear of the lib? may ' not be prepoeeessed. V and B should be exercised In the asme way, the bum of V not being too prominent. Then W and V, a very di5cult exercise, and, still more difiult, V and V'. Much practice is hem necessary. The final f and u mut also be especially practised to avoid lengthening the f, or adding on an f after ahortoning v, and thus saying haawl or haclvf inatead of ;baa-v. Upneceseary flatus must be avoided by tho singer on all occaeions ORAL COXEONANTE WITII TEETH AND POINT OF TONQUE. TE Centrd Ehr, and DE Central Bnz!.-The point of the tongue is the upper teeth so that a small portion of it can be juet seen below them, but the thickness of the tongue rests against the bsck of the front teeth, M) that the tip of the tonguo is not actually between the teeth (diagram 26, in which the teeth &re represented aa too far apart) ; at the same time the top of the tongue rests against the side upper teeth rathcr tightly, much in the sameway as for t; EO that really the greater part of the flatus for th and voioe for dh pasees between the toeth and the tongue. There is therefore not a great deal of difference in the effect of the hisses off and th, both being produced by forcing the hisses of air between a tolerably stiff obatruotion (lip for t and tongue for th), and a perfectly unyielding obstacle (the teeth in both -E). Hence f and th are eaeily confused The principal dxerence lies in their effects on rr following vowel. Such a phrase as vat$u$n ou uir pfih would be unintelligible in place of dhat thin $B ou dhw and foreigners do not confuse th dh with fi u, but with their t' and.d', which have nearly the mame position and glide. In Orkney, Shetland, Kent, md pad of Sussex, the words '' the, they, that, those," &c., are pronounced with d. Under certain circumstances dh becomes dl und th becomea t in other dialects.. Of course, no educated Engliehman is liable to make suoh confusions. CONBON-. The sounds of th, dh, ere by no means peculiar b Eqlinh. Icelandic, Modern Greek, and Arabic,.have both th and da, Spanieh haa t.wo sounds which strike the English ear as, the same, and Danish haa dh. But it so happans that them wund are utterly unknown to &mana, Italians, md Frenchmen. For them the simplmt rule is,,,place the point of the tongue between the teeth ad try to say 8, B." The result, though imperfect, h nt leaet always intelligible. The singer muet treat these as he does f, u ; make the hiss and bues very short, but audible, md rely chiefly on the glide. He ahould exercise himseli with th, dh, in precisely the same way as with f, v, and should vary the exercise by mixing dl four lettera together, aa faa thaa van dhaa, faa dhaa vaa thaa, faa dhaa thaa vaa, and so on. And it is still more necessary for dh than for v final to avoid the gradual release ; bewaro of making bresdh into bredh! or bresdhth, because it is very common at the end of a sentence, and because the final whirrper would of effect in singing. -- spoil all delicacy 6;6, 7, & 8. ORAL CONEONANTE, WITH (5) GIXS AND POINT OP TONGVE, (Gj PALATE AND POINT 08 TONGUE, (7) THE FUONT OY TIIE TOWXE AltCIiED OB CONVEX TOWAUDE THE HAUD PALATE, AXD (8) THE FIKINT Ol? THE TONßUE HOLLOWEI) OK CONCAVE TOWAUDE THE HAND PALATE. It is convenicnt to take these four serics together because they are so closely related that one helps to explain the other. T, T',,T Shut lutes; D, D',,D Shut Sonanto, 'D, 'D',,'D Shut hp1odents.-for T the lips and teeth are open, the upper surf~ce of the point of the tongue is presaed firmly abminst the hard plate, jnat behind the gums, but not touching them (diagram le), and then the outer margin is. Over the phta and ngainst the teeth, so. aa to completely prevent the passage of air through the mouth, but yet to leave a considerable cavity between the top of the tongue and the palate just behind the placewhere the, point of tho tongue is made to touch the palate. The glottis is ready for the clear attack, hut no air is driven from the lungs till the tongue begins to move from the palate, just a8 for P (p. 83) and the formation of D and O D from T is precisely the same aa that of B and OB from P (p. 63b), and need not bedeßcribed again, but OD requires especial notice because it is the only implodent constantly used in some Engliah dialects. In Cumberland, Westmorland, Yorkshire. and Durham, the definite article ths is regularly pronounced Od or Oc?', and in Landire, Cheahire, Derbyshire, and North ' Lincohhire, it has that sound occasionally, its regular form there being the simple hiss th. In such a phrase as " at the door,'' the " the " sinka into Od in all these counties, as aat Od dooril.', with very gentlo r', which is sometimes quite inaudible. In singing provincial songs this has to be attcnded to, as Od or th is not reckoned as a syllablc, and hence has no note allowed to it, but in either case there is an interruption to thomusic,which for 69 general purposes has simply to be diligently avoided. The position of tho tonguo for 'l', D seems to he peculiarly English, in Europc, and pcrhups in the world. The Indians recognise it aß the same as that of thcir " cerebral " (8erìbrel) letters. But these are more properly,t,,d, for which the under (instead of the upper) side of the point of the tongue is pressed against the same point of the. palate, or one slightly further removed from the gums. This hollows out the front of the tongue behind.the point of the tongue, and gives a peculiar &ape to the cavity above the tongue, which is also affected by the way in which the tongue haa to stretch out sideways to.form a firn closuie with the side teeth. The effect of this hollowhess on the following vowel is rather marked, EO that,tao,dao are really quite dist3ct from taa daa. These sollnds nre mentioned here '

44 because of their connection with othor important sounds in the snme column, nndbccnuaeanglo- Indiana are 80 much troublcd with them. In fact, our t, 4 positions lie exact1.ybetween the ((reverted,t,,d, and the advanced t,.&,. for which the uppa suriace of +e tongue is brought firmly against the pmb, with the under part resting aguinst tho front teeth, the rcst of the C ~ O S U being ~ formed with the sides of the tongue and the aide teeth ae before. These are the Lidental l, 6 crf almost every nation of Europe except the English, and notably of German, Italinn and French ; and they also occur in India as well as,t,,d. The intermediate character of our own t, d renders it extremely difficult for an Englishman to. hear the d8erence betweon the two Indian pairs of letters, t, d and,t,,d, although important differences of meaning exist according an olle or other is.used, and I have. been told by Indian. Civil Bervnnts who had been many years in India, that they were unable to hear the difference. Yet. o native Indian who #poke English well and had been in France, in speaking with me at once identified his dental or advanced t, d with the French, and his I cerebral or l reverted,t,,d with the English consonants. The dental,t, B hinly occur in some English dialects before T, andespeciallywhen t*,follow S, and. listening to a German s rt r aong for utv ong may aseist the loarncr to a right appreciation of the aound. S, BE, B, FE Centrd Hiriee, and Z. BH, Z, D H, Central Bnzrer.- J!hoae who whistle m aware what changes they produce in the resonance of their mouth by the motion of the tongue, which in everi position must allow the au to pm centrally over it towanis the lips. For S the front of the tongue is I arched, that is, it is convex the upper part (diagram 19), and the sides are held tirmly%y the palate and side teeth (diagrrrm 28) 80 that there is R narrow channel over the upper s~~rface of the tongue, narrowing still mor! towlrrds the point of tho tongue and betweon it and the hard palate, gums, and teeth. The point of tho tongue is kept quite hard and stiff, and is perfectly unrufeed by the passing flatus. The lower lip is somewhat retractad. The glottis is wide open. This in the ordinary so-called I dental s. Very little change is produced in the hisa by hringing the point of the tongue over against the lower gums, and * advancing the strongly arched front to form the very narrow channcl bctweun tongue und teeth. The sharpness of the hisß deponds on the narrowness of this channel, and appreciable diffsrences of effect are produced by widening it, nmong other reanom, because it is then di5cult to kcop :he tongue stiff enough. This I advanced form of u is useful as a corrective to thosewho have a tendency to lisp, which wises from bringing tho point of the tongub in the firat position so near the hottom of the front teeth BE almost to strike it. Whon not quite striking, the effect is that here written t la, and ismid to be the sound of,e in Tucan (tho best) Italian, when followed by i and mother vowel in an unaccented syllable, A f t e r these explanations it will be seen that an Englishman neod not trouble h i d with acquiring t, 6 for foreign hguages. His own t, d 88 grazia (thanks) graa.fhezan, vizio (vice). doeely resemble them, and can omion no mistake, uee.t h ou, but this is. not the pronunciation because they never occur in other European recommended for English singers, who should languagen, and are not offensive to the em. The uee the recognised grnstszëm, uee.tsjëon, without chief difference being in the action on the vowel, caring even whether the t &odd or should not te and if that is attended to all will go right. It is. t. The true. Spaninh E is maid to have the name only when an Englishman goes to India that he lisping sound,, but Engliahmen are here rewmhas to loarn the two other pairs of sounds, and mended fo une their own th. Say l cab, n&, :although this is a matter of great practical pots, Cuts, pub katu, neta, potß, kuts, puolr, and importance we have nothing to do with it here. obnerve the deet of the t on the following a, in i \ r hwing that part of the front of the tongue just bahind the tip, cloner to the palate, EO that there is, It hat at first, a Continuation backwards of that rutreme narrowness, which in the ordinary u lics only between tho point of the tongue and gum or teeth. This is written u, ad is said to be thc true Tukan Italian pronunciation of initid e in, aceonted sybblea, ((B in.zio (uncle) s'cran. Ille English speaker is not recommended to attempt thia He shouldconfinahimself to tses oa, touching the palate first and EO lending on to the S învolunterily. This is ale0 the recognised pro. nunciation, and is ccrtninly the wund of the Germpn initial (e, na in euzwiehn,to draw to) tsoo tsoo-tsse n. This initial combination ts, run on to the following, and not decting the preweding vowol, will reqnire much pmctiee. in German and Itdion ; it ~ OCE not occur in Engliah and French.. In all these varieties of S, the front of the tonguc is well arched, the point is well forwnrd, end there is conquently no hollowness at tho back. Bot for SEI the typical form of thu tongue is that for,t with tho under surface of the tonguc towards the palate, which it does not touch, allowing tho air tti psas over between this reverted.undm surface and the palate, and to eddj-, as it were, in the hollow behind this revorted front of the tongue. This is tho trua Indian nlr, which is &ted to,t aß S is 40 t. In English, Gennan, Italian, and Flrmch, for ah occnrs in all these ImgI1ap, the typical fonp 11as nntlergono n littln change, arising from the method in which it.was histcrricdy deiived, for it is R recent sound in all these lrtngusgea. and not primitivc, as, in the Indian, Arabic, a?d Hebrew. For true S I the pint of the tongue is drawn much furthor back than for 8 (88 may be readily seen in the mlrror and felt by the probe), and is directed towards tho hard plate at some distancc behind the gums (diagram M), so Lhat when looked at in the mirror the under surface of tho tonye M wd seen, leaing that it is not. presented to the pulate. The fmnt of the tongue behind the narrow F g o thun +ned in conaequentlp rathor straight than hollowed (it is rut.her too straight, howevef,in diagram 26), but it is s~ffici~ntly differentfrom the nrchod front of S to entirely alter thu nature of the sound. In Germany. certainly, and 60mc-,. t!mea in England, the lips m also considclably protruded for SH, being curved outwtde m UE to form a trumpet-bell shaped aperture. This is very marked in the cormand hush! and is EO well known that the merc useumption of this position of the lips, without emitting any breath, is generally Imderstood as an. ordcr to be silent. Still this position of 1110 lips is not at all essential to the production of the sound, and gives it rather an inelegttnf thickness. S is a hies, SH is IL. whiah, or hush. Y or st in Ehglish and French, Ir in German and Italian, is used to rouse and call attention. SII in all the four languhges is used to ahn, to indicito moderation of sound, or oven to ordcr silence. This arises from the contrast of the sharp hiss S, nnd the dull whish SH. In singing, the.hiss 8 is apt to be \wry prominent. especially when final, much more 80 than thc whiah SH. Some singers sccm to htrve a positivo fondness for the sound, thongh it is entiiely unvocal,and intorrcpts t.homusic painfully. It is generally possible to rccqnise the presence of evcry ~l in a hymn, where the other letters escape observation. Thc singer nust. thorefore bevery careful to shorten the hisa as mnch ns possible. It mnst indeed bc hcwd, but it shonld bo very nnohtrusive. It is so sharp cmd cutting that the lcast touch of it is well perceived. Hisses and biwses CUII be mnde exceedingly short bv a rapid separation of the parts of the mouth which generate them. Thwu seems to be a great desire, however, to retain the position at the srrd of words. Hence tho singer shdd practise mfng spes, sais, 8fZfl8, eatu, sonæ, soou, with an almost immcdiate removal of the tongnc, lowcrhg it, not by the muscular action of the tonpe, but of the lower jaw, which will drag the tongue with it, and. render the him impoeaible. Thc sounds of 8 and SH are common in all the four languages. SB is written sch in German, except before t, y at the

45 \ leo. VKK beginning of words,when it is written n, a~ in rtchen spislejr, now called 8htai'n shpwbn almoet ndiversnlly, even in Hanover, where 8tai.a rpecbn naed to.be heard forty ago. Occasionally, however, ah'tai.n, sh'psclsn may be heard (see SA' below), In ltnh so before e, i, and æci otherwise, and in hnoh ch repment this sound. The letters Z (with e', d'h) and ZH Mer only from the corresponding 8 (with d', t'h) and SH, by having th glottis closed for voice, h t d of open forflatus. But the +rownoeeof the paasage is 80 extremely ill-fltted for vocal resonance that the effect is h t of a strong bu, even more murkod than for v, dh, and more unpleasant to maintain, whereas the hissea 8, sh are much plensanter and unier than the hisees f, th, because tho air puases freely through a yrrow but unobstructed paasage, and has not to squeeze through between a sluggish obstade (lip or tougue) and an immovable barrier (teeth). This leads to Some curious results. In none of our four languages.are z, eh primitivo (they have been in all cases historically derivcd hm other aotions, which cannot be here äes- Bribed) ; and there is a constant tendency to open the glottis and lot the eaaicrhiss and whiehbe heard. In the few English words beginning with I, of which "zeal, zest, zigzag, zone, zoological " (ulj foreigners), are most in use, the e is eithcr made extremely short, or reflned by a gradual attack, BLI ~zcc.1 or BZCB.~, with tho a scarcely touched, but no singcr ahould allow himself to sing 11 or sz. In Germnn the illitial 8 before a vowel ia always pronounced gradual attack, except when influonced by a preceding vowel or 'voiced conaonnht (which can only be l, m, o, v' in German) as sie, when (they see) p%, pai-n, or sse, s2ai.n. with the S just touched, BB separate words, but sue raiw when connected. This pronunciation, though universal, is not.acknowledged, and hence singere may confiue themselves to simple I. In Italian, initial e never occur^ except under the influence of a following voioed oonaonant, 8s degno (indignation) edaiwyloa or rrdaiwy'oa, or sedai-ny'oa, with light a. The Italian initial combinations which produce thin &ed are l' ad, sg, Bgh, am, sn ;" 1 have not noticed it in cc al." These combinations donot OOCUT in French, but I have observed Frenchmen %y rd8a for Smith 8mith. There are the same words with initial I in French au in English, and the I is kept light but pure, m rad, eaest, zëzgztitig, eoan, aao-aolaozh88k. Final E (written "E ") occurs fmquontly in Englinh, and if followed by a pause of perceptiblo length, haa invariably the gradual release, as sine sirq or æifles, seanes 8ee.n~~ or accrus. But in this case the e is apt to be made very short, and the S very long and conspicuoun..this is UEU~U~. painfully prominent in children's singing. Singers should practise. keeping the, e pure to the end. The e itself is certainly qnite unmusical. though not unvocal, and from its bad quality of tone abould never be long sustained. But it nmet not be omitted, und must not rnn off.into.y. Final c never occurs in Gcrrnm. It is always a pure sharp 8, whether written 'l E, ss." as in dm (the) dmæ, nuss (nut) NUOS', or 'l M,'' ns in flusz (rirer, jo0.s. Finn1 1 nevcr occurs in Italian. Final 2 often occurs in French epcrtking, and ie written "-so," na rose raoe, but in French singing this bocomea vnozco, except boforc n rowel, so that it is only in very rccent tiqcs that nny rcnl z final has been known in this lsngunge. Mcdinl z, thut is, z batwccn two vowols, is vcry common, and is indeed tlie usual way of pronouncing a written " E " in that position in ai1 the four languages. Many languagcs have no.s, as Spanish, Ice. landic, Welsh. Initial eh never occurs in English, but it in extremely common in French, written " j," as je jase (I chatter) eheo ehdde, or l' g " before " e," n8 &ne (inconvenience) Ihlen, ge6le (gnol) ehöal. Final Eh nevor occurs in Engliah, but ie frequent in k c h speaking, through the omission of final %," as in age (age) ahzh, but not in French singing, where this l' e " is pronounced, thus alrehco., I l l i I I l I i Medial al ocom in EngMl in a Vary few words, IW diqiaion divish-en, oonfunion kic'nfïoosh, and worda, leisure beh%or or kher, t-w huzhiuor. or traha', and similar wo&. I It is an extremely recent introduction. In French it is very common, ar outrager (to outrage) ootraa.zhni. ZH never occurs in German or Itdinn, although SII is common in both,languages. L, L', 'L,,L, Lateral fnrmurs, and LE, L'E, %H, Lateral Hissen.-The common Engliah L is the truo type of the lateral paasage in tho mouth. the palate, M for T,'but the sides of the tongue are freo, m that thc air can paas between tho sides of t.ho tonguoand tho 'chmks or teoth on both sides, and in doing so will gcnorally cause both of the aides of the tongue to fluttor slightly (diagrams 20 and 27). The lips IWO widc opan, in a natural inactive position, and thc tecth aro well apart. The wholc under surfacc of thc tonguc is sccn ir. the mirror, but nono of it toqchos tho palate itself. The glottis is contracted for voice. If it is' oyen, and flatus pass through tho sumc position as for LH, the sides of the tongue are awn to vibrate'much moro. This sound of lh does not owur in English, but it is not unfrequent in colloquial French, as table taablh. although the entire omission of tho " lo " is more commun still, as taub, in which caso thc b is lengthcncd, or rather, when the b is released the tongue is in the position for I, 80 tht there is a glide. from b to 1, but tho 2 is not prolonged to form a syhble, aa in the EngliRh tai.bl; it is rather absolutelymute, though the fact of bringing the tongue to the i position and the glide up to it, convinca a Frenchom that he really pronounces it. Occasionally, when very energetic he may do EO, but thc recognised form even then is taabh', the l gliding on to Ir' (p. 66b) as a remnant of taablm, and any wund like taab'l is purely foreign, English 01 German. This tuablso is the recognised sound, ani L. is the only formused in singing, except whcr l there is a vowel on to which tho 1 cnn glide, so that the hies Zh be alwayys avoided. If the point of the tongue beadvancedfnlly against the gums and top of tho hinderpart of the front teeth, we have the l' dental".or " advanced" L'. tho. only acknowledged sound in German; Italian, and French, for which,. however, the Englishman may nlways use his own L, EO that he need fcel no trouble in making this distinction. It is, of course, Z'h, the flated form of I', nnd not Ur, which is rcally heardin French. If tho under surface of tho tongue is brought awinst tho oulate; 80 that we ha\-e a hollow front, which possibly occ;lrs dialectally in Englund, bnt 1 producell snch a disagreeable thickening of thc I sound, that singers must bo very careful tokeep l the front of the tongue wo11 rtrched for their own 1 thin l. In all these 6, thcre is a pmsagc on b0t.h sides of the tongue. By prcssing onc sidc of the tongue tightly against the tccth and puluto (as in preparing to make the click to start horscu), that sidc will be closed, and tlie result.will bc a unilateral ' fcwuilatwr'cl) or one-sided 1, written &l. The' unilateral effect ia heightened by also closing half of the mouth. The flated form of this is (M, which is tho Wclsh " U," thus quaintly doscribcd by William Salesbury in thc oldest Engliah book on Wehh pronunciation, in 1567 : l' l'ho Wclsh l6 is spoken tho tonguc bowodby a lyttlc to the rde of tho mouth, and rvith that somwhat extendying it selfe betwyxt the foro teeth the lyppes not all touching togethcr but Icauing open a~ it mere for a ryndow the right wyke of the mouth for to breathe out wyth a thycke aspirated., spirite the name U. But and if ye wyll haue tho very Welsh sounde of thys letter, geue eare to a Welshmi when he speaketh culltell, whych betokeneth a knyfo in Englysh: or ellyll a ghostc." Theae WO& are called k-i'llh~tae'll~' ae'lhr"llr in Welnh. Many Wehhmen deny tho unilateral character, but my Welsh teachor (a clergyman at Beaumaris, in October, 1857) insisted.upon il '

46 ~~ ~ :l This consonant is the only ono in Welsh which. there is a completely unobstructed paaeage, so thht offm my diffionlty, rind. hw often to bo imitate some obscure vowel of an indeterminate obacter by English people, who also sing Weleh mng In singing we may hold this BB taku l, The USU~I English imitation th, au Llangolle higdl, but in speaking we do not hold it, and Thlargotklelr for LLmn~ao Uaen, is very in hence have only the effect of a Elide lasting for a. adequate. longer time than in the other canea. The English L is the most vocal of the Englii This vowel 1 is common in German, and in oral consonants, nnd may itself form n syllable, a rluetria.u nnmea it is commonly writtin without a in little lil.1, tackle takl, apple -q% But-th vowel, ae Ischl, Gungl ZZah.1,.gnong.l, but in resonance is not agreeable enough for airigin( common words it is written SI, &B in bibel bjñb.2 upon, and hence it is preferable, $0 say lit.e r (Bible), fackel fädkl (torch), wandal v aawdl taku l, aydl, giving the principnl part of the not1 (walk). But even here the theeretid pronunciato (I and cloning with a sharp glidi m to. l, whicl tion is El, &B bzzbz1, fuke (which is really. is briefly but audihly sustained, aa prcviousl~ never ueed in wtual speech), and bnbdl.pdku 1, explained for v04 08 p. 67b). In speaking, how. v ddn.du 1 are quite admiseible, in fact preferred in. ever, l is purclg vocul after y b, t d, though a Blighl vowel, or at least a distinct glide, is percoptiblc 3 &er k g. Thus in apple, babble np.1, Iab.1, thc I lips are closed for y, b nnd the tongue put into thc proper position for l, al th8 same naorwssr~t, BO that when the lips nre opened, there is only a short glide and tho l done follows; whereae for ayrr l, deohmation, and newarmy.in singingi-in Gloeeio we write beeb.el, foakel, v aandel No v d I occm in Itdian or French. B, E, Point,E Trilled Bmrer, and,,e Point Eire, ETC, EW Point RillEd Hirmr-The first, ditfererx.e between the English initial R and L. is bnb.rc l, the lips are closed for y, b md the tongur!! l that the pusage for air is cmtval in B (diagram. put into the position for u (or II nt plc~s~re) at I I. 28 and lataal for L (diagram 27). The next,the same time, BO that on releasing the lipr, them I l ditference is that the si&s of the tongue vibrate is B glide on to u, and then one from tì on to 4, I diyhtly for L, and the point of the tongue vibrates and however ahort the u may be, this is percept- 1 more strongly for 11. The poaition of the tongue for ibly diff-t from a glide on to l only. Again for 1 R (diagram 21) nnd S (diagram 19) is very sirnibr. little flddle lit~l$dl, the pint of the,tongue when l he -whole back and part of the front is almost in the t, d position is also in the I position, and i n the ame positiou for T, S, and U (diagmn 16, without removing it at all; we simply releame the I L9,,2l) being flxed firmly against the palute and sidea of tho tongue, and thero is the smallest E bide teeth for T. But in T the point of the tmgue poseible glide heard during this motion, after 8 :top the pmiage by being preaaed up qainst the which a pure 1 remains. But to introduce any 1 &te ; for S it raarrowa the paserye by being held vowel, &B u, htween t, d and l, the point of the 8 near the gums and teeth ; for R it is hbld tongue must be romoved nnd replaced. However 1 ooscb in the ame paseage, B(WM which it cnn rapidly this may be done, n totally. different effect L flap, BO m at one time, when the point banda is produced, and this is written litdl $&:ìl. In c Ion, to admit the air to pm mora M y than for the m e of taclde, higgle lak.1, hig1, the contact of E 1, and at another, when the point turne up, to the tongue for k, g, BB we see by din- 17, C ;heck it almoet BB much ae T.. Thin I &ppine I renders the placing of the point in the pmition for C Ir vibmting of the tongue is too rapid to be I impoeeible without previody relearing the back e ffected by a voluntary mu+lar action, and of the tongue from the L, g position, arjd there is E he incapacity which so many parsons feel to kberefore. an exceedingly. short time for which Il th& r a arises from attempting s ~ch an usual _r, ßw. VIII. CONEONANTS. 75 aotion., The trill of the loose point of the it is accomplished by a voluntary muscular effort, tongue neems to be prohced. just in the m e way and we mercly wish to rcnder a nlcmbrane in- (LB in a loose piece. of paper held in a creviw throngh which the wind blows. (1 once.hud this effect provokingly produced by the loone cnd of a piece of wall-paper which came. just over -a little chink between the window-frame and wall of my voluntarily obedient to nn external force, withollt any use of muscle; and next because the tongne in saying r never flemmes thc completely checking position for d ; pnd lastly, because the ultcmnce of any voweli aa oa after d, requires the tonpc to be bed-mom; the result being horrible groans and cntirely removed from the molar teeth and then moans.on H. windy night, of which it was difficult returned to it, whereas for v the tongue must to discover the origin). By holding a piece of never leave the molar teeth, so that we are pper in the crevice of a window slightly open training,our nmeclcs fnlwly throughont. when there is much wind, this fluttering is easily For R the glottin is closed for voice, but the seen. The fluttering of flngs on a windy day is another ex ample. The loose point of the tonye is really placed in a crevice through which wind sound is constantly int.errupted by the trill, which is not fast enough to produce a musical note (as for the wall-paper in my rindow.frame) but gives is driven, and if we only take care to leave it tho effect of beats in muaic, t18 when tvo notes aaciently elastic, by relaxing the mudes of that part while the rest remains etiff, it will be rapidly driven to nnd fro by the pnssing air, and produce the requircd trill. On one occasion, many of almost the aune pitch me sounded together. This is vocal enough to be sung upon (as in the voix cbleste vwaa sailaest stops of an organ or harmonium) but by no means plenaant. Hcnce in years ago, when I was cxplaining thc phonctio German, Italian,.and Frcnch, where the trill. is. method of teaching to read before a class of naturally much strongcr than in English, it nhonld tenchers nt the Rome and Colonial Schools with a bo considerably softened, hy decreasing thc cxtcnt clase- of very young children to exemplify mg of the swing of the vibrating parts, which teaching 6n, I found that thres of thcsc children diminiahes the sharpnew of the beat, and also could not trill their r a. I succeeded after &bout decreasing both th6 rtlpidity of the.vibrations a minute in making each of them trill an r very and the length of time that they last. Rill the intelligibly by these directions. l Say z. Buzz it trill must be heard. In English it occurs only well. The children were delighted with the and always before II vowel, und is rcflmed by the buzz, and it is important for them to continue it, vocal r, that is, the vowel or (0 in other and make it strong, because it calms the point of plnccs (p. 63a). For thi, reason in the most the tongue to tingle, and they thus become ordinary English Gloesic it is sufficient to 1188 v concious that it is resisting an obstacle. Now for both the vocal and trilled e&&, thus r-on-wirlg then don t you feu1 the end of your tongue rnthcr for r oam- iotg, that is, r norir ing. ( Teacher s queer? Hadn t you to hold it velf tight? Bey Manual, p. 202). But thia double use of v hall well,. now then buzz again and let the end of your been purposely avoided in the preeent treatieu tongue go loose and be comfortable. And the where it WHA~ important to draw the. attention of trill came out at once. AnothePway of acquiring Englishmen to the distinction.. The difficulty trilled 1.) before any giyen rowel, ne in v aa, is to repeat. dua daa dao with the greatost pbeeiblo rapidity, truating h increame of speed to make the d imperfect, and hence to arrive at something like r. This is the method usually recommended, but which they experience in German, Italian, and French, and more especially Italian, ir to pronounce n clear and dietinctrill when no rowel follows, with eithez a long or a short vowel before this trill, as Italian vãàr too., French vaev trre, and if neceaeary to,.

47 , (W). No shade of an introduced vocal v, or really vowel ü, Y, muet be introduced. The vowel must glide on to the i BE clearly and shnrply as on to a d or g. It is by means of d and B that this effect cnn bo best acquired. Pmctisc liad, il, f7& ãc&, &Zdzr, and 80 on with all vowels. hr. tongue ir sometimes more advaneed than in diagram 31,so that in the upper movement of the tongue it approaohee the teeth rather than the palate. This gires the dental or advanced trill r, which properly occum after a real t (thus st r ai for at r ai tray, the common str ai), in dialects which n& t. The Ringer need not trouble himself with it. Whatever his natural trilled r mhy be, provided it is trilled, nnd made with the front of the tongue nrched he may US^ it. But thero is another trill made with the +nt of the tanguc Irolluw, as it is for,d (p. 69b, and zh (p.?la), nnd this ia the West of England,T. For this,r.the tongue is reverted, and the trill is made by the under surface of the t0ngu.e flapping to and from the palate. The effuct is extrerilely rough and disagreeable, but very charactcristic of the locality. Any inhabitants. of districts where it is used should correct the habit if possible, especially h singing, where it greatly spoils the effect of all vowels which it follows. If, howevar, the reversion is not more complete. than for S& (diagram 26), the point of the tongue being only slightly raiecd, the effect, though decided, is not by any means EO bad. Bot when voicc passes over the tip, stijhned to such B degree that it cannot vibrate, the effect is not unlike the vowel u itself. This is Yr Dlelville Bell s untrilled,,r, or l rise, as I prefer to call,it, which on this view of its formation is a mere modification of r, and hence may be regarded as a I rudimentary trill. For convenience thia J may be claased among the trille themselves, nlthough it is really an imperfect or I pervious,d, bearing the same relation to the impervious,d itmlf 8s v to I, or ga to g. dir. Bell conaiders that this is the true form of r in Engliah wherever it occurs, initial or find, only in &ho latter he consideru it R semi-vowelized sound of J ( Visible Speech, p. 70), which may be considered BB sufficiently distinguished by position. Thus he writes: Agrippa, art, permitted, for, stretched, forth, anewared, aa Aag6.ripmaa, ah,$, pd,,ivnit.sd, fo,,r, st,,rastshl, fno,,rth, a.nse,,rd, which I pronounce Ugr ip-u or A grip a, aa.t, pzmniped, fnuj, str ecat, fao.jth, aawaud. The.real dderence here is ai to the uae of r or,,r, the vowels are of no consequence, either set being admissible. To me the use of initial,,v has tho effect of defective utterance, and it murs to me that Mr Bell insisted on his form,,v to inetruct Sootchmen (among whom he had lived EO long) to avoid their very strong trill. In English the trilled r must be much lighter than in Scotch or Irish or Italian, that is, the distance by which it flaps backwards and forwards must be 1888, and hencc it must never approach the palate EO nearly, and also the number of vibrations and duration of vibration must both be lese. All thie is effectad by diminishing the force of the breath.which in driven thraugh the month, and increasing the muaoular 100SeneElof tho point of the tongue. In some of OUT dialects the mount of trill is barcly perraptible, but there is a something present different from either any vowcl or the rise J, wbich attentive examination enables us to appreciate as a point trill. A perfectly untrilled rise,,r has a singular effect. It is much used in America, and I have found tho namo of this cosntry n perfect of test, a kind of Shibboleth (Judgesxii., 6) for distinguishing even those Americane who speak most like Englishmen. They always my rrms,6rniku or a tne,,r.ika, not u1ne1-4= or a tner %ka. All these forma of R would have their flated forms, such as FA, r h,,ta,,,th, of which the two first are introducrd into the Table, M, in colloquial French, -re often bccomcs v h, or more properly perhaps r h, a8 sabre aaabph,.or still mom colloquially eaab, but more properly saabrh, and in rringing, suabreo. Compare the French lh, lh, p The 0sted,Th,,,vh, I do not remember to have heard. 6, 6, & 8. NASAL CONSONANTS; WITH OUL RE- >e prolonged and have the main effect of the note, SONANCE, LIMITELI BY (6) (3UMS AND POINT OF jut just at the end it glides up quickly and briefly TONQVB, (6) PALATE AND POINT OP TONQUE, ;o.ta, which is just touched before the voice quit8 the lote. The 81 is thus made audible, and the effect (8) THE PAIATE ASD REVERTED TONQUE..B totally different from oa-yu, while the sharp R, R, $Jl Bhut HUUIE, end NH, W H, Shut ;lides to n in on-pett, on-yrra. are altogether avoided,. BIIOrtE.--The tongue is placed precidy in the IO that these disagreeable pronunciations are not BBme position for n as it is for dl for. n a8 for d, pfeuented to the mind of the listener, and the for p as for,d, but the nad passage is opened in horrible change of quality of tone from oa to N is the nsual way (diagram 23), and the voice escapes not heard. This is the method in which singers through it entirely (shewn by experimenting with tre recommended to sing the syllables which conthe nostrile BB for ea, p. 66b). But there is a tain a aimple 19. Of course, they will continue to &riance in the part of the mouth communicating Speik them correctly. Compare the remarks on with the throat, and limited by the tongue. The cavity for fa thua formed is much um alle^ than the cavity for m. Henoe the resonance is not so full. The difference is easily tried. Hum a few notes on m, and then repeat them for ga without opening the lips, and finally repeat them for II with the lips open. The flrst quality of tone differs decidedly from the second, but the second and third arc identical, shewing thathe part of the mouth beyond the tongue in cam of II has n6 effect on the resonance. he II is decidedly more nad, and less musical than the m. Still it is possible to sing on n, which forms a distinct ayable in many English words, as open, oayrz, taken tai.kn, lessen les-n. In the well-known bass song, The 8ea! the sea! the open E=! (words by Barry Cornwdl, that is, Proctor, and music by Chevalicr Neukomm BheovUZyai Nwikaonr, in English ïvoyoi.kurn) there is a long and important note on the het Of. Op. Philipe, who WBB the original singer, always sang.the 61 en to ta, and the dull nad deet (I have heard him Ring it) was very disagreeable, coming 88 it did immediately efter the flne oa. But Philip contended that the word. open waa properly pronounced oays, md that it would be erroneous to ay either orrpm or oa+w. he true middle course is to say wpu n. The 3 is to \ d m, p. 67a, and vocal 1, p. 74a In such a word &E ocpn, the syllable on n has no glide loading to it. The mouth closed for p may remain closed or CIF for 88, as we have seen, and tho tongue asaumes the o position so rapidly after the p C~OEU~~, and before the nnsal pasw~ge is opened, that no vowel and no UA wn intervonc. To say orc.pw~~, OO.~II~, would be difficult evcn to English organs. But for owpa rr thc mouth O ~ C before ~ E the nasal pnsuage opens, and hence an oral vowel escapws. In the still more common m68 of vocal II after t or cl, 88 caten ce tn, Newton Newlrr, sodden soh, wooden wuoda, there is rrbsolutely no motion of the tongue in passing from the mute or sonant to the II, and hence no glide on to the IA is poasible. The nad pamage is opened, find the naml resonance is added to the oral; the utmost tllrtt can happen by way of glide is the pssage from imperfect to perfect nasalisation as the uvula laves the back wall of the pharynx. It is, however, alwiys possible to remove the point of the tongue and produce a real oral vowel, and hence an before we may and ahould sing ee.ts n, Ncwtu n aoddn, luuod-u % In wme8 like oaken oa.hva, bfoken broah, twiggen twigw, there ahould also be the shortest possible glide in passing from k to 11, but exactly as in takl, hig l (p. 74a) there is more tendency to introduce a vowel, and in me forms, &B chicken chickin, a clear vowel is usually. empbyed. For listen lira, mizen miza, the glide is very short, as the tongue for c, I is already half 77

48 i.-- ~ I -. thrown up. In kitchcn X.icR+a a clear rowel is common, but not EO in Iwechen, bimhen bii-ein, berchi, nor in ashen, frcahrm mhtz, frrslrn, where the batment is qnito.similar lo thrrt in Zirn. And earthen &k'?i, heathen herdhn are similarly related to aet'n, but na tho th is quite dental the? will bo a tendency to USO the dental d' in preference to the real English N ; in fact, thorn is a difflculty in retracting the tonguo from the th position (diagram 26) to the n position (diagram 23, and I flnd that myown praotise is, not, to retrnct tho tongue, but to lewe the point against the teeth, and miso the part jubt behind it to touch tho gums and palato up to tho. spot where the point is usuull\- placcd for M.' This would not be tho CILEO in languages. Voclrl n" is very common in ordinary German spcch, but it is considered incomct, and it should ~ W I I ~ bo R replaccd by nnobfacurevowcl u' followed by n", en in English singing, thun liehl be-b#r'v" or ke.buib", for which l#c.bu'?r may be unedby English speakein, not Iwbn. In such words BB '' meinen ",to think) it is oommon to say mahyn+n, that is, tho first *a ie taken short, and then there is n perceptible diminution of force, without a complete cessation of voice, followed by Y new vocal rt: It is better, however, to aay ttbahynvìn, and in singing this is n6cessary. Gernuw profess to my tnaay$a.t%z, bnt this iß not the prnctice even in solemn declamation. There is a cambination of syllabic vocal l with the ueual non-syllabic $1 very common in &m'an, which Englishmen ofton find di5cult, BE in nudeln nwcdlrb (vermicelli), wandeln u'ã&.ol#a (to walk), where the combination is similar to our' fallen fauln; or ae some pers~ns pronounw kih (for which kil is more ~lsual), and like our sign. In Ringing and spenking say raowdu'ln, u'lmnviu'ln not nmvilu'n, v'ilcia.dln'n (the usual English error, and still lesa noo~tldld~a, u'ann.drr'lu'n. In usual Glossic we write nwdsln, v'anwlln. ' There is no vocal n or )a'' in Itdian or French. sometimes honrd.nu a kind of anurne. Ad & a defective uttorauce of childmu, and when we endeavour to clear an obstruction in the now, by closing the mouth RE for t, and blowing through the nasal pasaasee. It is no longer recognisd,.ae an elemont of speech, except by Mr. Melville Bell, in such a word na tent, which will be considered in Seotion TX, but it formerly repl~wd the I' k " in words beginning with " kn," an know," and thc pronunciation rhoa was hid down by nome orthoepists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and- nhraaa mny still be heard. in Cumberland; Of couse, singere will carefully avoid EU& a disagreeable interruption to music. The Germanaprononnco R pure ha, 88 in knabe kwan-brr (boy). - 9, 10, & 11. OML COXEONANTE, WITM (9) FEONT AND POINT OF TOXQUE AND PALATE, (IO) FRONT OF TOXQWE AND PALATE, (11) FILONT AND BACK OF TONOWE AND PALATE Y, Central Burr, kd YE, Centrd Him-This is the only form of this series which is genedy recognisad. The Longue is nearly in the m e position HE for.se (diagrams 1 and e), but it is presacd much closer to the plate at tho top, sensibly diminishing the narrow channel lcft by cc betweon the tongue and the palate, 110 thab it is difficult to nqneeze out any voice. at all, and what reaches thc dr is very obscure and broken, so th&t it diem materially from e#. Hence it is quite posaible to distinguish from yee, although many people flnd a difficulty in EO doing. t is 'not an uncommon Engliah or Gcrmansound, BE in yea vai, ja (yes, (3.) vaa. - In French and Italian it is replacod by an éë, forming a diphthong of ehe third c h (p. 48), as cavalier $orsemn, F.) kääváälëzai, des yeux (eyes, F.) daezããeo, jori (yesterday, I.) ãëar~ee. But Englishmc~l may without heaitation use their common and familiar y, and my kmváäiyai, daezyeo. ynrres, which r~re the Glwic forms usually employed. I ßeo: VIIL. coasoapa+s. If flatus is ueed instead of voico Y!I multa. This wund oceura only in English, in such words 'M hew, hue yhioo, Huglioe Yhioo8, human yhiwmu'ra, humid yhïovrnid,. humour yhioo'mu'r (formerly called yoo.rntr'r). But English orthoepiets bave gemrally failrd to recognise it, and consider tht A&W, h+z, It&matìr! arc the ma: sounas, and thiq W- moat probably a previous pmnunciation. As singera should always avoid tho introduction of flatus whon admissible, they.are quite at libertj- to aay hgioo, Ir~Ïoo.e, hgïoomr'n, with the Pimple olear jerk, and thus get a perfectly vocal pund, much eaaier to produce. In usual Glossic, therefore, we write hat, h, hewmt;, hewrnm.. ' C W Shut Mute, and J' Ehut Eonsqt. &th the Connonontal Diphthongs CE Bimd, and J Buxred, and' their. True Firnt Elements!l'Y' Ehut Yute. and.dy' Shut Eonant, and Eeoond Elementr 8"' Central Hino, and ZH' Central Buz=. -Now suppoee that the cxtmmely narrow channel above the tongue which is left in y bccomes entirely obliterated by forcing the tongue against tho palate ßo an to make a complete stop. In order to.do this it is best to plant the point of the tongue -6rmly eguinlrt the lower gums. The result is a shut sonant consonant J'. In singing j'an, the front of the tongue should not bo allowcd to hollow in tho slightest degree, or o l mom ~ or less of nn yaa effcct would bo produccd. If the rzndor suocends in making this contact firmly and releasing it well on to the aa, the resulting sound j'aa fl be almost hdintingnishable from jeu, and Itfr. Goodwin (in 1852, considorod that this truo shut connonant was the proporsound of the English jaa, which is usually analymd as dzhaa. Thc voicelese form wouldbe CH, and Mr. Goodwin ' d a o connidered this to be the true form of tho Englieh chaa, usually analysed &E tshaa. I find h m vivo vom &nervation h t native Sanscrit wholam Botunlly pronounce the two shut connonanta which am intcrposed in their serios of shut.. conwnnnts between,l and k, and between,d and g, precisely III ch', j',,and dccidcdly not ns Ish, Ih, whichhavaevidontly nuclaim to be,mnnilerud shot coneonants at all. The ml Sanscrit serie8 am X., eh',,t,. t', 11, and g, j',,d, d', b. Now the objcct of mentioning this curious sound is to draw thc singer's attention to a possibility of avoiding the initial unpleasant hisa p ~ buzz d of Ch, j, in chat, jest, 8s uslutlly pronounced, by substituting olr'sst, j'eat. The final forms in such age euch acj, if treated a~ cuca' nij' simply, wonld be unintelligible. Tho glido up to d,j' is 80 nearly the', mamo &E thnt up to t, d, that they wouldbe heard ' as a rariety of awt, ai.d, unlosa a vowel followed, or uniess soma.voice or flatus were omittcd after the letters, as is IISU~~ with all shut consonanta. Now if we release oh', not through yh (which would require eomi,&rable dort in order to retuin the tongue in its place and groore out the central chmnel), but by withdrawing it bodily, EO tht tho whole upper surface of the tongue comes to have contact with the palate, though the point of the tongue remains plantcd against the lower. gums, WC shall obtain nn "arched front" or S-sound, modified by having tho nmw channcl backward instead of forward, and diifering from, the " hollowed front " or SH-Bound, hy having the principal opening in front of the surface of the tunguc instead of behind it. On the whole thie modificationresembles ah moro than 8. and it is hence written SIL'. (Its position in the 9th colurnxr of t.he Tablc C,. p. 17, though most convenient, for :L mon to be given presently, is not quito correct; the natural ordor is rather S, SA', ah.) This sound of Sh' is said to bo the true Tuscan Italian pronunciution of Italian ce in cinque (five) sh'ëévag.- kiõai, 'dieci (ten) dëëae.ah'ce, which aound to ILL Englishman as 8IringLwuuni dyw8hi, and for which he ia recommended to use the theoretical sounds chëëng.kruni, lyae CIIES. But if a h l ch' be released; upon ah' very lightly, thw suchsh' no Englirhman would find any fault with thc pronnnciation for euch, and if a vowel followed, as in touchiw fda'%r?g. even this releaee is not neceseary. My own impreasion is thnt CA in English is not ch' nor Ch'Sh', nor leil.nor even quite fsa'. 1 find ou 75 c

49 ,that I io not be& o;nctly &th aut, for which the point cf the tongue alone should touch the palate, but that in d t y both the point and part of th fi'otrt cf the tongue lie on the palate, which is indicated by ty' in colunu! 9, p. 17. This arisee from some èè or i following t, 88 in nature nni-täd. When ty' is releaeed, it is not eaay to go to the position rd, for which the tongue is more.or lesa bent in eurctly the opposite direction, being concave instead of conwx to the palate ; but it is very ewy to drop to sh' 88 already desaribed, and I find that I &y say 8Uty.8h'. Indeed this way of deriving rh' is mostconvenient for Englishmen, nnd for that rwon I. took the liberty of putting ty' and rh' in the 8ame column of Table c, p. 17. Between ch'æh' 'and ty'sh' there is no practid dserenoe, nnd either may be considored the aualyeir of ch, which will always be wed in writing. But :ah is no doubt not the adysie, dthouyh it has been generally aasumed EO to.be. Bymerelyusing the voicc instead of ílatus, WC ohtdnj'sh' or dy'sh', and not the old dzh, as th6 dyvis of J', which will be always written. Obwrve,b.owever, that when j is &al and is noi followed by a vowel or voiced eonsonant, it ia ver) nsud to substitute dy'rh' for dg'ea', proobably beca& 5h nevcr.occura finally in our language, Thue do you know his age P' would be generally pnounoed P T h r singer &ould.evoid thiß ílatus, and endeavour tc sing aidy'ay, which is what is mennt by writing acj..tho habit, however of sayirg aidy'sh' an( the difficulty of uttering zh final, will render thil rather troublegome at first.!l%mo observatione explain also the old deriva tions of ch, j, from tg, dy, and the Engliuh habit il 1' nature, verdure," LC., of introducing a ch and. wund BB riai-chu', vu$ì (in common Qloseic nai.ehs*, usrjcr). The changa is from rrai-tiuoii ~lr.d;d through naity'u', UU~+J'U' to cdty'sh'u' that is nai.chu', uwju'. But on th' prisciple that. the singer should avoid bims ml brulem whbcnever he c&, he should dietinctly m: rsrdsur. "Aie is- ale0 recommended as far the )leatanteat and moet deeirahle pronunciation in ublic speaking., The sounds repmented by ch, j, wherever they we written may be considered the marne 88 in hgliuh, however they are really pronouncod, mmme the differences are so alight that long practice would be neceaaary to acquire them with lertainty. The ch is found in Qerman, as Ueutsch [German) doioli, Zschokke ;name of a mthor) Cha0k.u. But j is!lever found in that lnnguage. ~ ~ I M U S uee ch for it when initial, and pmd.ly ale0 when final, but eomotimes ay dch when final, &B Chitbv'dch for George. Italiane have both ch ánd j (or the substituted forms sh', GP), and when these sounds have to be doubled the &st is taken either cons~ously as t', 6, but pcnaibly in reality &B tg' and dy', or else ch' snd j' respectively. Thus cielo (hcaven) chasloa or chyw-loa, ciarls (chattering) chüwdaa; caccia (cham) k&wchyan ; gemito (groan) jas. meetou, giusto (jut) joo'æton, oggi \to-day) audyce. The French have neither ch nor j except in foreign words, where they are written "t&, dj," meaning trh, Lb. But there is great reamon to balieve that ch, J' were the munch of the present French initial æh, slr (written " ch, j ") at the time of the Norman conqueut, and even much later. KY' Bhut Mute, and W" Bhut Bonant, with their Derivativer KY'H Central Hil, and OY'E Central Bmr.--llbore closely connmtod with yh, y than all theae forma, and abeolutely confued with them occaeiody by German writers are gy'h. In the older pronuncibtion of English, whicb m y still be heard, a kind of y ie introduced after k and g before an ua sound, as cart kyacrt, guard gyawd, sky akyaai, which often paaaea into kyaëaa't, gyzjad, skyzèaat, and ìe sometimea made much more prominent, as skyss.yaal-- to be avoided 88 a nightmare by dl ahgem. On careful examination, however, it appears that there is not a successive notion cf k and y, or g and y, but thnt the back and half the front of the tongue lie on sm. VIE. correoxmm. Il the palate, producing ky', gy', ke exact counter- ' mm in &u* 9f:w.oc, ae, u sounds. a8 nicht pa*of ty', dy', in which the point and half the i (night) td#ht. kant ley on the palate, so that cy', ch', ky' form a The einger has to mako the ky'h hiss an ehort an gr5duated series of positions. This connonant re- possible, but the glide mustbe distinct. The g#'h ha moateaaily on the rowel ce, and hence becornea better by being taken BB 9 or y, ae last introduces that sound. In Italian it is not, sugpted. uncommon" in the so-dled close diphthongs (p., 46a), &B chiacchierone (immense chatterer) j LP' Lateral Blur.--Bsaume the position for ty' ky'aakky'airoonai. ßut Ly', gy' need never be already described, and 100Een the contact between mxioudy distinguished from ky, gy. j the tongue and back side Ceth, EO that there is a hing the tonaue into the oosition for h'. - nu!. lmurll exit for the air on euch sideof the tongue.,"s, and th& make 8, little ahannch in the middle for Or &e Bsauming the position for I (diagram 20), the Rir to pam, aa for yh y, and -the result is ky'h, draw up the front of the tongue (the part imgy'h. The position clearly differe from that fbr mediately behind the point) and bring it in contact. &h, g, only by having the back part of the tow with the pelate. The position.would then be LL high aæ wclì aa th8 p'mt part, but this difference ie' mixtare of diagrams 20 and I, with 27 instead of rppreoiable by a emmation in the soft palate for 8 ; so.that it might be deeciibed as an attempt to. W h which is absent in yh. The distinction, pronounce ì and y at the =me time. But it is however, is very dight, and requirea much oesential that there shouldbe a pawge on sach familiarity both with hmïng and speaking the side of the tongue. Close the glottin for voice. hgmage to understand thoroughly, so that fhgliehmen may certainly um their own yh for Wh. Thus mädchen (girl) mwdky'dan or maed- #hm, i& (I) ë8kg'h or Wh, nioht (not) nëëky'ht m djyht. But it will not be sufiaaient to use y forgy'h The gy'h when strictly pronounced, ie very sensibly eugher thau y, BB general gbhaan- Oirua-I, not yamairad; fliegen (to fly)jkgy'hu'rr, not +yu'o; berge (mountaim) baw'.gy'hta',not W-yu'. Whenever y is. thun uaed fnr gy'h, although intelligible, it has a ludicrous wder-.bd effect on a Garman em. It is far better to me a cwunon g, md?y gamaimcr.l,&c.gu'., Laer' 'gu', &LI. ' is done in the North of Germany. It is only in the tdnatinn %g" that y may be used by preference, 81 Larige (kings) km-&gy'hm or kso.n p or even ')w.rcyu. The consonant gy'h is alwap ky'h when. F, LLB kiinig (killg) kuvdzwh m ÆmwZyh. The coneonant# Wh, gy'h are h o r n in English, Italian, and fienah.. To an Engliehmsn thy at firet sound like ah, and many flnd it di&& eves after waeks of maidence in the,,'~~amntq to balieve that Germans do not auy iah,!: dah, for JaWh, iaclwh. The consonant W h ;L. I On driving voice through forcibly, there is n con. siderable rush m each side out of the narrow opening, cawing vary perceptible trembling of the mdea of %e tongue, and generally a bubbling of diva, so that the sound is anything but pleasant, and should be retained as short a time is possible. It is very unlike the vocal rmonance cf J. On releasing the towe on to an au position, m ly'm somewhat of an ec effect to interpose, and in Italian, where the consonant is common, it is always released &et on an uc, 88 gli (the, or to him) &'es.paglia (straw) pm-ìy'zzaa; orgoglio (pride) aor'gao.ly'.zzoa. In Spanish, where it is ale0 common, the ce is not written, but is heard all ' the same, ea llano (plain) Iy'ë8aawa. The sound wed to esist in French, and Littré in his greut French Dictionary. heiete on its being always pronounced, but it. bas quite Psn'ehed from received Fred pronunciation, and is replaced by ec or 88, forming a diphthong with the preceding vowel, mee pp. 466,464 47a. The sound ìy' doee not occur in EngLiah, but in saying such words as million *lizyu#; brilliant bril.ymt,.if the I is dwelt upon, and thus doubled, ci

50 . da ly' muy be generaled by the way, thw mill-ly'-ym; but thie is unusual. In Gennm the sound p unknown, and Germans are apt to reph it or yh when final,' BB 6mail airmayky'lr 'or aimuayh, for air~laay (enamel). The singer must not dwell upon the very unpleasant buzz of Zy', but pass rapidly to the cc,, and if he finde a difficulty, simply endcavour to say!y, ys lyse., 9..NAML CONEONANT, WITH FWXT AXU POlNT OF TONOVE. NY1 Bhat Eam.-The tongue ia put into the position for ty', but the pawage to the nose is. open. This leaves a small and rather peculiarly shaped aperture at the back of the mouth, which modifles the'd resonance, rendering it sensibly worse,,and hence not one flt to be suatained. The effect of the initial consonapt is almost ny, ahd of the inal consowb almost yn; thm Englishmem oftan call Boulogne boo1oi.n in p h of boolacmy' apd hear Montagne ss m0ntsi.n instead of moan'- tnur~y'. But such errm must be carefully uroided. NY &CE not occm at the beginning of words in Frenoh, and in tho middle of words it wnetantly reles OB to a vowel, aa gagnons (let UE gain) guany'oan'. very nearly guan- yoam am', not guan-pan'. In einging ny' always relereses on to a VOW^, aa tnoan'taany'èö, almost moan't&in-nyaö. And aa thie is allowable even in speech, the English speakor or singer can dwa!.e me my if he prefere, and should never, UBB the atrocious yn. In Italian NY' rarely OQCUTB at the beginning of n word aa gnomo (a gnome) ny'uomoa, but it constantly forms the beginning of a syhble, 88 bisogra (bdeas) kezuo.ny'na. It never occura B11all~. Hence the Englißhman c m etill W his soy. ' NY never ocoura in Englieh or German. 03 l2 & 18. ONAL CONEONANTS, WITH (12) BAm m TONQUE, AND (la) BACK OF TON~~UB AND Lm. g, Italian, quanto, (how much) kööuam*toa, guanti kh i8 kw' beis to k (p. Wb), thus auch g8daun'tw, there is distinctly a vowel (00) (also), buch bmkw'h (book), but RE this effect has K, KW' Shut Yeter, and O, OW' Shut Sonantc,.A. '.. following the k, g, md not a buzz (W), but yet. for not been generally acknowledged, a simple kh may and oci Shut Implodent.-For K the tongue is 6', dinarp purposes 'ive find it enough to write be need, aa aawkh, bowkh. If voice is driven out brought nearly into the poaition for oo (diagram 6),.... kwuan.tou, gwuun*tes, Eo thnt ordinary Glosaic instead of &tue we have gh, gw'h, aa in tage (days) but makee a firm contact with the 60ft.palate above ' ' h, gw have really three values,unlessspecially taa.ghu, taugen (to be worth) taauyw'h or the tip of the uvula. On looking into the OPT' noted. In Italian then kau', gw' are replaced by tmzato'ghen. This voicedsound gh is often found mouth, by means of the mirror, it will be seen t5at W-, g%.. In German kw' is replaced by hv', as much more dficult by English people than the the contact is redly 80 high na to conoeal the in qwst (taad) Wual, quer (trnnsverse) ku'ed, flatcd kh, but it is'ved by Germans BB much softer arches of the palate completelf, tho whole back of compare Englieh queer Kw'ser. In a few French and pleasanter than the sonant g. As however in the tongue resting on the Soft palate, and cm- however, I am inclined to think that true pletely prevcnting the of air. The K is i the North of. Germany g is always UA, 88 tau yu,.kd,gw' occur, 88 coiffeur (hair dresser) Lru'aufwr', tuatogen, English ningers may employ it in absolutely mute, an! become6 effective merely by win (corner) ku'ma', goitre mwollen neck) German songa. Qh never ends a word in German ibglide on to or off from a neighbouring, vowel.,#w'ahtr'. And in.precidy the uume wag, by unless the next word begins with a vowel, but it The glottis is closed for tho clear attack thus klun dosing the lips to the high-round form, while. the makea the preceding vowel long, nnd becomes kh, not for the grndual as hua, nor for either a jerked tongue t,'d, v', S, we get tw', dw', )yo', SW', 88 tag (dey) tua,kh, taugt,is worth) luuwkw'ht or clear attack. k-hwa, or a jerked gradual attack l which m to occur in French toi (thee) tw'aa, taawklrt, and if the g sound of gh is used, it may ' k-hfaa, snd hènce not k-hua. The formation of G doigt (finger). dw'aa, roi (king) r'w'uu, becomo k, aa tawk, tuawkt, but this is very harsh. nnd OG from K is predeely the same as that of B rw'ba,, and similar words. In all these cases, When ' ch' is written in German, k must ncver and OB from P (p. 64a), and the implodent has 110 however, öö or Cnis the recognised form, in place b ' employed. The sounds of kh, gh are unknowm particidar intareat, for it is not used eithor in of W', and mdy be also said. Compare the fourth in Engliah;.Italian, and French. It is necesartry England or Geroiany. The aize of the air-chamber 0h6 of diphthongs, p. 49a, where the existence of to distinguish carefully between theso soundr. bchind K is almost quite confinedto the throat, tw', dw' in English is indicated. kh, gh, or kw'lr, gw'lr, and the ky'lr, gy'h for nearly all the mouth is cut off by the contad already explained (P40b), becauso there is no of the baok of the tongue with the soft. palate. Kg, KW'E 'Central Hirem, ana OH, OW% difference in spelling, and everything depends Hence G am be sounded for a shorter time Cm~tml BarEes.-A~sume the position for K, and.upon the precading sound. The ky'h, gy'h are than B, for which the air-chber extende to the then szightzy loosen it, EO that a very thin stream head- after the palatal vowels CE, ai, na, ue, eo, oc lips. of air can squeeze itself betwcen the back of the and after r', 1, n; and kh,'gh may be taken in all For K, G then only'the back part of the mouth tongue and the palate. Watching 'the wnguu in othcr cases, since kw'h, gw'h we notrecognised. the is occupied, and the lips are free. To bring out mirror aa this looeoning is effected, the very In the diminutive ~ylk+le " chen," ky'hen is mid, alight forward motion of the whole tongue by the &ect fully the lips &odd be quite open' but no other syllablo beginp with ky'h in German, which diapm 11). But it is evident that it is done may be wily seen. When a pat con- and no syllable begins with X-h or gh. trast htua in expelled the rgdt is a peculiii hiss, wouldbeeffected by making themawume the bigh-round form [diagram 12). The result ie i which is not shsrp BB for u, becauee the palate is 'B,'OH Back Trilled Bnxmr, "B Uvula Bine, written KW, GW, here quite soft, and the hiss is often, accompanied BB in quean kw'ean, guano 'BE,'XE Back Trilled Hirma-While the nad gw'aa.noa. The effect is-merent from kwecw, -by 4 slight rattle of moisture, which is always paasage is well.cut off by pressing the upper part gw&.ma, and also from Lööesn,, göh.noa. For :mm or lese t0 be found in this position. This is of the uvula against the back wall'of the pharynx in the drat cnse fkw') there is a glide from k and.the German ch in a& au-lh (ah!) doch duokh (p. 21a), the lower part of the uvula is free, m W at the aame time, in the aewnd (kw) there (lowever), and always after sounds of au, ou, ao. is she- in diagram 2. If this part b now advanwrl Brat a glide from k to W, and then fmm,w, but few It never occurs at the beginning of a syllable in EO as to lie almost upon the back of the tongue, pors~l~ appreciste this differance, and hence in German. It alsoccurs in Scotch in eimilar. and be left quite loose, the stream of air passing position#. Aiter the vowel 00, the lips ordinmy Gloanio it is enough are oftem to write hesn. between it and the tongue caufles it to flap or.leftround.when the,th is pronounced, and the pwaamoa. In the third case, which is that of the vibrate. Much difference of -effect is produced iesult is kw'h, which benra the same relation to according as there is little or much moisture and

51 600. vux: ' according to the hardneaa of the. uvuh 4 its freedom from the tongue, and aocordiug na there is a more diatinct sound of kh, gh in union with the dated 'vh and voiced 'r. When the tongue is r- to the position of kh, gh, the dects, which are written 'kh,'gh, Fur in Swies German for kh, Wh, and gb, 111'1, and need only be noted to be Avoided, though they are recopked, soun& in Ambic. When the uvub:i& made too st8 to &p. pweptibly, but lies above the tongue, it slightly intorferes with the paenageof the vowel and producea an efeoct dogoua to the point rise,,v (p. 76a) which may be &ed the uvula rine, end written 'Ir. It is heard in South Northumberhd between vowelr, EO that " very " becomes vad'vi, and nt the first moment the aound eeem to be ' rp-, but on close attention the little roughnees. produced by ''v will be heard. l'he full " uvula trilla," Ir, 'gr, are extremely rough, coarse,'and unpleasant in English npeech, and barely in- l tolligible in *me words. They are,indeed not recopiaed in any of our four language#, but are nev&heleas in &netant use in German and French, und in Northumbrian English (in the laat of which the 'v in evon labinlid BB 'rd), but not in Italian. Their nature haa to be know in order to be dully avoided, if poseiblo, enpecially at the d s of wolde, Wh& they are especially dissgreeable. They may bo head from moat aenwrns and Frenchmon who speak Englieh, and. notid especially in final '' r," which of course. is not trilled at all in reoeived pronunciation, thus whero' in tho mouth of a Qerman is apt to become v'adr'rh, the voice being quickly abandoned in tlnal 'v, and tho dated 'Th being chiefly heard., NAEAL COXEONANTE WITH BACK OF THE TON~UB BQ ahnt Hum, and NOH ahnt 8nort.-Place the t0ngu6 in the poeitim for k, but open the unad yarwrge aingnrm M), the month my be open or But. When voice in allowed to paea, there ie'a peculiar hum onwhich it is poesible to produca muoioal sounds. Experiment 'with the no8trila ILB ior m (p. 67~). Try the various nasalities m, 91, ng, bp keeping the mouth shut and humming on them in succeesion, thus. m~uming any easy pitch- m n ng n on ng tg $11 11 and obaervehowmuchmore. resonant t18 is than either of the others, and n than ng, owing to the difference in the size of the resonant portion of the mouth, and how much more nad, reedy, and unpleasent ng is than either of the others., 'lhe ringer ahould connequently avoid prolonging it, but, when nec-y, should prolong the preceding vowel and make the 0nal glide connpiouous, thua not mg- with ng lengthened, but wctg with u lengthened. 'l'ha connonant "g never oocurs at the begiming of word8 or after long VOWO~E or diphthongs in Englieh, where ing, mg, ojrg, ung are the only Combinations known, BB in 'sing, eang, Bong, sung.' Bnt in German it is also found after Je, L, h, Co, aa EingeIl, eang, gehge, genungen,to ring, San&; songe. rung) rjbngw8, dang, g6z&ig'u, gbzuong*rm. Observe that in English when ng comes between two vowole, g is nometima added and sometimes not, na longer (more long) lmg.gu, (one who longe) 2ong-u. In German the g is nover added, %E liinger (more long) ldcragwr', flnger fjengd. At the end of words it in provincial in English to add on a g, na song mngg, and quit0 vulgar to add on a k, cwnothing nuth-icgk. In c)ermun the S final is not unfrequently added on, na geertng,song) g8z&ngk, which some poeta even make to rhyme with dank (thank) ddmgk, but na the mage ie not admired in Germany it need not be imitated. NO never ocow initial in ' (fermap. In Italian "g Ocaurs -dm a following Æ mg, M franca (h fr'ddng.koa, ringhiare (to paah the teeth) vjjnggjjaa.vai. The wund ia unknown in French, being ruperseded by the rind vowel wherever it might have otherwiw occurred, M rang rahn'. &c., have observed, although. Mr. Melville hell usumea that it is introduced before a following tluted con- -nt, au in rnnk vnnghk.. ~uricßl Qualities of Con8onants.-The 80 wnwnmh whioh it hm been found neceamry to wumerah may be olassed thus :-.The 9 Muta~, namely, P, t', T,,t, #y', ch', C', li, td hew absolutely rio sound at all, and become &&ive,only by dctcrmining the beginning and end of glides, and these glidea may be on to &tus, pnrpasely introduced, as will be explained in the next Section. The 4 Implodenta Ob, Od', 'Od, òg, audible,' but unaustainabh and unmudoal. '. The 13 Flnted Centrals or Hisses WH, f' T, TH, th', I', S, SH. ah', YH, Ly'h, kh, kw'h; the 3 Flated Lnterala ì'h, th, :!h; the 5 Fluted T~ills 'p,,."h, r'h, 'TA, 'kh, and the 4 Flated Nasals, have indeed aounds, which in some casc~ are very marked,bllt are in no cum musical, and hence are wholly unfitted for singing. They therefor0 alwap interrupt music by noises, which muet be heard to render tho words intelligible, but must be exceedingly short to make thc disturbance.ondurable. The singer must therefore trust mainly to the glide of which they g~aerally form the beginning or end Tho other conaon~ntu nre voiced, and in EO far ega be sung. The emothekd dect of the 9 Sonante, 'B, d', D,,dl J', gy', G, gm', and tho cxtrernely short time that they can be mustained render thom unfit for singing, even if they cnnnot be coneidwed 2 &MI noiaeu. The 13 Voiced Centrals or Buzzes, W, v' V, DH, d'h, z' 2, ZH, sh' Y, gy'h, gh, gw'h, have at beat' na much rnueical &e& as the eohoolboy's inatmment, a piece of paper placed over a comb and voiced.!t"ry to sing the opening bara of u Uod aave the King" to V DH. 2 ZH thub U zh ' zh Zh V dh zh and observe the wonderfuleffect. After. hearing this it will be felt that if these sounda are to be - produced nt all in singing. theymustbebarelv heard, and that the main relianca must be on the absence of him, and tho presence of glides. On the other hand, the 5 Voiced Lateral Consonants or Murmurs, I', L, 'l,.l, ly', except perhap the laet. Iy', are more or less mueid, but even when they form a syllable, it ir better to introduce the vowel tø' to sing on, closing with the glide on to the lateral consonant. The ly' has n very reedy effcct. i fi^-, however, the effect of singing alternate bars of '. God saw the Eing" on l and,l. Of the 9 Voiced Trills, or Vibrante /vsi.b,a~rts), 'br, 'W, v", u', 7, J, 'v, ''r, 'yh, untrilled.,v ia scarcely distinguishable from the vowel II, and can be sung just as wcll; it is of course, not a vibrant at all, properly speaking. But with the other vibrants (r',,v, 'v need done beconsidered) the interruptions of the roicc produce a harsh " tremolo " ftvm.nroalonj effect,which is cndwbble for R shod time, and may be sometimes uaed with advantago. Of these 9,'. is the best, and must el my^ bo very strongly pronounced in Italian, but may be always lightly touched in Englieh. It is so much supcrior to 'r thnt the latter should bo carefully avoided even in German and French. As,I' is a mere provincialism it has not to be rtudied, but ite effect is mud worm than v', though superior to 'r. Of the 6 Voiced Nasala, M, n", N, p, ny', NG, one, ny' combinea the disagreeable reedinees of both ng and t', and is quite undt for singing ; and although 111, n, ng can be used for musical notes, th& qualitg of tone is diaagreeable (p: 84b) and

52 be 8~~tSined,. should not m that when m, 91 ' : 'vowels and coneonants consiah in their musid, form syllablwa, they shnula be sung M dm, u'n, 1 apabilities, and that l, r', m, R. tag, known with the u' swtained, and m, n ehort. See pp. 87b, I liquida or l' voooale,", are EO much superior to the 14a, 770. other coneonants that they might form a sepnrate olam, so that omitting. the leea important sounds, Oradna1,Transition from VOW& t0 COnIOUantl. m might arrange the others in order ofmusical -&~lce we feel that th0 real distinctioh betwecn I cham&r, thus, placing the first :- ' VOICE. VOW&. L. AA, Au, OA, UO, E, OE, UE, EE : A.HN, OAN. OEN',.AEN' ; H' (voice). Vocala.... L, M, N, R, NG. fflidsa Btrzzsa.... Z, ZH, V, DH, W, Y :.OH' (whisper). Sonanfa.. B, D, G., Blurs..,. +.. FLATUS. Hiaues.... 8, 8H, F, TH, WH, YH 'LH, RH ; "H (flatus), 1 Implohta OB, OD, 00. dfrrlrs.... I', T, K ; 1 ATTACK AND RELEASE, (;) Hq (pure jerk). The speaker han to give full effect to all of these, the singer must mly upon the vowels, vocals, and glides for musicnl tones. Of tho others the mutes ere moat important UE producing no interruptionr but merely determining tho direction of,a glide, or the mode of setting on the voice, and the rest ari, inflictiom which thc singer must not ondt in any m, but should mitipte as much na possible, and, Hl (gradual jerk, hence rcduco UE nearly as my be to the condition of mutes, relying on tho glide for making thcm clear and intelligible. Henco WC fccl the ncccssityof ßtudying the action of glides from and to consonants, or the crffoct of coneonants on adjacent vowels, nnd other consonanta,'at COILsidomble length and with grent cnre, as in the next Section. n. Vowel, Mixed, and Connonant Qlider Deflned md Distinguished.-The general nature of Qlidcr is explained at the beginning of Section 4%) ".. as consisting in a continually variable sound, having a distinct heginning and end, with a conding path. ' ' Vowel Qlideu begin und end at voweln, wliioh may be themselves prolonged mueically, but form no part of the glide itself, and merelyberve BR olear marks of ita beginning and end., and the path, whioh in this cae consista wholly of voice sound, forms the redly appreciable 'I voice-glide." Such rowel glides havo been fdy considered in h. VI. Mixed Oliah have a rowel at one extremity end a consonant at the other. When the consonant in a vocal (p. 86', the mixed glide bears a strong.. rwirnblun~ to a vowel glide. When the con- ' sonant cannot be sustainod musically, but h a Mundof its own, being a buzz, sonant, hiss, or implodent, it still mrvea to mark the beginning or end of the gljde distinctly. But when it is a mutc, the beginning or end of the glide is rather uncertain, jnat ai the beginning of motion in a ball suspended by a thread that is set on firo. Connonant Blida have a consonant at each extremity. If both coneomnts are mute, a glide is impossible. If one is hiesed and the other mute, I.m if both are hissed, there is a hiss glide only, as '. dinthct from a voice glide. If one is voiced and the other mute or hissed there ie an approach to a -.,,. mued glido. If both are voiced, there ir an...' rppronch to a vowel glide.. 6.~ Murmur Triphthongs Beionr1dered.-The great. importance of mitcd glidea to singers will make it necessary to consider them at some length. First recur to the murmur triphthonga (p. 6%) such a3 in fire fui;, where the vowcl gli& would be more fully represented cl+ï+; that is, there is the vowel (6, bearing the stress, gliding sharply (+) on to the vowel i, which does not bear the streas, and this gliding weakly (+j or slurring on to ü which lius also no stress. The real stress is not BC much on u, which is very short, as on to the oarlie# part of the glide, in U+;. The weakness and wsnl of stiwes id the slur i+ prevente this h m making the whole into two syllables. dotion of a Vowel between two other Vowela. eyllables.-now take naïaa or aa+i+ua, when thore is a ehmp glide from na to i and from i to aa,. without any proper repetition of i. Here the double glide, first diminuendo and then crescendo, is EO conspicuous, that the ear naturally separates the mads into two groups, or 'l syllables " (from a Greek word meaning l' collection" or pup) A speaker would therefore be apt to lengthen th& middle i, separating it into two parts by decreasing the energy, which may be repreaentd by the sign of Ï+T, thus aa+i+ï+a, which makes the two groups more ~Mpicuoue. To feel the effect of the glides more distinctly suppoae that one or both ere omitted, and repreeent the reault by (. ), so that a&... i meanm the vowels a4 and i with a.dence in phce of a glide between

53 . A0 MIXkD AND CONBONANT OLIDRE. EYLLABLMR. an... l..:aa, aa+..aa, na... +ma, aa+l... &a, an+l+aa aa++a, aa++a, aa++aa, aa+z++aa, aa+h+ma in ordinary Qloaaic writing the necessity of collecting into, one written word the ~ymbole of the sounda which compos0 it, and of avoiding euch connecting mnrke aa (+, +), hnve led to the COILfusion of durkand glidea, and to repreeeut either of' them by writing the vowels dose together. The Merence of strew in the beginning and end of glidea did uot nead to be distinguished, h use.. Eeo. LX. \hem, but, with the greater strew on the first the consonant,evenwhen vocal, has necessarily. vowd. Comp much less fom than the vowel. Hence aa before au,.. i...aa, an+...an,. aa...i+ na, na+ï... ï+an; these ten -E am writtan "?++as au I a, aal a, aa loa, aat'laa, aaka With these also kmpare aalaa, aalaa, anlaa, aallau, aallaa aa-a, aa+ï+aa, aa+í+nir, nn+í+;+aa, This in q~texiough in practice when the cuatorn 4a+i+na of the language is understood, but not enough for Where the + shews that there is no ceunution of the purposes of accurate study. In the present voice, but merely n diminution of force, so that examination, then, (...) will be generally reprethe glide becomes a slur, and is very inconspicuous, sentad by wpnmtion, and i+) by cloneneaa of the and the i shows that this vowel in both without lottern, but (+) will be retained except when the fore and lengthened. consonant is doubled. Thus the ten cnsee will be In ordinary Gloeeicweehould write these ten accumtely distinguiahed aa canen thueaa L aa, aal aa, na laa, aal laa,. aalaa aa i au, may aa, an yaa, aayyaa, aayaa aayaa, aayaa, aayaa. aayyaa, nayyaa aa++aa, aa+aa, aa+laa, anl+lan, nnllaa Thus confusingglidea and durs. To the singer, Now here, in the flrd cam, we hnve three however, it in of considerable importance whether he distinct and separate cmiesions of voice, aa l na, hnn suddenly to deck the dow of air h m hie 1UngE without glides. It is convenient to call these or not, and hence he is ~WSJ.S more inclined to dur syllable8 or group, although each consists of only than to brsak, that is, to Use (+) thm to Use'(...). one sound, juat as we call " one " thing a 'I number" Thus aa...l..aa would have to be sung with the of things, alth0ngh.a number of thinp " ahouid olear attack and release to r d vowel, RB cvidentlp consist of U more than one " thing. Tho jaw... gig...gaag, but aa++aa would reqpire the firet mm. na l aa consista, then, of three syllables. clear nthk at the beginning and end only, aa 'The sixth me, aa+z+aa, ala0 givce the effect af wa+"*aj, the globtie remaining in the position three eyhbles grot W& dbtacicd, became there in for voice dl the time. only relative notabsolutesilencebetweenthem. The other eight conaist of two aylhblea each. Aotion of n Voonl between two Vowels- For aal aa and aaea it is evident that the h t. Syllables.-In these cases we have simple vowel uylhble ends with l, which is felt to bo Slightly glides. In tho mixed glide between vowel nnd vocal we can traca the nnme &ectm as prolonged in the second form, nnd the accond ayllable begins with aa, with n clear attnck in one, but in the other, with no &tack ut all, because the glottis has never ceusad to act and to produce voice. The two syllables in the firmt case are separated by e ailence, in the second by a li mufaed" Toice. For aa laa and aa+laa, the flrst sylllrble ends with au, having R clear releaan aag in the first W, but merely a reduction of force in the second cuw. rhe lrecond syllable begins with I with R $esr sttack $I in the kt case, but merely with rnnewnl 3f force in the second. The two syhblem ara wpmuted by a silence in the flrst caw, and b II mufled voice in the socond. I ' ' For ad &a md aaelaa there are also distinctly two group, nnd the saption ie evidently made in the iht ase by a denco, and in the second by a remiesion of energy in pronunciation of Z+Z, K) that f nerven again to divïde the sybbles. 'l'or aalaa. the l is short, and for aallaa it is long,. but &era is no reduction of energy during ita umtinunnce. The whole length of the l itself f6,therefore, 'the dble separation between the íìrat and secondglide.and if we group the beginning of l with the preceding am, we must group the end of 2 with.the following ma. We come theh to the comhion thathe syllables divide "in the middle " of I or Il. Antik of n Bun or Eonant betnesn Tm Vorrlr.-BimiInr considerntiom apply to tho mea where the-meonsnt which separatea the eylhbles in a buzz OP n nonnnt. ThuR we CUII andshould distinguish aa z m, aa; an, aa zaa, aux zacr, na:aa a-a, amma, aeaa, aaz+aa, aazzaa ' aa 6 aa, anb a6, an baa. aib baa, aabna a w n, nama, a-aa, aab+baa, anbbaa Aotion of a BM8 between Two Vowelm.--When the dividing coneonant is a hies, as in aama, there is a slight distinction. The glide from the vowel to the hiss, aaa, begins necessarily with the voice. Should that voice be carried on up to the him, that S, while the tongue movea from the an to the.s poaition, and ihould the glottis be then suddenly opened, sd thnt &tue only can behenrd P Thin action may be repmeanted by aaa. Or should the voice die, off into a whisper, and pas^ into htus during the glide? This second action mq- be!qr~?ut"d by ndp. Or does the voice continue mto. the 8 position, producing :, und during ehanke through whisper rapidly to 8 p This third action mny be written am! or ama. aimihly in pawing from the 8 to aa, where dm the voice begin ' i In the a, thus 8zaa p im. mediately after the J, thus aaa F with n gradual tdtion after the 8, thus 8pa!'lb Labita of difforent naliom and individuals here differ considerably. So fa~ nn I hnve obmwd, it ie common in Englieb to nay Lap and ãoc, and it is common in Italy to uay àmer and ãas, but tho flrst often idla into simple äm. In G e m àaz and àas, and in French &m and. dhs are both usual. The Engliah singer in recommended to say lia4 ãas, making the change smartly and suddenly in passing from the yowel 'to the hies,becausethe slightest suspiciw of I is unpleasant to OUT earn, hwing n ZNme~zskher effect. But the 8, of coume, must never be lungthened in ninging ; we must UM æ+a or 8...s, with two short 8, in place of 88. The ten spoken forms are thcn aa S an, #zu8 na, na 8nn. an8 ana, millln aalfs+/an, nza.s+tnn, anl+aac, an-an, nassau The slurs require the gradual attack and release, bemuse the glottis is never closed; bat the effect in not pleasant. It is important, however, for the right undurstanding of glidea to note the gretrt distinction between an8 and an 8, or even na-, that the singer may accudom himself, e+en when thc vowel is much prolonged, to bring out the glide sd'ly nnd.clearly. Aotion of a Mute between Two Vowels-Eecoil -When the sepmztting consonant ir a mute, the ase again changen aspect. The glide is onco mare R complete voice glide, but thore is no reating-place nt the mute. The voice is simply cut off at the end of the glide, and this is effected not meruly by the closing of the external npeituree, but by the cloning of the glottis itself. Hence the three. separate syhbles and S~UIV become impoaaible. If we say aa p an, the effect is the name as aa aa, except thnt perhaps there is rather a longer pauae between the tra vowels. To make any audible effect poesible we must either l' implode " the p or introduce htus or voice either before or after the p, BB aa Ob ma, aa Ohp au, au h'p aa, aa poh aal aa p-h'aa. Of these the after-flntue poh, pm nounced very rapidly, is most common in Enghd, and inrometimeeknown as the '6recoil." In thil.'

54 90 m. LX. ~(190 na poh am can indeed be made quite audible ss three distinct syllables, but then poli rdy contninn a fllrtns-glide from the p position to some UM^ indehite pition, say that of flated u or Ou. That this iß redly the crree.may be felt by naying mpidly, poli, Ph, koh ; tob, kolr, ph; toi, poh, Loh, whon it will be found that each of the three sound is eaaily distinguishable, although, if there were no Botus-glide, there wonld be nothing hmrd but a succeadionof the ßame datunsound Oh. If the sensitive baok of the hand be held before the mouth while anying poh, Ph, Ph, the force of wind will. be found to be very gr& for the two first, and the chnracter and direction of the blast to differ coneidcrably in cach of the three eaeee. Dut even thin contivence failn for the dur. It is,- of course, impoeeible to. keep a stream of air pausing through the mouth when tho p~aesge through the mouth is shut, and ifwe.merely diminished forco in peeing from ma to p, we should simply rander any effect of the p inaudiblo. Hence the fivo forms aa p na, ao : p :,:da, amp+an, na+pan,.inp+pacr must bexc!nded, and there remnin only the flve important forms map ma, aa pan, aap pm, napan, aappaa For nap aa, the voice glidee precisely as for nab m, but ~enms, bf an nction of the glottis, &E th6 p position is secured, and the voice does not go on mounding in the closed mouth, as for b. The &ct of tho glide in a q without ~ nnything to mark its termination, is very incomplete and mutilated. But when a vowel or other consonant follows, it is the only one admissible. Some persons will my aapoh, but the Pinger should never allow- himdf to indulgo in anything so unmunical. For aa pan Lhe glide on top is lost, but that from p remains. This is just an mutilated na nap, but it has not the eame effect, becrrusc tho voice dwelle an lung na it pleases on the final sa. But many personi find it not dietindive enough, Md introduce,an aspiration, ssp-hlaa or p-b~aa, both of which are highly objectionable; the former is a German, the latter an Irish emor. For aap paa both glided occur. and there is a pemaptible silence between h m which dividea the syllables. But in aqaa this silenw di~ppeare. The aecond glids begins where the firut ends, with no. more interval than is neceanarv for revorsing the action of tho mumlee, 80 an to openinstoad of closing the lips. But for aappaa that separation is elightly increaeed by making the contaot tighter, giving an ennrgetic character to the 001~10nar.c. The remark# on p apply with proper ehan* to 6. Vowelr Ennning on. to Consonanto; &dconrerrelp, Open and Clwed Vowelr, Fiar1 and Initial Qlider, Medial, Double, and 8plit Con- sonanti--when a mixed glide takes place ;f,.m u aowel to a commant in any of the ways just stated the vowel is said to run on to the cannonant or to bu closed by it, and to occur in a l clmd syhhh ; but when it is separuted by.n dence, or only united by a siur, it is said to be an l open vowel, or ti, occur in an I open syhble. The comonant is said to act la finally on the vowol, and to close it. The glide is the final effect of the consonant on the vowel. When the mixed glide take! place fmn a mnannarrt to a uowd, the consonant is said to run on to the.vowel to attack it, to act on it l initially. When n consonan1 forile a mixed glide with both a preceding and following vowel, the length of scparnt.ion of the glides may bm loni, or shod, or absolutely nothing at dl. When as short n8 possible. as in nuppaa, paasaa, the conaonnnt is eaid to be L'mediai,'' or to produce its medial het. When jnatperceptibly lengthened and etrengthaned aa F nnppan, anssaa. it is said to be I double or I energetic. When there is an actunl perceptible pause or slur betwwn the two glides, as in mp pua, an-nn, the conmnant is said to be split or dislocated The last cnm occuruproporlly ody in spelling Eyhbks, or when a eineer is obliged (by the fault of U;e composer) Lo take breath between syllnbles. The double deet is very commonin Italian. as hanno (they have) aannoa. aa+noa, and oven in. English, enmpare. bouquetbookcllso brrok-ai buok.kair, miesivemissent rww rniamn-6, unomed unknown uuoavad unnoavi, penny penknifeyrwi ysra-osif (not pewif, as some ay. It duo occaeionally occure in &rman and hn&. The medial effect is tho most com- mon in English and. German when it closes. an.mted nndboßins an unacconted syllable, aa messen (measure) mnsay~, konnen (to be able), kmen,. miinner (men) rnam~rw,s happy, hop+, &c., where in ordinnry orthography two are -kitten na if there were a doubleffect. This double effect may, however, always be used by the singer, and frequontly with advantage, aa it tends to bring ont the effect of the consonant better. In Italian and French,the medid effect is not nclmowledged theoretically. It seems to me that Italians end tho syllable when posaible by a slur, UE sano (healthy) aaw+noa, not anavaon, ridere (to laugh) ree +ai+ni, not ree dair ai; the rule being that when the consonant or consonants after the vowel Ca), be pronounced, (thnt is, have their effect mado audible, by Italians,) without the naaistance of the preceding vowcl, they should be so proonounccd. nut in French it wcmr to be that the consonant is alwvaya medial if possible (that is if it can bomade to act upon both vowels) as mnlheweux (unhappy) rnaaloer eo, not vnau+zoe+, eo. In English an raanccentcd vowel is alwaj-s open when preceding scch a consonant as can produce it8 effect by lielp of the following vowel, na merrily rner i+i, happinery hap+jtea, repay **ai., prcaùme pri+zeu rn, laboratory lab.-.. r+m+tur i, navigable mw+gz+bl. emotional -shr+nul. %nt and Loose MixedMides.-The glide is tight, L close, or smart, when there is a considerable distanco between the positions of the vowel and conmuant, and this distance irr tmvelled in a ahart time.hence to produce thc &ect of a consonant clearly, the glide should be made rapidly and smartly. In English when the vowel is long it is wual to make the glide I lax or, loo~e. The voice seem to loose cnergy, and it glides weakly, and hance not very clearly on to the consonant. This is peculiarly a viceof singers, who have to lengthen even short voweln, and to whom the noise of a consonant is a nuisance. They conseqwntly altogether lore the effect of con-. suntrnte even. in syllableswhich in speechhave short, rowels, and therefore, aa the voice is in full oncrgy on commencing the glide, have smart glides. But tilo omiseion of a final condonant, coupled with thß inevitable lengthening Qf a short vowel, is quite enough to make a word unintelligible.hence the singer has to practiae his glidea very carefully till he can,make them perfectly smnrt, with long voaels gliding on to mntcs, as in am$, aal, uak, without any fiatus after the consonnnt. Hc should sing them in.any order to a person at a considerable distance, md notbu satisfied unless thnt person hears every consonant distinctly, which he c m easily signal by holding.. up the right hand for p, left hand for t, and both for X., withont interrupting the singer. This i8 not an easy exercise, but it is one of the most important for. a singer who would acquire a clear enunciation. The tightncss and consequent audibility of the glido is produced by rather increasing the force of tho vowel just as it begins to glide and keeping up the forca till the vowel is lost in the consonant, that is during the whole glide, which must be made vory short and sudden. In the first oxorci8os, of coursc,theeffectalnust be exaggcrated, and then, when thc action is familiar, they will have to be toned down to the requisite delicacy. initial Mixed Qlider from Voiced Conmonants and Hisses. -Initial mised glides proper are those which occur from R consonant to a vowel, after a IL pauso, that is. after a very senaible deuce, pnerally enough to draw breath onco or twice, or at tho beginning of, a sentence or. specch. In this case the VOCalS, b-s, and hisses, should be taken very short, and the vocale, buzzes, and sonante should begin with the clem attack, g. There is no..

55 PIXED AND CONEONANT QLJBES. SYLLABLES., 93 danger in any of the four knguagea that vò&, ahould be preceded by their flated forms, that ia, that weshouldoay Ihlaa for ha, with a gradual attnck, because they do not.possese this flated sound ìh, and comequently it is di5cult for their speakern to utter it. But the buzzes are so rough and disapeable, that thore is a tendency to make them begin with the flated forms; that is, with the gradual attack, and in the same way 'there in a tendmy in case of the hiesea to introduce the bnzz after the hise.thua in En&+ there is a. tendencyto eay whwotll for when simply, aud even to my wen for whm. In the Wwt of England fvau, thdhaa, azaa, and even akhaa occur, which under diffemnt degreen of energy give more or leseprominenco to the flated or voiced form, EO, that sometimes fan, thaa, sua, ahaa seem to strike the car, and at others van, dhaa, zua, zhaa. The ninger should always avoid this ambiguity. He.. should take one or tho other form clearly. This is managed for the hiseea bp keeping the glottis open for the wholu (very brief) duration of the hiss, and closing it snddenli to the clear attack at the beginning of the glide. The effect is then a hiss, followed by a glide whish resembles that from n, mute in having no previo~s duratioa of voice. wund through a fixed position. The ainger should practise 6 na, aaa, that is, a...jaa and #$+sa, and note the difference of effect, and also tho differonce from a+a (that is, a+oaa+a), where the change fro111 Hatus to voice takes place during the glide. For buzzes the &ect is produced by begi-g with the clear attack, na luna, that is, putting the organa in the proper poaition for voice at once, and thus avoiding the grcrdual attaak, an paa, giving fvaa. In German all the words heginning with E,) as I sie' (she) are pronounced with m, an azm, even by eingers; indeed it wan by observing singers that 1 first became acquainted with the fact more than thirty ~ W E ago. Singers, however, are recommended not to indnlge in the habit, but to commence with the olear attaok, aid make the buss very eh&. Ae the Germanohave no v, or #h, end use f only afterp when they ~8% it at all, this a6 is the only combination of the kind which occur^ in that language. In Italian and French, 80 far an I have observed, there is no tendency to begin an initial buzz with ita flatod form. when the initial consonant is a sonant, b, &g; there is no real difficulty to nn Englishman, Italian, or Frenchman, but most of the Germane have a ooneidmble di5culty, because they are used to 'limplode," and erry Ob, Od, Og, which is on the other hand Wcdt to Englishmen. The Germ-s, therefore try to.proloug the voice sound of b, d, g, which is EO di5cult that they are apt to Oper. the nasal passage, and say rnbaa, dus, Prggua. This is a common habit among several nations, and is here only mentioned as n fault, into which singers might be easily tcmptcd, but which they mwt carefully avoid. Initial Yked OlIder from Puter.-When the initial consonant is a mute, p, t, Æ, the difficulty of having a perfectly silent commoncemcnt of,the glide leads very frequently both Englishmen and Germans (not, I think, Italime or French) to beginwith the pd,u1 attnck. The conaequence is thnt there is m explosive escape of fintus as the check to the voice is ' relenaed, occupying the position of the glide, and then the vowel followo, beginning perhaps in part of the glide, and perhaps at ita full position, thus p+oh~na or pohoa, tohaa, kahan, which ma? be written moreconvenlently pp, tlaa, Æpa, becauw the' rowel is really begun puddly, and the explosion E simply occaaioned by the releme of a tight poaition. This is sumetim= exnggerated by suddenly jerking the lungs EO as.to force the flatus of the.clear attack sti,u more strongly, as p hlaa, t-htaa, k-hpa. This is by nu means unfrequcnt with public. speakers in England (I have even heard a minister, who used this method conmioualy and deeipedly, declare that it wan tho only method of making these consonanta properly heard), and it is general among those who dietinguimh muteß from nonante, that i., whodo not '' implode." That it WEB common in older German we we fromthr forma pf awl, t'a'oo, the actual pronunciations of ' pfabl' (pole), ' 6 ~ '(to), which m from pad, Yw., Still these SOUU~E are not required for intelligibility, and should be mwt studiody avoided by the oinger, becam they introduce m unueoeneary and umingable flatus. They also destroy the real aingable voice glide altogether. The einp muet cnrofully prnctice einging au aa aa, paa paa p, tao taa tau, kaa Æam koa, aa paa, m taa, ata Æaal p a aa taa, pna taa aa, and M) on, with merent vowels, and feel the great difference ocoasioned by the glide, when kept ~tri~tly voiced, without a trace of flatus. This will sad greatly to the beauty of his English and German ainging, end it is quite, indispeneable for Italian and finch. 8ee Section XI, Eire. 2 to 8. Fing Hixed ßlides on the Voiced Cohronantr and Hirma.-Final mixed glides proper rom n vowel to a conmuant, before a llpau~,i' present nimilsr di5cdties. When the consonaut i8 vocal, th= is a tendency to prolong it unduly, especially ii the preceding vowel is short. Thio is all very well in speaking, but m the vowels may always be hgthened in ainging, and the vocal, though ringable, is far les musical than the vowel, it not be thought of in singing. The Hinger mud endeavour to tighten hs glide on to the -1, and make that vocal very brief indeed, EC that it corns to a sudden stop, if broken off. &me length of time is neceaerrry, of coume, for'the audible utterance of the vocal, and this will EU~W to distinguidit from other COUEO+~,S in the name oolamn of the!cable, on p. 17, that is, which m produced by nearly the mm0 position of the organa Thus aal ia kept distinct from mad, WPJ, man, with all of whioh it is liable to be confounded, owing to the great resemblance in the three glides. Similarly wrn muet be kept clear of mob, and nan5 of mg. h respecta the another point mua1 be attended to ; no particle of the glide from thf vowel to the consonant must PE through thm nose Eence the glides in m+, a+,,na+ng, arf identical withthoae in aa+b, a+#, nab, and the only differences in the syllables consist.in the imtantaneoue opening of the nad cavity on the. ceeeation of the glide in the firet three -E, and the muffled resonance of the vowel in the mouth mdy.in the last three mees. It is of 'BxtrmIe importece for a pleasing pronunciat!on of English not to allow the led d t y in any vowel sound or rowel glide. And these syhblea form pat di5cultiee to foreigners. There is no tendunoy in any of our four languages to drop the voim and go off to flatus, when the rod ende, as aal-u, aar'-#h, although Germam often eag aalr-lrh, (p. 84a) whirh is not to be imitated. When the final comnant is B bez, there ie a wmtant' tendemy in English Co drop the voiw and paen into the hig, most with 6, nn aazer,. but not unfrequently with dh, an nadath, and more rarely with v, BB aavf, na in: That's his! I can't. breathe! Have you five? dhda.hiss I si Æaawt.brscdhth! hm el6 feivf P The mnger should avoid the flated form as unsingable. The final BI is particuhr1.v dieagreeable in singing. In German there is no h l buzz in a glide, but only pure hissea. In Italian no word ends with B buzz. In French the final buz does not pass off into a hias, as h.rose (the rose) laar'w ; observe here that the r' is medial. AB regarda the glide. up to the buzz, it ahould be treated in the eame way as for a vocal, but the buzz afterwarde ahould be very bricf. The final sonant, as in sah, uad, mg, has glides of precisely the same nature. The singer should continue the muffled resontmce of the b, d, g, jut time enough to be pemeivod, and especially avoid two methodn often adopted to make thene noutdo more conspicuou~. b y speakers,even su pat an actor as tha late Mr. Macready (Afu'kr'wdi), and very many lower claas tragedians, allow the final sonant to become medial, by adding L vory brief and indeflnite vocal sound, EU that the sonant, which is brief and never cansa to be heard, is followedby a gsde to some indefinite form, nearly. II, which is repreeented by h', thue aab.h', aadh, aagmh'. Thus L stab, add, nag,) become ntab.k, 'adh', nagh'. that is neaily rtab-tr, adu, nng.u;

56 ~ (fellow).---- _ MIXED AND CONSONAm QLIDRS. SYLLABLRS. nounding like stabber, adder, knagger.'. speakern, wiahing io bring out the. sonant mort drongly, drop the voice, and end with fbtub, thul adyoh, aadph, aag.reh, which is very apt tc produce' the &ect of uap, aat, auk, and ahould therefom be nlso nvoided. The pioper method, especinlly for the singer, is to prolong the vowel ILI much as is required for the -music, make the glide tight, just prolong the.sonant enough to be felt, and end with a olear reloaae. In Qerman no word ends in b, d, g before a pause, but if a vowel OE voiced consonant follow, I seem to hear the proper sound of b, d, g or yh, gy'h, at any rate su,& sounds are quite admiemble. In other places final 'h, d, g' become purep, t, k or kh, ky'x, however 'they may he written. In Italian the elision of R vowel will sometimes, but rarely, produci a.b, d, g at the end of R word, and similarly in French, and in both CUECE they are pronounced clearly. When the final consokt is a bias, the only point to be remembered i! to voice all the glide, and to open the glottis suddenly at the. moment the hiss position is aaeumed, Vd not to prolong the hiss in singing. The greatest care.hs tu be taken with 8, which h e such p cutting his^. h German e~peoial care is requisite with the final M, I~y'h. Engli~h.singers of Qerman are apt to omit them altogether,. which- of course is atmiow, and renders tho Worb perfectly unintelligible and diffioult to followeven with the text. But there. should be a tight glide up to them, and then they uhouldbe sustainod just long enough to be distinctly Reparated. They BM certainly bad interruptions for the singer, but they kre aharacteristic.-of the language, and must be well heard. Practise singing such phrmea aa : Ach! nicht ich doch (Ah! not' I, though) aakh 1. nkky'ht ëeky'h daokh, to very long notes, and lience as aakh, qwky'ht, ' II hy'h,- dawkh,. making the glide tight (exaggerated), and the hise light. Pins1 kixdd Qlider on to Muten, Recoil with FlEtM, Cliok, or Voice.-The mute final necessarily g-td.tho m k t difficulty; In this me the' - glide. ought to end in a silenca, but, BB already notice& (p. QOa) it often ends in the "recoil." Ringers should be eatisfled to end with the glide, RB aap. But if the ch& is relcaeed, the mute shouldnotglide on tho flatus, but make u very faint smack or click by the sudden separation of the two lips for p, point of the tongue and'palate for t, and back of the tongue and soft pdate for X., au of which parts. are moist. hpromnting this click by io) at the end of a word, as a contraction of Oh, practieo first holding the breath 8u 8s to be sure that no flatus-cscapes, and thon sayingpo, P, P, as' loudly m pusbible, and then gmdually reduco them to the lightest soundwhich is just audible. This is the ktmoat amount of recoil that R ainger ahodd dow himeelf, thus aqp, aap, aako. It is su5cient to relieve the organß, and than the singer mn breathe fieely aid noiseleesly. And even the speaker had better limit himself to this faint click. It may be mentioned incidentally thnt them form the,baecs of the celebrated 8011th African and North Americanclicks. In German the ame practice may be adopted. h Italian there is scarcely any occssion to u88 it. In Fre~ch p, t, k, could only occur finally by the elision of a 'mute e,) and French speaker! in practice prefer the faintest possible indication of this eo, whioh may be written R to distinguiah it from merely. hort to ; and 'they then usnally double the preccdhg mute, that is. they glide tightly up to it from the 'vowel, and loosely from it on to E, making L barely perceptible pause between the two glida. This is especially done in poetry with all inal coyonants which ari= from the elidon of L ' mute e;' in order to 'supply its place, and nade the existence of the &ded syllable apparent. I?hw chape (a copo) ahaapflö, chatte (a cat) :hatt#6, moque (lnuglls at) nmokkë#. Connonant Olide from Voeh to Voaal.--P&ng rom mixed glides we have to consider purely onsonant glides, ivhete each element is a cononant. The consonant glide ofvocnl to v d ia are, und in Engliah is only found after. u vowel, MIXED AND CONBON~T emma -~YLLAEEB. ' i in fallen fadn, elm. In fawh and such words, These present no difficulty. 'he only uue M- -the tongue having coma into the 2 position, the I quired is not t4 flniah off the z with an a, by Nint is not romoved from the plate, but the sides g l dropping the voice, ua hf3128, &c. done to the tceth to complete-the check, and the f '. a& degoen& to open the nasal pmage. There Connonant Qlide from Burr to Bnzr.-The conis thus nomom for any rowel to interpose. but son8ntal glide between two buzzes is not so i =.: 'there is a rapid glide from I to a. If, however, the common, but it occm final in English, m halves point of the tongue were allowed to quit the hoam, wolves tcuolus, breathcs. breedhi. These palate for an iustltnt, a voice bound, which we may present two difficulties, to retain the voice through wdte Y',.would bo heard for that instant, the l all the firat buzz and ala0 through the Recond. would glide on to it, and it would glide on to the?'he latter is rarely done in the pause, in that caw m, and two syllables would arise, thus fawlu'n. the bues readily falls into the him,, t u Aflavza, In eh, the point of the tongue should ba nimilarly wuohzr, bres.dhss, which, however, tho singer' miintained on tha roofof the mouth, while the shouldavoid.none of these glidesoccur in the.lipa close in for the (n, BB.and they dom, the uvula other three languages. One of these woda con- &odd deed ' to open up the nnd paw. tains an example of 8 vocal and a bues, as in &Y smakern find this glide BO difficult. that thev uhelve shah, twdw twek, delves. delue, 'selves ' let the' point.of the t&ye drop too 'mon, aná sehz. In French we havo also Belge (Belgians. 1,:..hen& introduce B vowel, as eku'tn. The vowel nhould alwayi be uvoided iu thk W. The tehination ln is very common in Ged after e or Y', nudeln (vermicelli) nov'du'h, spiegeln (to ' mirror) 8hpes.gy'hu'lfl; and m ~ccura in halm' ' (~talg) haah, helm (helmet) hach. Neither amur in Italian or French. The final glidee r'i, #m, r'n; are quite optional in Engliah, in 'ml, ' m, barm, tarn,' generally d& anaa.2, aa'm, baam, taca, but allowably wr'm, baav'm, tawr'fr. But them glides are frequent in &man, kerl kãer'i, arm iar'm, herrn (accusative. of ' hem,' sir) hwn, and French perle (bed) puer' ' I, charme (charm) ah&w'ln, lucsrne (atti0 window) wk&zr'rr, but' not in Italian. For thib glide the r' ode just an a tremulous vowel, and the tremor '.. is continued through the glide. Su& initials as ndaa, das, lnr'aa, w'uu, and even mnaa, r'laa, aro..quita possible, but do not omu in our four languages. Connonant Olida from Vooal to Bnrr.'-l'ho final consonantal glide of vocal to buzz is rendemd..'. conirnon in Engliah by the modeof forming our -.. phmmls, 88 bella belz, crumbs %rume, hem hem, A. things rhiryz, and with permiwive v', foars feerir'z. baeleh, charge ahlr'zh. The permiaaive trill would give us swe s6awr'u, as in. French larva (insect larva lãar'v, but the combination is not common. Connonant Olides from lonants to Vocal8 al the end of Word#.-In cable Bai-bl, addle ad, giggle gig'l, deaden dcd.n, the VOC~E l, o mdke. distinct syhbles. Here the distinction between the glideon to the pure vod and the interposition of x. vowd must be perceived. In kai.b, the tonye is brought into the position for l boforo the lips are mparated from the b, ßo that no vowel can be inscrtcd, but in verbal vu-bu'i, cymbal airwbu' I, the tongue is not in contact. when the lips amopened. For ad.2, idle ei.dl riddle rid, bidden bidn. th0 '. point of the tongue is already in the position for 5 and care has to be taken not to remove it, but merely to slacken the contact of the sidea of the' tongue with the teeth to let out the l sound, or elm to retain the side contacts firm, and open the nasal paesage for the n sound. If the point of the tongue is removed in either a vowel sound i8 inter-. poned, as in, medal mcdu'l, idol eivh'l, bridal br&du'i, abandon ubufl.du'r. Now the difference.of the two pairs of soundu QI, dl and bs'l, du' is

57 .. W) alight thnt they nre often confused, and as the lattez are much more singablo, the singer hm been nlrdy recommended to use them in place of the former (p. 74b). The cue of gig.1 is rather differ- ' ent; but here the, glide is only stronger.!che tongue haa a great leap to make from the poe.ition for g (ding. 17) to that for l (ding. 20), and while it is changing, the voice being omitted, there is a very evident glide. But this glide being altogether obscure in sound does not d8er EO much as in.the lsst cases from the effect of nu interposed u'; compare wriggle, regal #ig.z, rargu'l, and hence tho ase of the latter for the. former is even more sdmissible in singing..only it is necessary to make the glide from tho tc' to the l, n, loose, not tight, EO that there should be no resamblance to an mnmntod ul, un, as pul- for p l flddle, which has always a disagreeable eflect. The flml br', dr', gr' become bu', du', gu' in English, nnd bur', dur', gur' in German, but may be beard in colloquial French, BB mnbre.sabre) sdabr' or sdabr'ã8, ordre (order) wr'dr' or aor'dr'iö, ogre aogr' or oogr'l8, and even the &tus is sometimes ~ub~tihted, as' sdabr'h, aor'dr'h, aogr'h. The. flnal bl, dl, g1 are sometime8 trentad in the Ume wny in French, ns sable (nand) rdablh, but properly rkbm8, never rdabl. In Oerman the final 2 gliding from preceding mnant is written ' el' in general, nndmaybe always called c1 (not ad), or u'l, but it oftan becomes n pure 1, and in even occasionally so written, ns fledol (flddlo! fgedsl, fcrdu'l, or fwd4 grübeln (to pub) grwbsln, gtw~bu'lrr, or grrwbh, in which last caw the glidea are w+b+l+n. None of these flnnls occur in Italian. Coneonant [tlides from Bonrnt to Vocals, and to the Bmmr W, Y at the beginning of Wordr.- 'l'h6 initial bl-, g2. require cnre to keep the l very nhort, and yet make it sdìciently heard for the previous connomnt to glide on to it seneibly. Such.munde as bl-bo, g -loo, or bu'loo., gm'loo. are quite inadmissible. although occaaionnllyhenrd. AE glpresents Mcultiea in the very rapid motion of the tongue (diagrams l7 to'ao:, moat children (and R large number of dialect speakers) convert it into dl-, which is very eaay, because to p& fmm d ta C we have only to looaen the sides of the tongue, and as dl- does not oom in our language, it occasions no miatakea. But it is neverthelem an error in speech which should be avoided. This error is not known in German and' French, or in the very few and recent Italian words in which it OCCPTB. In the greater number of ItaliHn word8 gl- is replnced by gcc' or gg, as in ghhdn (a gland,,or mm) ggaan.daa or gyaan-daa.!che initinla b#-, atø., gr' preeent no ditliculties, but in bw-., dw-, gw- n peculinr &kt reaulta. In saying true bw- there is but a yery nlight gliding EOU~II. The lips are quite close for b, the vml. reaonnnce being entirely within the mouth, though if the tlnnger be plnced lightly on the lip it will be found to tremble. For W the lip in opened,and the voice escapes as n buzz. The extremely slight motion c!!eates an extremely slight glide, which is, however; perceptible, und hence bwaa is not easy. Caremust be tnktm to nvoid bu'waa. This difficulty is practically ovwme in two wnys. One is to convert W into 58, producing b8õm, and perhap this is n common pronunciation of the French bois (wood). But perhapa the mmmonest;as it is the neatest pronunciation, is to cloae the lips for b,. not in the usual wny, but BB if the lip^ whcn rounded for W were drnwn up in the middle, just like n bag closed by n running string. Thon opening out upon the vowel we have n combined effect of b and W pmnounced together, thus bw'aa, where bw' represente this peculiar conformation of tho lips by which nu nttempt is made to prnnounce both ' b and'w at once. This effect is easier to produce for dw'aa doit (owea), gw'aat# poltre (glandular swelling of the neolr), because the lips being perfectly independent of the tongue, they can be brought into pition ut the same time with the tongue poaition for d, g. This in altogether n better wny of producing.the o&&. In English dwell, dwindle, &c., I think that dw'sl, dw'in.dl ia both easier and oommon? than dwsl, dwin-dl, and I recommend its use enpecially to singers. Simi. 1. ' aec. lx YIXKD AID CONSONANT ßLIDES. SYLLABLES. hly far gur'navron; m for buoy bw'oi, the word appeam to be n mistake. Snilore say booï or booy, which ngrces with the original Dutch pronuncia. Oonsonant ßlide of Vwal t68onant at the End ha1 combination of, vocale with 'mnnts offers no di5cuhy to an Englishkn,; thus bulb bulb, barb baar'b, bnld bauld, hemmed hsazd, end end, hanged hangd, jearedjcdr'd. Such combinations do not occur in German, or Italian, nor, EO far as I remember, in French. In fnct, euch forme na sud, and, offer p t Mculties to a Frenchman, in an endeavour to nvoid dmntion, EM he would naturally say acn'd, aæn'd, RB in ' Inde, bende.' Onsonant Qiidse between Bmrer and Bonanta, hl between Oonantannd 8onants.-Initial combinations of buzzea and sonants do notoccur in English or'german. In Italian, however, zb-. zd-, W-. occur. 88 in sbnglio \a mistake) ebaa.ly'on, ' a-&jnmi,to stretch oncself at length) zdr'aayaa.r'- - ME, sghigno (sneer) zpmzy'oa. The much more.' difficult form dz-, or rather d'e'-, or per hap^ z' only, de0 occurn in Itdinn, na in zelo (zeal) tadoa, ' #barloa, or s'wlia. It is easy enough to say I c &S', the di5culty consiste in making the glide short cnough to produce the effect of a single coneonant on to the following vowel. ' In French also not only zb-, zd-, zg-,zr'-, m-, occur in adopted foreign words, but the more di5cdt combination ' ge- is used in a few words taken from the Greek, as: Xénophon.geainoafoan', xérnaie (n disease of the hnir) gzair'aazcc, xiphoïde f~word-ehaped) gzeefoa-zcd! n word often used a test of French.pronuncintion. The di5culty do088 not conaiet in the glide gz in itsdf, but in mnking it su5ciently ahmt, nnd not dwelling on the 5, but gliding at. once on to the next vowel. In English and Italinn the Gloaic j is really one of this class, being absolutely dy'sh', which very complicated form is pronounced by Englishmen and It$inm with the great& we, while French-. mm imitate it badly, and Germans flnto it into t'ah or t'sk'. When final, it follows rin 1 eaflily, as thnt glides on readily to its dy' a8 in bulge bu&. There should be no mori difficulty in chaivaj,change) than in chaiwd (chaincd, but m y speakers do not glide on to the dy' it all, and pronounce ty'sh'ai.nsh', or chaiwzh, 88 they hear it. Vnriou MOUE lend me to prefer chai.#g, which seema most,natural to English mcruths. In ' changes.' it in,not EO usual to omit the ay' initial. element, because there is then naturdy only n slur and not a glide between the II nnd the j, thus. ehair+jue. When the pcrmissive trill is used, we have also -.yin bnrge bmr'j never bnar'mh. The finnl glide nf buzz on to sonant is quitc common in English, owing to the mode of forming our past participles, as amnzed tr~rmi~sd, halved haawd, breathed brerdm, judged jztjd, bulged bugd. There is a tendency in the two last worda to remit the voice, and end with t, as which ~ingere should avoid. No glide. of this kind occura in the other thm lnngnrbws. Some cases occur of two aonants nt the end of a word, n6 grubbed, bagged grrcbd, bagd. ' The very imperfect resonance of the voice for the snnnnts rendere these glides extremoly difficult to perfonn audibly, EO that them is dangcr of changing the words into girqto, baldo, which is quite inadmissible; or into grabdto, bagdtd, which is more dlowed ; or into grubtr'd, bagdd, which has an archaic (aakai4) sound, cvm if the u' take thc form of tho lighteet voice h' ; or even into grub, bag, with total omission of d. Many, therefore, say grubd-h', bag.d A', and the singer will find.. this easiest in the pause. The spcaker'miat, how- ever, learn to make the glide eaaily and audibly, for to say b5g.d-h' dhcrn for b y d dhm would have a foreign &ed.. Them combinations do not occur in the other three hgungee. The fld glide of eonant to 'buzz is ala0 corninon in Engliel, owing to the mode of forming our plurnls, as cabs kabz, beds bedz, bag bap. Here again must guard Bgainst -28, must make both the sonnut and buzz short, and rely for musical length on the vowel. I 97

58 ' Bule for Conronant Glider when one Conromnt ir Voiced and the other Voiaelerr.-In the pwceding caseu of initial nnd final consonnntal glides dter and beforo n paw, both conaonda were voiced, nnd hence no difficalty occurred in tho compulsar) pamnge from voice to fintus, or flatus to voicc. The dcct would be nimilar if both conmnants wcrc flated, or one flated md the othcr mute. Hut we havo alrendy Seen.:tho difficultics which occar when a hiss or mute precedo# or follouw :t vowcl, in determining where the voicc Jhould be taken off or put on (p. 9%~). 'l'h0 upshot of our considerntions was, "That in an initial glido voice had t- he put on at the momcnt that the muto or hi& position was reload, and that ih n finel glide voice had to bo shut off at the moment the mute or h i position was usaumed " The wlnlc rdc' should apply to the voico in con-. nonanti na well aa in vowels, in connection with the glides to and from muto and hisa positions. * kici.l Cpuromnt Olider from Mute to Vocal, or to the mube# W, Y.-In pl-, Pr'-, plu-, t,.'-, tu'-, RI-, kr'., km initial the previous observations on tbe sbnants in thcsc positions will therefore apply with tho nbovc restriction. Observe especially that tho glides are the sama as when th3 initiuls.aro sonunts, as in bl-, h'-, bw-; V-, dru-, gl-, gr'-, and that it is only the absonce of my lcngth of voiw at 'flrst which mkes the difference. be thinks that this makcs tho voicc too long and heavy, and writca Ap, At, -lhk, that is, he doen not permit the voice. to pass through the 1 at all. This ie.opposed tq my own observation of ahat actually occurs, and at any rate the rule just given in bat in practice. Rut in thc case of -It, the recoil is nccesmary t2 nudibility, aa fdk or fdlleh. I have, however, 'heard the mistake of maying feldt0 for fu26o (felt), which then k+me difticult to distinguish from feld (felled). But thio ie guarded ngninat by the rule just given. Sinlhly we must my shy end not shelvf, which would sound liko ' shelve.'. With the' naeals somo littlc additional difficulty ocours. In lalnp, the nad n11 continues as long aa the nom is npcn. ' When it is shut, no sound whatevw is he:ud, for thcre is thon no oxit foc the breath ; tho Hatus which enters the mouth is not sufficient to CBUBO oven Rn implosion. Hence llnless there ie a " rccoil," the p. cannot bc hearc! in tho pause. There ia actually no glidc from m to y, and we have to my lamp". If voice fol'ows, thc p becomes evidcnt, at' h E t. by B 'si'mxx, cutting off oven a slur. Thus lamplighter I.lmnpki-tev (using ei and er as in Englisb Glossic) ;n'net at.all lurr+pleitcr or ha-plsíta, but is d y lam)-ww. The p secms, thamforc, to replace the sign of ciear releaso. It is. however, LL little more tllurn that. On saying law it will be found ditlicult to shut off the voice sharply and clennly if the nooc ~ R S ~ be O not suddmly I v ~-.widen0 in speech, but i; ;E more difficult to mak 'it evident in EiIiging, whero under no circumstance would the m, u, rag be sustained. Hence in singin1 before R pause, the rccoil may bccomo a full flatur BB lampoh, hiratoh, thirypk, sacrificing. music t ' andibility. In tho abovc caves felt, lamp, Ibirrt,. thiglgk, th1 roeal and tho mute hrd tho mame form of mouth &ut in 'attempt, winked,' and also in length anxious,' the vocal diffcls in position of the moutl fmit the following sonnnt or hiss. Hence b) applying the rule we are able to make a glide u1 to the new position. The nature of this glide is, however, complicated, thugh the opening of thc m. W e might evidently- mako it nasal, W w!t&+at, wing+#it, lcng+nth, n,rg+e.4hwm. Thin is not done, and if any peraons have a habit of doing no tbey should comed it. We might nlm shut off 'the noso, allowing the corresponding mnant to be heard, and then run on to the final 'mute or.hias. thua a'te1n6+t0, wil~gg+to, Imgg+th, mrgg+ëhua. But the prnc!icoof Engliah bpcakcrs appears to be to end the naeal with a clear'releasd, and then hiad or mako tho flnal mute uvident by reooil.or &tue,' without any glido. preceding it, as m'tcerl... P, wingj... P, lely?...th, angl...rhus. This clear release is best made by the clean odge given by the introduetio~l of,the corrosponding muto, aa mtrrnp. P, wiltg L-... t", lcngk... th, nwgk... shtrr, or, ns we write in English Glokic, atenrp.t, tuhgkt, Yykth, angkshs. Mr. Melvillc Bell again writes ztmnht, winghl, krylrth, anghhus, which I have not obked, and find difficult to render evident. The rase of 8 final has to bc especially noticed. In -k, ma, -m, -#tgæ, there is, of coum, a constant tendeacy to my -l&æ, -nnpta, -ata, ngks, in order to prevent -h, me, nage. It so happens that we hrve moat of the mea in Englieh, and the speaker and ainger should learn to dietinguish them ; thur elm, belts, ells sk, belta, cb; empts, hema caapts, Lmr, eense, scente, fens.aetas, srmts, fmz, thinke, thingn IAingz. Thio distinotion ia simply this, that in -18, -sas,the voicd glidcs up to th#,, a position, without check: in 48, -fata, the voiee is chocked by the mute pbaition, forming a veryr:lean edge, and then thwc is a hiss glide from that. position to the 8, and in -b, n-, the voice is caried completely through the s position. In many woda the distinction -es, -utæ ie of importrmce, as presence, prcsents p,m.ms, prererlte, accidence, accidents aksidem, ak6ients, &c., and hence it should bc well understood. Initial Coneonant Glider of a Hirn pn to a Vocal, or the Bluren W, Y.-Tho dnly caseaof a hiss gliding on to n vocal in English am ~IO.,or m'-, 81, Sm-, ælb, f -, fr.-, th'., thw- (or thro'.),.sr,.'., and in Garman therc also occur dl-, S ~ I I -, æ h -, 8s in swim swim (rather than 87t*'i11a'. slag ala;, smooth, BIUW~A, short anawt, floor flwi, friskfr'irk, throw thr'oa, thwart thuwwt (rather thnn IAIG'BH.~:, shrine Jv'cirl, nnd C)crman schleichen (anea]<) shlauy.ky'h, schmolz ' (melted) ah?#mzts, schnrc [snow) shni. Thc combination shr'- initid offcw iifficnltios to mnny English nnd American speakers, who aro apt to say sv'eilr, thus the inhabitants call 3hrewsbury, Shropshire Sv'oazbar'i, Sr.'op.s/,ra. rho diftìcnlty arises from paesing from a hollow &nt of tongue (diagram 26) to an archcd front diagram ZII, and would bc avoidcd by saying lither sh-reigr or dein, hut neithcr hing admisible in received English, th organe mnst bo Irnctiscd constnntly (for many hourn in bud mecs) ill thcy lcarn to mnke tho. transition easily. The onguc being arranged for eh, sound that hiss, hen convert it into SII' by mching the front, and hen eli& thc tip along the palate till it requires xcnly releasing to vibrate for the r'h, wing flatus nly. Thc real sound said EW~S to me to be ather sh'r'ei~r than skr-'sira, and tho whole difficulty I surmounted when the sh' position is substitutcd., for thnt of ah. Indeed it is pbesible to trill the tip of the tongue when it is held in the th' position ee well as whcn it is held in tho s position (and I :hink that tho ah' trill, or vsh' an it may be written,.s actually used in Polish, as pm&. (through) vrdr'n~). The whole difflculty then resolver

59 itself into making &II SA- without hollowing the, front of the tongue, that is; cnnvorting it into ah. The German eh before v, l, r, w, $1 may be a true ah, but in the common pronunciation of stehen (to rtand), spielen (to play) and similnr words beginning with st, MP, throughout tho grab part of &muy, the sound is really sh tai.n, ah prlm, and not shtai.n, shpe.lsn, which is felt by Qeermans to be broad and vulgar. (Thin is a point on which I have made cireful observations, and had many discussions with G ~ E ) In. the North of Germany; in EIanover f~nan~mww )v and Hamburg fhaarnbuor gy h), it war common to say stah, spesbn, but I have been informed by a. Saxon resident in Hamburg, that such a pronunciation k never ueed on the stage there. I have, however, beard it in the pulpit. In Silesia (8ohleeicn &hlaidëm) even w aar &a, aman-l, snaaydur may be heard for schwarta, schmal. sohneider, ddaar ts, sh!naa.t, shsaaydur (black, narrow, tailor). Observe that the flnal -st, -sp should never be p,ranounced -#hl, shp in Urerman, or even -sut, d p (na in August iet saw-guosht ksht becauee this is a well-known and extrcmdy vulgar QermUn pronun&tion. Oonßonrnt Qlider between B and Muten.-The combinations with 8 before and after mutes are very frequent, na.spy spsi, splay spiai, spread spr tui, stand stand, stretch str sch, sky skei (not dy si or rkyzëei!, script, Skr ipto, squwe skta see, dpse lapa, help helps, hate.hats, h t S rials (not rid* or rirtirsl, both common provineinlieme) melts mlts, hints hints, axe aka, hulks hulks (not huolks), ceeh Æaaaks. In all thew wes there may alway~ be a hiss glide made tu or from the mute. Thus s+p...psi, +&..piai, and tap. p+, ria+t... t+. Practice of this kind, making a. paw between the two glides of the mute, will won bring out the dhstinotion between this and a>..pi, #...plai, hp...s, tist. n. Of courec, we really =y -te, and not ts when flnal (p. 71a).!l reatment of Comb&ationr of Two Muten, and of Initial Mute befors M, 19, &-Two mutes annot glide on to one another initially or finally, nd we have even an objection to make u mute g,ede on to 14, I, or S initidly, hence in,many W rords taken from the Greek we simply leave nut t1 he mute in thane maes, and call pneumatic tl eumat ik, tmesis mwria, pdm mam, pgdm- -t yle ter.oadak.til, and EO on. But some puri& e, m at uttering them, by making u rocoil aftor t,he mute, thus.yo-neutna&.ik, po-ter.oadak.lil, d kc. Thia is. not mommcuded. But find com- 1 >inations of two mutes are common in the pauso, I LB in apt, act apt0, akta or aytoh, ax-ph, as it the11 1 becomesnecenaury ta pronoune0 them. or else t0 i implode, and say ap-od,. ok-od, which is not l rdmissible in received pronoundation. (It appearn l however, that a slight implmion actually taker 1 place in those districts where the definite artide 1 becomes t, BB in Derbyshire, at t dur a & Od duur, i lor at the door a& dhi daoc). In French under I luch circumstances an Z8 in always spoken, an acte l (act of B play) dbktë8. Jn such an English phrase l LB you must ac& towards me, act dutifully, tho i Bnal mute, t, is, I think, omitted, and its place I upplied by a silence. The tongue indeed taken f the proper position for the t, but them is no moil, l bemuse the tongue would have to bo brought up 1 into the same poeition for the following t or d, and 1 this would be inconvenient, compare akto tao.mz, ak&odcwtifuli. Hence the t in fell by the speaker but is merely tslegraphsd to the listener by a moment of silence. The singer has, thorefore, no owion to trouble himself with the mute, but will simply omit it in such rare wes. Prinoiple of the Divuion of Byllabler.-Thc whole nature of syllables or eeparate group of sound, is contnined in the two Bectiorn VI and IX on glides. The nucleus fnewkliur) or central core or pith of a syllable is a vowd or vod. A buzz or hiss ie not sutficient to produce the effect unleea it stands done. This by iteelf will have an attack and release, and thus d y form a group of a vowel and two glottids, but thene glottids not being p n d y written (except is the CBBB of the I F napikte) in Eurapcun languages (exccpt Groek, 1 7, them ie an appenrancc of a single vowel, slly aa for.*: /sag at full. But in place of the attack and 9 ml-, another vowel, or some consonant, may :% glide on to it; and this vowel, if initial, will hawu f. nu attack, but no release, as it simply passes into I. the original am, 88 riuaj, and will havo a releasc,.. but no attack if flnal, bocuuw it simply continues 1 the centml vowel, as ~nniro~, pinairol. Then othcr voweks and consonants may glide on to this, BB laairo, pzaajolp, or laaw pyoawly, and thin can be r,ntinued till we come to a mute or sonant. After this only a hies, or bum, or sunant can properly bo placed, on to whioh the formcr mute or eonant would glido, If n mute be added it wn only be rendored sensible - ßy.the recoil in the pause. If any vowel or vocal followed we should b.ve the core about which a new syllable would be built, and some of the final eonsonants Of the preceding syllable, such at leut an could be used as an initial combination, would immediately be nttmted away from that syllable,.and combine to form part of the noxt. T ~ U E if sfterpyaawlp we added ai, the flnalp wodd ccnse to act upon the prewding l, which would at once elir up to it, and would form the initikl of the.glido irlto ai, thus pyaaw;l+pai. We thus get a conception of, the mode in which syllables separate, but the habits of diffcrent languages differ bmntly (LB to the preservation or omission of the glido, or its conversion into a slur, and it is not necessary :for the present purpow to gqinto tho. complicated,. dotaih of the- subject Much depends,upon the pition ofhgcent. In English H singlo consonmt between two vowcls, of which the first is accented, in mdial, that ia, glidoa on to both, 88 valley va+k+i, polling poa++ilrg, mat.ting ma+t- +hg:, The syllable divides then in Iho middle of the conwnant, that ie, between the glides. But in I syllabising /sil-abai-ning), which is an entirely artifluial prom, intended to bring out the sepnrution of the group distinctly, we separate the glides by a pause, thus splitting the oarnonants (p. 906 and my vak..:li, roam limn mat-... tirm.... between the three cams of medial, double, and split consonants, unl.i, uakii, uni;... li, which ar~ really distinguished in nntural spcech To this eyllabising we may attribute tho freqllent doubling of conronants in written words, where there is no doubling in actual rpeeah., me speller syhbiwd. and wrote whut he heard during this artificial proceas, and not what ho usually pronounced when speaking nuturrrlly. This doubling occurs chiofly &er hort vowels, bewuao the short vowel required a consonant to stop or close it, and &ow it to be pronounccd distinctly without lengthening Buthe vowcl not roquirinc it, the speakor syhbiscd rolling, puling, ac roa.... hg, pni.. hug, and would natumily unit them so with one consonant, although in actual speech thcrc is jmt as muchof a glide from the 1 to tho preeoding vowel.m in unli. Special Bulea for Dividing Consonantß between Two Byllables.--\Vhcn several consonants come betwien two vowels, of which the flmt is accented, nome of them certainly glide on to that vowcl, und one may glide both ways, provided it can form an eaay combination with the preceding cornonant, but otherwise it is attracted entirely from the first vowel to the accond, and is at most connected by a slur. Thus lapso IRr)+s, but lapsing lup..s+irrg, battlo bat-+/, but buttling bal...ling, becausc ti ie not R Usual initial combmation, and bat.l+ling would makc three syllabblcw, but ask ans-k. nas-+k+im/. Whem the einger S forccd to divide syllables h! awkward phrascs which obligo him to take brmth, he may follow this ruh: W!mn several con- sonants.come between two vowels which make an easy final or initial cnmbinution, they may be separated anywhere, and the consonant of separa. tion may be repeated, thuaaar :.. sking,aae X-... king: But where there is the leant di5culty,m to flua1 or initial pronunciation, divide where it Beerne easiest, and do Eut double the consonant, Its startling 8tna.t.. ing, not start l... ling, which is very hnd, introducing. a new $Ilahle. or a&.,... tliq

60 ' _. I02 YIXRD AID CONEONANT QLIDBI. ETLLABLR<. Ilsa. 1% which gives &I unmual initial combination, and omita a glido. Aguin, struggling strug.... Zing rather thnn ßtrug....g Zkg, begxnse of the di5culty of gi-, Whett thore nre two mutcs or sonante, or a mute and sonant, botwegn two vowols, tnken one to one and ono to the other," thus actin': ak...tijag, not #kto.. gag, which is never said, obdurute ~b+d8aret, obtuso ob.. tervs. When, howover, the ncccnt lice on tho smnd rowel, or on neither vowol, the single consonnnt (or the whole combinatinn if initial) is tnkcn to the following vowel, and the firet at most glides ap to it. 'I'hllS happily hap.+& reprove ri+proo'v, but r.estori r.cæ+atoo.l, respond vet+spo1rd, restrict #ea+trikt. The aiyer, howevcr,. may say ri..atao4, ri... apond, ri... strikt, to abroid longth. ' erring the hisees. The lphole of theso directions for dividing syllablw may be cornpisod in the rule: Divide where it bat euils your convenience, but if possible avoid losing the glides on to the accented vowels, and avoid making them on.to prcesdiug uneccented vowels." Similar rules will apply in German. In Italian, honorcr, the' intermediato oonaonante should, when practicable be takon to the following vowel, EO n8 to end all syllablw with a vowel &B much as possible. Consonnntn end. syhblss in Itnliun,only when thuy slao end H word, as umor anwloa.r' for nmorc, or nre followcd by another consonnnt in thu mno word, ILS onch onr,.dna, or are " enorgctic" (p. OOa), nnolhcr vow01 following, na anno inuwon. In Frcnch, on the contrary, where there is no rcn1l.v nccentcd syllable, the intermadinte conaonnht is always medid in nctud spulx:h, though theorists always eeparnti it from tho pmoding vowal. Thirr bppens ovon betwoen words, and gives a pccdinr chmacter to the language ; tbun in ma femme my wife) maafnar~, the f in medid, nn grotte (hor grotto) mkg+raot. LYIYClTU. PITCH. FORCE, Elt., X. LENG'l'H, PITCH, ' FORCE, ETC, Introduotion.-Uesidcs thc VOW$E and conson- time to pronounoe, arising from the vwious lungths anta, glottiddi nnd glides, by which speech sounds. of its vowels, of its glides,.and of ite consonantr.m generated nnd formod into words, n11 lunguagw scparatoly und jointly, nnd this tob1 duration in dietinguieh cerhin prts of syllnblss, nnd ccr-taín I called the lc~lgtlr oj' the syllable. This is an myllablen in a word, and certain words in a i extremoly important coneiderution to tho speaker, htence, by alterationp of duration of uttcmnce, ' who dica udon the'lendh of his ayllablae for or pitch of the voice, or loudness, or cmotioeni I muoh import&, diecrimi&tion of moaning. It is quality of tone;or other characters denoting the important to tho vereifler, because ancient Greek importance attached to thcm by the speaker, I nnd Latin and otherhythms uaod to depend including the pausos betwoen words. The full i entirely on tho comparative lengths of syllables, consideration of t,hcse belong to works on olocn- apd oll rhythms Irre moro or lcss Rffectud by this e, nnd nffects tho pnblio speuker moro thnn thc length. It ia important to the musical composer. ' dingor. But no singcr cnn deliver his words who onght in composing music to given words to properly wi~oot- bcing thoroughly awnm of the nuit tho longths of his notea to the longtha of the nature of tho plana uàed for giving prominence to syilxhles to which they aie given ; und conversely special words and syllnbles. In tho following brief it is important. to any poot whondupta words to. remnrks, tho result'of long study, sufficient is given music. 1ht it is not important to the.aingcr, fivon to mnko %n intelligent pupil understand the bemuso the time in which he is to pronounce each principle on which he has to proceed, and con- ayllnble is strictly asvigncd by the notes beforo venient terms and notations ake furnishod, which him, from which- he in general is not allowed to will onable him to think nnd writo accurately upon deviate in tho le& dcgreo. The singer has'oft.cn a subject hitherto trccrtcd with great laxity and to pronounw ir naturslly vary long syllable in an indistinctness. unnaturally short timt?, or IA naturally vory short Lengch of Bpokm Bound#, end ita Notetion.- syllable in 1111 unnaturally long time, if thc com- A syllnble whcn fomlctl may rmuirc more or lm po84r has 30 willed it. If the singer's words 1 oa.

61 104 LENQTH, ru clr, F O ~ R, ETC. ka. S. consequently becomes difficult to catoh by the Listoner, it is not the fault of the.inper but of the composer. The singer s bueinoss is to mako tho most of tho musiclrl character of his voweh, h take the utmost cam of his glides, and make the share the timc-at his disposal with his vowela, and cut the baezaa and himes down to tho shortest intelligible duration. He will therefore have to practise singing long syllables, as slerpr, to rapid notes, and short sylhbes, as puoi it hrk, to very long notes, bringing out the glide tightly nt tho end. That im to any, tho singer in to act ns ifho knew nothing of naturilly 1onK and short q-lhbles,. but to take the compoeer e and writor s order# on that point and obey them. It is a great miafortune. that both authors and cornpoem s in pncrnl treat, nnd have appamntly alwafs trcutcd language as a vohicle of music with such little regard to its untaral laws, RE to lay themsolves open to the imputation of ignorance. For tho speaker it is convenient to have tho powor of marking thrce lengths of vowels, MI ia hng, äa medial, b short. And for Enghh ceadera whenever nhort romdn are written by two letters in Qloseic, br long voweh by one letter, it is convenient to UBB marks of long and short, although the medial will not be required. Another way of marking theso varieties of length in connection with force of utterance will be given heroafter. But tho singer. as such haa no interewt in these distinctions, which are EO impurtant ta the phot and orator. Pitoh of Spoken Soandn, and its lotstion.--ln speaking we alter the pitch of the voim con. tinually (although never using strictly munical noun&), gliding up and down on the =me vowel, and varying the intonation of our smtoncss accordkg to their meaning and the amxiation of such melody with such menning, which is yonera y very Werent in different countries and difiorent ~ B C ~ of S each colmtry. It is quite different in London and Edinburgh, ln Germany and Italy, and especially France. A foreigner is known at once by hie tune or accent, as it i8 often wrongly called. In nono of our four languages, howover, is thero any oblibmtion for the speaker always to mise or always to lowcr. the pitch of his voice upm as there wa~ in claesical Grocw and Rome, and there stdl is in Norway and Swcden. The composer, therefore, is free to do ns he likes, and the singer. has meraly to do BB he is ordered by the composer. Henco it is needlcßs to mnke any romarks for the use of ninprß on this vory dificult subject. For the um of speakcrs, however, it is ocoasiondy conveniont to UEC tho following notation An unmarked vowcl, au (I((, is to be spokcn ut IL middle pitch, such BB is mod in ordinary speaking; a dstnched acute. acccnt mark, na ai, indicatos a higher, and a dctached grave accent mark, 88 nd, indimtes a lower pitch than this middle one. This. WBE the meaning of the aucient h k acuto und grave accents.. Tho pitch in each cnso is supposed to be sustained during the whole-duration of the vowd. But ua will mean begin at a high and glide down to a middle pitch. This w a ~ the oririginal meaning of the Greek circumflex or down glide. Foros of Spoken Sounds, and itß Notation.- On listening to a preon speaking at so p t n distance that hir individual words cannot be dietinguiehod, ho will bo felt to utter a broken, UIIconnected series of loud or strong sounds, with half heard soft or weaker ones, and ailencee between. A street orator or oponair preacher ie an excellent example for the purpose. This. shews UE that the spusker muet have ade a great differegoe in the loudness of h% utterance, and we feel that the apparent silences do not arise from act& cwaation of tone, but only h m weaker sound, which is not heard at a diatance. W o thna learn to distinguish di5cront dopcs of forco in the utterance of syllables, and to divide syhblea pusrally into I weak and l strong, betwaen which lie many degroes, dd collectively L mmn. In English, German, md Italian the wholo of I ;i. vdcation depends on the alternation of strong.*,. with.either weuk ormenn syhbbles, and neither on the hgth nor pitch of thoao syllables. In French the rhythm (founded on an extinct pronunciation) -I rather utton the numbcr and nature of tho -artificinl (not nakuul) eyhblee in a line, und has. only a very remote relation to their force. In English, Gcrman, and Italian, when sevoral syhblos nre invariubly spoken together, in order to express a thought, forming a rord, one is invariably I strong in comparison with the rcst, and if tho rest are more than two in number, ono or moro will generally bo moan and tho others weak. When sevcral words of one syllablo am pnt toether to form a phmec, the 8ame rule for &mug and weak applios to tho phrase, vith the following Merenco. In a singlc word of many syllables, the ntrong, moan, arid weak syllables d m y retain ~ their relativo positions wherever and whenever tho word is use&; that is, Ihepoailiolr of ntrength and weaknesa is dxed. But in a phrase the strong syllable often varies whon the wme phrase is used in different places under different oirmmstnncce; that is, tho positiora of strongth and wvkness is II,free. The fixcd ~yllahle, which is always strong in every word of mom than.one syllable, is aaid to be accented, or to have the accent ;,l and if there is also a mpm syllable, thc strong is said to be primarily accented, or to have thc U primary accent, and the man to Lw I newndarily accented, m to have the l secondary accent fpreimur ili, sekundw ili). Tho variable eyllable in a.phrase which becomer ßtrong is said to have IL emphis (Scn~tiaia), or be emphatic fmfabik]. I he difference between accent and omphasie ns applidd to syllables, then, may, bo bridy stated 88 accent ie fired, emphaais is he. But on exnmining larger phrases or ~ c~usos whioh contain wonla of one or more than one syllable mid together, we always find that at het one whole word is more prominent than the mt; and may bo termed a strong word, and ChRt there are also other word8 of mean force. This Frength of the word, howevnr depends on ib menning and tho intention of thc speakcr. It is therefore, c free, and not L fixed. Hencc we term it tho I emphatic word, nnd eay it hns emphaais, while the mean. words htrve secondary emphasis When the strong word has ssveral sylhblcs, all of its syllablecl are stronger than thcy would havc been if the word werc wcak, or had only mean force ; or elsc the strong syllable of a strong ivord is mode remarkably prominent (See Teacher s Manual, art Honcc we require a mark for the strong syllablo in a word of sevcral syllables, and the strong word in a ph&. In Glossic we write (.), a turned period, called the mark of I accent, or more fully of force accent, and placa it t7f2er. the long vowel, or after thu consonant or consonants following a uhort rowel, in D wordof mom than ono s)-llablo. Tho mark thus scrves to mark lengths na wen 88 form, thus,fbe-livg, fdirrg. If therc is 11 mecm syhblu in th6 word, it in not uaually diatinguiahed from tho strong in G~OEMC wdting, thus acflt6noo-ir, circumspection 8ermkt$nisp~k alrrrk, insufferability i~zrzrf.~a. whil.ili. If it is thought necoeeary to distinguish mcdid length, without using accented letters lilro än, the (:) is plttced before (instead of over) thc uowel, au kaa-ftu laughter, tho (., still lnorking tho accent. If it is desired to distinguid1 thc wcondary accent or medium syllable, the mark,. ) may be placcd aftcr the long vowel, or the consonant following a short vowel,. as an. f1f61t00:11, irrs~rf. rrr ahil.iti. For the strong and mean words the marks (.) and (. ) are prefixed to the wholc word, as : L Shall YOU ride to town to-day P sh1d eu.,aid 614 towntrrdai? But if the word is of many syllables il retainn ita amnt mark as well,as ita emphasis mark, as: He is irrsuferable, but N~CEESARV heea - irzstfur ubl, But.rlcs.rssr i. In unemphatic words the position of the accent mark rill shew the length of the vowel, an in liee.s in the last sentence. Vowils unmarked are to he.taken as short or at most medial in length, and weak or nt most mean in force. Else the long, medial, or short marks II~C IIRPCI over them, as dogv%ae.

62 - -. x. The stkng syllables arc of thc utmost importan? ic English, cfemn, and Itndinn. If in a WGI~ of many ~yll~bles, the wrong Byllablo be made strong in these langnngcs, thc word gcncrally becomes unintelligiblc. In all thrce of them tho altcmation of strong and wcak syllables regulates versifiention, although: of COUIW, rhythm is swayed by othcr considerutions EO. In Englidl especially, the vowels in wcak syllables are always much obscured (sec Section XI., A. III.) nlthough lhcy recover n little in m m syllables. The wcak syllable immediatcly following II, strong syllablc iß most Actcd. To bu intelligible, thc lcngthcning hie vowels. must still continue to give thum this obscuro charnctcr. Ln Gcrnllm wino syllables only mc thus obscured. In Italian tho weuk syhbh nrc n8 bright us the strong oncs. For Frcnch dl this is diffcrcnt. There i6 no tired force, cithcr on words of ono syllsblc, or o11 words of miny sylhblcs, cithcr n8 accent or. dlnphasis. Btrong syhblcs ale throughoot free with this exception that only a,vcry small sct of ~~llabl~s (thoac containing so-clcllcd I mute c, or. mnto-gutturnl c ) nrc,wmk, and in speaking such sylhbles ara very weak indced, whilc tho rest benr to the first the,dation of.mem to strong. aut thd actual syllable to which predominance is given in a word vnrics according to tho construction of the sontencc, and it nppm io me, aftor long and attcntivu cxnmination continued for many yearn, that any po8itive laws laid down respccting isolated French words arc mislcnding. The foreigner hnd bettor cndeavonr to pronormcc caeh French syllnhlc that is not wcak with &out qual forca nnd length, und to hurry over the wcnk syllables 11s fast and lightly u, he can. The pitch: of the voice in speaking ucems frequently to lise at tho end of claases, and.to be monotonous throughout x claw. The whole effect is like a neckllrce of beads strung tob#,h& by an invisible thread, and the want of fixed force owtsions great difficulty to u. foreigner in grouping the eyhblw into words., To nppreciate Frcnch enunciation and dcclrmation -.. fully is the work of yenlul. %he p t mobility and lightness of the sylhblce, and utter frecdoln a~ regards force (nnd even length in the prcscnt pronunciation!- gires a.great peculiarity to the sctting of,french. words to music. This is. incrcltscd by the adoption. of an older principle whcreby whatt nre now vcry weak syllablc~ in spc:rking are allowed in singing ta htrve LUI much. strength BB any of tho others., Thin peculiarity. mnders the adaptation of English words to French mumic gonerally vcry difficult; nnd nothing cnn gcncrally be worm suitcd for tho intclligibility of the words. Thc cffect is dmost that of playing varintionn written for :l flute on a trombone. In the mutter of force, although a composer Itrye.down thc law with tol&nble strictnees, it is not EO binding and ineritnble as tho laws of longth and pitch. ~ U Q, the barring of mlwio determines a certnin sltenmtion of strong, menn, and weak ; and a libcml uso of signs for crowndo nnd diminucido, from forte to fortimiino, and piano to pimieairno, with sforzando, stacwto, legato, lind thc like, convey tolerably Etrich ordere to the singcr, which he ought to obey. Yet he is frequently left to. his own rcsoiirccs to. bring out the effad by nltcnrtions of forcc. IS he to do EO by the ame UEG of w n t nnd cmphnsis which he would employ in mn+g the pesage to a public audience. with thu best declnmtion ho c m command, or Icarn rom books? IIc cannot do EO without anorifiring the musicul cffect which oblibw him to cnlte another view of the WO&. The only pees in which he hne n chunco RI- thoae of chonting and &itutive. In both of thcse tho singing voice, so utterly diffcrcnt from the speaking voice, bnrs the way. In chanting. the monotone of the reciting note is entircly opposed to the habite of speaking. The rmitative hnn indced vuioty, indeed EO grcnt a raricty of pitch, that no spenking voicewould naturally produce it. The singor, therefore, ks in every caw to sacrifice the effect ofncce1;t and emphnnis to tho need of music, or to lctrrn tho difficult art of musical clociltion ns diatinct from spokcn elocution. It would b uselom to...ka. x. LLCNQTB, PITCH, enter into such n subject hore. Each particular I mg rcqniros ita own stndy. No rules have yet beon laid down, but musical elocutionists oxist, 1 *. whose business it is to teach the ainger how to I s. brins out oither the feeling of the composer and!t. poet, or at any ratn their own GCWS of c: Those I I \l. who cannot hnve acccaa to them, and whoso own teachers have nothe power to teaoh musical elocution, must truat to their own musical feeling and musicul wnse. Buthe ordinary rules for spoken dwlumation would utterly fail. We npy enduro and won admire a tragedy when sung ns pn opora, but a player that imitated the. singer i. would be dcsarvcdly hissed off the stage..i, Quality of Tone in Bpoken Eomdr, and why it ia not funiohed with a Notation.-Force is, how- - aver not tho only free or tolerably free weapon at the command of the singer. There is mother i and much more powerful woapon-original and.emotional qudity of tone.. ho power to give. totally difforont original- qualitiee of tone to thc noha of the uame pitch, and s g to the name vowel (which as we know merely modiflee the. qunlity of tone originally produced) gires thc. natural human voice its wonderful superiority over every artificial instrumcnt..the violin can do much in this way by tho force and place of bowing, by taking tho =me notes on ditfersnt &rings, or BR harmonica, and so on. nut all its power is as nothing compared to the human voice.. Tho conniderution of this subject, however, belonys, not to.a treatilw on pron.unciation, hut to the hirhest walks of the singer s art It is enough to,mention that the form given to oxpreision by qunlity cf tone varies greatly from nation, to. nation, aid thnt what spenks to the heart in one style cf music, und to one kind. of audiencc, falle.. dead.. to another. h d Hnally, that whatever >- ninger makas himself into a mcre musical inetrn-. ment by disguising his words, mud uthly fail.. - in touching or delighting unyone. For the wul.i.-. spkwby WO~S, md if the words aie unheard, tho pou1 is dumo. 107 Weight of Spoken Sounds.-In speaking and, in singing, there is something different from B:lgth,- pitch, force, or quality of tune, by which the speaker or singer ~ 0np.e~~ the sen88 of importance, although each of thme elements, and combinations. of two or more of them, am of COWEO constantly employed for the purpose of giving thie expres. don of importance, varying under different circumstances. This effect may bc called weì&, and words.and syllnbles may be distinguished in this respect &B heavy, mgderate, mid light.. The &ed may be described on the whole as ~JWI~S:. dependiq npon the conceptions conveyed, rather. than the means of conveying them. Sometimes the most important nnd heaviest word, the utter - ance of which conveys, nu electrical ehock to nn audience, or which secms to give the whole meaning to all that prccedcd, is uttered in a weak, low, and even short, tonclcse voice;. though nt l other time8 again a voice of thunder. Thcao. m, howcver, extreme casos of rhetorical cffect. But generally in English the subatantivo is heirvier than its qualifying adjectivo, though the ktter may.be much EhOnpr and even longer, whilc it is [rcquently higher. Again the verb is almost tlways heavier than either its subjector.object, tlthough it is very frequently weakm. Thcsr lifferences scwrdy.affect tbc singer, csccpt in the endering of veme, which in Englihh depcnds. nuch on wight for its nctual rhythm. Silence 8s.m Element of Epeeçh, and it0 Nota- ;ion.-tho interval between two audible mrmds m.a most important influence on their merhl Iffcct. We urc nl1 familiar with this in inshu. nental and vocal mwic, und in n11 kinds of Ieclamation. Silence may be great, medium, or mall, in respect to durntion, and it may be,bsolute or merly apparent in respect to quality.?or abmlu? silence, no vocnl cffort ir made, but ho respiration h y go on quietly, or evcn espirntion may be mspcnded, so that the attention f the listener is directed townrds the forthcoming Dund, which mnv mmc with :t bnrst. or thc dighfesl

63 posible indication of voice. In apparent eilence,. thcre is muy no nuspension of vocal uttdee, but merely a greut diminution of force-n length- ~ med dur. The dif erenee to the speaker or tinger. is of come great, bemum aftar absolute silenae there must be an entire re-adjuetment of the vocal chords, which nre kept in action during the apparent silence. As an element of rhythm and singing, silence may be nlwap considad n! absolute and in Einging should therefom begin with a clear rdleap, and end with n clear attack. Tn singing, the composer always sufficiently indi- I &ea the silances md.their lengths. In speabjng, '.. the writer very inadequately represents themby punctuation. This muy be roughly -improved by adding (.), n turned mark of degrew, for a small, (..) for a medium, and (...) for a great silence. Mr. Curwen, in the "Teacher's Mnnual," arta , has endeavoured to indicnte silences by muaical subdivisions. Thie is very well adapted for simultaneous chanting, where M excrct indica-. tion of the duration of eilenoee ie indispensable, ' but not for, such rhythmical utterance, even in veme, as is usual among public spoakere and d e m at the presnnt day, when exact rhythmirel dnce ir carefully avoided. Introductory Eemrrks.-The objoct of these ' Exercises is to suggest rather than to give a '. oomplete method of practising the pupil in all the pbinta explained in the previous Sections. The hcher must know Ru thnt precedes, in order to mmct any error, and to direct tho proeeeaof study. But the pupil will lem the details incidentally. The tencher and the advanced student ' who make we of this book, should carefully.go through the whole exercises themblves, not mentally but actually ; for it is only by ascertaining the &ect of such yructice on their own vocal organs thut they can properly direct the pupil nnd. -t upon the necessary repetition. The Exercises have been sepmated from the rest of the wark, became it would have 'been ahod imposeible, and certainly inexpedient, to hava made dietinct exmbes for each.point discussed.as it m,, avoiding al1 others. The pupil does not need such an analytical trea+nont of the subject. Be is u d to regard sounds as a whole, and he must be led do eyse them for himeolf. The prawntation of the de- in a strictly systematic order would' confuse him. Buch M order is, in fact, of no imporhce.at all to the pupil, who can. begin anywhere. Hence a very few examples have 'been given in the coume of the exposition, and even for those it was frequently necessary to, anticipate what followed, and in order to make them intelligible a short key to Glossic had to be pm bed : but any key or system of writing necesesrily involves 'n more or lem complete dyeis of speech -. wunds. -2. I XI. EXERCISES I 109 A pupil is supposed to be alrendy able to spa ih and read his own lanhape. But he wil orohb 1Y hvc errors. or difficitiei of pronunciaticin to Bu- mount, and he will ~IW~LFB. have tobeled to B knowledge of how to make language intelligible an aung. The kt care of every teacher must, therefore, be flret to awrtain what are the pointa in which the pupil needs assistance, and then to exerciae him eapedy in $hose, leaving the other points, on which he needs little or no aasistance, to be treated incldentally. The first exercisea tue therefore directed to the discovery of them weak places. But the exercises range over all such possibilities. The teacher will therefore have to select those which are necessary in any particular case. The Amt exercises are general, and relato to all the sounds occurring in English strong syllables, and especially in the glides, by 'means of artificial combinations, which have no meaning aa words in actual use. Then follow n series of exercises, in whiah actual words are employed, arranged princi- ' pally to bring out the differences of vowelnnd consonant SOUU~E. ' In the Gloseic Index in the next Section real words are given, shewing the actually existing glides of every vowel and diphthongal Round in strong ByhhleB on to any following conaonant, and of every consonant on to every other consonant and vowel at the beginning of words. This Index consequently fom a supplementto this part of the exerciees. It will also refer the teacher in every caw ta the page where the nounda on whicho in exercising the.

64 wov pupil are fully dcscribed. Hence it has not beea, CHART OF ENGLISH SOUNDB. thought ferences to llecessary every examph. to add a The crowd next series of such rolates re-. wmk to syhbh, which have to bo differently ~ zm..huozh I treated in einging and in clpecch, and those also feif thoith vouv dheudn I exercise'on the slw, nnd on the lrltornntion of hei hoi. hou yhen hai'y hoa'w I etrong and weak syllables. cheech chaich ohaach ja4 joaj jooj After'this genersl treatment of English sounds, Ì ling meng, naug lul mom nuon' thm who wish to pked to a study of Qeman, Italian, nnd French solmds, will find a fcw speck1 r'eerr' r'airr' r'oarr' r'oorr. elierciscs on their additional or pccdiar sounds, The above chart is arranged eo that the artiflcial eepcially on thnse points in rhich thoy differ worde.oan be SUng to the notee of Ciod mve the from English. Kinp." It a h contains. all the initial and find It is intended that these exercises should all be single coneonants which occur in our hgwge, either I' pointcd " from certain charte, or 16 Pt- I but no combinatione of COMOM~~~. Theae are temed" by the teacher.. Such a book DE the supplied by the following table of initial and flnal preeent is, of course, unfltted for tho young pupil. combinations, arranged in alphabetied oder for The teacher wiu himself supplg the needful ex- easo of reference, the initial combinations being. planations, to the extent required for each Exercise and no more. In this way the qparent difficulties wil dwindle t6 nothing, and attention will be 'directed solely to surmounting the real dificulties. A. ENGLISH EXERCISES. I. ANTIFICIAL STNONG SYLLAHLES. oenr~l Tableß of Englieh BoFda.-The following lin& lould be boldly printed on a chnrt, hg0 enough for a whole clase to me, and for the teacher ta point to any letters, or slide his pinter from ono lotter to anothor, to indicate glides, without,tho. chance of confusion by the pupil. i peep. kaak beub doad goog I l placed in the order of the lettera from loft to right ithat is, in the order of common dictionariea), and the final wmbin8tions in- the alphabetic order of the letters following the rowel and also from left to right. Tho pups. ch 'dh fag rh th za (cnlled dhe ing ish ith zhai) are heroreckoned 88 single letten, so that the alphahtic ordor of the WnEOnantE ia taken to bo b ch d dh f g h J k l m n ng p r I.' a rh t th v W wh y yh e eh. Tho permisaive trill implied in r is aupposed to he always made, and hence rr' is always written before coneonants. and should beused at leant as an exerciw..this list is wpecidly intended as a guido to the teacher in forming exercises (LB afterwards explainec ENGLISH INITIAL COJfBINATTONS OF CONSONANTS. 8 bluk black l np- 8yes.k speak brurkia brown npl- qlmh ephsh bwoi (occasionally) bu01 npr'- yrriflgkl sprinkle drvrr draw Et. ' rtand stand drcarrrl-'f dwllrf eh'- str'ai etmy $00 flew nw- 6wni.r swear. fr'0.q hog Ehr'- 8hr'cs.k nhriek ghrn glean W- 'tr'out trout grma p e s tw- fweirt twine gzcaawoa guano. thr'- thr'oo through fioa.rlhz 'clothes thw- thwnnw't thwart rlbbcd rubs rewhcd breadth breadths puds' breathed breathes Cllffd theft., thcftd fifth fifehs bogged ' bega judged nxe. fixed sixth EiXthS act acts bllb bnlbs filch filehcd wild wilds shelf shelf's engolfod twelfth twelfths bnlge * bulgccd 'olk clka eulkod film alrns fnllen hclp change changcd honco minced hint hints tenth tenths hens wingcd think thinka blinked length lengths wings tapa wept

65 Oms. XI, A. I. ENßLIBB EXPECIBER WlTE ABTIPICIAL WOIIUR. 112 The Mode of Xrrking Time in the Xxemirer.- Between I and I one' second elapse^. Between 1 and : or : and 1, half a secand. AU youp of letters or worde written betwk these limits divide the interval of time equally, but (-) meana, continue the last vowol for the spnce of a group, and if n mnsonnnt follows an -p, glide on to that con- canant at the end of the time thus marked. Also (...) means, be silent for the space of n group. Thus in I pee I, tho word lasts a whole second, in lpee... I it lests half n second,followedby a pause of the Mme length. In i pee... : pee I the 6rat ped laata a qunrter of a second, and is followed by n pause of the Mme length, and the second pee laeh n half-newnd.. In I pee - -p pee 1, the pm9 lasts three-quarters of a second, finishing with the glide on-the third quarter, and the following pee lsstionly one quart? of a second. A word of, two eybbles takes the anme time na two single ~ybblee. Thus in I peepee 1 peeppee I each syllable bsts hnlf a second. The double bars merely mnrk sections of Exerciees. which may be conetantly repeated... Ex. 1. To Diroover any DefeCte in Pronanointion in order to dirrot future prnotioe -The teacher rends peep, the first word in the Chart, pointing tb it, and makee each pupil in the clase pronounce it nftt. him. He brie5y noter tiny defects (on pnper if poamble) for subwquent use, not -for preaent coaection.. Such n mark es pt would imply QTOmOUE introduction of flatus, p + imperfect initid glide ; ee6=i, incorrect pronunciation of vowel; +p, fnulty final glide; poh, much anal htus. Then the teacher takes lait in the m e way. NnLn eepecinlly if ni hn~ a strong vanieh, as aiy, 01 whether it appdes si in sound. l -ad pksd plead Ultimately the whole!nt of 38 nrtificid WOrdd in the chart must be gone through in thie way,, but as a commencement it will be suicient to go through the 6rst twelve words. Then the tonchor singe the first line-, IpoepItaitIkeakIbaubIdoadIgoogI slowly, one second to each word, making the initinl nnd final glides clearly, nnd avoiding all final recoils. Emh pupil haa then to sing them. eepnrntdy. Noten of hie perfomance should be made aa before. Tho second line is to be treated in the anme way, lengthening the vowels, and shortening the hisaca and buzzes, especially when 5nsl. ThiE Exorcisc givee the complete mies of long and short vowela in English, 'except at)., which wcmn only befare r, nnd is hence left for the leet line. The teacher will have conmquantly learned all the hnbitud mispronunciations of voweh rind. of the m& importcmt mixed glides. By proding ta the third line-fey, thoith, vouo,'dhe*he can exnmjne for dl tho ueunl diphthongs in the une wav. Each D U has ~ to be examined seuarately, -I A * as each one will have different c m, rind Wh& several voicea BM speaking together, sucherror8 cannot be auscimtly individunlised. Hnvjng gone through the three flret linea, they may be sung in C~OI-UE and in unison 'to the firet part of 'I Gad ave the King " These lines will be quite enough for a firet lesson. F The n& four lines miy be taken at the next leason, &B they.& not. present 80 many di5cultiee. The aepirntion in he, hoi, hold, will require attention, 88 well &B tho form of the diphthonp. In yaeu E- whether the initial hiss is wunded; most people inclined to say yoo. In h&y howw &=ve the vanish, and contrant with Lait, dodd; In Iinag, mg, nang, h a, warn, mon, observe whethe the vowel or the 5nnl vom1 in langthened. Arid in the last line *'m', r'niw', r'oad, r'oorr',.observe whether trilled r' and vocal v are both properly brought out nnd the vowele duly modifled. Then the whole seven linen may be EUI~ to Qod enve lhe Sing," for which they are specially adapted. But BB the worde are all monosyllnblee, and have no signification, they may be sung to any nir, beginning anywhero, and going on RB long BB ie.nece&ry, and there is much advantage in altering the nir and at leaet the order of tho lines or words, in order that the different vowela may be EUU~ to different pitchen. ' This Exerciw is entirely for the um of the marrter, to give him the completest infoinntion reepe0tir.g the vicioua habita of the pupil... The following Exercises can all be worked from thie one Chart by judiciow pointing, but are better sung h m separate copiea at the E X ~ ~ E. Ex. 2. The Vowel [er] md Xixed OHder for Mntsr.+bjeote: to get cd pure (and hnnce an qpmprinte pitch must be chosen and set by eher) ; to get the clem attack without any thront glide, or tongue glide, nnd with the releaee pure ; to make and feel 'the difference between this oht, the initial glide pee, and finel glide eap, and between both the latter and pep ; to take cam that no 5ntus M heard after any mute. Similar for t, k. The pttern mustbeeet by the teacher and at &t taken up by tho pupils one after the other in e eort of running h, taking the paesage between two The teacher beata time. double bars (117. 1eaIpeeIee eepipee eepipeepii 4 ee I tee I ee eet I tea eet I teet 11 L ee I kea [ ee eek I kee eek 1 keek I( lee e e l p peeltee teelkee keel1 1 be ee I eep eep I eet eet I eek eek )I Ipwtee hice ee'ee(ipee kee toeieeeeee(( R Lee tee peelkee pee t e e l t e e kee peelteepee kee II 1 poe tee kee I peep teet keek I eop &t eek II ' ypeeteekee:teekeepeelkeepeetee:peeteek~ii t 11 peep teet keck I teot keek posp I keek peop &t1 I peep teet keek I( )I peet teek : keep peet I teek keet : pek keep 11 I( peeteek : keepat 1 teekeet : peekeep I teepeek : : keeteep I( II pee tee : peet ee I peetee : peettee II 11 pee kee : peek ee I peekee : peekkee )I I) kee pee : keep ee I keepee : keeppee 1) [I teo kee : teek ee I teekee : teekki II II peet ee keep ee I peetee kmpee 1 peetteekeeppee II II peet kecp : peek teep [ keep teek : kcet peek II Ex. 3. The Vowel [ai] aqd Mixed Olider for Hnter.-!l"he vowel ai have no i vnniah. It muet continuo to be the anme sound from beginning to end in these Exercisee. It muat never sppmh the sound of ci. Other obaervatione an before. II ai l pi I ai aip I pni aip I paip Il Ij ai I tai I ai ait I hi nit I tait II I( ai I kai I ni nik I kni nik I knik (1 11 ai ni I pni pni 1 tai tai I hi kni II ' I) ni ni I nip nip I ait ait I aik aik II lrpni'tai 1 ni ai ai 11 pi ni tai 1 ai ni ai 11 I 1) hi tai pni I kni psi tai 1 tai kai pui 1 tai pni kai IIpaitai~IpniptRitkaikInipaitaikI) IIpnitaikai:teiknipaiIkai~itai:pnitsikaiII 11 pnip tnit hik I tnit kaik pnip I knik pnip tnit I ' I pip tait kaik II pit taik : knip pait 1 taik knit : pik hip II 11 pnitaik : kaipnit J taikait : piknip I taipnik : : hitaip II 1 pi tai : pait ni I pnitai : pittai I(. 11 pi kni : pnik ai I pnikni pnikkai 1). 1 hi pi : knip ni 1 knipni : knippai II 1 tai hi : tnik ai I taikni : taikkni II I pdt ai knip ai I pnitai hipni I pnittui kaippai 1, I pnit knip : pnik taip I knip taik : knit pnik 1 I! '

66 / ENGLISH lt&rrcibek WITE Ex. 7. The Vowel loo]and Maed Qlidem for H~tw.-To obtain n pure 00 the' piten muet not be blgh. Be careful that the month ie propnrly -S uran& from the kt. EO that there is no lio WOBDE. 115

67 i 16 l i II ped teeb : beet deep I teeg keed.. keeb peeg 4 II peetdeeb : heed teep I teek geedkecpbeeg I )I pi bai : tai dai I kai gai : pai bai II II aip aib : ait aid I nik aig : aip aib JI I( paid Lib : bait hip I taig kaid : kaib paig 1) 1) pait daib : baid taip I taik, paid : knip bai5 II II pan baa : taa dan I k'ea gm : paa bua (1 )I aap nab : aat, Rad I ank aag : aap nab 1 (1 paad taab : baat danp J taag kaad : knnb p g I 1) paat dnnb : baad taap I teak pad : knap baag 11 (1 paubau :.tau dau 1 kau gau : pau bau u 1) nupnub : aut aud I auk mg : aup sub II. I paud taub : baut dmp I tnug kaud : kaub paugll put daub : baud taup I tauk gaud : knup bnug II ' Ipoaboa:toadoaIkoagoa:poaboalI I.oap oab : oat oad 1 oak 'mg : oap oab II I pond toab :. boat doap I toag k d : koab poag (1 I pont doab.: bodd toap I toak.goad : koap boag fl 1 POO boo : too.doo I,koo goo : p00 boo II 1 oopoob : oot ood 1 ook mg : oopoob (1 pood tooh : hot doop I toog kood : koub p005 u poot doob : bood h p I took good : koop boog (1 heat'care is requlred in epeaking or singing auch ombinatione 88 peed teeb, peel deb. Ex. 11.-On the E&ot of both Pitch and Oli& n eaoh Long Vowel.-8ing each of the following nes on each of the different notes of the dereendlg de, ending on the octave below the filxt. ing first at the wtc of one word and then at the tte of three \vorda to a second. Vary t.he d to nbme the estreme tones of the voice.

68 ~~ ~... ~. + ' 1 l8 ENßLIBH 'EXRROIBBS WlrE ARTIFICTAL WOUDS. Bec. XI, A. 1. Ex. 12. On the Ehort Vowelr, Irngthened in &ging.-t&e Exerck 2 to 10 and in them tor cc, ai, as, nu, oa, 00 rubatitute i, c, S, o, u, (M, mpectively. Ex. 12u. II i I pi I i ip I pi ip I pip II 11 i t ti I i it I ti it I tit II. II i 1 Li I i ik I ki ik I kik II, ' IIiiIpipiItitiIkikiI) II i i I ip ip I it it 1 ik ik II II pi ti ki I i i i II pi ki ti- 1 i i i II II ki ti pi I ki pi ti I ti ki pi [ti piki 1 '1 pi ti ki I pip tit kik I ip it ik (1 1 pi ti ki : ti ki pi I ki pi ti : pi ti k i l l 1 pip tit kik I tit kik pip I kik pip tit I ptp tit kik II. II pit tik : kip pit I tik kit ': pik kip 1) [,pitik : kipit I tikit : pikip I tipik : kitip II I pi ti :. pit i I piti : pitti (1. II pi ki : pik i I piki' : pikki,i) ki pi : kip i I kipi : kippi II. u ti ki : tik i I tiki : tikki.11 pit i kip i I piti kipi I pitti kippi II 1 pit,kp : pik tip I kip tik : kit pik II Ex.' 126. ~elpeie~plpe~pipepll IjoIteIoetIte6t;ttetII..u e I ke I e ek I ke ek I kek II ioeipepoitete(kekcii. 1 e e I op ep I et et I ek ek (1. II pe te ke I e e e II PO ke te I e e e (1 AketepeikepeteItekepeIte-pekeII I pe te ke I kek I ep et ak II 4 pe ta ke : te ke pe I ke pe te : pe le ke II.'J pep tmt ' keli I tet kek pep I kek. pep tet I I pep tet kek II I pet tek : kep pet: I tek ket : pek kep 1, I petek : 'kepet I teket : pekep I tppelr :. ketep 1) pete:peteipete:petteii k. X I; &-I. ENQLIBTI Kxmc1aJ:s WITE. ARTI FICIAL WORDS. 11s 1 potok : kopot! tokot : pokop I topok : kotop II II pu0 tuo ho I puop tuot kuok I uop uot uok II J p o ' to : pot o I poto : potto : II puo. tuo kuo : tuo ho pu0 I kuo pu0 tuo : H p0 ko : pok o I poko : pokko II : pu0 tilo kpo.ii 1 ko p0 :. kop o I kopo : koppo (1 ' II puop tuot kuok I tuot kuok pwp I kuop puop tuot I to ko :, tok o I toko : tokko II. I puop tuot kuok 11 II pot o kop o I poto kopo 1-potto koppo II II puot tuok ; kuop puot I tuok kuot : puok kuop II II puotuok : kuopuot I tuokuot puokuop I I tuopuok : hotuop II II pu0 tuo : yuot, u0 I puotuo : puottuo II II pu0 kuo : puoli uo I puokuo puokkgo II II kuo pu0 : kuop uo I. kuopuo,: kuoppuo II II tuo kuo : tuok uo I tuokuo : tuokkuo (1 II puot uo kuop uo I puotuo knopuo! I puottuo kuoppuo II. II puot kuop ihok tuop I kuop tuok : kuot.pnok II Ex. 12g... II pi te ka -1 po tu kuo H pip tet knk I pop tut kuok I II pi pe P 1 po PU pu0 I ip ep ap I OP UP 110~ II u ti te ta I to tu tuo I it et at I ot ut uot II. u ki ke ka I ko ku kuo I ik ok ak I ok uk uok ]I 11 pi ti ki I p0 te ka 1. p ta ka I pu tu kul I pu0 tuo kuo II 1 petik kn t e petka I kop utuo 1 takkappa 1). Ex. 12h. II i I bi I i ib I bi ib I bib II II i I di I i id I di id I did (1 H i I pi. I i.ig I gi ig I gig II II i i I bi bi I di di I gi gi II II i i 1 ib ib I id id I ig ig II II bi di gi I i i'i II bi gi di I i i i II II gi di bi 1 bi 'di I di gi bi I di bi gi n. (1 bi di gi I bib did gig I ib id ig II II bi di gi.: di g bi I gi bi di : bi di 'gi (1. II bib' did gig I did gig bib I gig bib did I I bibdid gig 1) II.bid dig : gib'bid I dig gid : big gib (1 1 bidig ': gibid I digid : bigib I dibig : gidib 1 '

69 I20 ENQLlSll EILllCISE8 WITH AK'TIBICIILL WORDS. bo. XI, A. 1 - I ENQLISH UKRCIEES WITH h du gu I bub dud gug 1 -ab ud ug 11 hdugu: dugubul gubudu: budugun hb dud gug 1 dud gug bub I gug bub dud I Ex. 12n. 191 II pi bi : ti di I ki gi : pi bi n (1 ip ib : it id I ik ig : ip iblll II pid tib : bit dip I. tig kid : kib pig II pit #lib: bid tip I tik gid : kip big 1 II pe be : te de I ke ge.: pe be )I Il ep ab : et ed 1 ek eg : ep eb (1 II ped teb : bet dep I teg ked : keb peg (I II pet deb 1 bcd tep I tek ged :. kep beg I I l p a b a : tada(kaga:pabsii (1 ap ab ; at ad I ak ng : up ab II IIpadtab:batdapItagknd:LabpgII II pnt dab : dad tap I tak gad : kap bag It (1 pa bo : to do I ko go : PO bo 1) (1 op ob : ot od I ok og : op ob 1) II pad tob : bot dop I tog kod : kob pog 11 II pot dob : bod top I tok god : kop bog II I pu bu : tu du I ku gu : pu bu (1 I up ub : ut ud I uk ug : up ub 1) I pud tub : but dup I tug. kud : kub pug /I I put dub : bud tup I tuk gud : kup bug 1 1 pu0 buio : tuo duo I koo guo : pu0 buo II 1 pop uob : uot uod I uok uog : uop nob II I puod tuob : buot duop I tuog kuod : kuob puog. I puot duob : buod tuop I tuok gnod : kuop buog 1 Es. 13. On the Eioueu.-Cnre hm to be taken ;o make the Hisses short and distinct, and. the Jlides tight. The following are mere specimena )f what can be formed from the Chart. I fw fai faa I fau foafoo l eef aif a d I auf oaf oof I IfifefaIfo~fuoIifef'af1ofufuofII 1 thee thai t h I thau thoa th? I wth aith aath I I auth oath 00th II seesaim I saumasoo I wsaiseas I ausousoo8j ei ae.ea I 80 EU suo I is em a8 I W UE um II &e shai shmr I ahau shoa shop I eeuh aioh aash I I aush oaah oosh II whee whai whaa I whau whoa whoo I I whi whe wba I who whu whuo II

70 ..... ~ r... I22 I p p whif I tait m I knnk ahaeh I pup whof I I tost EM I kook shuof I( whwfni pauth I whnifi poth Ipai-hII e ~ o ~ EXERCISES ~ s ~ r wrm ABTIFICIAL WORDS: I whot eep nnth I &WE seeeh E~E I thuf thonth sooth 1 II I fmsh sah h E \ M. XI. A;.l II wishi woshi :. whithi whothi I via VOS : Sdhi fodhi II (1 dhizi dhon... : thaei thau... I llathi llafi ; &hi Safi II II dhaaehai thniehan : shaizhaa dhauzai 11 ahithi nhiththi : aidhi zidhdhi I 8 0 s ~ ~ : : shozhaaehozhzhaa I favm favvoa : vafoa d on II Ex. 14. On the Buzzes eß oontruted with ((pwheewheeweefeeveelpaibniwhaiwaifai~il' Hirrer, Mutes, and 60MntE -Cnre muat be taken pan baa whw 'wm fea van 1 pnu bnu whnu to mke the Buzzee distinct, not to begin with Satus, BB sew, and eapeaially not to end with fatua, wau fuu vau I pon bonwhoa won fon von I na mm. k t Fculty will be felt in this. respect I p00 boa who0 wad foo m II when BUEW follow Hi-, BB in b &e, or when' II teeeee'thee:deezeodhwitsissithni;~izruidhni; Hiwea p d e B-E, as cm zw. When any 1tau~athaa:dacr~~ltnu~uthau: Buzzw Vd one group nud begin the nest, na in : dnu mu dhau I toa moa thos : h. zon dhun I EUZ zhumh, rapid uthnce becomee even more I too EOO thoo : dm zoo dhoo II iflcdt than for Hima n8 8w shuo8h, or &nnnte BB bnb gwp, or MU~W~E pup kunk! Hence the necea- II kee gee shae zhee : kni.gai ehni h i t rity for countant repetition. The Exercise which I km gas. shae zhna : kau gau h u zhau I follows, long as it may appenr, gives no more than' Ikoag0tashonzhos:koogooahooehao~ a hint of what is required. (1 pip bib fif viv I pep beb' fef vev 1 pap bnb faf vnv 1 I weewni wan I v?. vai vna II wau wor woo I pop bob fof VOI I pup bub fuf nv i I yu voa v00 I(.! PUOP.buOb fuof vuov u I whee wee : fee VDC I whni wni : fai vni I (1 tit sis thith : did ziz dhidh I tet 8%% theth : I whnu Wau : fau va! II ' :dedzeadhedh~tateaethnth:dade~adhndhl I me sai ILRB : eau son soolzeo zai ma.: znu zoa zoo H (tot 80s thoth : dod z4 dhodh I tut EUE thuth: ~see~zeesee:zaieaieaisaiiaeeznueeeeau: : dud 'ZIU dhudh I tuot EUOE thuoth : : M)B son eon zoa I zoo we zee EM : : dud zuoz dhuodh II : &BB 888 LUUL ma II (1 kik gig shieh zhizh : kek geg ahsnh zhd 1 u is.ei dhon ': dhiz is raz I whee fee thee : I knk gmg ahaah zhnzh : kok gog nhmh Aozh I : wni mi dhni I( lkukgugshuahz~uzhkuokgu~shuoshahuoehll I iz ez aa : oz uz uoz I izh czh nzh : oh uzh uozh II Endless examplea of this kind cnu be conntructed I th ef ~dh OP : idh ev ath of I ith. idh..if iv : from the firnt three lin- of the Chert, by taking : AI i~ izh ' the Mme vowel throughout the lines, omitting first I thith theth thnth I thauth thoath thooth I final and then initial and tiampmkig I dhidh dhedh dhadh I dhnudh dhedh dhwdh II the order. The object is to contrast Gliidee, Hiesea, Buzzes, Mutes, and Sonnnts, und to bring any (1 thith dheedh : theth dhnidh I thath dhaadh : one next to any other, thnt all my be taken : thnuthdhnudhl thoathdhoadh:thoothdh&dhii easily at all pitches, and thnt no more flatus, hies or ehwh zbigh : shaish aheah I h& hzh : buzz, be dowed to escape than is neceawy far : hush zhozh 1 shmsh zhuzh : nhwh xhuozh u understanding the differences of the mmds h. XI, A. L. ENBLIEH ISIEWIEE8 WIT11 ABTIFICIAL WOERS. 123 ' 1. Ex. 15. On the Diphthongr [ei, oi, ou euj.- &c., I eip eit. eik : eib eid eig 1, and lnutly try The obicct is to see thnt t h dirhthonm nre I i peip teit keik : beib deid geigl and so on. Thm-.i pnoudoed and sung correctly. T& care'thnt,, IIpei)-p I teil-t keil-t 1 beil-bl ' in -king, si never becorn& broader than my, and tq ta keep it to a'y or "y, with the flret elment ldeidl--algeil-gll -.; vary short, and the glide distinct md tight, and ~~whei)-~~aei~-s~shei~-sh~wei~-vl m. the ht element prolonpd if. n-y. ' But in anging, the Jr8t &meni must be len,&ened and th,e &phthmgal eflect ahem by the tight glide at the mid, the la86.eh1d being i and nlwnya short. The singer."y we ah, na, or (1' for his first element, sud even vary them during singing, W may be convenient for tho pitch. The h t element mny slso be i or be, BB mny be convenient for tho pitch. The diphthong ou in spenking should never be broader than atzw : endeavour to keep it to a'w or uw. The$-& element ahodd be short, glide tight, and the laat element.w, and long if required. In singing, nee ah, M, a' for #rat and o or 00 for ta86 dement, na convenience of pitch may requirc. Blt never uae oa, ao, au, or even W, and still lees ai, c, ab, a, for the first element. The flrst element in to be treated W thnt d si. The diphthong oi mny always be sung ns auy. The 61nt alement is often inordiitely lmmgthened k music. But care must be taken to make the glide tight nt the end, so ns to avoid any nppronce of two sylhbles; thnt ia, sing rvauk (rejoice) with the au m long W you pleaso, but not v~aw-is without the Elide, which will muredly be miid if breath is,taken just nt ir. The diphthong m 6 haa to be spoken nnd sung BB a real diphthong io0 or ïu0 ufter consonants, and ir better EO EUUS at,tho beginning of wo*, but it is than spokfm &R yoo, po, and sometimes y100, yãuo. Athid to dl thew pinta. Bing the three 6rd linee of the chart with si, o;, Izei-, I a I dei I -zh I( i~fei(-fftheii-th~vp.eii-vidheii-dh~~ fl pei tei kei : bei dei gei.i whei sei shei :. : wei zei h i I fa fei thei :'vei ve dhei (1 II eip eit eik : eib aid eig I eif eis eish : eiv eiz eizhl I eif oith eith : eiv eidh eidh I( 1) peip teit keik : beib deid pig I wheif seis nheiah : : weiv zei zheizh I feif theith theith : veiv dheidh dheidh II Ilpoi J -pltoi I -tlkoi I - t IboiI-bJ IdOiI-dl~il-gll (IWhoiI-f~mi.l-s~sshoiI-mh~woiI-v~ (zoii-~~zhoii-&~~ II foi I -f I thoi I -th I voi I -v I dhoi I -da[ II poi toi koi: boi doi goi 1 whoi pi ehoi : woi zoi zhoi 1 lfoi foi thoi : voi voi dhoi II, II oip oit oik : oib oid oig I oif oie oish : oiv oiz oizh 1. I oif oith oith ; oiv oidh oidh,i (1 poip toit koik : boib doid goig I whoif soia ahoish : : woiv zoiz zhoizh I foif thoith thoith : : voiv dhoidh dhoidh II I I ~ o u I - P, I t0ui-t I'k0uI-t I baui-bi Ido~I--dl~~l-gll IIwhoUI-fIsoUI-EIshoUI--sh]wOUí-vl leoui-z~zhoui-zh(l ~foui-ffthoui-th~~~~~-~~dhoui--dh~ II pou tou kou' i bou dou pu I Whou sou &ou :,, : WOU zou zhon fou fou thou : vou vou' dhou II 1 oup out ouk : oub oud oug 1 ouf ou8 oueh : pu, CU, in phce of the voweh written, nnd praotise very slow and very fast.!chw- II pei.i.- p I tei I - t 1 kei I - t II LC. : nrngss~paa~--ip~or~pa'~--ip~lc.,or~th ouv'ouz ouzh I ouf outh outh : OUV oudh ou& 1 pitch rising from very low o%&$ t I ph- : nn - 1 ll.poup tout kouk : boub doud goug I whouf EOUI le, -:- Tp I LC., and EimihUly for the. mt. Th9n.sing very qgckly n8 I Pei tei kei : bei dei I shoueh : wouv ZOW? zhouzh I fouf thdth thoutb : vouv dhoudh dhoudh II ': '

71 124 RNQLISH FXiECI8EB WIrE AIU!IFICIAL \VOUS. Sec. X1, A, A. - pn(-plteul-t I keu1-t I beul-bl ldeu I -d I geu I -g li They shonld never be uaed in singing actual wonla. The ainger may bake e, ao for ai, ou, not only for ~~wheu~-f~sen~-s~~eu~-~~weu~-v~ convenience of pitch but (18 a eafeguad quinul leou I -2 I zheu I - eh II u feu I - f I theu I - th I veu I - v I dheu-dh II II $CU tcu keu : beudeu geu I wheu seu sheu : : WOU reu zheu! fou feu theu : veu veu dheu II U eup eut euk : eub eud eug 1 cul eus euah : : ouv om ouh I euf euth euth : euv eudh eudh (1 II peup tout keuk : beubdeud geug I wheuf EOUE. aheush : \veuv eeuz zhenzh I fenf theuth theuth : : veuv dheudh dheudh II Ex. 16. On the Anpkete.-Uae the jerked clear attuck only in singing; in speaking eithor the jerked clear or jerked gradual attack may be,uaed. Speak and sing th0 firnt three lines of the chart (except the laet word) with the aapirate subtituted for the initial consonant, and firnt with the 5nd mnsonant omitted, and secandly with it ndded. 'he rate may be alway~ rapid, BB tho effect of the jerk i8 almost instantaneoye. Thus - II hee hai hm :,hau hoa hoo I hi he ha : ho hu, huo I I bei hoi hou : hm hoi hou (1 i heep hait hmk : haub hoad hood J hif hea hnah : : huv hue huozh I hoif hoith houth : : heiv hoidh houdh II The rapirate before eir is eany when c16 is taken as loo, thus hloo; but if et6 ie taken UE pm, $00, then. the napiration generutcs the his? yh. And this ybs, meaning yhoo or glrioo, muet be prucliaed with all the ooneonantæ following, BB (1 yheup yheut yheuk 1 yheub yheud >beug I lyheufyheusyheuah 1 yheuvyheuzyheuzh II Ex. 17. On the Vonirher [si,y, or.w].-thc. object is to contraet them with the pure voweh ai, oa. In taking the puro vow6h ai, oa, there should be no tendency to end with i or JO, end in tltking the vanish aiy, owto, there should be no tondency to fall into diphthongs like si, ou, either in mpeaking or Binding. This exerciso is intended to gurrd tho singer ngeinst bking the vanishee. tho mninhes. Take the three first linea of the chart, trnd substitute alternately ai, ai-y, snd then alternately ow, oa'w for the vowele, 5rnt omitting and then retaining the flnal or initial coneonants, and thon taking both, as- II pap pi.y I hi. taky I kai.k8i.y I bri. bai.y 1 I dai. duimy I mai. gaimyj whai- whai.yl ahai- ebai-y 1 Iwai. wai.y 1 zai I hi. e k y 1 fai. fai.y I Oonclude by singing over the irat four liner of the Chert many tima to varioue sire. e abmim. In the flrnt three lines of the Chart uae I..I ' neoeaeiti of shortening the flnd hies or buzz in 1 in p h of the 5ml coneonant, first omitting and then hrting the other consonant. lh8- : bong bung buong (1 ting teng Fng : : tong tung tuong I ding deug dung : : dong dung duong II king keng kang : : kong kung kuong I ging gcng gang : : gong gung guong II fing fong fang : : fong fung fuong I ving vong vang : : rong vung vuong II sing eeng mng :. : song sung suong &e chai ohan : chau ohoa choo I chi che cha I zing: reng zasg : : : zong,rung zuong : o b &U chu0 I chei ohoi chou : cheu cheu cheu II II shing sheng Shang :. : shong ahung shuong 1 -h aich nach : auoh oach ooch 1 I ehing rheng zhang : ich ech ach : : zhong hung ehuong : O& uoh uoch I eich oich ouch : euch ouch euch II u thing theng thang : : thong thung thuong I.+ep chait chaak : chaub doad choog I I dhing dheng dhang : : dhong dhung rlhuong -lu ches chaah : chov chuz chuozh I II ping I tang I kong I sung II cheif choith chouv : cheudh cheudh cheudh II The aamc Exorciae may then be taken with pecch taich hach : baud. doach gooch I I, III or n in placc of #tg; and then with the subatilwhich wch ehach : WO& zltch ehuoch I tution of M, ai, na, alt, on, 00, for i, c, a, o, IE, uo :, and then with the subtitulion of I, m or II for the Ifeich thoich vouch : dheuch dheuch dheuch 1) initial consonants. This gives the following wries jee.jai jan: jau jca joo 1 ji je ja: jo ju jilo I of Exercises :- ljei joi jou : jeu jeu jeu II ' II il el!l : o1 d u01 II pi1 pel pal : pol pul pu01 I 0 éej.bij aaj : auj oaj ooj I ij ej nj :.oj uj uoj 1 I bil bel bal : bol bu1 bu01 II til tel tal: to1 tul tuo1 I leij oij ouj : euj euj euj II ldil del dal : dol du1 duo1 II kil kel ka1 : 1 jeep jait jsak : jaub joad joog I jif jes jaah : : li01 kul kuol 1 gil gel gal : gol gul gu01 : jov jiz juozh I joif joith jouv : jeudh. jeu& 1) fil fe1 fal : fol fu1 fu01 I vil vel vu1 : ieuah Il : vol vu1 vu01 11 sil 'sel Sal : sol sul aual I I peej taij knaj : bauj doaj gooj I whij aej shaj : I xi1ze1m1 : rol zul- zu01 1) shil she1 &al : : woj zuj zhuoj I feij thoij vollj : dheuj dheuj : eh01 shul.&u01 I zhil zhel zhl : rho1 Zhu1 zhuol II. dheuj Il II thil thel thnl : tho1 thul thuol i dhil dhel dhal : Bi= over'thi first 5ve liner at the chart to V ~ ~ ~ O U E : dhol dhul'dhuol 1) pi1 I tal 1 kol I ed II airs.' 1) eel ail aal : nul au1 o01 II peel pail paal : : paul pod pool i bee1 bail W : bau1 bar11 boo1 1) Ex;. 19., On the Vocslr [l, m, n, ng.]-ae ng is only uned final, [I tee1 tail taal : b.d ton1 tool 1 dee1 dai1 daal : and only after ahort voweb (in Englieh and German), it muy be taken separately : dad doal dool II keel kail kd: kau1 koa1 kool I and first. Take care that no g or A- creepa in after ' I gee1 gai1 gad : gad goal go01 11 feel fail faal : ng, end that the nml sound itself is never pro- : faul f d fool I veel vai1 ras1 : vaul voal vool II

72 l 'OB fl tllael &ail thd : thaul thoal thool.i 1 dheel dhail rlhaal : dhaul dhoal dhwl II II peel I taal I kau1 1 soal II II im em am : om um uom I pim pem pnm : : pom pum puom 1 bim bem bam : bom bum buom II il tim t. tam : tom tum tuom I dim dem dum : ' : dom dum duom (1 kim k e kam: lrom kum kuom I ~gimgemgam~:gom~umguom~~fimfemfam: : fom fum fuom I rim vem vam: vom vlllll vuom II II aim scm a m : EO?,sum suom I zim eem earn : : mm zum mom 11 shim nhem sham : shom shun ahuom I ehim zhem h m : ehom ehum zhuom II II thim them tham : thorn thum thuom I II dhim dhem dham : &om dhum dhuom II I pim I tam I kom 1 sum I 1 eem aim.= : mm oam wm II peem paim pluun: pum pdum pwm I beem him baam : : hum boam boom (1 toem taim taam : : taam toam toam I doem daim daam : : daum dosm h m II keem knim.kaam : : kaum konm koonl I geem gaim gunm : : gam goam goom II fwm faim faam : : hum foam foom 1 veem vnim vaam : : vnum voam vwm. I &m mim unam : : mum mam mm I zeem zaim eaam : : mum zonm.laom II.ihm'- ahaim s h : : h um ehoam nhoom I eheem ehaim ham : : zhaum ehoamehoom II theem tbaim thaam : : thaum thoam thoom I dhcem dhaim dhaam : : dhaum dhonm dhoom II peem I taam I kaum 1 I-mU i in en an : on un uon 11 pin.pen pun : pon pun puon I i binben ban : bon bun buon I tin ten tan ; : ton tun tuon I din den dm : don dun duon II II kin ken kan : kon hn kuon I gin gem gan : : on gun guon II fln fen fan : fon f u fuon I ; vin veh vnn : ron run vuon Il in wn an : e mnet be-practised, and thon the &ger can afterwarda take it or not at plesaure. fit BB m initid, talre the tbree first linea of the C'hart' with initial i t', and flret without and then with the consonant, th-. Y r'ee r'ui r'an : r'nu r'oa r'oo 1 rï r'e r'a : : :r'o, r'u r'uo I r'ei r'oi : r'ou r'eu II - 4 r'eep fait r'ank : r'aub r'd r'wd I r'if r'es r'ash: : r'ov r'ue r'uozh I r'eif r'oith : r'ouv r'eudh II Then ning the lnat line of the Chart carefully, fir$ ringing eev, air, oar, wr BB i-!, a.8, ao.5, W.Ü with- out the trilled v', nnd then ndeg v' h t before dy, theh.nftar only, and then Worn and after :- l W sir I oar oor II r& T'air 1 r'mr r'wr II. 0 am' aim' I OCUT' WIT' II I r'eerr' r'airr' I r'onrr' ''v' II Then increrse the rapidity. Finally sing over the whole many timer,#h various nird and at very different des. EX. 21. On Initid Combinations of Conmonanta. -&m the Table of Initial Combinntionw select any. wven, one for each line of the Chtrt, and substitute one for the initiul cornnant in that and thus sing tho whole Chart. Thlm tnking the Brat nevm, bl-, br'-, Lw-, dfl-, dw-,fz, fr', aing to God save the Queen" or nny air. The initid combinations to b e, d nhould be written on R hlwkhonrd. 121 bination, makiqg the new order, br'-. bur-, G!#, du, f C,.p-, bb-, thus-weep bløail,'&c, bwifbroait, kc., dr'cqdr'oith, &c., dwei dwoi, &c., JkechJaich, &c.. ji'itlg'fr'eng, &c., blew,' bla W', &c. Then begin with tho third and end with the' aecond, and so on, making seven different d e n of Einging... Thcn take another ' ret of mven initid combinatiom in the mune way, till all are exhausted. Thin Exercise may, of course., 'be materidly ubridpd if.. no difficulty is felt. Some of the combmtions, however, create difficulties, RB when W, I or r' precedes eu, m in bwcrrdh, blerrdh, br'nrdh. In received pronunciation no such combinations occur. Hence they neod not be dwelled on. Ex. 24. On Find CombinatioM of Conronmtr. -From the Table of Rnul Combinatiom, deet any seven, and we them in place of the final &nsonants of the Chart. Thus selecting the flrst seven, -Id, -bz, -cht, -&h, -dtha, -db, -dhd, and writing them on the blackboard, ringpeahd taibd kaabd baubd doabd goobd.' whibz sehe Shaba wobz aube zhuobz feicht thoicht souche dheucht heidth hoidth houdth yheudth hai.ydth hoawrlth oheedthe chuidthe chardths jaudtha joadths, joodths lids medz n& lude modz nu& r'cedhd r'aidhd r'oadhd r'oodhd Then take another set of =ven in the name way, till the list is exhausted. Where difficulties are felt, repeat the comhination *requently.

73 / Sec. X1, A. II., Ex. 33. On both Initial nad Find Combinr- be greatly varied. Some of theas cnmbiirntiolw tionr of Conronrntr nt onoi.--sel& any aeven will be found excessively difficult to produco wilh compound initiale and any aeveu compound finale, accunrcy, lightness, end rapidity, at which prachiw nd write them on the blackboard th--... should aim. l'hen fiu up the blank ~paae by the vow& and 'diphthonge in the three first linee of the Chert for each, and ning them. "here will be no ocmion to nrite the vow&. The result isgleelb glailb glaalb glaulb gloalb gloolb glilb glelb glalb glolb glulb gluolb gleilb gloilb gloulb gleulb. Lweelf kwailf kwaalf kwaulf kw& kwoolf kwilf kwelf kwalf kwolf kwuli kwuolf kwoilf kwoilf kwoulf kweulf rkr'wmd' skr'aimd akr'eamd skr'akd skr'oamd skr'oomd sbrïmd skr'emd.skr'amd akr'omd skr'umd skr'uomd. ekr'eimr ekr'aimd alrr'oumd ski'eumd epeend epnind spaand spnund spwnd spoond Spind spend spnnd ßpond spunll cpuontl. speind. ' apoind spousd speund thr'eenj thr'ainj Wannj thr'aunj thr'oanj thr'oonj thr'inj thr'enj thr'anj thfonj thr'unj thr'uonj thr'einj thr'oinj thr'ounj thr'eunj EnWh Ellaits EU&S SIl8UtS EnO&E snoots Enih UnetE EIl8tE anota EllUh EllUOts sneita moite enouta eneuts kleenk klaisk khsk klauak klfsk khk II. ACTUAL Wome. Ex. 24. Contrnrt of [re and il.-to be mid with the hand feelipg the action of the thkat. To be sung at dserent pitch to contlaet the Einging dect of the two, and shew the advnntego.of not distinguishing them in Binging. In the firat woda the fiml syllable in i is naturally very ehurt änd weak, it must be here utteed ae if it were long and Strong. '&wo& are in both npellingn, the Gldc being in ' itslice. The consonants gliding on t0 and pff from the voweh are the ame in the contrasted CBEeE. B. On open ee and i. A shabby bee A uhn8.i bee Let baby be Let bai.bi lec A pawlft'i fr'm - With ugly glee Widh ug-li glee A tiny knee ' A &i-ni nm.. The glamy EW. Dbi glaa-si see Thv mercy EW Dhei uwsi we Make worthy thee Mai-k wsrdbi dhee A wintry tree A win'tr'i tr'ee Thy enemy me. Dhei ewemi ow An why sho A I nubi she Best city tea Bert si6-i tes. Of 8 Verity 'tie very tea Ov n vet-"iti tb $ n ' m i tcs, Cried gruffly flee Xr'eid gtuflijw A bulky key. A bukki kre A trusty trustee A t#wti ttøwtw b. On oloeed ce and i, peel, Pill kt, bit bead,bid beach, bitch 'breaches, breech ' beaker, bioker bean, bin kt. tit teaoh, stitoh teak, tick taal, till pm,.tim between, twin deep, dip deed, did deal, dill deem, dim dean, din ' keel, kill km,. kin feet, fit fief, fifty ' feel, fill tboae, this -t,eit.wk, Nick aem, sin.. sheep, ship i gleam, limb wheat, whit ENGLIEH EXERCIHEB WITH ACTUIL WOBDB. ' 129 ml, il 661, it 'W, Pit peech, picb peak, pik pel, pi1 het, bit beed, bid beech, bich b?wchez, br'iah besker, biksr been, bin.. teet, tit teech, itiab teek, tik twl, til teem, tim bitween, twin dey, dip dccd, did deel, dil (teem, dim.. decir, din keel, kill kam, kin f4 P6 fe#, Pfti fwl, Pl dlbce, dhir seet, ail seek, sik seen, sin sheep, ship glemn, Zìln wheel, whit, c. On open ce followed by i. reiterate r'ee-itdait deify &ifai Fimburse r'es-inzbera theism IhwCm.reinstato r'ec-instait I atheistai'thee-irt (ai-thiist; d. On long4 before voce1 r. beer bi.j fbser) j heer fshwr) dea di-ü fah-) veer fern) ' iw $6 em) camer ku-fi-l (karwr) a. On ehort weuk i to be dietinguinhed from n' or 3 pwible poribl nbipi6i article awrtikl l ability aspirate asyijvt latitude latitsud 1 ~~rpti? sepplis agility qjititi preciplce yresgyi8 Ex. 25. Contrslt of [si, e, a].-the ai is &nya long. It may be sung &B c, but may not be EUUg as aiy with tho vanish, still less muet it approach the diphthong ri. "he s, n are alwaye short in speech, but must be lengthened in singing. "he. e may be taken as ae. The a may, and in singing ahodd be taken aa 4' ; it ehould nevw be spoken or sung as W or e. Thus ai, e, a may be sung as e, ne, n'. In the E~erci.~ the proper spoken munde are written. The contrasted voweh are between the same conmmntn, in order that they may have the BDme mixed glides before and aftar them, which m much modify their dect. Ae real words had to bo selected the contrast ir not always wmplete. ai e (I ' ai 8 U pate pet pat pait pl pat paid - pad pai.d - pad -- peck w k - pbk Pak bato bet bat, bai.t bet bat bad obeyed bed 0abai.d bad bed bake bock. back, bai-k bek b4k - beg bag - beg bag ' bale ballot bell bel bai.l baht bane Ben ban baiva Ber ban tape -- tap iaiy - 4 take - tack tai.k - tak talc tell tallow tai.1 tell taha tame temper tamper taivn tsm'per tatn'prr -ten tan - tm tan date debt ' - ' dai.t del - _. dead dad - dad dad - deck dactyle - dak daktil - deaf daft - Aft dale..dell ddy dai3 del daki dame - dam &i.m - dam deign den - Dan daiva &n Dm cape - cap kair -, kap K,..,.

74 #a. XI, A. I!. odd Ex. 26. Contramt of [an,. o].-au ia always long, and o is always short in received pronuncirtion, but both will have to be sung Ion& and both also. &oit. The speaker should be especially exercised in uttering au short and u long, to make him feel the difference of qunlity, which is eimilar.to that of is, i. The singer my tnke.either au or o RB suits his pitch. n11 O awed Pawed pod pawned, pond nawed sod, ' hawed hod. haul holiday maul ' bloll Ehlk stock awful oftico wall wollo\v auricle or+ awn.. on yawn yon gnawed nod fawned. ' fond gaud God pall, pollard wrought rot hawk hocky taught tottcr RRlt solid ' angnst {ad.) crrtgur't Weak air. O od. pod pond rod ' hod,. hotidai Mol ' rtok GI=is wotoa or'.upl on yon nod fmd God ptmd v'ot hoki tot.sr sokid. Ex. 27. Contraat of [au, 00, o, n].-the OQ must be quite p", with no after-wund of '00, and never approaching to ou. The ~kgd may take oa or ao m wits eonvenienco of pitdh; but he mumt then keep his au quite distinct h m au. The au and o should be distinguished, BE in Ex. 26. When 'ho. XI, A. II. ESGLlSR EXEUCISKS WlTE m is taken short; therd is R. risk of cmfusi~g it with u11 ; thua bõnt ahort, is apt to sound like briut... This muet be guarded againet. The II may be ' pronounced ae UII according to ronveni?nce of pitoh. m. an OB o II nt1 OB a II bought boat bott butt bs!r.t borl bot but.oaught coat cot cut. kawt &OR'! b 6 cat groat Grote mot -. p'atr't Cr'oa't gr'ot - nbroad road rod rudder nbv'arrrl r'0a.d r'od r'rdda flawed flowcd Flodden flood,llnmfjyoa.d Flodrrjud sawed. sowed sod Bud scztr:d 8oa.d bod aud gnnwednode nod - rrar6.d,road nod - nought note not nut narrt Proa-t not,rut. mught creosote sot sutler anwt kr'eennnowt sot rrrt-ler S: g, EX'. SB. Contrast 61 [os-sr, oar, au ]-\vien oar is written, au3 or aoür' is pronounced. This form one dyllable. But Londoners are apt to my. u~rl or simply au. Guard carefully Hgainst au; bilt allow auri whon canvenient. An older?und. dill heard from elderly people, is oaa or even oa-u' f. in tao syllmrbles, which is written oa-er or oa'er ou-er OBI'. au on-el. oa'r au '' blow-er Blore law bloaw bl0a.r lau ow-er ore awe owcr oa'r au tow-er tom ' taw fon'rr loa'~~ lau ' g+er '. gore - gon'er g0a.r - a_ : row-er roar. rkw r'oaw r'on:r rau '. li&r hoar haw howet: Iloa-r Rn ehew-or ahore Shaw shoccr 8hsa*r shazr low-er lore law loa'er IoR.~ lari -?er aore gaw aoaw sonv. saw ' mow-er more. maw rnoa.er tiwa-r mau stow-er Etore - stoaw ston-r starr Amd compamhw, driwe&r'aa, dr'awer (one who draws), or 'dr'awr (box which is drawn) ; saw, EaWer-ßaU, #aner (ono who =RB) ; taw, tawer-ta!r, tnrrw (one.' who taws leather). ' EX. 29. 'Contrast of weak [oa] and [or I-Thero - a habit of pronouncing Tor& having a weak o(i ACl'WAL wonm. IS1 anal, RE an u or u', and treating it before a vowcl IE if,il were er: that ja, us if there.wem a permisaive trill after it. Thin has to be particularly avoided. Pronounce.. Not. Window ioin.dõa win-&ï tuigr.dw tallow La % ' t&ü taksr yellow ydöa yakü ydhr fellow fama fol.ü feker. mellow mepk nwlü rnekcrtobacco tkbakk tübak.ri tsrbaker potatm p8atai.tja ' pütai.t< yehbter tornado talcnai.dõn tauraui-dii taanai.dn lumbago ' lrm,baigk lumbai-gir lumbai.ger, uekrbgöa 1 virago ( vivai.goa, weilaiyü usirai-ger "90 rai-gk aiai.gü rai.ger cargo kaa.gk kaa-gü kw,abr, who ckõa ek% rksr halo hni.lo'a' hai.lü hai.lor buffilo blcftilo'tz hfülir buferler rolcano i?olkai.da. uolkainrl volkabnrr new Rce.rr'õa heem% Ierrr'er Ex. W. Contrurt of [oa] and Loo].- on O0. oe groove. gr'oav gr'oov :mt coot koa-t k0o.t Lorn. dome. doa-aa doom 'oam.mom r'owna r'0o.m I.oll. tool toa.; CO0.l :loaming gloomy * glouoling gloomi, )eue boon. boasra boon LOCO nooae noax 9100'1 tole Et001. stowl rto0.l tome whom. hoam hoom hoop tope h0a.p hooy Daf aloof 1oa.f aloof 'OP0 DOOP powp y00.p leginnmg to ssy ee with the mouth ediciently. Ex. 31. On [~~J.-Thero is a danger of nod losed. This leada to OQ having a sound at one ime approaohing ou and at another appmacltiog._

75 m. ln all the provinca there is a habit of using a wund approaching m, where the sound is written 'u' after r Thede morn should be carefully avoided boot boot cruel kr'oosl booth boo,dh. brute br'0o.t coop koop drupe dr'oop droop dt'oop ruin r'ooin goose, true tr'oo hoof hoof fruit fv'oo-t hoot hoo-t recruit rikr'oot hoop Ir0o.p rule r'0o.l poop poop scruple sb-'oo.pl roof hoy truth tr'oo-th Eh& s L ~ t truce tr'ooa, sooth rwtlr shrewd 8hr'w.d ' mothe roo.dh rheum r'oo.rn rue (.'o0 EOUp 80op rude r'o0.d youth ywdh (suth) aen.nl1y. OœmILmdl,. dq do0 Edre flowk J7nu.k two too flute ' jloo't Mt move moo lute loct lwt lose loos lieu loo lau looee loor illumine illoorniïa illmrrnm After t, d, n, and a keep èu, when indicated, antulip tmrlip tune. feugr mnic twnik Teutonic Tmtocp.ik multitude waul'titsud dupe. deur durable deuw'ubl deuce h a dew deu neuter neutsr neutral weutv'sl new neu (not qaoo) newt flwt neucleus rtewkliua nuinance. newumas supreme suit sue Buuan reupr'cem (not do, nor ardo) rewt (not aoo't, nor sho0.t) MU (not coo, nor shoo) Seuscn (that is, Siocew'n, not Secõmu'n,. nor Soo.eu'n) Ex. 32. Contrart of [OO. uo, u]. pool, pool-pull; +l (not pk2, which is Fr. poule) fool,~.l-full, fuol (notfóol, which is Fr. foule) room. v'oorn (not ~'JoJ~. as often incormctly mid) Bw. XI, A. II. soon, IW'R (not ajofl,,un often inwrrectly mid) cool, kool-wool, wüol cooed, ko6.d-could, khd (not Boold) wooed, wood-would, wjod (not world) book, bkk (not boo.k, nor Eok) 9 brook, br'tiok pot br'ook, nor br'aok). cook, Gok not kwk, nor kõok) crook, kv'ñok (not kr'wk, nor kr'aok) hook, hüok (not hoo.k, nor hõok) nook, npok (not nook, nor nõok) good, g-hood, hjod wood, wüod (not wud, nor uod, nor 00.d) foot, fiiot (nut fut) ehould, slrùod (not rhud, nor rhoold) wool, wiiol (not oo-l, nor -00) cunhion, kiiorhwr (not krrrkin) pu&,??h (not prruh) pu=, puor put, priot (not put) bull, biiol (not bull bullet, btloht-bully, b&ki pull, p301 (not pul) pulpit, p2ol'pit (not pl'pit) bulwark, büolwwk bulk, brrlk (not briolk) Ex. 38. On long [u] or rood [er].--mr. Melville Bell distinguishea the vowel sounds in each of the following pairs ni having C'J Hnd uu,,r respectively. I recommend both vowels in each pair to be pronounced with u long, when strong, and, II or u' short when weak. In the firnt, Mt uu long (from which uzr,,r differs host imperceptibly) would be disagreeable, in the necond set. it, is endurable; but u long munde well in both seta. The contaxt will always prevent ambiguity. In some provinces aer', uur', mar, uu,r are used. both as that is kernel colonel. kur-ncl kwnu'l Pearl Purl PS* pul pertinence purtenance psrtinms putinu'nr pervado purveyed pauai-d ' pu'oa2l cide urde rwkl w k l A. II. curb furze urn EUd RlQLlEn RXRBCISEE WITH ACrI7A.L. WORDE. 'I Ex. 34. On the Diphthong [ei.]-except in the word aye, which must have aay or "try, all English, ri. diphthongn have the sound of uy or a'y, but dialects. In all these caws the received Englinh may haro aay. In the pro vin^^, two forma are sound is uy or a'y, nnd no distinction whatever in distinguished, the firnt or sy claes, varying an "y, made. Avoid especially any approach to oi. u.y, wiry, q, a&, and the second or mg Class,.varying 88 a43, wy,. ahy. Be careful that only Ex. 36. On the Contrast of [eil and [ri.]-in one sound is used. See Ex. 16. the Eut and South Eaet of England and in London, the habit of pronouncing ai long, aa ai.y, Ei diphthonp of the y C ~SE in Mid Lothian, that is, ai5 with the vaniuh, hn~ led to forming it htlsnd. into a diphthong of the y claw, as aiy, q, aq, ay pipe pip, type hip, tripe tr'aip, wipe weip up to any occasionally, and hence to u confusion of bribe br'cib, gibe jeib, kibe keib, tribe tv'eib the ai and ci words. Generally those whomake bite hit, kite ksit, night rd, righb r'eit ai a diphthbng of the sy clans, put a diphthong of wide weid, bid0 bsid, bride bj'eid, chide ehaid, the aw clus in all the words in Ex. 34, and hence. guide geid, hide hsid, ride reic(, side seid dike & B, like bik, pike peik, tike tsik 0fe fey, life lev, Imde neg, wife weif to wive tao weiv, two lives too. &io8 blithe blaidh, lithe ldh, scythe acidh dice Ais, lice bis, mica mir, nice mis, price preir,, rice r'eis, trice tr'eia, twice tweir, thrice thr'eir, spice apsis, viice weir, wine weis (but in Mid. Lothian Scotch, wqs) pile peil, tile reil, guile geil, file feil, mile mil, Nile Neil, vile oeil, while tohsil, mild rmild, wild wsild, piled peild, filed feild, tilcd teild, hcgniled 6igei.ld Ei diphlhongn of the aay class in Scotland. (ay in Edinburgh.) cried krsid, died hid, fried fr'eid, lied laid, sighed wid [raayd, when not reky'ht), spied speid, tied kid, pied peid, denied dineid.&e ask, prize pr'eis, guiso geiz, otherwise udkn; W&, &e wiz pies pie, tien teis, friea' fieis, dries drsie, diee Ais, spius speis, liw bis, deniea dirasix, sighs wie, (aaays, when not reky'hz), Gap Osir, buys &sir, nhies rhek trial treid, dial deid, vial vqid, denial dinsivl buyer beiw, dyer deivr, fire feiv, tim teir oire uew, desip dizei'r, shire sheir, lyre leb, llar Ieiw And generally when ci is final, or when si preceden p vo\vel. This rule. does not hold for English prevent the confusion, which, however, is very conspicuoun and unpleamt to tho ear8 of those whodo not use the vanish nt all, or une it very slightly, keeping the ai perceptibly longer and slurring with a loose glide on to i. Hence the Eollowingdistinctionsmust be clearly made andcarefuly practincd by inhabitants of the Eaet md'south East of England and of London. At first, une e long For ni long for greater security against the vanish. The vanish aiy is most genemlly used (l) at the?nd of a word, when no consonant follows, or the worddoes not join onclosely to the next conronant; thus : WiLl you pay P- -il eu pai.y? Will you pay me?--il au paimi P The in- Sexional e, d does not take off the vani&-he pap, re pays me, be paiy, Lee 'pai.sms; is it weighed, le weighed it-is it-tcai.yd, hcs wuid it. (2) Be-' bre the con,sonants t, d. l, II, as in fate fai.yt, nade inaimyd. rain r.ai.yn. Tho vanish is genarally absent whon B weak lyllable follows, an mnted rnoi.ted, rated r*i.ted, ailed in with rails rni.zd irr widh raiyls. 'he sinpor should nover use tha vanish., e. u.

76 Sec. XI, A. II. dm. XI, A. II. ENQLIBH RXYUCLWB WITH ACTUAL WOHDS. 135 ai tape bgby mte played.. Ink0 wail \vnvo Iuthe mace mise td. male tamo lame pin Dane. pay bay day - 6aY whey fay they Ell)' lay may 'Lay rrry ch! ', ei typo gibe \vri t e 1Jhd like wife wive lithe mice rine.tile. mile timo lime pine dine pia buy dio Guy why Wye fle thy sigh lie my nigh rxu I ci tcip jeib r'eit pbid leik rcey. rcciw Ieidh r~reir reiz teil areil tebr k i l n )lein &?irr pi beì dei gei arhsi Wei p i dhei sei lei mai nei r'ei ei Ex. 36. ' On the Diphthong [oil.-gcnerally thin ie moro like airy when final, or before a vowel, or voiced consonant, and more like oy before n mute or hiss. The singer dwnys uses nu-y when it is more convenicnt.,. wpoy 8ecparr.y, boy bauy, buoy bauy, bwawy (or boomi), buoyed bawyd, bwawyd (or bovid) toy tauy, toyed tauvd, quoit koyt coin Icoyn, cawing knuing ln the following words si was used unirernnlly in,plaw of oi from one to two hundred yearn but now ci LIS bewmu oxtremoly vulgrrr,.and mnqt therefore bo st,udiously avoided. anoint pronollncc :IS nrroi.nt, nut awimt ointment oi-lrllne/#t, not ciwtmorf oil boil oii, not eil boil, not kil broii nokbreil broil, coil Roil, Mot keil foil IOU, not feir foist /bid, not feiaf, froise $oie, not fwis groin grwirr, not grein hoine ' hoiz, not heiz hoist hoist, not haiat join join, not jein joint &irrt, not jeint. joist joist, not jeist (and not Jeu) loin OLI,.not lein moil moil, not mil point point, not peint poine poi:, not pie poison poi-m, not pd-er soil soil, not ssil spoil spoil, not spiì The following are ofton vulgarly mispronounm. destroy deatroi., not destrei, &COY loyal dikoi., not dikei. I~i-el, not kid royal ' roi-el, not reid voyage voi.cj, not vei.cj (nor voij, vsi3) The word " oilet " is now spelled l' eyelet " from U mistaken etymologf, and is still called ci.&. 'he word l' tortoine " is generally faurflia, but may be tau'liu, tawdis, tau&... Ex. 37. On the Diphthong [an] -1'he provincial hnbits must be woided. The literary noundo are uw, a'w, but uuw, uaw ure mpted, and ahw may be ueed in Ringing 'deep noten. Avojd thecu, class of ew (London and North Kent), amu ur in Norfolk and Sdolk, nnd in &nth Lancnnhire). Avoid the oaw C~WE of O~D, how, auw, ui'w (more or ~CSS pnernl in tho provinws). Of oa ou oa br murse. avoid the provincialisms of -long na. long n, tore tower toa'r four h g 00 in place of ou. Avoid using the ou diph- dotc!hht dont ' dout thong in phce of tho simple vowele au, on. dollse dose ' don-a doun Provincial bo in frequent in- condono down kondon.u &un, down dourr, town tom, crown k~?wr, tower tour, coach couch koaclr koech now ~OU, tro\vsers GVOIL-Z~~Z, how I~ou, flower$our, cot11 cowl koa.1 koul powerpour, drown drown, cow km, a sow B sott, P l ' goul gm1 god to bow too bou. - foal fowl. jkl jbrd plough plou, round rowrd, 8ound round, mound lond loud load lnurl mound, hound ILOWU~, doubt dorrt, thou dlrorr, The vanish is most gonerally useawhen un is. about about, wunt kol6/4t, out out, a house a Irous, strong and flnnl, not followed by B, wcak sylllrblo, to house too horq sou dour, flour jour, our mkt', and before y, b,f, v, m, and I, but is nototherwise.found found, bound bomd, grolind gr'oumd. very common. Thus-low loww, know, no PIO~W, shew ahoaw, bowl boa-wl; pope poawp, robe l'iovincial u16 is frequent inbrought braut, sought aau't, fought faul, bought foam fowwra, old oc~uld, SOU^ SORW. r'owwb, loaf loa.wf, loaves Ion-wwz, roam roa'w?n, baut, ought aut. nought rzawt, eoul 80Uml, four foam?, pow pou.?;' Ex. 39. On the Diphthong [eu].,-xu may always old ocld, cold koald, sold SOlVId, told towld, fold be sung ioo, see Ex foald, Etl'Oll StVOfl'l, toll tob.l, Id1 C.0íC.l. ' eu is yo0 in- Ex. 38. Contrast of [on] and [on].-londonem c&tantly pervert the vanish on-w into a diphthong of the oaw h, as oaw', UUIU. This.occasions no Donfusion to the speakers an they a1.m use6w for 011. you eu fyoo), pouth clrth fyovth/ CU in ylov inyew eu fyioo), ow0 elr, une etu etc, unite arnri.4 union euvzicrr. Hence the necessity of correcting both onom at ea is ÏOO. in-,.once. The vowel in the oa column below is to bo pow peu fpioo), imbue isrberr., tune teu11,. dew dm,.called on without any vanish, and even no rather cne queue keu, gewgnw gmrgmr, few feu, view. veu, thnn oa'io. The o16 column is to bo pure ILW, a'w, 'thew theu, sue 86u (not 800, alroo), ne , or uuw, maw, without a shirdow of rounding of tho nuisance ner~-se~rs, newt mwt, nnd occrrsionnlly in BrPt clamentl nnd without n trace of tho ew. new lieu leu or loo, lute Ioo'l or bac t, illumine illooazin sounds. or illerrmin. OB. ou oa ou eu is iõõ or yaö according as the proceding conbow (a.) bough. bou bon sonant is medial, or final, but-nevcr i, in- W\V (V.) EOW (8.) SOB SOU monument crron'curncnt fmon.iõösmf or saorryööme~t, never mowimsrzt), document dokarmsrrf, regulnr mprrler, populnr poy.errier, &c. mow (P.) mow (s.) moa morn no now noa uou toe IOW (noine) r'oa r'ou pwch pouch yowch putrclr bont, bout boct ' bout ' lmdc bowed. b0n.d bbud boar bower, lorr bow bzo tawse toa'z fou, Es. 40. On Murmur Diphthongs md Triphthongo, or Vocal, B end Trilled B'.-The-wo& and the C ~ W S are chiefly aalected from -Yr- Melville Bell's. "Visible Speech," pp , but the prenant arrnngement and treatment am ip P:

77 -.... m. m~rd8nce with the provioue exphnationa. Throughout the examplea h u g u r is meant for U., with pcrmiesion to insert r' after it, and weak er is ü or u', with the name permisaion to inmrt r. "ho combinations mr,. air, oar, ow stand 88 usual for i.;, s.ü, 003, WÜ, with permission to add v'. In the cam of uar, aur, the r indicatea eithor J or ür', but may be, and hquently is, entirely omitted, that is, am, aur, ia an.ü, aaür'; au'ü, awür', or even aa, nu' simply This orthography, themfore, is. designedly au ambiguous na the received custom ' of pronunciation, which is etill in a trnnsitional. state. The only important point to remember is th& r' is not ~~Uelly inserted except before a vowel, and, when pronounced, is very light in the,axtent, duration, and rapidity of vibration. Strong 8y JabrSa. 1. B., which may be uur; that is, u', which may be Mar. word ward, journey jwni, furnish fernish, spmn yorn. There in a tendenoy to pronounce them worda with na, na apnavr or, apnarrr for apnva. This should be avoided. a. Er whit& may be dr but not uur; that ie, u' wgch may be e'- but not uu'. myrrh,mn., guerdon gerdn. The tendenoy to ue(, aa or ur21 for or in these worde E not m strong na for No.. 1, but ahoidd be avoided except in a few words, whore it is received, a5 clerk kkaak, Derby Daa.bi. 3. Br#, with er an in No. 1. recurring riker-r'ing, #purring 8pwr'ing, purring prv'ing, blurring bb.r'ing, sl~~ing akrr'iq, demurring dimorr'ing. 'l'hem word8 have OCcaeiO~~J' d y ur', aa rixrrr'-ing, npuv"ing, pur'%ng, b ur'*ing, alur'.ing, dirnur'-ing. Thia pronunciation is general in current kur'-mt, recurrent rikur'.mt, occurrent okdwat. with n. as in No. 2. aw. -XI, A. II. 4. EJY-', prefnning prifwr'ing, conferring konfwr'ing, referring rifnr'ing, erring a..i.'ing, deterring dit8r.r'ing. Them,worda have occaeionally onlys?' wprifer"ing, konfer'.ing, rifer' irrg, ur'*ing. Thin pronunciation ie gonernl in errant d mt, enunder'vnd, deterrent ditar'.t?nt. 5. Ec-r-, that is, id, or i:&' with light r. No Englishman MYS wr', no foreigner mye esv. near m w, beer beer, here hasr, we're wecr, pier paw Brrr', that is, i.ür'. No Englishman mye wr', which is a Bcotch and American and foreign q ; no foreigner my erd. eyry ea1~7.'i, era ccrr'u, woary, wes.rr'i, peeme PCS.?T'Sa. Nevar err'i, wrh, ncee'r'i, pcvr'ea. 7. Ah, that in, sipor cil,' with light C' tho pronunciation ai.ü is provincial m vulgar, foreigners we s.# not dr'. onre kai-r, pairpai-r, air ai.,, prayer prai.r, thcre their dhai-r, bear bai.,; mare mayor, mai-t- (not nuri+, maim-). 8. Ai-W' that v, c.&; never ai.#, which is provincial or vulgar in England,. but ie heard in Scotland and America ; foreimera nay both ai.,.' and cr', never cür'. canary kunai-di, fniry faiw'i, therein dhni-din, bearing & Wing. 8. Oor, that is, so+ or uo-ür' with light r' ; to RUJ oa.2 is provincial or antiquated ; to nay oa.w.is n mimtake (Ex. 28) ; to say au is bad, bnt au.; id sometimes used; oar', nor' is foreign. -.. i,&rgymen Ad ministers), eonring aocrr'ing, pourine poarr'ing. Il. Orr, that is, uo-ü or wür' with light v'; never 04'3 or oo-ur', which in provincial, antiquated, or vulgar ; no foreigner EISS wjr.', but only 00'8. poorpoe-r, moor moo'r, tour too^, eure shwr (or dmvr), lure 1oo.r (or hzb!, dure a1w.r (or akr). I.2. Oow', that is, uow ; never OO.~', which is Scotch or American. poorer pw.~r'sr, eurer ahw.rr.'sr (or ~hwrr'er), seeuring askding (or ashswrr'ing), tourist tioo'rr'iat. 16. daw', that is, permieively aaür*' with light - t-', but mere generally tzar', never dar', which is foreign or prcvincial..*y staa'r'i (or rtnarr'i), tarry (oovered with tnr) tan-r'i (o1 tav'i, the verb tarry ie tar'.;). RNOLl8Il BXEKCLSEB WITE AClVJlL WOYDL Awr, that is, peimisbively cru4 or au-üv', but more genorally aw, and very'rarely uur' ; never Zur', a):, io)? ; before a vowel, u' is compulaory. war wau (or wawr ; but 'l tho Wur Office "-dhi Vau.,.' Ofis), ward waud (or uwwrd), E W ~ bioaum (or awawrn), dwarf dwuuf (or dwau rf), extraordinary ekrtra~~dina'i (or eke!rawrdincn.'i), George Jauj or Jautj),. order swak or surdar), born bawn (or bawrn, not boam. Sce No. 9.) 18. Azwr', that is, permissively awür', but generally UU-P'. warrjng wawr'ing (or ' wnu'rr'irrg, mme my wor'.ing),abhorring ab-hawr'irrg :or ab-hauw'ing, many nay ab-hor'ing, all eay ab-hor'-ent). 13. Ewr, that is, when following coneonants ãurü 19. Eir, that is, eili or siir' with light r' ; never or ZuuW, with fnint v' ; and when initial yuo.ü, sir', which is!oreip ; avoid simer. '. ywür', yïm+, or yirwb' ; never ãwr', which is 6re fsir (in one sybble, notjeiw in two eylhblea), foreign. lyre luir (not which is "liar" 1, vire,.cm k.eur, pure pawr, endure endsu'r, immure choir kwsiv (not kwsi.m,.the pronunciations ' irnpmrr, your swr (po'ü), ewer ezrr in kauyw, koo.cn., koi.cn., are modern and orthoone syllable). graphical; chorister kor'*islsr used to, be quir ister k~ir'~kter), hire higher Irsiw) Ewrr', that in, after consonante ïwùr', never bu.).'. 20. W-d, that is, ciw, or ci.re'; never si-#,. fury facrr'i, purer pacn'er,enduring sradsu-w'ing, which is Bcotch or American.. immuring irnmww'ing. wiry, wiery wciw'i, or wulidi. (not wsi-r'i), flery 16. Aar, that ie, permiaaively aa-ü or aazd with f#i.w'i, or feidi (not f#i.r'9. light 2, buk more generally as-, and very ~arcl)- a d ; never dar', which is Scotch, provincial, or 21. Owr, that is, ou4 or ou-üt' with light r' ; nover foreign. our', which is foreign; woid OU'M. hard hawd (or haa'rd), olerk Mack ior klaah), hour our (not ou'er), power pour or porrsr). some ay klerk (especially in America), heart ourselves ourselvr. oum oura, flour flow. flower hn.1 (or haart), guard 9aa.d (or gaa'rd). jowar. 22. Ourr' that is, o uw, or owu; never OWI.*. dowry dowrr'i (not dowur'i nor dwr'i), Bower! pou-rr'i (or jouur'i, not flour.' ),.shower), rhoww'i (m ahm*ur'i. not rkur'i). ' n..

78 ' Weak Syllàblsr. 23. D; that,,is, 1 or ü', with un I.' only when a vowel follok; to uee un r' in'other CUCE ha0 a pedantic or foreign effect ; cven in the provinous when v' is used it is very light indmd ; but in plum of i or 4' aome speakers uec ãa,. cmpecidy when the writing is ar.' When this is not orthographid (md therefore pedantic) it is very vulgnr ; my attempt to discriminate the vowels arcording to th,! orthography is contrary to the present stage of development of the lnnguage, thorn who d6 so, ought to trill their r' final and mako a new pronunciation nlhgether. paper pai.per, drcuitons~serkear.itus, answer aamer, mrrtyr mao.ter, altar, alter anltn, grammar grarncr, particular pãatikmder fprtik.eulsr, psrtikler are both vulgnr),peculiar pikeulier; siiectator spekt~i.ter, tailor tai.ler, rnzor rai,zn, orator or'.tïter; ~ure'asker (or ai zhcr, azhvur, - +-heur), fi~sm fiker.(or $sh.cur, &eut-), measui* emrher, nature nui-telo. (or na -Cho,.naichera, but not nai'ter, which, formerl.. correct, ' is now vulgar),. featur6 fee.teru (or feirclsr, Jmxhelrr, notj?ter), StakUre rfot-nw (or #taekrr, stach~cnr, not otatw'), flgurejg-er jor~%~wr). 24. etrr, that,is, iúoti or iwiv', larely used. Scc last Examplea to No in, written "ar," hm cntireiy loet the r' in weak Sylk~bh, but han not sunk to er when preceding the strong syllable. barbarian baabai.rr'ien, particulur paatik-reldr partake yaotai.k, marquee muakee du, written "or," has entirely lost the r' in weak syllables, but has not sunk to er when preceding the ßhng syllable. ornate oumai-t, otdain audai.c#, organic argawik orthography authog~~j, orthoepy uathon%pi. EX. 41. On word; of Two Syllablen apt to be Pronoanoed BE wordß of One 8yllable.-When a long vowel or diphthong ie followed hy a short wlak ü or. ' tï' und r &&nant, there isa tendency first to speah it with the long vowel or diphthong UB a murmur diphthong or triphthong, and then t o. omit it altogether, thus-quiet kwei.et becoma kwei.iit and then kweit, and roal wrel becomco rwjiand then ree,.. The following conlrasts should be studied. dyad lied died deid dryad dr'eied triad tr'&sd dried dr'cid tried tr'eid Dyak. Dai& dyke deik l h d Wwed trowed fr'oad dial dei.el crocodile krokoadbil vial uri.sl vile veil denial dinei-el the Nile Nei) dhi trial tr'ei'el rile r'eil real r'ee-el reel r'wl reullp r'weli diet decet quiet kwei-el reeling r'wliry indict indai.t quite kwi6 riot r'ei.et rib r'eit bias bei.es fbei-lfa) hice bei8 diamond dci.tune~rd (not ki.waen) dime dcicn h. 42. On the Mixed andconßonantßudeo.- This Exercise is to be formed from the Gloeaic Index, Section XII. Every English vowel is there found in connection with every English consonant whicli glidei,to or from it. Examples of all the comonaut glidei are also given in the preceding lists of Initial and Final Combinations. III. WEAK SYLLAHLB? The following Exercises743 to 46-are ttrken from the examples on pp of my "Early Englinh Pronunciutiçm," wham I have entered on the subject at greater length than is here neceseary., EX. 48. On Terminationß involving B, L, M, I.-What is the preciee vowel rsnlly uttered in the indistinct weak syllables el, WI, en, er, has not been eatiufuctorily.determined. Buut u; u', o' may be used, and as W ia now the etrong sound of er, it is most convenient for the singcr to take II. which -16s XI, A ENOLISH KXERC1BY.S WITH ACTUAL WOILUS.. I& only slur, that is glide loosezy, not tightly, on I the following conwnunt. This is e x p d in ggsh cfloasic by writing the sound with e. If a md r Mund is distinctly fiemd, there will be R.dight strengthening, which will be -written by pthng (3 after th~following connonant. When uw other vowel is written (m u) it ie suppoaed to &e on tightly to the followkg co1tsonmt.- Hence ii mawshun (mention) were written, the shtar would be i# didinct as in mom rhun (mon shun), but. 8 krhen would.have the indistinct sound..- -d. Husband hy.bemd, brigand brig.end, heade-. knd hedlrnd, midland cnidhd. -end, Dividend dividend (or diu.idi!d), lagend '+. ' bj.snd (or leeyelzti). s.,.ond. Diamond deivwumi, almond aa.lnend..md:. Rubicund roo.bikutrd, jocund jokund. : *d.hsggrd hagwd, niggard nig.erd, sluggard - st'ug.erd, renard rcnwd, loopard lep-erd, or moro I nearly hared (not hag'&), &c., never?bagybrd,&c..erd. Halberd hdberd, shepherd shep.erd (not.,. hphcrd), or more nearly Aal bed, ehspd..mce. Guidance geidmr, dependance <ipmlo.dins, abundance abuwden8, clearand klcs'w'eni, tomperance tmnpur'enr, ignorance ig.nur'ma (we.'. might write ternyerr'im, rg*ne?r'em, meaning the ' onme), maistance s;izis.tcns ; never u88 allæ., -ence. Licence lei.8e11s, confidence %on$de~~s,. - dqmdenke dipen.&ns, patience pai:shaas ; never -ma. Creature kretstnrv (or krercher), vulture sukteur (oruulcher), vcnture uewteur (or wwclrer, not uerrter), furniture fernitaur (or fer-jlicher, not Jwniter), verdure verdeur and verger ueryer are ueually both u er~w. d. Cymbal ri+el, radical r:ndikel, logical lojikel, cpid ainmikcl, mctrical aret~'ikcl, poetid poast-ikel, medial mee.diel, lineal lin.iel, viotuole 4*il'Ch (or cit.li) tho distinction betwccn el and L in theme words may bo ChOOSW U'l. l39 pedantic, but the sihger -el. Camel kaimd, pannd panel {or you.&), appltrel apar'vl (or apar'vl)..am. Wlum madwn (tnndmn. is coming into uae among shop mistanta), quondam kwon.derrr, Clapham K1ap.m. -om. Freedom frwdmn (HlnpaLically fj-eedrrln or frtwdom), &dom rel.dsln, fathom fadketn, vcnom venn'm..an. Suburban suber-brrr, logician loajishwa, historian histoa~r~-'ien, Christian Krirtym (or Kris.chm), metropolitan met'rwopol.itm, womnn mwnm (never wuowaa, EBB -en!, watchman wochvnm (or wockman, watchmen is often, not always, tuolehvnem-), countryman krwtrirnepr (sometimea -man, and sometimea plural kuntriman.)..en. Garden gaa.dr8, children childrill; linen li~r;i~r, woollen wrrokicz, women wirrrin or wiwen; great. variety of mge in this tirmination, speakers who are not readere u88 n only ; singcm should use u'r~ except when ilz is imperntive. -on. Deacon detskn, pardonpaa.dn, faahion faahen, minion minyen, occasioc ok0i3he11, pasbion push.cn, vocation von?~ai~shsn, queetion kwest.yen (kwerdwn, not krcersh, kweshen), felon feluia;.ern. Eaetorn es'sfrrn, Fvern kau-em; no r', not Merent from ersten, kauwa..at. Vicar uik-er, ccdar swder, vinegar vin-iga, &emme med.lseji8, irksome e~~.bem, acholnr SkO W, eecular sekmrler. kwor'.elscm ; 81t11a ie sometimes used..er. Robber vobvr, chambor ehni.naber, membm.nue. Pl&re ykhw, measure mezh er, leisure srerm.ber, rcnder rcwder. bzh-er, (or leszhcrl, clo~uro kloa.zhm, fiasure -or. Splendor aplelrder, snperior scupes'rr'ier, &kir. (orfiheur, fm.cibr). ho p. 138, No. 23. tenor tmrer, error er'w, uctor ak.ter, victor rik-ter. LaboUr Eui.ber, neighbour rlai.kr, colour.our Oases. hder, fsvour$ai?wr. ;ant,. Pendant pstpdmt, infant in-ferrt, qdlanl kwodrerrt, trunnt troomt. -ent. Innocent in-oorcmt (not' h.ersent, inwent, quiaceht kweier~mt, presidcnt prerident. -may. Infancy in-ferrsi, tenancy ten-ensi, can nlancy kowatermi..

79 ~~ ~ ~- -enoy. Decency clersanri, currency Buv'.errai ' tendency ten.denri:.av. Beggary bcg.ur'i, summnry surra-ur'i, gran. my grawur'i, notary noa.tur'i, litoray lit-ur'er't (or lit-ur'ur'i); wo might write bag-mr'i, BC., meaning the name. %ry. Robbery robwr'i, bribery brsi.bur'i, gunnery guradi ; we might ns before write rob.m+'i, meaning the mme. -0ry. Priory p widi [preiwur'i and prci-or'i are pedantic,especially the last), cursory ker-sur'i, victory viktw'i (viktour'i is very phtic), history.his.tu'vi (hir.tous'i and hirtori are inven- ' tions), oratory or'wtw'i (or or'mutor'i), preparatory pripar'wtur'i (or -tov'i)..dry. Usury wzhur'i, luxury 1rrk.dur'i (1uk.aeur'i is more hyrd than areerrr'i)..ual. usual euzhatrsl, mnnud rnarr.cual (eometimes elc.ai&t, rnn1r.gcl/. Ex. 44. 'On other Week Endingm. -a, &fa soafa, idea eikcw, nirrah sir*'.a Here -a IE written in English Glossic, althongh -er is commonly mid, because no subsequent r' is at all pmiesiblc. and because the pronunciation u' is ]not only permiasible, but not. unfrcquent, a~ roafa', cideru', rir'.a', and esteemed clcgant, but not pedantic. See p u, -ow,-0ngh. Hero 'hww'oa, etucco rtuk-oa, potntoepoatai-loa, tobacco tubairon, widow wiaoa. yellow yckoa, fellow.fil.on, sorrow ~oroa, spurrow upur'.c.a, borough brrr'.on, (or most commonly bur'w) ; in the othcr words -er' or -u is inadmissible, and -B).#.' before vowd is extremely vulgar. -ue, -ew. Value valeu (not vali), nephew ~JBVVU not (nwi). -S, -o&. Sheriff aher'.qj bannock bun.trk,haddock htzd.uk, pnddock pnd.ub; never -u, ns in Scotlaud. -a&, -BC. Stomach stun'ak, lilach lei-luk (1ai.Zuk is old), maqiac mni.niak. soy, icy. Prelacy prstuai, policy popwi (not pluri), obsbinacy ob.stineai. ate. (1) In AO~E. Laureate laur'ist, frigate frigvt (often fvig-it), figurate&swrt (2) In verba, when the prinoipal accent is not on the next pre&g syllable, as demonstrate dm= enstvuit, illustrate jl.u&uit; those who p h the principal amt on tho next preceding syllable nay dirnorrrtret, ilwtrst; cuetom is unfixed ; the latter is beginning to prevail. -age. Village vikg' (or vilü), image irnpi (or iw*), manage murr.qi (or mawvj, cabbap ku5.j (or kab.v), marriage mar'-ü, onmage kat-'.ü. -ege. Privilege priv.il" (not pr&-ulüj, college k0l.ü.. -Bin, -h. Oertain ra'tin '(some nay ra'trr), Latin L&in (some my Lat-n), captain knp.tin, f kap-lsv, not kupn, kupting). -hg. singing sfg.i?rg (not. ringyingg), being bwiry (not berirlgg) ; any use of -is, or -irrgy, or -ingk, is provincial or vulgar now. -hl. Mouthful srouthfuol, eorrowful sor'-oa/uo, (not -fa ), cheerful ohirrfuol (ofteu ohcrfel). -Q, -be. Terrify tar'vfci, signify rig-nifei civilizo siwibiz, baptize baptei-s; the si b quite olear. -it; -id, :ive, -ish. Pulpit puokpit, rabbit rubi/, rabid Tabmid, restive rcs'liv, parish pur'.iah ; the i is quite clear. -il. Evil ecd,' devil dmí;. the pronunoiation esvil, dwi: is orthographical, and contrary to genm modern and nncient usage..y, -1y,. -ty. Mercy mersi, truly tr'oo'íi, pity pitmi; tho I 18 unobscurud; and not i' in gcnornl speech ; tr'w.bi should be avoided..mon y. Harmony hawcnurri, matrimony rnat.rimuri (or -moan, -morai), testimony tsrtirnrmi (or -mouni, -motai)..moat. Hindmost hai-rrdmrrsl, utmost rrtvnust. bettermost betwmmt, foreuioetjòu'#ynwb ; in COLst3o1.1~ utterance -murt is often used..neas. Sweetnese awertrzcr, rather than rwcrkris, the a generally mvem the vowel.,teon# Righteons, piteous, plonteoue, are pronouncedby me rei;lyuu, pikyur, plsn.tyus, but perhaps this is pedantic, and I hear generally rei-chua,pich.us or pich.irr8, plma'chur or plmehiva.ions, Precious ~JZ~?L.JI.V, prodigious proud$ctr..-a, -ide,-iality..official ojeah.ei, partial pna-shl, partiality paamchialiti, special speakel I (not rpas.rhel), specialty spash~elti, speciality rpshiatiti. All the -ial- are orthograpicnl. I --d. Forward fuu-wod (not for'wd), backward bukward (not bnkud), awkward aukwerd not awkurij, upward U ~ W S J downward ~, douvawmd,, froward froawd, toward tocerd, townrda toa.l.de - (oriwvuu.l). -wise. Likewise leixwais, sidewisc scidwais. -wife, Midwife midif, housewife huamifi podwife gu0d.i ; miaweif, howaweif, guodweif are orthographienl; hwi in also used for a needlecese or nlatt%ln. -wich. Greonwich Orin-ii, Wwlwich Tptrol.~, \ Norwich Nor'.Y, Ipswich Ijrsu (locally, Ipswich.. orthoer&dhicallv!. I I, -0th. Speakoth spii-kelh ; this termination being. obsolete, the pronunciation is orthographid..ed, -ied, Pitted pipsd, pitied pirid, added aaed; -sa, -id, -i'd are d heard. -m, -'E, -8. Prineea, prince'sprinæea (or -iz, Je), ohurchea, churc~s~chwchce (or -M, -i's), paths pau-dhz, path's paa$hr, Cloth's, dothe' kloth~, clothes klou'dhs (as a verb), kl0a.e (generally, 88 a nubatnntive) Ex. 46. On Weak, Beginniagr. B-. (1) Whcn two pronounced coneanants follow, mpt akrq.t, advance aduaa-ns, admire adrnmv-, alcove.alkonv; a clem a. (2) When only one pronounced consonant followll, gendly very indintinct i or u'-, as among J-mung., alss I-laav, adapt G-dupt; but great variety of pronunciation'prevaile, a, a', being ah0 used RE arnung., uluu.r. adop.t, the. following coneonant being often taken na medial ;. henco in English Glmic a in uned ;'ai must never be wid. e-; be-, de-, re-. when only one pronounced connonant follows, is generally i, rarely es; decent &a.sent, d v t dirsnt or deea&r.t, 'dissent disrnt or dbrewt ; emerge imer.j or eerne,.;i, immerge irmy or imr7w.j; elope ií0n.p or scloa.p, event iu6n.t 'or wwsn't; the initd c, da, re, bs ia either i or ee, not I, excnpt before S and another consonant, as. deepair despzi.r,. rdspond rcspowd, eclipse eklips, or. i-k1ip.s. bi-. bei- or bi-, usage varies in the ame word, all such words being classical, bioycle bei.seikl, birikl. di-. &i- or di-, uwe varies in the amneword, a~ direct deirekt, direk.t, divide di9ei.d always, diversity daivwriti, diuwaiti. The dei is alwag orthographical. 0.. pro-, BC. Oblige, obliged oabbiy, oabzeiyd (oablcsj, onbkrcht are old), occaaion okai.ehn~, oppone opoa.2, promote proarn0a.t produce (v.) proadara, prop- proaponx, but use varies in conetruction. to-. To-morrow toornor'.oa [or tu-mor'.oa, not tmmor'w), togethar tongedher. for-, fore-. Forbid fuubid., forgivo fuugiu.,forego foar.goa, foretell foartsl., but the two kst have alno frequently fau-. Ex. 46. On Weak Wordm.-'l'he order is that of the frequency of the commonest English words given in Mr. n. Nasmith'a "Practical Linguist, English,'' The clear sound is given first and the obmure ones aftorwarda, u being used for tho obscuro vowel ; a daah (-) separates the two. The. indistinotnese of our weak monosyllables is not confined to colloquial pronunciations. It pervadea the most e o l declamations ~ of the pulpit, and is 88 a rule most conspicuous where the strong syllables are most forcible. But for the mm singer thie is of no coneequence. He has to sing the words in their clear pronunciation, or the usual singing eubatitutes for it. In ordinary Gldssic only the clear pronunciation in written. The Examples under 'to ' and 'that' will shew the effect of writing indistinct monosyllablm as is always neceseary where it is wished to convey a conception of the actual treatment of sentences by a speaker, BB for example, in writing dialects. The olw pronunciation is a literary artificiality, which the render has to learn how to overcorn, but which conveys the seme better wheh the words are taken scparatdy (as in a baby's lesson book), and hence

80 f- +3lnpcrate... i43 is bottur suited to. the wanta of the 'singor, who ' oannotpossihly join hiewords togother. RE a speaker does and. And-und, un, II, nh, scarcelyheard at dl. the. DhMAhi, dhi', dhy-, dh-, dhe, dhu. In, - singing, une dhi before a vowel,.and either dhi or dhu before a comnnnt. I. Bi-docs not change, but becomes uxtremely short. you. Yoo-yõo, yl, yu; following t, d it often chnngee thom more or lese completely into ch, j. he. Eee-hëe, Ai, h, i; the nepinte is constantly loat when ' ho ' is enclitlc. &e. Sh-hh, ohi, ah.. it. It--dm not vary. we. Wu-tcüe, Wì, the to is never lost. ~ey. Dhaiy-dhai, dhe, but not dhu. bye. E~~v-hzw, uv, v. will. rvilwn1, wl, 1. &Bu. Shacahl, rhlh. one. WWJ-~OUII obscuro, the foi tm is common, but not rocaired. to. Too--i80, 130, Irr; never toa (as often in Amcrice) ; Ex., I gavo two thine to two men ; and he gave two, too, to two, too, -6iyai.u 'too 'Ihingz tu-too. mm, un.ires gaiw tow too-'tu-too. tw', where (-') repreeents a eecondary nocent; be. B~a-bëe, li, btr. there. Dhai.r-dhn, und before rowels dhaiw', &err', dlrsr', dhur'. 8. Ai'y-di, a', u, generally II. Before a wwul an-., Before Ir boginning a weak syllable an, ris a history, an historical account, an hanmgue, ri hirtnr'i, an.histor'.ikel akou.nt, an.hrrr'ang, in which case be very onreful -not to omit the h. my. Xsi4ni. b. Bk, hichip, i ~. Our Ou-r-this is unohangcd. z ouf. Joo.r-yu, Ver, ye$. er. Ear-u, 0r. their. Bhaip4hu, before vowels dhai.~', dhd, dhsr', dhur'. of. Or-W, u, some'old speakers, une ofa, would. Wtt'rrod-tod, d. should. Sh1rod-8hd. ' ' '. or. Au, aur, or'-ã'u, ad, u, ur', tho r' only before a vowel, the du most frequont Sirnihrlv for ' nor.' for; Fau, fmr', fov'-firrr, fnd, pl, $W, tho 1.' only before o vowel. that, Dhnt-dhut, dht; the demontrntive pronoun ia always distinct, the coxjunçtion and releti? almost alwaye obscure, (UI : I know that, that that that that man mid is not thnt thnt thnt orle told me, Ei-non. that, dht. th& dht-dhatman.' sed irnt mdhal dht-dhnk toun towld-mi. on. On-always clenr. do. DOAO, dao, c40. Vhioh, ceieh-whea, weh ; in London, wich-weh a? mostcommon, bnt tohich-whch are conaidered more ' correct.' who. Hoo-fGo, h&, Go. by. Bai-generally kcpt pure, but becomes 'cry short. them. Dhem4hm ; aly m or mm from the old ' hem,' but thought ' inelegant '. by tho= who nro unacquainted with 'hem.' ' me. Mee-mb, mi, mü, but inti is perhnps nn Iriehiem, IU in, to me, from me, with me, kvmu, from-mu,, widhvnn. wemb..vacr, wdw', wer.-ww, coi. with. Widh, with-wi, genernlly kcpt pure, will is heard from oldor epeakors: btq, Itamtoo; intoo.-iwtw, Kan-h.. cannot. Km.ot, kaawt-not chnnged. from. From-frum. u, Am, GE4l%, Z;?E. n--(m &*--Cu. mdm. Madam-mam, rnmn, mim,' cnurn, #+m, m. Here m+n is a dur, m being continued with a slightrcductionof force,as np#in+n,ysrm~n. m. 47. On bltefirrtionr of Strong a d we811 8pllabler.--This is properly rnther for the Epmk9r than-the ainger, who is nt the mcroy of the am. p r. This Ex& is confined to the 28 typical a I t I i c 'y wofds of more thau onenyllable in Mr.'Melville Bell'e I' Now Elucidntion of of P: Bpeech," 1849, p. 227, a work full.of most mful ',i. Exerciw, but they am treated in a eomewkt p, -nt way. The laws of force accent, the T change of position of the strong syllable in course of $me, the differences between the Englieh and for6ign systeme of accentuation are not considerecl.?e words are written in common English Glosgic, ' the length of the vowels (not of the sybblea) are didingcished by the long, medial, and short marks. : The durs are written, but the ment-marks are omitted. After the word is placed a eerics.of numbers, giving the relative force of the syllables r nccording to a male of nine gruda, of which, how- '. evor, only flve m retained, which may be named '. and compnred with musicnl terms thw,:- 1 ' ' faint woak mean strong violent 911 : f f f. 'Y '_ In,several oeaea differentvarieticg of force &re given, showing difforent modos of reading. ' I 2 syllables in a word..rayward wliwërd., 7 3 I 8-Y.+Ji syhblee in n word. tampg+r'# Aember r'i+lnhbii ' ' or337l 3317 ~7316~ or

81 B. GERMAN EXERCISES. Ea. 40. On the ElemenWry Bermbn Speeohsounds.-The following worh contain all the German solinds, excluding the implodenta, which are. coneidered a provindalimn, and the poet-aspkted forme of the,mutes, which aro not acknowledged. The loamer ehodd hear the fouowing words pronounced frequently by QWITUIS, and then endeavour to inlitute their pronunohtion with ' the assistance of the explanatioue d d y given. LON~ VOWSLS. ' k. Lieb bey, ihn ern, mir (not ww'), lilie Ietrke-u, hin 1~d.n. SHOBT VOWELB. Oro. XI, B. #e. Ich kky'h, mit del, bitte b&tw eits d6ta 'mia is often pronounced i in the North of Qermmy, and hence Englishmen muy UEO i, IIE more convenient to their OrganE. Z. Hdh hdnlten, Schaufel rhaawfol. OMUS only in such eykbles, and even there is frequeptly lost, or epoken CE u', LIB which it should be sung. CIS. N& nhtr, senf z&i#, bellen bhlm, wii~che o'darh.u, hemd h l, hge sytrdsng.u. This may, however, always be pronounced 6 without danger of ambiguity and without offence. No eueh dietindion di, da is now d e. do. Kalt kdalt, flaohs jäakr, manu indafi, fase f äas, ài. EwiB ai-v'ëeky'h, gegen gaiyy'hen (or gai.gm), dem daivm. No tra& of any vnnish acy. anfall ia.nfr3alor aa'nf&d. This is often pm nounced dh, but 'h i~ the theoretical pronuncia-,de. Seele zavlu, wer dauv-', thriine,tra6'3au, leben tion, and mied, for EngliRhmen. lwbsn. In the middle of Qermu~y all these h. holt^, hdlolts, voll WO& are pronounced with fw, von fh, kopf kdolf, ai., and the English. nchlose shl&dor. In the North of Germany the speaker is advised not to attempt to um ur long vowel is. o, which may in any word, but before v' he rmry uae his be alwaye uaed by Englishmen. USUd I'. 3. Hüb hwtu, &u ktüs, W- v'zaa.ur', and ckr. Wahr v'awr', sah MC, dd r h f, hahn all similar unaccented &lal Byllables, but some haan, name naa'tnu. Thh vowel ie ~ery com- G=~E use pure di or I. monly pronounced ah., but as ac is theoretidy üo. Und üont, hund hüont, jung yüong, nubb nrios, aaaumed and dwaye edmiseible, it m y be basch bjosh. Some C~IWUM say 80. tudusivdy used by Englishmen. 30. FiillefJbPu, kiieae k&ru, hütte hua6~4 rücken ja. 8choos rhowr, ohne oa'tlu, sog zoa.gh, rose rusken, münz müenta. In many pasta of roa'zu. No trace of any vaniah oaw muet be Germany this Bound is confueed with In m i. heard, and even ao' may be used for au- 68. Böcke bkku, hòue haelu, röckchen rd6kky'hs1a, ÖO. Schuh ahoy, fuaefovs, nur mvr' (not novw'), kopfe kiepfw, In many p h of Germany thin ruthe "tu, muth mwt, thun too=, gut g0p.t., sound is confused with & or e. h.. Mae mwu, lüge lkgy'hu (or lwgu), siihne -nu, güte gurfu, trübe tv'wbu. Often DtpnTHoake. vul&ly-pno&ced m W'. 1 'ay. E& aay.lu, eie aayr, weise w'nag-zu,. hain b. Goethe Gwtu, öhl ~0.1, hofe ltwfu, hohe bu, haay.n, klein kbayn. In eome parts Of hòhnen bvnen, hötlich hao$#&y'h. Often e distinction is made, and (I ei " is pronound vulgarly pronouncod as ai;. W, or sy, but "ai" ie' pronounced aav ; -, and the one.generally used &the but one. theoretical sound is naris, w4ich I cannot F -, cbllect to have heard, and another no%, which has equally escaped my notice. Tho grenter nuhbcr of Qerman apeakm, however fall thosc.who!ieq ai, ee for oc, W!; my nhy, which is not, ~ recommended. saw. Aue aaw'u, graaueam graawmia~n, haue haaws, for which Round the English ZIO, not. kw, lirrw, and never cru, aew, maybe ud.;.a, many Germansay ahco. I AEPIBATE. 6.. Hand hknt, ie rtlways the jerked gradual 8lottid or hl, and in never omitted even by the crmmonest Speakers. COSEOXANTE. p. Pack pkk, pacht piakht; papst pacayst. AILU& all cfermen words beginning with p are of foreign +gin, the proper initial ie pf' ta descendant cd p-ht, still wid, wp-hlaak), or b. b.. Band bilant, bald bilalt, bid Melt. For this and. for p in middle Germany the implodent Ob is ' d; no Englishmen should imitste this error. t (or rather t', but Englishmen need not trouble themuelva.to make the di5erence, ae no.. ambiguity can from uaing t), tadel taad.$, taud tdant, taugen tanw.glian (or tuaw.gma), thier hvr' (not tas.&), theil taayyd,. theuer toyr' (not toyw'), thor twt' (not toa-w'), trotr trdiotr ; the austom of uaing t-hl, which should' not be imitebd, has generated tr (or rather t's', but,the diihrence is unimportant) 'which is a.very frequent initial, a~ EU ESOO, riel tres., rnun tsanw,z, sorn trllor'n. 1 (or rather d', we t), du doo, die dce, ding &eng,. durch dtlor'ky'h, durat ilrior'st ; the implodent od,. I45 cpmmon in middle Germany for both 6 and d, should not he imitated. ch. Deutech doych, punhch pionch, patteche pdaehri, klatschen X-kiachLtw; uncommon, nnd seldom wed except at the end of words ; J' doea not mur.,. k. Kamm kdam, kiiae kaim (or kasiu), kehren Kair'en (pot kaiw'ma), klappen kldap-en, Imabe kniwbu, knopf knhpf, knie knee (a m d t. ' initial combination for Englishmen, to be camfully studied) ; the common post--pirated form k-hi before vowels should be avoided., g. Qönnen gjsnbn.ma, geben gaik (or gwbm), gnaden gnaa&n (a common word, in which the difficult initial cornbination iequ+ea careful study) ; the implodent OJ ie not used. f (This only mura in the combinationpf which ia now often pronounced pf; tho letter (6 v 'I is Bometimea pronounced f'. but the general custom is to call itf), pfropf pfr'diopf, tapfer tieapf W-. W'. Wie v'ce, weh v'ai, wag v'iar, wollen v'aol.en, Wulst v'3olbt; in the North of Germmy it ia maid to become. v, but I havenoverheard it. Englishrnenmay, however, uae v, and must never UEC W. or W. f. Feind faaynt, faul faawl, fest fîmt ; very common, but v is unknown. o. Nichte nzeky'lte, reissen roay.am, flee $üem# echmutz sh9ndotr ; f l or ~ ; only used at the end ofworde, or in the middle (when mitten 88 or si), never at the beginning. 8. aie see, BBBB qzn'r, sieben zas.bm8, weise u'any'zs ; only wed nt the beginning of 'words, where it is frequently changed to sz, and in tho middle of worda, where it rem& puw. ah. Schieasen ahersen, scherzen sh&'.teen, daa.lu, schwimm shv'h, Sohluee shlu'os, BchmaWn rhmaaw.sm, schnee shndi., schroff shr'aof; the voiced form eh is unknown. PA' (whichneed not be anxiously neparatd from ah), stab rh'tacb, stoas sh'toa-s, epiel air'perl, ~pse~ rh'paas, epur rh'poo.~' ; in the North of Germany st-, rp- used to be wid, but not on the Etage ; and now fnll 8hC-, æhp- am uscd in con- L

82 I 'ionvention. vernation even in Hanovcrr; the flnal -d't or -rht. is considered very vulgar, nn in ist Zesh't, fürh jiier'ah't, and must be Carefully avoidod.. y. Ja yaa, jagd ydakht, je yai, juat ylost, jiingst yhgst ; in.ja yaa, the y often chtmged unconsciouely to yh, as'yhaa.. or yhynn.. ky'h. Mioh Ndeky'h, fechten fiiekp'h'tb~a, miidte ' &ky'i'tu, möchte rnoeky'hlu, kircho kèer.'.ky'hu, miloh Idelky'h, manch mdailhy'h. Only uwd after W, ae, W, aq,. oy, r' I, m, taland in tho final -chen -ky'hsn, nn miidchen mai.dky/'hm, inni+ ky'heu. &h. Tilge tzat$y'hu, folge f%kgy'hu, botriiw bstcrcs.gy'ben.; and mrding to some writers, in.. the pm5x ge,' as gerecht gy'lb-rdeky'ht', ge-ehrt. qy'he-acr't, but I gendy heard g ued.in that position; ïn generd gyh'aher'an.1, regierung ' r-'egy'kt~'rlong, kc., it is ied or not at pleasure ; g may always be wid, as it is still in North aermany, at the beginning and in the middle of wo&. kh. A& an.kh, macht onãakht, fd0 f ãokht ; and generally after aal h, oa; also accorging to mast writers, after bo, W, aaw, wvhcm I hear kw'h, m buch boo.ktu'h, bucht bhkw'ht, auch aawkw'h, but thie n+ not be attended to, 80 that' the simple boo-kh, bhkht, aawkh maybe.meed..?.l. Ttrge tan.ghr6, gesogen ye-taocglror ; only wed betweon rosele,-repkcod by kh when final, Bec. XI, B. betrog betroakh, betrogen betr%a.gasra. In North Germnny g is u d initially.and, medially, and R finally. I. LRmm /2asr, k EEt Idest, clle ne %.. m. Mire rjer'ts, menge m&r~g.rr, kkme kaeln.14. II; Nun. troo'n,. niemand nee~snãhnt, hcnne /&wu. rrq. Singer sa'e,rgwr', flnger fa'irlpr' ; eome, Germans say rrgg and others ragk at tho cnd of words from which II hna not boen elided, 88 lang. Idangg or Iäungk, but lang' (for lange) Irlnrrg ; the Englishman is recommended to um his easy mrg nlwnye. v'. IlOiRe rva&:rt, nchier shew' [not shwrr'), E C, 8hnn.r' ~ pot phan.,!') ; ' commonly r'rh whenfinal, and very commonly Ir initial and medial, and Yrh final, none of which uangcls need bo imitated.. The vocal English r does not occur, or, nt leaat, is not tacknowledgod.!che Exmples in the Alphabetical Key to German Pronunciation in 8ection XIV, and the arman monga, of which the pronuhiation is given in Glowio, in Bedion XV, will form eu5cient addi. tial cxcrcisee for the pqoee of learning to sing German well enough to be intelligible, and not to be annoying to educatecl ears. To spk or read &nnm properly requirw much time and attention, many teachera, md, ifpossible, midence in the country; lt.4i.lar ' Ex. 49. On the Elementary Italian Bpeech- &ndm.-the following words' contain all the b. Italian mounds,and the learner ehould hear then1 L-.. often pronounced by Italitins, if poasible, from? from Tuscany or.rome. The Alphabetid Key to Italian Planimciation in Bection XIV, and the " hahm songs written in c)lossic in 6mtion XV will m5ce for additional exercisea to acquire the power - ' of pronouncing Italian with au5cient correctnem. not ka be offenaive in singing. For nwurste plu- L.nunciation much study ie required... VO\VELB.. The Italian vowels whe long me not EO long 88 the 'English, and when short not EO short; they.i ' ire properly alway medial. But Engliehmen mny * ' -t them as long when ending a dng syllable,.. and ea short otherwise. The accent marks in the.examples.are placed in nccordanco with this.. &e. I ce, lirico Iwr'eekoa, spiri rpwr.ee; tiseo. fasn-aoa, ninfa neewfaa, dimmi dcernw~ee. ai. E ai, fede,faidai, sete sai.tai, avere aaraiv'ai ;. alimento anleemai~r.toa, burleeco.boo#iairka, capretto knapr'aiptoa ; thie EGÜX! is quite pure, nnd without the least vestige of a : following ea or vanish.;, M. h.w, regola r'wyoabn, predica pas-deekaa, straniere alr'aa~ree-ae'rai ; bella bnellaa, dento dnswtai;' Eugliahmcn may uae i, a', but the,sound in Italian.is'cry much broader and more marked.. ea. Fato faaton,. raro r'aa'r'oa, bavaro bnawaa-. r'oa; fatto fadton, cassa'kaarraa, tanto taara'toa, BBmma fyaarwmnaa. W. Oro ao-r'oa, poco pawkoa, cow kaozaa, dopo dao-poa ; seiolto' alnottoa gloria gloo.r'ee-aa, biscotta beaakaoptoa, tort:, tad'ton ; Englishmen may um &u, Q fm this sound without danger of ambiguity. - es. cwr' muet be enpecially noticed by Amore aarnoa.r'ai (thie oa.r', not oaw', nor Eug1ilishmcn) ; EXERCISISS. C. ITALIAS EXEIICIBEB., OO. 147 geloso jailoa.soa, filatojo fseka60a~yoa; the 'd Italian sound is bomewhat more like 00, having probably the same position of tongue ae oa,,bit the lips in the position of 00; but Englishmen may be quite satisfied 'with oa. Cura koo.r'aa, scudo akoo.rloa, ignudo eeny'owdoa; tutto too-ton, giunchi joong-kee; the 00 does not become uo when shohned, but no ambiguity will arise from using UO. DIYWTHONQ~. There are no diphthongs with tight glidw tu in. English and Qerman, but only properly speaking with slurs; whenever two vowels come together the Italians are apt to reckon and feel 'them M one syllable when the second vowel haa not the ~treee.. Examples of all casen in which the flrst vowel in strong are here given according to Valentini. Short marks will beused to indicate,the wonk vowel in the durrcd combination.. aacii.!haere traaàir'ui, m e aazr'ai, su5ciently written traa.air'rra, aa.air'ai. aaa'ä. Daino daa%noa, muanico. rraoozaa~äèkua, eu5ciently written daay.noa, moozaaeekoa.. ' eaö& Paolo Panmödloa, su5ciently writtenpaa-oda.. Taöö. Laurn Laa.bb'r.'aa, fraude fr'nagdai, pausll paagö:aa, su5ciently writtcn Lnnru.r'os, fr I.,Iw.- dai, paaw'zaa. zeãü. Beano b&iikroa, ocaano oaclrardü~ron, su5- ciently written bwansroa, oaehaexafioa. rdã. Eo10 AcMloa, laureola ladöv'ae.öã oa, sutiiti_ ciently written Aroaloa, lonwr'a-coaloa. aeèz. Teeeide l'a'aia,wèi7dai, Eneide dinae.èèa'ui, eu5ciently written Tairwesdai, dinweedal. seöö. Neutro nas-ö8tr'oa, feudo fasöö&a, su& ciently writfm r.aewtroa,fà.ew.doa. roiã. Onai addsee! Ramo Bao-dhoa, su5ciently written ao:amee, Roa-aaioa. zdè. Eroico air'wa'èkoa. loico Iao~ëäkoa, S U ~ C ~ ~ Q written air'weekod, Eaovt?koa.' ioäà. Indunno eenduo~ãdnoa, sufficiently writtm eendwaanoa.

83 ~ M..- -_.-. I48 ITALIAN FCEBCIBRB.. Eeo. 'h, C. d. Influere mfio.di.rai, puem poom&lv~,'eufi- k-~anfr'-hoan.t-lbon, Livorno Lm-hak-'vwa, dently written ednjoo'air'ai, poowir'oa. whenra possibly the suilor's name Loghorn. di. Fluido floo.i&jon, Druid0 Dl-'ooèè&a, Leg-hawrr ; in other rcspecta, ave6 the 'Tuscan.oiently writtenfio.esdon, Dr'oovedoa. pennant speaks piwe Tnscan. which is the litdrary +d. Influono eenjoo-ödnoa, EUO soo.öti, su5ciently dialect Of Italian:' written smjovamson, soo.on. g. Gara gaar'aa, angusto anggoo-aton, piaghe edä. Maniaco waaanecgdkoa, did deräjelree, EUE- PYaa'Pi. ciently written maanes.aaboa, derauches.. I W (as a real consonant Chis does not exist in tho d i. Uieno &e.äinoa, sieno, aee.&lon, euffiùently I lang11~4ge~ but Englishmen may use it for aö, written &rainon, rsa+ainoa.. ' 8s uovo 8öao.voa or?ono.von), hence uomo &öd. Periodo yaiv'eröddon, su5ciently written i wao"oa, quale kwaa'lai, quindi hyieerr&e; guidu.. - pair~sroadoa.. gwwdaa. The eeoond method of writing best convey the f. Faati faartes, differire decffair'se-r'ai. &t of the sounds to English am, with perhaps v. Vasti uaas.tee, vece vaiviai, avvi aavvee. the exception of,raewtr',on, faewdoa, for which a. Sano raaqzo, kkaa'laa, vem vmr"ron, wsotr'oa, fas-oodoa might be better, bemuse o1 curioso koov.'sa-oa-ron (not koo.rr'ee-on.roa)., the loownme of the connecting glide. z. Sbaglio ebaaly'oa, amofio ernaor"lon, esatto COXEONANTE. aizaaptoa, esito aezeetan. p. Purto paar'.toa, palla ycmllna, lampo kampoa. ta (or t'a' or even a', but ta eu5ces). Zio fswoa, b. Bardo.baar'-&a, ballo baallon, bruno br'oowoa. balza baaltma, Venezia Vainartese-au, bellozar I (or rather t', but the distinction may be neglected). Tirato teer'aa'toa, tanta faan'toa, tutore tootoa'rai baikael.traa, pwo mal-lroa. k (or d'e' or even e', but d; eufbcm). Zero dznrr'oa, (not tootao-rr'ai or tootaur'ai). 1 (or rather d:, butthe dietinction may be neglected). zona dzoa'naa, zanzara Baandzna.r'na, tnaedd~oa, gama gnnd.&aa. mezio Detta dait'ton, debito dai.bwton, addicere aada3e.- ah, Scemo shaiw%oa, fnaci faash:ae, perni yaiabee, ahairai. cresciuta Æraialo.ton, sciolto ahaoctoa. ' ' eh (thie W the Engliah sound, which may alwaya y (as L real konsonant is not in the language, but be wed, but rh', not ah, is d ~ used o in Italian, 88 in faoe faa.sh'ai, fwce faty'.rlini, which may be pronounced as :)' Fucc faadmi, facce faatohui; duce doo.ohai, bucce boot-chai ; bracia braa'chaa, braccia bruahhaa. ' J' (this is the Englieh sound, which is perhaps always used, although eh' k y occur). Gata jwtoa, giudice joodeschai, pii jaa, Giacomo Jaakoamoa. k. Caro haroo, cheto kui.toa, chiave kyaavai. (ln Tuacuny there is a habit of wing h in in place of k, befori the letter a, as haa.roa, Aaa*mairaa, haoxa for kaawa, kaameraa, ho-zaa, csm, Camera, CON; this fault mut be carefully avoided:. Tuacune are also apt ta introdllcc h. before every o, aw confronto Englishmen may we it for ëi, a8 jeri.ëëni'ni.res or yrziwe, h6nce) ajo wèëyoa, su5oiently written awyyoa, piano pyaanoa, fiocc fpao.koa, pih mou. I. Lu!aal augefi adì!t:rhbe, altro'aattr'oa. figlie fwly'ai, ecogli rkoa-ly'ee. 91. Niuno uyoonoa, nò nao, non (Fons, mensa wamraa, anno aawnoa. ny'. Ognuno oany'ownoa, segni sai ny'ee, ghigno gerny'oa, biaogno bee:ao.ny'oa. ng. Lungo bong-goal venp vmíng.goa, anco aarg.bou. v'. Raro r'aa't'oa, terra tan".v'qa, carne knar'vrai ; the trill of the tip of the tongue is alwaye very strong, the exet of.vibratiou being considerahlc, and the rapidity and duration of vibration being also much more than in English ;.it ir never omitted. und never made by tho urulr. y'. Gli,?y", I.., Ex. 50. On the Elementury Frenoh Epreoh- ~oande.-!i'he following W&, chietlyfrorn I'hériat, who. is responsible for the marks of length over the vowels, contain all the elementary sounds in the French languuge., They must be heard very often, und prnctised much, to be well understood. AfteraarGe the examples in the Alphabetical Key, Section XIV, and the French songs which are given below. will serve as exercises But. it will be' always difficult for any Engliehman W-8ing a ' French eong in a way which would be even tolerable to French.ears. There is no force accent '. in:french. VOWELE, hsq AND &ONT. '. #e. titre twtrzö, partie paartis, il prio eel prie, epitre aipsetrëö, synonyme aeen~emn. ' ri. eté aitai, pp pai-ce, aiguiue aigiëee, je sais.ehso rai, csprit aiapree..pmdspruoaäs, complete koon'plaet, r$vé räevai,, ils aiment eshaicnde, même truism, peche päeah,, reine räeu. au. papa yaapaa, fat faat, femme faarn; this Round is now more generally called a' in Paris. #h. p gyäh, pea päh, cweer ktïhsai; sode ortheopists, &B Thériat, consider that there in Only one aa sound, and that the difference in. mclrely one of length, EO that they would mito gräa, paa, käasai. W. motif rdotssf, hotte not ; some OrtheOpiEts, as Thériat, do not distinguiah ao and ou except in length. W. mots maux möa, bean böa, agneau aary'öa, hcta öat. m. fou fool toute toot, bou boo, voûte vöot. W. muse mlisz, VOUE 'eûtes vooaliet, hutte uet. 10. je zho, deux lo, feu feo, neveu neweo. ds. peur yöer, seul rod, neuf noef, peuple me8, csyf 081, bœuf boef. Some orthoepids do not dis- 'ì tinguish co oc, and many Rssign W to ja, me, Is, LC... IRKNCH EXRHCIBP.[r. 14W,.. D. FRENCH EXERCISEB. NAEAL VOWBLB, LOW. netì. pin, pain pm,', temoin tnitnwsju, faim, 6n faed, timbre taen'brëö, dessein daisaeri, bientat byaen'toa; Englishmen muy me ad. ahri. dans dalnr', tampon tahu'poalr', Jean &hahn', trembleur trahrr'bloer', ancre nhn'kr'z; Engliliahmm muy use ora'. oan'. non qaoau', long loai', nom PtoarL', compte koarìt, umble onn'blëõ (Féline givea wdbeõ) lumbago loarb'baagao; the English reader muet be very careful not to 'confuse onus with ahn', '88 it is a common English fdt to make them both od. om'. brun br'o'm', B jeun aazhonr', parfum paar'- focn', humble. ocdbeö (also pronounced with oan' see above) ; Englishmen may me W'. DIPHTHONOE. anëè (these diphthongs arise only from the convw. sion of 2y' into ëg or ëëy, or from medial ss) gouvernail gmaer'eadë, hillir faaëëyee,', (or jkayyeer', y being doubled), médaille maiakx,' Versailles Vasr'aaa2ë. a&. reveil r'aiuaezz, réveiller raiuaeëiyai (or raivmyyai, taking y as double), Marseillea Maar'sacëè. më.#. oeil o&ë, recuoi1 reoh&, uccueillir nakocëëyesr' (or aboeyyeev' with double y). usai. lui 13s'ee, ruieaeau r'ïïeeaoa, ennui ahn'nimw; pluie plgeel appuyer nnpseeyni', tuyau tseqoa. ka p. 49b. daed. Juin Zh&erc', qninquagéeime kiièam'- kwaazhaizëem. CONEONANT#. p. papn päupäa, cap kciap, nappe *Gap, appareil aapaar'aeë8.; English y; instead of the mi p-oh, the French often n86 p?& b. baton bähtoan', lobe läob, bombe boarib ; Engliah b, tho recoil is bëö. t' (always dental, but the English may use th& usual t without heeitation), titre t&trëö, thé lai, un grand home ocd g-ahn't darn. '

84 ~ peater.. priions nw precveyonn', quo VOUE pees -km v00 I X.. carte kaar't, mainte kr'nen'l, un m g kmincnt 1 pree-eeyai om' rahdk aiszssnahu', quatre kaatr'zcï, coq kaok, I aïeux aflyglo (or païen I paayyuen' (or pnnzëyaen') ; les yeux &z yëo, btiquette aiteekaet, quoique kwank. ; rayon raiyyoan', payer ptriyyni, nous pafonu '. XII. GLOSSIC INDEX.,... rwaa, Gis bwan, voir uuvïav'; ouais wäe, fouet fwb, fdne fwãen, il temoigne ëeltairnw&ny' ; oui wee, embnbouiaer an'bãabroeermi; employer rhn'plwanyyai, royaume rwaayyoarn, Bbdouin Baidwabn', soin rwabd, point pwamr'. 1. carafe ktzar'&af, bmuf bcïef, phme frdur. 2. or aor', notre naotre, le nûtre leo nöatrëcï, amer ' uamdev', nrt Lar',.arranger qar'ahn'ehai. Thc v. vivre usmrzë, veuve vom, neuf écue )hoeu aikw, ' number of Frenchmen in the North. grasseyent " /gr'äsaeez), that in, une.the uvular 8. non ioad, abch ãnbeie, faqonfãnsond, ambition t in phce of the trilled v'. Thin is not allowed. I.hn'Meayoan', aoixantc swnarahn't. I on the Blage, and should be camfully avoided. Explanation of the Arrangement.-'rhc intention of this indcr in to rcfer to every sound explained and dencribod in the preceding,pages, to nhew in which of the four langunges it occurn, und to giye specimens of all the'glides with which it is. found in English. Fot Oermun, Itayin, and French, examples aro given in Exs. 48, 49, and 50 of Redion XI. (pp ), and the incidental nolinde wem illustrntd when firnt deaoribed. For the vowels and diphthongs the examples are arranged in the alphabetical order, of the Gloasic ipelling frorn the vowel or diphthong fòrdar-di, EO thnt all the final combinations nra found in thc order of the table on p. Ill, with the introduction of the singlc conaonauta. Only onc or two examples are gven of each- final combination. This list of,words will form u complete series of key words for English, and ale0 a 'complcte series OF exercises on the glides from vowels to consonants. The singer should pructise them m such, singing them at first to long and then to very shoit notas, repeating the same word many timos in succession, and making the giiides quito distinct. If any dsculty is felt, the word must bedissected and pmtised in prt, thus ai, ais, ai$, airlia, chaiqjd; ni, chai, air, olrain, aiw; chniqj, ainia, rhainjd. For the conaonants, they are first given a1 initials, and as parts of initid oombinations, in the order of the Tuble on p: 110, before all the voweh ynd diphthongs with which they arc found, and then mme (not all) wes of the medid and double, and ono or two final combiimtions are given. Fiml. cgmbinations proper are found in abundance with the vowels. The Glosaic spelling of the Engliih words agrees with that in the Short Key, Section III., pp. 12 and 13. Tbe letters e. g. i. f. after an initial Qloasic letter or combinatioh, shew tkat it oceum in the English, German, Italias, and French languages respectively, and the absence of any of these lcttere shews that it does not OccIir in the corresponding langmge... The initial combination is in thick capital Ictters, when it is one of the sounds recognined in the Short Key, when it is incidhatal it is printad in Italic capitals, bnt any letters with marks of length orer them arc printed small. After the number of a page i niennn firnt, and b second column...

85 I L 52 ozoaac 1mF;x. Eec. xn... I.E%I%RB -AND COMBINATIONS IN ALPHdBETICAL 'DHL)EII. A, c, pp. 3lb, 32a ; its rounded form, p. 326 ; may be sung as a', p. 34s. Strong and short: abb ab, scab dab, Blab slab; ecabbed skabd, blabbed bkbd, stabbed stabd; dabs daba, crabs kr'dz ; hatch hach, match mach ; snatched macht, scratched skr'acht ; add ad, plaid plad, shad shad; lads la&, dad's kdz; baille Safl, ande snafl; baq bag, jag; wagged wagd, lagged lagd; brae br'aga, swagz; badge bw', Madge Xaj; badged bajd; orack krak, whaok bhak; axe aka, wax waks, whacke 'whaka, thwacks thwakr, waxed *oakst, act akt, fact fakt, whacked whukt, cracked ki.akt; shall shal; aots akts, fucbs fakts, pacts Pakts ; Alp Alp; Alp Alps; am am, jam jam, cram ; shammed- S-, rsmmed rad; lamp lamp, cramp kr'amnp ; cramps kr'ampa ; rmmped krøampt ; shams shamm, flam fiwu; an ama, plrn plan, tan 1-1 ;. hand hand, planned pkrnd, tanned tand ; lands kbndu, strauds atv'ammdz ; manse cnans; banter bader; c d Palat; cants.kajlts, ~eoanb rikawta; man's manz, fans fana; hang hang, Eprang spr'mg, sang UM#Y ; hnnged haoryd; mnk aangk, hank hangk ; hanks hwagks ; thawt : Pangs p g z ; map map, tapa taps, -W ar'moa, carry kar'i, narrow nar'.on ; gas gas, wuil roarel; asp mp; aeh a&, craah hz-'ash, clash klash, smaahed smnanht, thrashed thr'asht; pat pat, thut dhat, sprat apr'al; Inte rats, dnts kats ; hth bath ; luve ' hau, has haz. Weak- and short in open syllables, 80 written in Qlmaic to shew either or a' final muy be,ueed nt pleasure, p. 536 and &a, piw pika, ida aid-ss'a, urea aidia, sofa roafa, ad akai.shia, drama draa'ma. Long and strong, provincial, p. 32a. Ex. pp. IlBa, 1198, A', e. i. f. Pp. 32a, 33b,34aI 36n; may be used for a, p. 31a. Often umd long or dort in the following and similar words, where &o aa long or &Ort may be used, and where a long and short ohodd not be wed, p,. 34a ;'may be always used in singing for a. 'Chaff ehuf ch- half, half haaf, d'kaykaaf, laugh la'f anj laughed u'ft laaft,' Craft kr'a'fr.er'aclfl, shaft sha'fl. bhaaft quaffed \ kwa'ft kwauft ; aft n'ft 'àuft;. &&S rha'jla 8hmft8, crafts kr'a'jts kr'mfls; ass a'a ana, pae~ pn'syans, grass gr'a's gr'aas, maes me's cnans ; ask a'sk aask, bank ba'sk busk, make ka'sks kaasks, maeks vna'sl-s rnaaiks; raap r'a'sp rtzasp, graape gr'a'sps gr'aasps pasad pa'st paast, mast odst rtaaaat; path pa'tlr paath, bath ba'th baath, wrath r'.a'th raath; path's pa'ths paatha, pnths pe'dhz paadhz; halve krr'u haao, calre kn'u kaav ; halved ha'ud haawd ' ; calves ka'uz kaavz; cornniand kolna'n d korraawd, plant pla'ntplamt (sometimes pkmt), haunt ha'rt han116 (and hawmrt). A?, spoken e. form of e, singing form, p. 44). A'iï, a good form of on, p. 47a. A'y, a form of aä, p. 46n. p. 44a, a'3 is a good M, e. g. f. i:, p. 336, 36a. B+y be u d for a' or ah, p. 39a. Strong and long : ah! ad! paths paadhz, half baa$ bu&h laay; calm kaam, pnlm paa'cn, balm bwm; calmed knn~id,; jaonts jaa.nts, haunta haa'nts; haunch hacmach ; c o k d konurond, demand diorwnd ; demands dimaalid; ; ohance chaa m, prance pøaa.nn, phnt plaant, can't asa aa-s, kaa-nt, sha'nt shaant; phlts'p aamnts, clas? kha.s, pea gr'aa.8; cash kaa.ak, bask bna.ak; casks kaa.sks, hasp b a p (often harp), Olasps khnsps ; maat mwst, caat kaast ; maets tnan.sta ; path paath, bath baa.th, wrnth raa'th; path's pactha; halve hawu, halved hrrmvd, calves kaawz. In dl them cases the vowel is srurcely mom than medial, and muy be takcn short, or a' (which see) m y be uwd long or short, and some speakere use a long and short. If we include those hees in which!a#- (which see) is pronounced as aa simply, the list would be much increased. Btrong and short aa doea not occur except an a variety in the above wo&. Weak and medid rather than short aal occum only before these letters, or 98 a -duc. tion of aar in weak syllables, BB steadfaat sled faast, partake puataik, purticularpaatikml~r, Carthnmm Knatlemrrhirn.. Ex. pp. 114a, llga. F,. OAA, flatus driven through the position for na, p. 66a..AA, slightly dised aa, BE in America and 141). 3 UAO, a lip glide, p. 66)., = AAR, g. i. f.. n form of ci, p. 44b, 45. and 6, or ' sa-k, alurmd i n Italian, p. 456; aa-es' i. even diphthong, p. 158.,Adëë, g. nasalised form of ei, p. 44,. dai, g. and EO an e. form of e;, jllstadmimible in.spqach, p. 444 na 1 is the proper form for singera, p. 44b. Not. to be tolerated for oi, p. 46).,AA, e. form of si. Not to bo tolerated, p AdW, i. slurred diphthong, pp 45a, 1476, AAaö,,i. slurred diphthong, pp. 47b, 147b. AAJd, general g., admissible e. form of 011, p. 47a, b. AAB, e. murmur diphthong aa.2, with a pcrmiseive trill r' ; the B and trill v' am gencrdy omittad, lrnd the simplevowel aa 4, so that aar signifies the permiseion to say na, anù, or aa.jr', the first being most common, p. 50). Always long and strong. h e aa-r, garb gea rb, barbs baa.rbz, arch anrch, starch staamh, starched rtaarcht, bard, barred baard, guards gaa.rdu, scarf rkaar- scarfs skaovfn, large laa.sj, enlarged nla#jd, stark atacvk, arks aa.rks, marl macril snaarb, barm baawn (when the Cr' are not pronounaed,.barrn, balm we both baavta), charma dhafrffnz, barn ban-rn, h s taa'orwz, shnrp shaa.vp, -PE kanrps, sparse spaa'rs, swdh awaa'rth, (some my swawrth), starve stauvv, EWVW skaama, bare bacm. When a word beginning with a vowel fouowa, na'rr' ar ab.ï''. is always used. see autf'. MBE', e. p. 137a. This may be either aar' or aa.l.', and is most nsdly aa'r' ; it occurs only in strang syllables and before a vowel. Barring buavr'ing, starry stna'rr'i, sparring spaorr'ing. When a word beginning with a vowel follows aav, Ø is always inshd ; don't jar it doad jiad-it, far off $zav'.of. Hence numerous errom p. 61). AA.ü, e. murmur diphthong, p. 60b, used for aar (which see) ; sometimes aa with vanish, to be avoided as it is mistaken for nnr'. AAZ, g., theoretical pronuncintion of g. ' eu in eule aaü>kt (gonerally oi'lu), pp. 448 and 46b. AAÜö, e. form of ou, p. 47a. AA T, e. g. f.. i. commou rcpresentativo for either acöö, anüò, &E forms of ou, p Ad. W, repreaqntative of aalö or na-üö as forms of ou. p. 47).. dap, e. g. f. i. common representative for either naëë or aa3 88 forms of ci, p. 46a, as aa'y is of naëë or na.!. &Y, nasalised form of dd Y, I ph or pi, p. &4a, b. AA Y, repiesemtativc of no;ë m ani 88 forma of ei, p AR, e. g. f. i., p. 32n; its rounded form, p In e..only in strong syllables, wherc e ir more general in the South of England. See 6 for examplea in Engliah. &Iay be sung BE e, 'pp. 39a, 147a. AEÜZ, i. slurrcd diphthong, p AEëë, e. faulty form of ri ; i. slurred diph- thong, pp. 46b, l47b; f generated by lorn ci ly', p. 46). ABT, e. faulty form of niy, meaning ai., p AElV, f. nad, not ay or ang, but thc laat M intelligible, pp. 40a, 1496.,. AMö, e. faulty form of OM, p. 47b; i. gurrd diphthong, p AEBÖ, e. faulty form of 016, p. 478 A%a, e. faulty form of 016, p. 47b. AEW, e. representative of cither adfi or ash, p. 47b. AEY, i. and f., p. 468: AH, g. f and Scotch, used for au, pp. 336,' Ma; may be sung as aa in f. AH;ë, g. common form of ri, p. 44b ; ah.ë#, with. long nh and conspicuous glide, a common Qmmm farm of oi, p

86 ' I ' AK,, o. iudty forln OC ci, p. 44a, also n g. form, p. 44b. AHN', f. nad, reeombles mg, which is intelligible, pp. 4013, b, 149). AUZ, g. form of m, p. 4ib. duirö, e. hllty form of ou, p Amiri, e. fuult? form of ou, p AHW, roprcscntrtive of cithar ah8 or ahjo', p. 47). AN- W, roprescr:tat.i\-e of rithcr Cf/b.öö or ar.üj, p Il.*, lurprcacntutiw of eithor ah;; or ski, p. 46e nnd 48a. AH l-, reprcsontativc of. oithcr 'crkg or d.i, p AI, e. g. f. i., p. 300, without vanish, see niy, 'y. 46n, f& vunißh. Kot to be confounded with ey, ay, trny, kc., p. 30). Usod fox eo by.many. Crermunu, p. 3lb. May bo sung as c, p.. 39n. strong md long : eh, Ici, bsy h i., oboy unbrri., d~y dai., they dhrti., hay /toi., muy srai., say soi., way toni., why cclrni. ; hbc bni-l, babes boi.8:; rtitch nidr ; aid g r i d, uids ai~l; ewtithe slsni'dlr,, smthed rruaidkd, bathes bni:rlks ;, safo sai?'; waifs waif#. CllHfUd chci.ft, vouchmrfcs uolrcha~i~8; plaguo plaiy, plagued piai.gd, plaguce p1ai.g: ; rrgo nij, engage urgnij; enraged ewwijd; ache ai.r, sake sai-4 rakes la.ka, baked bai-rc; ole ni./, pale, pail pni.l, railed r'ni.ll1, failed jari.ll, ails t6i:lz; aim ai.rrs, gamo pfi.rr8, lunad lai.rrrd, bylcs yrrivnz; wno 8ni.11, plrmc, plrrin plai-u, planed plaivd, strungo i/r'ui.gq,.change clrfliw~'; ranged rtfivajd; pilint pni.rrl, qunint ktcai.,rt, saints sui.rrls, I painn, pltncs pfi.fc, tapa ttrip, grape gr'ni.p, shapes alrtriy ; acc ai..#, ruce mi.8 ; rate.vni.t, gatesgai.ts, eighth ni.tth, eighths tri9tlra; wl-uith rnivh, wvnrithr Wki.th8; rave rai.v, saved saiwd, pves graiv:, ease yraiz, gazed gard. Some speakers use aiy in oll theau words, some even mako the ai short', und change it into e, m, as g, acy ; to bo nroidd, pp. 4ßa \Veuk, and medial or short, e. i., ', shamefaced shniwaftfiat, norta aifrwtcr. ExCrcisus, pp. 1136, 1156, 1298, ,'AT, flatus through thc position for (ti p: ;G?. AEna, i., evcnly balanced, unnccontcd diph. thong, p di, o. fuulty form of aiy, meaning ni, p. 4Bn. A'i, e., a common form of ci; p. 44n. dfw, o. form of tho ronish ni.y, p. 46~. CEO, lip glide, p Ali, C. aulty form of ai.y, p. 46n. ATã, c. form of the'vanish ai.y, p. 46a.. AIE, e. murmur diphthong, with or without v', p. 608; a form ropresenting s.3 or d.&' at pleasun!; generally e.17, in the mouths of some spenkers ne II or even n'a; tho r' ig generally omitted. Strong and long :.air, ere, e'er, hoir ni.,, b a r n. bear bai.),, chair chvi.r, thcm dkai.r, fare) fair fai.,., hure, luir I rnr.. 9.., ne'er rra -r, share 8hai.r ; pared poi-rd, ~c~rcc el;ni.rs, eonrcs rkni.rz. When n word beginning with R vowel follows mir, v' is always insertod, me ai.rv'. AI.BR', u., ropre8cnting c&'; und only uscd bofore a vowel, pp. Strong and long : wnry wai-di, aharing slmi.w'iny, fairy fai-di, we'll share it cose-l æhai-rr'-it, t0 pare an apple too pnid a pair Of Bhoee u gaiw' uv rhoo% AI.2, e. faulty murmnr diphthong, for c.ir, ACC air, p. 508.,Aïfi; e. murmur triphthong, form of ci.& pee eir, p. 62n. Alilo', o. very faulty form of FI#, p. 47h. AIWfor ni.;ö, c. fnulty form of ow, p 47. AI17, g. provinciul ci for ni-%, p dl.1; c., or ni with a vanish, pp. 4G0.anll 55l Somc speakers use for ni- on all occmu~la, except before r or in weak syllnbles '; this ia most frequent when ai enda u word or phrase, when ni comes befnre t,.great mrictiw aro found, from pure v long, through pure ni. long, to ni'y, uiy, asy, ny, und almmt try, n'y. Thc cxamplos-to ai should be read in both wa>e, with ni. and ujy, but never with the ncy, q forms, pp. 1296, AI', e. substitute for ne##', p AO, e. g f. i., p. 360, b, 3611, may bc sung o&ull, p. 39a. h the vowcl never occllrs in receivod English except beforo r, it will bo trcated unbr oar, which ROC p OAO, flalua through,the position for uo, p d'n;, n faulty form of oi, p. 46) ; no-üë, the only 4 1. form, p. 4 ~a. e. - do;, n fuulty form of oi, p. 46b. -Lt : I A#J, L hulty form of OU,,^. C'la.??. ' e. murmur diphthong, real form of oar, - p. 60). ' BOE, a theoretical form of g. ' eu,' as. euio d l u. p. 44). dotid, n fnulty form of ou, p'4ja. AOrSH', the red form of oarr.', which W.. ROTY, H ropreacntrtivc of aodu' or aoria, p. 47b. AOY, f., p AU, e., p. 3ön, 36r. Maybe USC~ for n and ao,, p. 30. Strong and loni :'awe ow, daw laau., jaw jaw, cuw kau., law kw, m w IIUIW, paw narc', paw pw, rttw l'au'. saw, mir, shaw æhaar, taw tau., thaw thaw; daub dad, awed nrrd, hnd lawd, hds laudz ; cough karrf, hawk hawk, hawke hawks; hall, haul harr, bald, ballod, bawled bawld, fallon fauh, halt ha~rlt, aalt Rau%, malt ma~dt, halts hawlts, all, awl awl, crawle kr'aulz, &WU awfr. awns awm, haunt Rau.rd (or hna-nt, ha:.nt) hnunts hauntæ, ougkt, aught awt, caught knat, drought drnat, broth brarr'tlb or broth). Some persone UBB au in off BUY, coffee /;azrj, office nuyîq often arrft, dog &tug, cross kraws, and in.america, cien. long lavwg, buthese and oven cough, broth, arc perhnps oftener pro- nounced with o, aa of, kafi, of'iæ, ofn, hg, )roa, long, kof, broth. When I- is not pronounced, all. examples undcr nur belong to thk caso, see awn-.. arrstee-r, Wonk.and augmmt long, august (adj.) (v.) qugmera?: (auprv't, EXE., pp. anstore 1 Ils, 1I6b, 1306, 131a.,. O A U, flatus through the position for al#, p. 66n. AU&, g. form of oi, p. 46b.. A Uï, e., a common form of oi, especially before E, p 45b, not to be tolcmted W a form of Ei, y. 44n. ' 1 A [f;<;e. very faulty form of 014, p. 47s. AGÜ, c, bwod form of, ou, p. 47a. All.& e. ropresenting au., auü, aut', or wür', ', ut pleasure, but most generally aa', and mbst rarely - wh,', p Strong and long: abhor rtbhawr,... or nu'r (when ntrong, beforo u vord, qwr' ; before a consolllmt, the same as awe aw), nor SI~N'I (when Btrong, befori a vowel, nawv' ; before L consonant, the same a8 gnaw n&), drawer drrrvr (a nliding. box,. distinct from drawer, ono who draws), orb awrb (generally rhymes to daub dawb,, orbs auraz, orchard awrchmi, torch tcwrch (or toamrch), wrch skawrcir (or rkoarch), s-hd skatrrcat (or ækorrcht), lord lagrrd (generdy not disting. uished from laud laud), lo& tawrdz, wharf ~hawrf, dwarf dwauvf, dwarfs dwazvrfæ, worn ækawm, born kum, horns hau.twe, homc Aauw, north nawrth, noikhs clau.rths. bme persons pro. nounce a11 the wo& in or in this way, as tore taw, more aznwr, pork pnsk, important innparr-- tent. but na'r is considered better. Lice oar for examples.-,weak and long, ornate arav~ni't, ordain aurdai.n, orcheatml csurkcs.tre6, organic nurgawik, orthogruphy orthoepy asrthonvpi. In such ames nw is scldom anything but (111, Ex.,. p A VC, thc murmur diphthong in alw, which see, p 'AU$Ö, fanltg form of UIE, p. 47a. AUT, represontativs of either nuöö or m86, faulty forms of ou; p A V-W, representative of eithcr RN% or nrrrio, fnulty forms of ou, p. 4.7b. ' A VI-, representative of either a& or RU?, forms of oi, p. 46n. ' AZr-U, -mpresentativo of either nu.;; or nu.ï, torma of oi, p 460. AW, representativc of either aöö or aüü, ftmlty e. forma of,1116, p. 4ïb AI', representative. of either n2 or rei, faulty forms'of ci, p A'Y, representative of the a'ëü br a'ã forms of S, p 46n. B, e. g. f; i., p Initial before vowels: ht bat, back bak, baa baa, bard 6aa.r.d. bate, &it 6ai.t, bought. barct,. bet bet, beet. bent kst, bik bci.t, Bnte Bewt, bit bit, botch bocli,.boat Boa,t, boy hi, boot boo t, bout bnmt, but but, bull brrol. Initial beforo consonants : black blak, blame bluiw, bleat '

87 156 aoem INDEX. 516e.4 blight bleit, biiss blia, blown blwrr, blur bler bran br'an, braid br'aid, broad br'au-d, breadtl bre'dth, breed br'wd, bright br'ei-t, Briton Br'itw. broach br'cavh, brood br'oo-.d, brow br'orc, buoy bwoi (or boo.;, bwy, somotimes bo \. Medial be. twecn vowels: dubbing dub.ing, blabber blabvr, wsbbing web'ing, fibber $km, sobbing soking, robber robw, anubbing mnrrbing, bay bai;bi, gnby, gai.bi, hby boo.)& imbibing irnbei.bing, bribery brai.bur'i. Find, ending worde, after vowels:. cab ka), babe bai,b, daub &u-6, dab dab, glebe gzeaes-b, bribe brei.b, tube Leu.), bib bib, Bob Bob, robe roa.b, tub tub. In practising flnal b, guard flgahst a very marked voice mil b-h', W a marked flatad recoil, as b.poh ; and if a mil is necewry, use the click hpo. Double, between vowels: tub-bottom tub-ktw, slob-bib slob.bib, Bob.beat him Bob b6.t him, a robe bought u ron.) bawt, where is the cab bound? whai.r ir dhi kab boundp Between the two B's of a double b, no iecoil of any kind is adrniasible. QB, 8 implodent form of p or b, p. 64a Bdf, e. form of 911 and b, with a cold in the hcad,, p. 67h. 'BB, g. voicod lip trill, with loose lipa, p. 66n. CE, e. g. i., p. 79a, not tsh, but probably a conmnantal diphthong, ty'sh', p. 8Oa. Initial, before wwols: chat chat, charge chau$, ohange chai-nj, ohose chas, cheese chae.r, chine ciisiw, cbiq chia, ohop chop, choke choa.k, choice choir, choose choo.r, ohouse chow, chump chwnp. Ch does not occur initial beforecomcnanta.medialbetweenvowels (it ie rather ty', which is medd, glided on from the preceding vowel, and gliding on to the follow- - ing sh') : patching paching, fetchiig f6db.ifl9, teaoher twcher, richor richer, botahing bockbag, broaching br'oa-ching, douching slou~chnag, crouching krouvhirrg, olutehing kluchi:g, Fid, &r VOW&: batch lach, fetch fech, &Itch stich, botch hh, r d r'oa.oh, vouah vouch, touch tuch. Double, between vowele (ch does not occur in the true double form ty'ty'sh', beaillee ty' dom not 80 Bec. XII. experimentally shew that the initid of ch is not t), that ch- dhat dwr, that choice dhat chois, flat cheesejat chee.r, what charge whot CIIWI~, he hit Charles hi hit Chaadz, a spoiled chop u spoilt chop Comparo also abbotship, grab a chip abutship, grab'uchip, hat shop, that chop &at shop, that chotj, it shews, it chose, it Shoa e, it Choa-z. Ex. p, 126a, CF, a mute form of ch, p. 79n. CE'6H', apomible form of ch, p. 79b, e. (the g. i. f. form is dl), p. 69b. Initinl before VOWC~E : dash dash, dart dank, dame daiwz, daughter &u-ter, debt del, deed dwd, dight &it, duke dnb.k, ditch dich, dot dot, dote doa.t, doit doit, doom doom, douse dow, -Dutch Duch. Initial, bofore comonants : drnm dr'am, drain dr'ai.n, dredge drg, dream dr'ee rn, drive dr'ei-cr, drip dr'ip, drop dr'op, drone dr'oava, droop dr'ooy, dwell dwel, dwarf dwawf, dwindle dwiwdl. Medial, between vowela: radical rndikel, madder mader, nadder sadw, aider ai-dsr, solder salr-dsr (or sowdw), broader brarr.&, wedding wading, breeder brec.de,, idol sidel, bidding bid-ing, nodding noding, boding bowding, crowding kroudhg, rudder rder. Final, &r vowels : mad mad, made, maid maid, Maude Had, bed bed, bead '&rd, bide bid, bid bid, rod r'od, road r'oa-d, rude r'ood, vowed vorrd, mud mud. In practising flnal d, gua4 against very marked voiced recoil, d-h', or a marked Bated recoil, n8 d-tdh; if a recoil is neceeeary, ue the click &O. Double, between vowels, nad-doctor mad.dok.ter, head-dress hddres, a oud drone u loud droan, he made drume hi nacd dwms, rammed down ramì dom. Between ;he two d's of a double d no recoil is admissible. OD, c. provincial implodent'for t, p. Wb.,D, a d made with the under part of the point of,he tongue apinst th palate, p. 69). D', g. f. i. form of d, with tongue -st the eeth (sonent of dh) for which Englishmen may 188 d, used provincially before v', p. 70a. O D, g. implodent for t' or 6, p DE, e: voiced form of th, P Initial befnre dhem, these dheez, thoeo dhows. Initial dh does g, not Occur before conmnanta. Nedial dh between m I /. I mwelo: bather ki.dher, bathing bai.dhirrg, weather, - wether wrdhw, together toogedh-er, gather gadhw, -:. -thing seadking, writhing reidking, whither F whidha., thither a#idh*er, bothered bodhwd, :. loathing lowdhing, soothing soo.dhing, mouthing moudhittg. %inal, after vowels: swathe ewai.dh, breathe brecdli, loathe lowdh, clotha kloadh, soothe ".' rwmdh. blithe bkidh. In. these finals it is CUEtOmaq' ab the'end of ~~RUEQE, to shorten the length of dh, and glide into a final th, as swaidhfh, brwedhth, kloaadhth, soovihth, p. 93b. Double, between'vowels: clothe them klonvib dhear, soothc them toodh dhmn, L loathethose si loa-dh dh0a.e. In this doubling the innerticn of th is inadmissible. Ex., p. 122n. D'E, a lisped form of e, p. 70a.. DHTE, e. final, BIJ breathe br'cwdhth, e.ee p Dr, e. labialised form of dl perhaps generally used for dw, p. 830, as dw'cl, dw'auvf tor dwel, dtcawvf. DY', e. palatalimd forri of d, used 8s the initial of the combination expresaed by j, which me, p.. 8Oa. DYSH, e. final form of j in tho pause, p. 8Oa, OZ, as nn initial, the fctrm used by Englishmen in place of tho Italian d'z', p. 9Gn. h',%", i., for which. Englishmen UM d;, pp. O7a, I 148b. g, e. g. (in. f. i. and strong g. eylhbles ne is OS^,, and also frequently in e. strong syllables ; 811. the following strong 8.8 may be read as ad, p. 30) 'used for Oe by mnny Germans, p. 316 ; ueed for aikn-singing, p., 39a.. Nevcr long in strong syllables, except in murmur diphthongs written as air,.which nee. Short and strong : ebb eb, web web, ebbed sbd, webbad wsbd, ebbs ebz, webs web;, f&h fech, dch 'rech, fetched fecht, head hcd, wed wed, said sad, t d fwd, beadth bredth, breadths bredtlu, W& roedz, left left, bereft bireft, 'egg W, beg beg, keg h, leg les,. pei peg, begged bgd, bega bigz, wedgo wqj, pledge plg, wedged' w~d, neck raek, wrcck r'ek, 'nocks meka, wrecked r'ekl. E O C sektr, ~ ell ef, bell'bsl, fell pl, hell nd shell hl, yell pl,. Elbe Elb, \Vel& Velclr, weld weld, hold held, shelf ah# pelf pelf, ' twelfth fwelfth, twelfths twelfths, elk elk, elks' elks, elm eh, whelm whelm, help help, helps helps, else ela, melt VU, felt felt, health hclth; weatth welth, heslthe hsltbs, eheh shelve, elves #ìv&, E& adz, hem hm, hemmed iismd, hemp hemp, hemp'e h p 4 tempt impt,. tempts tmnpts, heme hnz, pen pm, den den, hm hen, men mm, then dhaca, blench blmavh, quenched ktccmcht, wrenched v'meht, end mad, friend fr'end, mends mm&, thousandth thoueendth, thoupndths thorraeqdths, revenge riveny, avenged aven& hence hens, pence pare, offonce Ofen's, expense ekspma.s, went wmt, lent knt, rents~"e)~~s,present~(v.)pi~'iscn.ts,tenth~ma.fh,tenthn fsn.fhs, hens I ~ s psnepma,, step step, steps atepr, wept wept, crept kr'apt, leaped kt, adepta udep-ta, de#th depth, depths {epths, chese chei, =SE kr'as, guess gen, less ks, yes yes, chest chest, jeat jert, guoeaed gert, jest# jes'ts, mesh orcnk, enmebed anneah$ wet wet, get get, pet pet, met Inet, nets nets, jets jets, breath breth, breathe breths. The vowel e does not occur weak and short, except in the forms ed, el, em, m, ezj which SW; it occurs short and distinct in some weak s)-hbles, but. mrel-y, a~ ek and ss:-ahipwreck ahip.rak, fulness firol'nca, deafness deflaea, ceamlese ses.ales, mattrear mnt'res, egress ecgr'cs. Ex., pp. 1180, 120a, 120a, 129b. E', e., ns in e'r, a form of er, p. 34b, p. 39a. ED, e. find, weak, varies between ad and id, may be i'd, p. 141a, t18 wicked wikid, wik.id,. roik.ì'd, dotted dot&, dokid, dot%'d, compare pitted: pitd, pikid, ind piticd pikid only:. EE, e. g. i.f., pp. 28a and t 2% Used for ue' by many Qermans, p. 31b. Sung aa i, p. 39a.: Strong and long : glebe gkb, glebes gkwbz bleach blarch, mach r'ee'cib, bleached blea.c.ht, weed: wwd, knead, need nerd, needs mes&, breath0 w'ee-dh, breathed br'ecdhd, breathea, br'ee-dhz, thief. #beef. brief br'eef, leaf ìes$ beef beef, briefs br'csfs,..+c bsg, leagued Icegvi. leagues beg:, dbo.jl liego ;my, besieged bisae.jd. lenk.leek ksk.

88 158. QLOSSIC INDEX. bo. XII... meek merk, seek Beck, teuk Icc.X.i week werk, pleasure, gonorally. i.ü, nevir eer', aud cr.ai, es&' speak. apewk. rcek, wmik q<eee.k, wcoks wesmks, are archaic or provincial. A~wR!-E long nnd strong..reeked w&kt, eel ed, heal, heel hee.6, steal, shl $ur ee'r, becr,bier lee.,., cheer chew, dear,deer atee$, meal merl, peal,peel ped, teal tecl; ven1 &c,; fear fear, aphere afmv, gear yeer,. here, hear vwi, weartcee.1; wheel whasj, wield werld, wheeled hear, leer Iwr, blear blecr-, mere ~JWC-J-, neu me^. wheeld, field ferld, íîelds fee.lcfe, CCh ewh, -h pier, peer p87, rem r'ewr, aeer, sere, sear, cere Bee L, eeamed, seemed aeemd, creams kreewq, ween, sce'r, sheer. shew, tear (E.) tee')', ve=, verr, weir, wenn weew, lean beva, keen kerrr, dean dewti, we're kerv, year yeev, cleared klerrd, bcaids weaned, wwtzd,, deans dwrra, deep dee.?, weep berrdz, fierce fesw, pierce perra, tierce teem, feara wewp, leap krp, leaps kpa, fleece jee.s, Greece fce're, sphetes sf~rrs, cleaxa &emre. When a word Grwe, mat es-st, ceased aerst, beginneg with a vowel follows err, v'.is alwnys zohwt, wreath. ires th. sheath aherth, sheath's inserted, wo eed. nhwths, hve hew, reeve, ree'v, grieve gree'w, ' grieved grcemi, greaves, griev,ee gree'v;, grease EE;SB', e, see p. 1366, repreesmting i+', BE 5lree.s. greased gree-zd., Ee never oocm strong and distinct from ew', which is bt&, American, and Rhort in English, beink replaced by i. Weak and foreign; used only before vowels. Always long long it oc~ura rarely, in cloeed syllables, RE: nnd strong. Earring ee-tr'ir#g, hearing Ircaw'itzg, thirteen thertees, fourteen foa'rteerr, fiftcen$ftmn, ch+y chrrr'i, endearing endssrr'ing, fearing dimae daivasees. Weak and short, seldom occura feewing, gearing gerw'ing, leering Im-ding, in aotual uae, although many attempta are made peering p c w'i*~g ; do pou fqr it do0 #u fer&-it, to enforce it, but is generally replaccdby i, m peer into it perrr' in'too it, sheer ifinomnce Sh'rl'' p. 28a; elicit eelirit, illicit ilkit, illirit, elude q'flu~~m. eskwd, eslord, illude ibrd i&o.d, illrud illood, EEG, e. murmur diphtllong, p. 601, a faulty' allegation akeegai.shera, alligation aligai~shcrr, torm.of em, wküch stande for i%. elment ezeernozt ekirnent el.emtmt (the last is most. ElWR;, e., a faulty form of eew', which.stands common, elwnaunt is heard. but generally repro. for iw. bated). On the difflculty of einging ee at a high pitch, or keeping long ee and long i distinct, ECC ' EI, e. g. i. f, an unmalywd form of. diphthong, p'4b. Er., pp. 113a, li56, 128). having varietim in e., and other varieties in PR, c. provincial throat glide. name HE Tm, 5. i. f. For e., see p. 44n ; for g., we p. 44b ; for i. I p.,gb. M p. 450; for f., %ee p. 466:!Che singer mny OE& flatus through the position for cc, p. 66a. take uv, a'y, wy, Ray, n8 suits him best ; tho ' O's#, whispered ee, p peaker ahould avoid uay, and whether he ChDoses 2AA, i. close diphthong, usually tiken as yaa, wy, or a'y, always um? it. Strong : I, eye.ci (but pp. 454, ' Lye aay), buy, bp, bye,b'ye bpi, die dei, fie fei, &fi!,?, i. triphthong, usually taken as qui-y,?uy Gei, high heil sb dei, lie, lye M, Ayjei, Bly p; 60a. rki, my *mi, nigh nei, pie pi, rye, my rei, dry EEC%, i. diphthong. and faulty e. forni of m, ir'ei, fry fr'ei, cry kr'si, pry pr'ei, sigh ti, &y &i, 'dim coneonante, p. 48b. Ity, atye dei, thigh thei, thy dhei, vie ssi, Wye Wei, 800, e. form of eu after consonantll,p..48al why woli; ide eid, bide bid, ohide chid, died,' general i. form of eu, p lyed dai#, guide geitì, hide heid, &ed skeid, lied kid, glide #kid, plied phid, slide +id, ride r'sid, EBB, e., pp. 601, 1366, murmur diphthong with mide braid, dried dr'sid, fried fr'eid, pride gr'eid, DI without Y' ; a form repreeentiq i4 or i&' at Itride deid, sighed,side mid, shied sheid, tide, f n, guidee pi&, hides heid:, glidee gkidz, alidee slsidz, :. rùlw r.eidz, brides br'eida, sides seidz, tides Leids, blithe bleidh, life leif, knife nev, rife r'ey, etrife #!#-'e$ wife weif, life's levd, knife's mgs, wifr's weifs, dyke Ileik, like IeiR, pike peik, tyke teil., dykes dciks, liked leib, pikes peib, liked kikl, flle pi!, mile auil, Nile Neil, pile peil; rile r'cil, tile teil, vilo weil, kle weil, while toheil, child chcild, 'W feiltì, mild tneild, piled peild, riled r'eild, tiled teild, wild, wiled weild, wilds weim$, film feil;, 'miles weilz, piles pciki wiles weilz, chime cheirn, diame dein,, lime ZC~IJ~, climb, clime kbirrr, slime.szsirn, mime rneirn, rhyme, rime r'eim, grime gr'eirn, '. crime Lr'eim prime pr'eim, cyme seirn, time, thyme teim, chimed chcirnd, grimed gr'eiind, climbs, dimea ' kkirnz. chimer cheimz, rhymee- r'eirrzz, crimes k#cimz, times teirm, bine kill, chine clrein, dine, dein, thine dheis, fine feirr, line bin, mine cnein, nine nsin, pine pein, brine br'ein, shrine shr'ein, ' sign, sine sein,. ahine shein, Tyne Tek,.vine win, wine wein, whine whirr, bind bid, find jkilrd, hind Ipind, kind keind, lined kind, blind bkind,. mind,mined mind, pined pined, rind r'eid, en. : shriaed enshr'eiyrd, signed seind, wine? weitad, whined whiiad, binde beim&, fllids feifldz, hinds hein&, bl;nda b'lai~dt, minds meindz, ninth neidh, ninths. neinths, chimes cheimz,. dines deine,.ninee ~ldina, pina pira, shrines sar*'eitu,- sip aeinr, ' shinee pheint, vines wrinz, wines weiflz, whines- ~Æeiraz, pipe pip, ripe r'eip, gripe gr'eip, stripe. str'eip, type teip, wipe weip, pip peips, gripes gr'eip,. stripes rtr'cips, typea. kips, piped, peipt, slriped atr'eipt, wiped weipt, ice ein, bice bis, dice bis, lice kis, mica weis, ni? neis, rice r'eis, p+ pr.eie, entice eatei's, vice veis, iced eist, pncad pr'eist, enticed sntei'st, bite kit, fight feit, height bill kite hit, light kit, blight bkil,, flisht jcit, plight ylcit, slight, sleight skit, might dt) night wit, riite,,right, write, Wright r.e t, bright br'eif, fright fr'eit, sprik~ spr'eit, sight. site seit, tight hit, wight roeit, white whit, I've sir,.chive chiw, 'be feiu, hive h&, olive uhimw, rive r'eiu, drive k'eir, etrive str'eiw, shrive shr'eiv, thrive thr'eiv, livee,feiuz,hives heiwz, rives r'eiwz, drives dr'eiw:, rtrives str'eiws, thrives thr'eiwz,. rives weiw;, eyes F + buys bciz, thighs thei;, skies #Lek, flies Je&, pies peia, dria dr'eiz, fries Jr'eiz, pria pr'eiz, ehiee ahciz: Weak : idea eidee.u, civilise sivibis, civilisation aiw.ilei:ui.ehm.:or aivilizni.s&), ironical cir'orriksl, isochronoue eisok~~'tlrat~s, direct deirekt Dr direkt); divert deiwer-t (or dirur!. Ex., pp. 193a, 1330, 133b.' Ei, e. faulty fornl of qi.y, mcaning ai., p. 4tiu. EPEE, e., a dissyllable to be distinguifhed from?i.r, which see, p. 5Pb; buyer beiw, dyer deiw, higher bei.er, linr hi.er, plier ple'ivr; slier ski ur, nigher neivr. briar brecer, drier drw w, frier, friar h'eivr, prier pr'ei.er,, sigher sei.ev, shier shd~, tier tci.er.. When a word beginning with R vowel FOIJOWE, r' is alwayd'dded. BIEBB', fom'of cid, p. 52b; LI-B, e., a murmm triphthong, ciil, with or without r', generully without, to be distinguiahed hom ei-er, p. 52a. Long and atmng: byre beir, dire deir, hire heir, lyre leir, mire meir:, sirc siir., hire rhcir, tire teir, bid heird, tired ++c#, wired weird, lyra leim,.sires aeirz, ahircs skim, tira bira. When a word beginning with a vowcl follows, r' is,alwnys added, eee ei.~'. Ex., p EI.BFl', e. see p. 62a, representing eiw, in one syllable : direr dsi.rr'er, hircr Acids,- hiring biding, tiring tekrr'iug, wiring wei.rr'itzg. Ex., p. 137b. EI-OB, e. dieeyllable, p EI, e.weak flnal, p. 1406, representing.$v, -y, ' or -ïi, or prhps -ïy, the mual '.age,' which iu diffemtly pronounced acwrding to frequency of use, Cabbap kab-ej (often Ku&$>, herbage Ast..- bj, bondage bmmdg, baggage bagay (often bag.u), luggage 2ug.q' (often hg.c), foliwe foadiq',m carriage kar'-ij, marriage rmr'.q 'always), kawrtiw (when quite new to the speaker, km.- tizai$), pillage piki, tihge tikd, village vifid, ' ' damage image ;mq', pilgrirnnge pikgrirnsj, manage mu4a-qi (thew hat words tue usudy pii-v,

89 .,_ _... ~. 160 ' OLOMIC LlPDEd. (Irc. XII. spinmg' jmmt commonly spin.ü, and sometimes spin-ichj, cowage Xur'.~' (usually kur'.v), wage aczqj (not weich), 'musage s~8.g'.or ros.ijl, savage rwg' (or rawü), language langwqi flang-gwq',. langwaij, langgwav, 6ang*wg, lanrgwv, lavog-wich, 1ang.gwich nre all to be heard), voynge (often mv), knowledge g(ol.qi, college ko1.q'. EL, e. g., &e p Wcnk syhble, obfxurely fironomcad, npproaching u1 or dl Ather khan ad, al, ddom clear el, never clear a6, or 01 ; to be sung as d or u'l, with a slur from u or 14' to l ; corres. ponding t0 'e. flnal unaccented -81, -el, -06, but nnt ueually -i[, and not heard in -$d. Cymbnl, symbol siwkl, radid radikcl, medal medel, lineal linial, mal we6, regalrergel, frugal fr'oo.ge6, prodigal pr'ottigel, labial lai.bisl, genid jecniel, trial tr'eid, eeaential csc~z.shsl, oeloetial eiler.lie6, vitil veid, deoimal dsrimd, nnimal an.ittuz, dismal dkwwl, ordinal au.rdìnc1, cardinal kaa+dinel, 'ha1 hiwel, opal oa$cl, libeml libw'el, temporal Ism.. pr'cl, rural r'oodcl, nad nai.acl, capital kap.ite6, vustal vertel, usual cu~ehezd, oval oa-vel; paree1 paa-rsel, iu6del in$del, angel aiqisl, satchel rach.el, camel kamael, trammel tr'avnvl, pommcl pum-cl, flannel flagamel, channel chan-cl, kennel kcrrd, funnel frm.el, tunnel tuwel, colonel, kernel kcr-ml, chapel chap-el, gospel gorpcl, quarrel. kwor'vl, squirrel dkwb'.sl, w-1 wer:el, chid chircl, morad mawrrel, tassel tars1 (or taa.rel, tau'sel), gravel gr'ard, travel tr'avu'el, duel dewel; level LweL, fuel fcìvsl, shrivel shr'iv-cl, howl huwel, shovel shuvd, norel novel, cruel hr'oovl,.vowel uorr~l, hazel hai.;ei, pencilpcrt:sel (or pen.ail), council koun.rcl (or kou~sil, to dislinguieh from ca-1 kennsel), idol si.dsl, ear01 kar'd, pistol pir.tel. Tbis final -cl ia not vcry distinct from h l -1, forming a syllable, except after a vowel, and aftcr t, d; compare idle, idol ei-dl, cidal, for the first the point of the tongue IWIML~E on khe plats from d to l, in the second it ia romoved for r very short period. The effect in oaeh case is more of n glide up to l thnn B flred.vowe1, p. Ola. effort is nece%sary, indiktd by el., as novel. for nwd, the speaker emphasing the fact of his clear pronunciation. This would be the case in g. alm, not in i. or f. In Enghh, however, the change to il is then common, n8 jewel jsu-il, cruel k~wo.il, novel novi6. EM, e. g., see p. 139b: Weak syllable, rather YI^ Dr u'vn than am of am, never distinctly avn or cm ; BU indistinct glide on to m followed by an m. when em is distinct, R.kind -of ompbsie is necessary bi e. and g., shewn by an accent (SW el at end), thus poem poawa', in which me the change to ivn is sometima heard, BE poa.irn. Weak: madam madwm is heard in bop), quondam kibondqn, buckram bukwvn, balsam bar.lss?p (some may balwm), stratagem atr&yicm (some say otrat'e&n.), anthem un-tlrau, emb1-m mn.bhn, problem pwb-hm, poem powers, u:nl.,;i.tmn (nome eay ei.tan.', frqedom freedm, ~!llk;dxn dsu-kdma, lcingdom kingvbn, thraldom tl*?~~ar&?m, seldom sspddm, random r'awem, Lkislrmdom Erie~mdsnr, wiadom wis.dmn, fathom fadhmn, axiom akr.ievn (or ak.rhism, nk-shcvn); venom vmwn, modicum mottikmn, petroleum pitroa%em, memorandum wwm.ur'ata.dan, museum mmlzeswn (in America mac.eiem is st leest mmetimes heard), medium wdiem, odium oo.diem, opium oayim, delirium d Iir'.imn, Elysium I1ieh.- iem, oakum Orkan, alum al-cvn, penduluin pm.- demlmn (or pqn-dsulurn'), asylum ascihn, laudanum Mncvn, tympanum!imynmmn, oonundrum AWIIUWdr'em, decorum dikoa-rr'em, quorum kwoa.r?'mn,, spactrum spk-tr'em, forum foa*rr'sm (es a Latin word foaw.um-), ultimatum ultivmrzi.tem, pomatum poarnni-tsm, stratum 8C'ai'tm (some my rt*:aa*tum.), quantum kwon.tecm, factotum fak.toa.tm, munm urkvuern Most of these wo& offinr h o with z after them, as kingdom king-h. The am is often indistinct in dingmu dsiwgr'am, snagram!nwgr'ana, epigram cp.igr'am, pnn&togmmpar.-. alslvogravn (often par*u+iel'u+grcm mong mathematiciws), monogram mwoagr'ßm, tde- m. INDEX. teligr'am (the het word, though M) new, is W),wrnnbn that it is fast becoming tekiyr'cvn). The c- is a h often distinct in didem dsi'udecra-, requiem rskwim. (erne say rwkwiem-), apothegm qroathbm.. The clqeas of the h l syllable ' *de ptly On the UIlUEurtheEE Of the Word, and upon the position of the previous aacent. The eerpagt's pronunciation of onmn is always indistinct, yes~vncm, ~ oav~n, not yesw, noavn, when the lip! are separated for an instant, but rometimw the mouth is not opened, and the m ' having produced its final deet, is quickly reduced in force EO BB to become nearly inaudible, and then very rapidly touched again, thue ycam+n, 'nom.m+n, EW slur, pp. 46a, 187b. ' ZN, e. g., me p. 139). Wenk and final, more like a glide on to n than any vowel ; difficult to dis. tinguish from vocal I), except.after a vowel p, b, 'L, d, k, g, where the vowel cam an opening of the lips, ur,withhdrewal of the tongue for nu inatant. The singer always takes *'n, aee p. 77a. A very common pronunoiation in flnal -m, -m, -tim, -awn,,-ance,-ence, &c., only a few inetances rire. given. Turban twh, publican publi.ken, OCBBU oa.rhm, European i3'urr'onpee:cn (not Bm+r'oa'pim, BB sometima in America), magician madiah m,,musician mcrwiahvn, physician jcziah.m, guardian gaa'rdian, ru& rufisn, maman ewmm (seamen swmcn.'), foreman f0n.rrn-m (foremen foa'rmcn.'!, horseman hauwvnsrr (homemen Iraumam.'), churchman cher.chvma, yeoman yoa'mmz, - womn wwm'm (women witnbr), German JWRMVI, fwtman fuot'mm (footinen fudlvnen.') human yhuwmen, layman 1ai.mcn (often kzi.vnan.'), clergykbqivnan, countrpmam kun.tricnsn, gentlemin jsn:tkn (e;entlemen jen.tlmen.'), &tan 8ai.tm /Sat.na, 8ai*tn, 8a.t.vr, satin ratin), veteran oet'uren, puritan par-rr'itm, deafen &fw (or dqfn), stiben.stifcn (or sfifn), roughen (or ruf%), heathen hesdhsn, lengthen ' l mgkth (or Icngk-thn), alien ai.lian, sullen supen (or ruh, or rul.rtr.'), specimen apcrimsn, choaen cba.zcrr (or chc-an). often ofm (or of.n, some my aufn), soften sflm (or. tflva, so& llay sa+), mveu raiwn, even iven, eleven ileum or spwsn, or with flnal un), riven riven (m riuvz), heaven heim (or hmm), begcon bcrketa (or bcskn), deacon derken, pardon 'paa-rdm (or more often pawdn), pigeon pi$m, lunoheon flag'ejr legion ec$w, religion rilijvn, lion him, battalion bntalycn, dandelion' dan-dili-en, bullion buol.ym~, onion uwyqi union wnysn, ocdon ohi-shm, adhesion ad-hereh, decision diri~h~sn, division, diuishm, convuloion konoupshml, d o n man= shen, pension pn'shmr, explosion sksploa'shm, rereion uer*sh, sewion serhvn, -ion mishm, education dsstkai.rhm (some etry q%okai.shm:, crention hiai-rhen, action ak.rhen, eleation ilskshm, junction jungkrhma, auction auksheor, nmbi-, tion.arnbishm, petition pitiæhm, motion moashun, inscription inrkrip.rhm, portion poa'rshm (mm my pau.sh, rhyming with) caution kau-ßhm, revolution r*eu~oabu.sh, connexion kmrskrhen, oblivion oablivyen, felon fsl.s*,. colon koa.zcor, chaldron chaaldr'cn (or chaud#&), environ muci.w';'tr~ (iron &-a*, is often merely eim, compare Ion), venison vetawn, (vm.iem is orthoginphical only), unison ewnissn, poison poi-wn (or poi-m), prison prism (or pris-n), lesson, leseen Zwea (or.!&n!, horieon hoar'eixwn (not hor'.iasla). Mod of them words add, on 8, es misaio- mirhms. Elegance eligms, vengeance vei&a8, semblmco sbnr.bhsn,, nuimnce UPW#H#8, subatance anbatans, h~mtance rsrksmrtmn (some say ~r-kstm.9.' or ssr"'kumstmr), dietance dir.- tasas, license Isi.sms, innocence in.oamw, cadence kai-daw, impudence impsudans, eoimce ceiwmr, obsdienoe oabeess.dymr, experience ek~rr'isns, patimcepai-rhenr, dencarei%wzs, violencaoei.oahnr, vehemence (rerumena (some try to aay ocrimanu', v~~ansns'), influence (ofth iro$o&r, in two sequeice eerkwcnr ( o h sm.kwcw'), conwquence kwsikwsnr. BO g. f nee p. 31a, in g. nlwys long and strong ; in f. often peculiarly shod and indietinot amazon av~'~(~bll, W, p. 94); may be sung RB 'oc, p. 39a. :Ex. pp. 1440, 149,. Y

90 JOE, poaeible labial glide, beginning with.lipa wide open, find then gradually cloeing, p EB, e., see p. 63. Strong snd long by the prolongation of the vowel sound, either simply BB U., d., or modifled by a more or lena mised point of the tongue, as w,,r, but always with permission to edd r'. To pronounce clear er', aer', ur', uur', is quite un-english, but in heard in Scotch; and a, very light form of r' is heard in the pro~in~s, ae ' &o m,r, UU,~. dll them eounda are disagreeable in received speech. Sometimw an attempt ie made to distinguieh "er, ur" mu., W, or u', e'., written er, uv; this ie not recommended, me p It must be?bered that er* repmti a real long vowel, with a permieaive trill r' after it, and that thin trill is- quite inadmiesible where, no P' origidy &&d. Em er, buri ber, fk, fur fer, her hm-, our ker', blur. bk, di s&, purr psr', sir wr',, were wer, h&b herb (erb is old), curb kab, dieturb dirter.b,verb.verb, herhe herbs, curbs.. ÆWh, birch bsrch, kerchief kerehif, l u d broh, peroh perch, march se~'ch, sesrched rercht,. burred bsrd furred fwd, heard herd, ocd okwd, hlurred blekd, eluimd sler-d, purred perd, absurd abswd, pderredprifstd, word wer-d, aberd!herd, words wards, serfi eurf rerfrturf ter% serfe serfa, urge erj,. dirge derj, merge *wj, surge serj, turgid twjid, verge vary, irk er-k, birk, Burke b L, jerk jwk, lurk kk, olerk klerk (BB'nome say, but k k k is more common), amirk merk, perk park, shirk aher k, Turk Ter*A., work wwk, quirk kwerk, Turh Twkr, works werkn, dirh Irks, kirks kwkr, earl ed, churl churl, furl fer./, girl gy'erl (or ger.l;but gy' ie more common, gal is very common indeed, and some nay gun, but gun[, guw,,rl, guw,d am vmy diasgrecable), hurl hersl, pearl, purl p.1, whirl wher*l, esrls er.12, hurh. har.ls,, gerrm jw-m, W& wer"m, germed sr-md, wormed werwd, germa gn.m~, worme wur-m~, eern wn, burn barva, churn 'churn, fern learn brw, turn tern, yearn yeran, earned a trki, ervat, burned bwnd, bar-nt, churned ahsrva$ $ever chwnt), learned Irr'nd, knt, turned ter-nd (never tsr'nt), yearned yer-nd (never yerwt), learns lerwz; c h ~ chervu, ~ s chirp chary, ohirpw clr.ps, hame kr.8, curse ksr-8, nurse taw's, tenre ter's, veme usr.8, wome war-8, cursed karrt, n u d ncnst, worat werst, earth #+.th, birth h * d b, dearth derth, girth gcr.tæ, hearth hernth (much more genemlly hua.[h), mifi mevth, Perth Perth, worth wer-th, births berths, girths gerthe, aerve-+wv, mrved serwì, wvea ser.p.-weak, flnal, commonly -u or -u', without any trace of r', which, however, in always i n d before a following vowel, but should never be inserted when there -WBB no original Ir,' BB ie commonly done for of speeoh, pp When u+ occura in epesking. weak er should not be written in Ctloeeie, becaw' when ar in written it implies that u+' may be naid. Hence ' spin ' muet not be yri- srgai-., although if r' were not wedd be heard. '&E termination ie so common that only a few examplee are given. &dar weder, &dar kapmir, vinegar cin.igr, fami fumilyer, friar fwiw, robber robw, member man-bar, number nuwi.bw, cider rei.&, p- preevhw, feather fdh'er, whether. whedher, weather, wethei wedhw, soldier eoa.&w, rapier raiyyer, furria fur'isr,courtier koa.ttyer, prinoner priawr partnar piav-tncrr (not paa.rdner, a common mistake), skewer rkar-er (ofter skew;,, employer mploiyer (nometimes mploi-er), elixir ' ilik-rcn., meteor mestyer, anchor angk-er, author au,ther, warrior cwrø-wr, honour owsr, -favour 'fai-w, labour hi.ber, liquor ' liker, grandeur, grander gr'awdsr (m nay gr'awdysr, gr'amjw, g,'anyhr, for ' the W), sulphur 'sufifer, murmur mermer. Moet of theee words add on a I, BB furriers fur'krs. h m a Towel follows p m u+ or u*+ heard, BB ever, every ww, wwä, a mldi? of fortune W /aurtcun. Ex. pp. l32b, Ma, 13L... ' EBB', e., eee p. 63a, 136a. Strong, before vow& d y : erring' ~r'ing (often er'ing), burring btwr'iny (not ' u#.ìng), incurring ink#ø+ (or ithw'.ing), slurring rlsr~'hg, preferring fifer- Økg (oririfsr'ing). z... ' EU, e. i., we p. 48a, b. An ununalyd form., having several permissible pronunciatione, as YI hug and weak yï00 strong, both at the beginnin L.. of words, und goo,strong and beak in middle. norde, and io0 strong and weak after coneonan1 which glide on tn it, Ex., p. 135). These forma IN not usually distinguirhd in.the mind of th npeaker, and are written by the name eign. Stron and long: you, yew eu, chew chcu, dew &u, fe! ' feu, gewgawe geumgam,,hue, hew heu (more COI ' mtly yhioo, written yhcu, but few speakere BI. conscious of yh), Jew Jerr, cue, quoue heu, lie. leu (not, loo, but blue bloo,- not )!eu,. flew joo, na flu, glue gloo, not g&, clud, clew Moo, not kk daw 8100, not-ßbu), mew mm, new neu (not ioo) mew sneu-(not amo), pew pu (not pceõo, rue #od not #eu, brew br'oo, not br'cu, drew dr'oo, no, dr'err, grew gr'oo, not gr'eu, crew kr'oo, not kr'm stmw str'oo, not atr'cu, nhrew shr'oo, nol ahreu an( not ahj'oa, sr'oa), sue seu (not 800 nor slbbo), thev theu,' view veut whew wheu (really a whistle) Bude Bard, nude neud, pewed parr-d, Nued ßsud tawed teud, viewed vcud, febrifuge feb.rifewj, hug hew: properly yhely' or vhiw.), duke dwk, pukl - punk, dukea deukr, pukee peukr, puked pewkt yole, you:ll eu4, exhume ekacu.in.or eks-hum mdng ekayheum, rather pedantio), fume Jeu'm Hume Heurn (meaning Phewm), luminary ìerr miner'i (Qr loo-ciiner'i), fumed feumd, fumea fuu'mz, dune dah, June Jeuva, lune lerrw (n? loow),, impug icnpeu.?, tuno teum (not toow nor oheu.?a), impuped imnpu~rd, impugns irnpuwe, uee et4.s: ' abuse abeug, deuce' dews, juice jerrs, ueed cwrt, (was accuetomed) euzd (employed), Bute Bed, lute brrt (or loo t), mute *MU t, newt newt, repute ' e.t, euit scwt (not soo't nor an00.1)~ mutes.. mswts, ne& ncu ta, suits eeu tg, you've cwv!- Weak, long or short : unite.cunei-t, unique eunee.k, nsurp eraerp, ubiquitous esbikwitur, uranium aur'aimiem, utility outil ;ti, monument cnou~eucnent, -document dokeumnt, vacuum vakvwrn, residuary ri;i&arar'i, mortuary' maurteuer'i, usd errshew, mual an.ewl, virtual ver.tew1, bibulation trib.eu-.. lai.ahen, virtue vcr'tcu, vnlue valsu, continue kuntincr, issun whm (or ish-oo, not inyu), tissue tìshwu, etatue rtatvu. Ex., pp. 124a, 132a; l36b. 8.3, e., the real fonn of air, p. 50b. EUE, e., repreaentmg the mqur triphthong cwj, followed- at pleasure by.a trilled.,.',p. 52b.. Strong and long: Ure cwr (compare ewer errer) endure mdewr, cure ÆCUT, lm- h.r (or loor), immure iemaerrr, inum ineu-r., obscure 0bskeu.r - (compare skewer rkeu~w) pure pawre, sewer gar r (mdtly, formerly shoav; campare eure rhwr, tmwer, a waiter, in swm, pursuer psrawcr, not psrsoocr, nor psralroow), mature mutwr, your bur, inured,ineu.rd.-weak : verdure vercrsur '(often vwjer), 4- pswr (generally &W), injye iwjarr (UEU~Y in3er), $dure pwjmr (UEU~U~ pwjer), pleaeure pbzhww (usually pkhar), meamezhmr iuwally maah'-er), kreuaure twehwr u d y trmkar); premure preskmr (mually presh.er), fleeure#hsur (eometimee jemw, mually $sfsr.w, the asme BB ' finher,') feature fwteur (mually fwcher], nature nai-tmr (usually naidair), temporature tm+ur'utew (not. tmn.pr'uch,w); literature litw'utaur (not Ut+'uoher), atature atalvur (not staehw), manufacture ema~cufak.tew (not rnawifakchw), hcture frakteur (often frakeher), conjaoture kwtktcur (often krw k.cher), lecture lek%& (usually Iekvher), picture iik.tcw (uedy pikcher), etridure rtr'ikteur (not rtrik- ch), tincture tingkteur (oftan tingkch-), punoture pungk.teur (oftem pungkder), etructure str'uk.twr (USdY dtr'tkk.cher), forft3itw fuu r$bur ( o h fau$cher), furniture fwnitew [uedy fernichsr), culte kultcur (udy kdcher), vulture v#tcur (uedy vul.ekr), ventura vwtw (ubunlly om.- cher), capture ka.tcur (usually kap.cher), rapture r'ap.tevr (usually r'apherl, ecripture -8kr'ip.tarr #ndy rkr'ip.cher), torture taurtarr (ueually!au.ohcr), moisture moirteur (often mois.ow, iuture far'teur (mually feu.cirer), fixture f k stew :~saally fkwher), seieare eereheur (nsdy garihr). The'ohange of -tsur, ehur $to -cher, -&W, lependa mainly on the with which the sord is ueed. the latter forms are th- which

91 prevail in common words. Before vowels -mz or -ur' is wad, as flguringpg.mr'ing,~.~~r'i~lg. Ex:, p. 137n. EZR, e., n form of aid, which see.. EU-BB', e.,. a representative of swlr', before vowels only, p. 137a. Long and strong: enduring rmdswrr'ing, bmuriny imtneurr'ing, curing kerrw'- ing, purer pbuw'er, purity pwri'iti, puritanic. psurr'itan'ik. SIX, e. fnufty form of OU,'^. 47b, usually written 61, and then to be dietinguished from du, which see. SW, EW lnst entry. EZ,.e., weak and W, with indietinct vowel, somekimea S, sometimea i, sometimes perhaps C, forming plurnls und third p ~son~ of verba, p. 141a. Prinm prin.sss, princoeaea prinsss.ss, eeiaea see'zez, inches invhm, flincheajindq judgee jcusa. P, e. g. i. f., see p. 67b. Initial before vowels: Pat fat, fnrm faa-rm, fute fdt, fought fawt, fell.. fel, feel fee.1, flle feil, feud fwd, fit Pt, fodder foda, foal foa.1, four foa-r, foist foist, fool foo.1,. foul foul,,fuss fus, foot fwt. Initial before oonllonnnta: flut jut, 0nunt jaavat, hme,jai.rn, fled fid, fleet jwt,, flit flit, 00g jog, float jo&, flour pur, flutter jutvr, kgil ft"qi'i1, frag frai., phrase fv'ah, fmught Faut, fret fr'ct, free f#"sr, fright fr'si6, fritter fr'itw, frog fr'ug, frothfr'oth (often fr'mrth), frownrd fr'onwd, fruit fr'oo't, frown fr'oun, fructify fr'uk-tifsi. Medial between vowels : Bn5n Bafin, wafer waifer, heifer Lfw, stiffer ntifw, ofbr ofa; loafer lmfcr, rooting roo$ng, rougher rufa.. Find: Staff stna-f, waif toaiy, safe raif, deaf def, beef beef, life leif, stiff stif, C M kiif, mff skof (also rkauf), od owf, coif, qioif kojf, hoof hwf, stuff stuf. Double: a sta frost t) srif post, n half foot II hacf fmt, n RRlff foe II gr'uf fou., a laugh forced u lauf foa'rat, astiff fog u stif fog, n half friend u haaf fr'snd, a, gruff foreigner u gr'uf for'm8r. Ex, p. 121b. P', g, only in the combination pf, we pp. Mn, 680. O, e. g. i. f., sonant of k, p. 82). Initial before voweh : gnd gad, ghastly goaxtli (often gia.slii, gnmegai-m, gall gad, get get, geeee gty-8, guile geil, gimblet gimale#, got got,, goat gwt, goosu gowr, gout gou.t, guìn guod. Initial before coneonants: glad glnd, ghs glnn.s, glaze glai.s, gleaa glwn,.glitter glitw, gloerary glos.ur'i. gloat gloa-t, glut glut, grand gr'and, grass gr'aa-a great gr'ai.t, grit gr'it, grotto gr'ot.oa, groin gr'oiqd. groom gr'oowa, growl grsot+, grub gr'ub. Mediil: haggard hagwd, pleguy plai.gii beggar begw. enger w'gs)', tiger ta -gsr, trigger tr'igvr, flogging Pqing, dieemboguing dis-mbon.gi$ g, druggct dr'ug-st, sugar shuogw. Find: nag "ag, stag stag, plague plai.g, egg sg, leaewe lerg, big big, bog Double : n big gun bog, rogue vosmg, rug rug. rb big gun (compare n big 'un u bigw!. OG, theoretical implodent of k, see p OH, g., voiced form of kh, pp. 83a, #GE,'g. faulty form of gh, allowing uvula 'tc trill, p G W, rnre e. combination, used for gw', which ECC.Gr', e. usual form of gw, as here nlwaye written 8ee p. 82). G WE, g. lnbialiaed form of gh, p. 83). GY, e.. Usually written for gy', which see. GY'. e. n now) faulty prouunciation of g, especially before au, ci, written gv, pp. 801, 160a. GYE, g. voiced form of ky'h, pp. Sia,, 146a. H, e. g., espirato, in speaking eithar hz'or h#, in singing nlwnys h#, p. 68b. Initid only : ham hm, hnt hat, heart, hurt haart, hate h&.t, haze hai-r, ~SWS harre, hem h, heel, heul heyl, height Lit, huge Lqj (or properly yheyl), hit hit, hot hot, home howm, hoist hoist, boot hwt, who hoo., howl hod, hull hul, hook huok. #J, the hbic whtleae. p E', e. g. i., the-symbol for simple voice, p OX, e. g. i., the aymbol of simple flatus, p. 66a. OH', e., the symbol of whispor, p. 68). PE, e., the symbol of jerked flntua, p le, O., n very perceptible grndunl nttnck, p Ob; ali, Ga. Strong. und &ort :-itch ich, if if, ill il, in in, it it, is iz, bib bib, fib jb, jib jib, nib nih, rib r'ib, fibbed jbd, jibbed jihd, nibbed nibd, bibs bibz, fibspbz, ribs r'ibz, bitch bich, ditch dich, hitch hich, nitch nich, pitch pich, rich r'ich, stitch &ch, witch wich, which which, hitched hicht, oikhedpichti bid bid, chid chid, did did, hid hid, kid kid, lid lid, rid r'id, quid kwid, width width, s$idths tuidvh8, lids li&, quida Lw &, tiff tv, stia #t$, whib whif, tiffs tifs, wh8s whifs, whiffed whift, lift lift, flfthflfth, flfths jfths, big big, dig dig, fig JY, gig gig,.jig jig, pig pig, rig r'b, wig wig, swig swig, whig whig, jigged jigd, rigged r'igd, wig; wigz. gigs gigs, midge mw, ridge v'v, ridged r'vd, Dick Dik, kick kik, lick Sk, flickjik, eli& Ælik, nick nik, pick pik, rick r'ik, brick br'ik,.orick Br'ik,' prick p'ik, sick sik, tick tik, thick thik. wick wik, quick kwik, nicks niks, fix jks, six siks, fixed jkst, sixth siksth, sixths siksths, licked likt, pricked pr'ikt, ill it, bill bil, chill chil, 611~U, gill gil, hill hil, jill jil, kill kill, skill skil, mill mil, pill pi.?, rill vil, brill bs'il, drin dr'il, frill fr'il, grill.gr'i2, shrill shr'il, thrill thr'il, sill sil, till til, will wil, quill kwil, swill.swil, filch #ch, filched $kht, killed kild, drilled dr'ild, thrilled. thr'ild. builda biw, bilge big, bilk bilk, milk milk, silk silk, silks silks, fllm jlfjs,' films Jlms, kiln kiln (usually kiqj built bill, guilt, gilt gilt. hilt hilt, jilt.jilt, kilt kilt, lilt lilt, milt milt, silt silt, tilt tilt, wilt wilt, hilta hilts, jilts jiltr, i h ib,.bib bik, mille mib, frillsflib, dim.dim, him him, Jem Jim, limb lim, rim r'ilja, brim br'irn, grim gr'im, prim pr'irn, Tim Tim, whim whirn,.limbed licnd, &Ùnp shrimp, wimp gimp, limp limp, &rimpa rhrirnps, limped litnpt, in, inn in, bin bin, chin chin, din din, flnfh, bigiw, gin jira, kin kim, pin pin, grin gr'in, sin sin, shin shin, tin tin, thin thin, win win, whin whin, inch inch, fluch jnch, lynch linch, pinch pbrch, winch winch, pinched pmcht, lynched lineht, Ind find, double-chinned dubl- ohin.d, dinned Uind, hued Jena, piuned pirrd, sinned sind, shinned shind, tinned tind, thinned thind, hinge hiqj, impinge isnpiqj, fringe fr'iw;, cringe kr'inj, epringe spr'inj, singe sinj, tinge titv', fringed fr'iwii,,singed 8iqjd, mince waina, rince r'ins, prince pr'ins, since sins, wince toins, minced minst, winced winst, dint dint, hint hint, lint lint, 0int jint, glint glint, Epht splint, mint mint, print pr'int, tint tint, ~plintd splints, plinth phth, plinths plinths, king king, ling, ling, ding sling, ring r'ing. Ring sing, sthg st#iry, thing thing, wing wbag, winged wingd, chink chingk. link lingk, blink blingk, pink piryk, rink r'iryk, drink dr'inyk; sink singk,.stink stingk, think thingk, wink wingk, drinks h'ingks, thinks thingks, blinked blingkt, winked wiwgkt, stings :stingz, winge wingz, chip chip, dip dip, hip hip, gypjip,. skip skip, lip lip, flip jip, clip klip, dip slip, nip nip, pip pip, rip r'ip, drip dr'ip, gip gr'ip, scrip akr'ig, skip str'ip, ip sip, ship rhip, tip tip, equip ikwiy, whip whip, ships ships, whips whips, shipped shipt, whipped whipt, thi~ dhis, hi= his, ki~e kin, bliss blis, miss tnn, frimk fr'isk, frisks fr'isks, lisp lisp, crisp b'iap, wisp wiq, whisp whiap, li~p~. liqs, fist $st, hist hwt, gist jkt, miet, mi&d mwt, wrist r'ist, grist gr'ist, whist whist, Wrista #i&!#, dish dish, ish $81, *h wish, whish whwh, wbisht whisht, it it, bit bit, chit chit, flt Jt, hit hit, kit kit, lit lit, fit flit, split split, dit slit, mit smit, nit, hit nit, pit pit, writ r'it, grit g#it, sit sit, tit tit, wit wit, whit whit, Fitz Fits, writa r'its, kith kith, myth mith, pith pith, frith j?ith, myths tniths, live (v.) liu, sieve ah, lived liod,. Livea (v.) lioz, sieves sior, is ie, his hiz, Liz LW, 'tis tie, whizz tohiz, whizzed whizd. Weak, lort, and open, by some considered as.i' : lobby lobi, pimy psi-rr'esi, d y r'sdi, clayey klai-i, leafy kc$, muggy kq:ag.i, Stingy rtin3il valley ffaki, chimney chrismai, bdy bwshi, stithy stidh.i, healthy Ickthi, leaky krki, bravely brai-crli, poppy pop;, beggary bgdi, aviary aiwiur'i,, salmy IaPur'i, launary lacradr'i, nunneìì nunwr'í, glory $oa-rr'i, defamntory difavn-utur'i, parry par'+, cherry che#.;, sorry sor'+, hurry hw'-i, Sdtry '

92 166 OLOlSIC INDEX. rupt#-ì, veatry wa tri, fury feu-rr'i, uaury surhur'i, courtcq koadeai, kertsi, ptyy pan%, daisy dai.& busy hie-i, haughty hauta, unity eu'niti, envy mwi, colloquy kotoakwi,' dizzy disi Ex. pp. 118n, llsb, 128b. T, mark of an i forming il diphthong with the precoding vowel, p. 436, or bf short i. I', e.; p. 29n, the Wclsh?I, p. 29a, supposed indistinct sound of wmk short 'open i, which dee, p. 39a. WE, e., a throut glide, and dialectal form of IC, writton ée, p TOO, e, a form of eu, p. 48a..PG, c., the murmur diphthong in ser, p. 68). I, ;OS, u theoroticcil lip glide, faulty form of W, p. 65). iwot1, o., a form of MO', which ke. Fü'r', e., a form of eerr', which E~C. \ J, e. i., not &h, but dy'zh',.see p. Boa. Initial. before vowcls : jack' jak, jaundice jaawdia, jade jai:d, jaw jaw, jet jet, genius jemius, giant jeimat, Junc Jeu'n, jig jig, jot jot, jolt joalt, joy joi, jowl juul, just jrcst. J does not occur initially before consonants. Medial betweon vowels : badger bqfer, paging pa+jing, rnging r'aiying, pledging pk$iry, liogea lesje, obli&g odhijirrg, fidget Wet, Hodge's Eqk, gouging goojing, budget bq..ef. Final after vowele: age aij, engage migaiy, edge G, dredge dr'bi, ridge r'ij, podge po~', judge juj, liege leci, oblige oablsij, doge doay, gouge gmy. Double : a huge giant u yheuj j&wats a etaga jßst 16 oteij jest, a utrnnge joke u atr'aimj j0a.k. Ex. p. 125a. J', a sonant form of j, p. 79a. J'ZH', a poeaibls form of j, p. 80~. K, B: g. i. f., me p. &b. Initial before vowels': cat Æat,' cart kaad, cate kai-t, call kau., kept kept, keep kwp, ltite keif, cue km, kit kit, cot kot, eoat koct, mil koil, cool Aoo-l, cowl koal, cut kut, m k hwk. Initial befoie consonnnta: clad Ælad, clase klawa, clay klai, Clem Ælauq cleft kleft, cleave klss.u, dime kkim, cli klifi olot kbt, clove kloaw, cloy khi, cloud Rb&. club klub, cram kram, crane Bec. XI1 Brai-n, &wl )rau-i. crept heyt, creum kv.'eim. crime kr'sim, criminal kr'iminel, croft kr'oft, croak kr'oa,æ, onde kjoo$, crowd kk'od, quelm Awaavn, qunil kruni.l, quell kwel, queen, quean Awsen, quite kwsit, quit hit, q-tity kwmb.titi, quote kw0a.f csometimea kat). quoit kwoit (6ften koit) ; all these ÆW are really kw', which me.. Medial between vowels : sacking sakiiy, taking tai.king, walking Wau-king, pecker peker, meeker merker, striking str'ei.king, puking- pavkittg, picking piking, knocking groking, poking pockitay, ducking drrkittg, cooking kuokiog. looking luok iiig. Final aftcr vowels : back. bnk, bake. bai.k, balk bawk. no.ck oek, meek mee-k, spikc spei.k, Buke Serr.1; sick ri), lock lok, pokepoa:k, suck ask. look luok Double : bookcaao buokkaia (compare bouquets buok-ais), a black cat u bh4k 'kat, a black cock u blaæ kok, a quick camel u ÆwikÆam.el, a quick canter 16 kwik karrfsr. P, e., the sound produced by gently Beparating the back of the tongue from thc luof of the mouth RB black blake, see p. 94). KE, g., see pp. 83n, 1460, tho guttural hisw. IKH, g. fnulty form of kh, with a trill of thr uvula, p.'84a. K-E, g. poshspirated k, the followink VOIVO' being jerked, or proceded by jerked flatua, p..bou. XoH, e. final k followed by an ejection of flrtud stronger thnn ko, see p ' KV', tho real g. 'qu' in quelle ku'aelu, BBC p. 83a. KW', e., p. 826, an attempt to pronounca k and W at the same time, the true e. Iqu' in quell kw'el, uaually written kw, ace k. KTH, g., thc guttural hise kh, pronounced while the lipa are rounded for 00, p. 83b. KYq.'e., p Bob, old-faahioned attempt to Fronounce k and y together, pp. 80b, 160a.,. KYE. g., pp. ala, 14ßa, the palatal him in ich Zeky'h. L, e. (the g. i. f. form is i, which see), sea p. 73a Initial before vowels : lad lad, last ba.4 late lai-t, law lau, let kt, leant kat; light bit, lute k t (or loot). lit lit, lot lot. loam loam, - Lloyd Loid, locm Zoom, loud loud, luck hk, look 'LE, the hiss of 'l, the melsh 11 ' BB llall 'lha'lh "Luok. L does not Occur initial before coneonants. p 736. &dial between vowelrl: alley ati, railingr'ai.ling, ding Auwluag, selling reling,.ceiling, &g LT, i, attempt to prnnounce l Rnd y at the sany wrlirrg, flling fai.ling, duly dear%, killing kiting, time, pp. 816, 148b.. Dolly Doti, coaling kocling, coiling koi.iing, mlins.- kowling, -. mowlina - growling..cullinn kuling, Y,.e. &'i. f., me p. Beb. Initial before vowcls: pullingpuoting. Fi& after viwels :.&l Sal, &il mnt mat, Mara Maare, mail, male mai.z, maul rai.l, 8aul Saw, sell od, soai see.!, pile peil, mule raawl, mellow mdoa, Molly Noti, mole moa.l,.+w, pill pil, doll dol, droll dr'oa.i, toil toil, tool moist moiat,move moo'v, mouth mouth, mu% mu$ t00.1, fowl foul, dull du, full $lo. Final after N not occur initially before consonants. ;consonants, vocal, forming R syllable and capablo Medial betweenvowels: clammy klam-i, maiming' of being followed by d or z : hbhle dab., dabbled cnni.ming, hemmer h a w, teeming teswaiog, climbdab%ï, Qbbles dablz,.addle ad.1, snaffle anafi, ing kleiwing, fumitory f&mitur'i, dimming dim.- higgle /big., haggle bag., struggle atr'ly.l, cackle irag, Tommy Torni, gloaming gloavning, grooming' Ml, iickle bik.1, apple apl, nipple flip.!, ripple gr'oowing. humming hrrming. Final 'after B ripl, jostle jooa.1; apietle ipirl, little- lit., kettle vowel : ham ham, aim ai.m, shalm shauwa, etem &.l, oattle kapl, miazle n&., drizzle dr'le-l. If a dem, team, teem tevm, time teim, dim dim, Tom Tom, rowel follows BB an idiection, the I ceaw to form loam loa-m, tomb toom, room r'0o.m (not. r'uom)..a syllable, 811 stablo, stabling ahzs.bl, aloi-blicrg, not hum hum. Final aftdr a coneonant, not forming a rtai.bl:ing,or 8tai.bl-iing. Double between two syllable : realm r'elm., elm elm, whelm rhekn-, '.vowels: a'full league u fuol lerg, a dull lad rr du film $lm.. Worde like worm wem, term tm, l+ (compre dullard dulwd), MiIl Irrne Nil Lai.n, form faunn, do not belong to t.his clase unlegs the not till late not til laint (compare not till eight not r' is heard, and then speakere aro apt to make the ti( ai.t), a tall lady u tau1 Iai.di, a wall lamp u waul m form a sykble, as wnr'wn, ter'wn, for'*em, and Cmp, vile labour veil lai.bcr, illicit illirit (compre similarly they are apt to say ekeua; neither fault dlicit iliritl, ill luck il luk;.mullem 80~11~8 com- should bo imitated. Final after a consonant, pare solace aoales!. Double between a consonant forming IL syllable : logarithm log.ur'ith.'m, cham and avowel : Apple Lmc Ap.l Lsim,' the.battle kann, enthusiasm entheuziaz~'~fl, spasm spann, hted long dhi bat. laa.8ted long, a little lase u criticism k;.it.isis.'m, schism o ~ m sophism, aflie-m, lit9 laa,s, to haggle long too /rag, loirg. Ex. p organism ae.rguni~"m, prism pr'irm, egotism L', g. i. t, with the point of the tongue against egoatir'm, abysm abio.cn, paroxy~~~ par-'.okah.'m. the gums or teeth, but.enghhrnen need not Double between two voweh : a calm manner u distinguish it from l, p. 73). ba:m mma er, to thnim music too thrum nsuzik, :'L, theoretical unilateral l, one side of thc tongue being close to the palate, and the other (gene,mlly the right side) depreaaed to allow a paaaage'of au, fe in olicking to make a horse go on, p. 736.,L, poaaible weatern e.'l,.with the under part of the point of the tongue brought against the palate, --. me p ' LE, the him of I, p L'E, tho hirs of I', p. 79b a grim mm u grim man, immure immewr, some magpies rum mag'pei~. Double between B comonant and R vowel : the schim,mentioned dhi ai6.m illbtl.ihend, a p&m made by me u p*i:.m maivi bei mce, a spasm might 'ensue u 8p.m mkt maeu', heroism m'dernism mmhaniam Irer.oaie.'~n mod.- iz'm mckwais'm Ex. p. 126a. ME, theoretical flated form of m, p. 67b. NP, e. final, extremely &od sound of m, rhoeked by olosing the glottis, p. 984

93 'e. 168 I, e. (the g. i. f. form is sa", which see), p. 77a. Initial before vowelm : gnat nat, gnarled nanrld, nail fbai.l, gnaw nau, knell nel, kneel nucl, knife nerj, newt newt, knit mit, hot, not not, note noa-t,,noodle noo.dl, now *LOU, nut mut. N doee not occur initial before connonada. Medial between vowele: Fanny %.i, staining stai-/jing, awning awning, penning pewing, weaning wee'ning, piningpci.ning, tuning terrning, pinning piwing, bonnet bowet, owning cia.ming, joining joivzing, crooning krw-nbtg, frowning frou.ning, punish pawish: Final after vowels: pan pan, pain, pane psiva, pawn pawn, pen pm, seem, seem, nip sein, tune teu'm, pin pin, gone gon; groan gr'oam, groin groirr, Boon sm'n (not sum), brown br'otua, fun fun. Final efter wneonents, all the following mag ale0. be pronounced with indistinct en, which me : amhen aah.m, freahen fr'eahn, heathen hee.ijwr, oaken owkn, taken tacha, silken aikkeu, spoken spoaoo.kn, happen hnpva, ch- chowma, lesson,leason laaw, beaten bwtn, often ofo, hasten hakm, flatten ßWn, rotten rotw, seven scv'n, waxen wakrm, frozen frowan, bein baim (some call Lntin Zatw, satin sat'm, but it is an antiquated pronumiation), rosin, renin roz-n (or rorb or rez.in), pardon pawrdn, wagon wag%, eyphon sscfn, reason rw-zm, treaaon tr'wen, Beason serzn, poison poim, cotton, kotn, mutton muh, button buh (theae three het are perhapa nevm kotwn, mden, butwa). Double between two vowelß: unknown unnown (comparo, unowned unoand!, one known to me mm nown too me, soon knowi~ sw'n noaw, sign now esin nou, ßign none sein none, a nun known now u mun noam nou. Doublebetween a consonant and a vowel: Newton know well Neutn neu wel, its frozen now its froam mou, chosen kno& cli00.m noh, beah never ktn nwer, often now ofm treason nigh hea sau tr'ess'zn nei. Ex. p. laab. T, symbol for French mdimtion, see am', ahn', OMS', m', p. 39b. nou, he enr P, g. i. f., dental n, p. 776, with the point of the tongue against the gum or teeth, ff which nn Englishmm muy always we hiß own n, which mea,x, an n made with the tongue in the poeition ol,d, which we, p. 77a. e. g. i., see p. 84a. Never initial in English either before a vowel or a consonant. Medid between two ~Owds : hanger hang'er, ganger gangw, singer singvr, longer longw (one who longr, but long-go. more long), hanging hanging, singing sing.ing, longing hg-ing. Final: bang bawl fang fmg, gang gay, hang hang, clang klaw, h g n+t, pang PB, m g r'w, -g sang, shng rtamg, king king, ling ling, fliug jitag, cling Æling, sling sling, ring ring, bring br'iq, atring rtr'iw, thing thily, wing wing, swing wiw, gong gong, long long, strong str'ong, tlùong throng, eong BO^, thong thong. Never double. 'Ex. p. 126a. NW, e., we p. 84).. Never initial, M, op double, only medial : finger#ng-ger, linger ling.ger, StrOIIger rtr'ong-ger, hunger humgyer. Avoid Rnal WY- NOH, theorctid tlated form of $48, we p. 86s. NOK, e. g., p. 98b. Very short gzg terminated by oloning the glottis, never initial, common flnal : bank BangÆ, think thimgk, wink wingk, hunk Aungk, monk wungk. When medial proper the ng is Bqually short, as thinking thingk-ing, winking wingking, but sometimes advanee is taken of the followingvowel to lengthen the mg, and this is dways the cam in Italian : monkey mung'ki, not gmekdy rnungki, but flunkey junyæ-i always; Italian ancore aang-æoa.raa.. NH, e. flated form of n, etill heard in Cumber- Land for kn initial, p FE, flnted form of d', which nee, p MY', i. f., p. 82a, an attempt to pronounce n,md y at the amne time. Ex. pp. 148b, HT, e., p. 98b, very short 91 terminated by closing the glottis, when 'nt irfinal, aa pant pant., paint. uacnt, hunt hwnt (or h4wmt), went went, pint what, hint birst, font font, won't wownt, &opt I umì-nt, fount fouit, punt punt., w h e n medial OMSSIC INDEX. - I69 &Wantage is taken of the following vowel to got, hot hot, jot jot, cot kot, ECOt ekot, lot lot, blot, lengtnen the n, FU painting pain-hg,' hinting blot, clot kbt, plot plot, dot slot, not not, pot pot, im-ding, hunting hw.-ling. rot r'ot, g& gv'ot, sot sot, shot shot, wot (001, ' Q, e. (the foreign form is do), p. 360, 36a. Strong quat skwot,, what whut, blots blots, Clots klots, and short : bob bob, fob fob, hob hob, job job, cob cloth kbth (or klaar-th), moth moth, wroth r'oth (or kob, blob blob, mob mob, hob sob,.rob r'nb, throb r'awth), broth br'oth (or br'awth), hth fr'oth (or thr'ob, sob rob, swab swob, jobbed jobd, cobs kobz, fr'au-th), "hoth Thoth (or Tau-t;, cloths klothr bot& bmh, notch nooh, watch woclr, watched (or,klawth), frothed fto'otht (or fr'awtht), WFU weht, god god, hod hod, cod kod, plod plod, nod woz. Weak and ehort, rare, as o becomes u, or d, pod pod, rod r'od, d rod, bad wod, h& Lodz, indistinct : Ohaos kai.08, tripos treiyos, bloodshot rode #ol,.off Ifi doff dg, cough Æof (or kiwf), blud-shut, upshot up.rhot, earehot errshot, polyglot do& dofs, coughed Æoft (or kauft), CmftE krofts, pol-iglot, underplot undc?rplot, counterplot koouwter- Lofte bfts, bog bog, dog dog, fog fog, Gog Gog, hog hog, jog jog, cog Æog,!op log, flog #v, h g Pa, jogged jogd, flogs jogs, dodge dg, Hodge HQ, lodge IQ, lodged lojd, dock doæ, cock Æak, lock lok, %lock bbk, tlockjok, dock klok, mock mok, knock noæ, pook pok, rock tjok, frock fr'ok, crock kr'ok, mak wk, shock ahok, thou mockst dhou makrt, mocked mokt, hocked rhukt, doll dol, loll lol, Moll Mal, hoil nol, Poll Pol (but poll poa.0, golf gœlf, dolle doh, lolb loh, romp r'omp, prompt pr'ompt, prompts pr'ompts, on on, don don, gone gom (or gama), John Jon, con Æon, shone shots (shun or rka'n); bond bond, donned dond, fond fond, conned kond, blond. blond, pond perd, Roud fr'ond, wand wmd, ponde ponds, Wanda W&, 8oono8 rkons, font font (see -nt),'fonts fonls, cons km, gong yow, long long, prong pr'mg, strong btr'ong, throng thr'ong, song eong, thong thong, longed longd, thronged, thr'ongd, songs songz, thong thotage, chop chop, fop fop, hop hop, lop lop, aop$op, ~10d SJOF, mop mop,. pop PP, drop dr'op, Crop Mop, prop pr'op, sop sop, shop shop, top top, Stop stop, whap whop, swap swop, dops slope, stops rtopr, cropped kr'opt, proppedpr'opt, adopts udop'ts, loea bs (or jams), floes jos, glose glos, Jorn Jos, moee mos, %SS Ros, drose dr'os,theso 6 words nevar hive -atraj, cross,kr'os (or kr'aws), toss toa (or tau's), cost kost (or kawst), 'lost lost (or lawat), moused rost, frostfr'ost (or fr'au'st), cmsed kr'ost (orh'awstl, tossed tort (or tawst), wast wost, froda f#mtr (or fr'acsts), bosh bosh, wash wosh, qwh kworh, washed wosht, quuahed kworht, dot dot, got plot, --plot or platgraa'splot, cannot kawot, dip- Elop elipdop, mihp milk%p, enowdrop snowdrop, padlock pa&bæ, shuttlecock rhut.læok, thingumbob thiny.embob, lapdog lapdog, slipshod slip-rhod, dry- shod dr6i.rhod. Ex. pp. 118b,120b;130b. Od, e. 8. i. f., see p. 366, 360, 39a. There is n tendency in London to say oaw, and even daw', p. 36a ; the latter ehould be avoided always ; the oww (which is rather a lip glide, p. Ma, the lipe closing from the mid-round position for oa, to the high-round position for OO. is used in open syhblen when.&ml, but only at the end of II phrase and word,when there is a pause, and in closed strong EyhbleE before voeale and lip letten chiefly, ita general use should be avoided. Strong and long : bow bow, (or boa.w), doe, &ugh don (or doa.w), though dhoa. (seldom dhonw, avoid the ' Scotch thoa.), foefoa. (or foa'w), go goa. (or goa'w, avoid goo), hoe hoa- (or hoa'w), Joe Jon, low loa. (or lon.w), blow blow (or bbww/, flowfiw (or finu, glow glua. (or gloa*w), slow aba. (or sloa.w), mow (v.) moa. (or moww, mow (E.) mou.), no, know non, noa-w, mow snow (or snoa.w), row (v.) #ow (or r'oa-w ; in the mnso of tumult, #ou), grow gr'oa' (or gr'oa'w), crow Woo. (or kr'oww), throw thr'oa. (or thr'oaw!, sow, sew 808' '(or soa'w), show, hew shoo (or rhoa'w!, toe, tow tow (or tociw), &OW stoa- (or stoa.w;, ww wow (not WOWW),.Job Joab (or Joawb), lobe bwb (not kwwb, because the word is unusd!, globe gloa.b, robe r'0a.b (or roa.wb), probe yronb, robed r0ab.d. probed pr'oa.bd, roh )P5.bZ (or r'on.wbz), cnnoh

94 ' 170 (ILOBBIC' INDEX. aw. XI1 ' ksn'ch, p d poach, roach r'oa.ca, brooch, trmch Voavh, encroaoh snk#oa*eh, poached pa-cht, bode boa dl goad goad, hocd Load. -or hoa.rod, but not common in any such CB-), load,lode loa.d, Bowed Joad, glowed glowd, mode moad, node noa.d, rcide road r'ond, crowed krvad, sowed, sewed soad, shewed,showod,ahon.d, towed, toad toad, 'stowed stoad, woad. rooad, modes waau,dz,.toads toa.&, loathe lowdh. clothe kloa-dh, loathed loa-dhd, loathes loa.dlm, clothes klowdha (or kloa,z, oaf oa.f,loaf loaf, loafs lotzfa, loafed loaft, r?gue may, brogue br'owg, voy0 von-g, brogues br'on.gz, doge doay, oak on-k, choko chowk, joko j0a.k. smoke rrwk, poke poa:k, spokc rponk, broke br'oak, croak kr'oak, droko rtr'on.k, F k roa.k, wok0 wob k, yoke, yolk, yelk goak, oaks oa.ka, croaks bon ka, hoax hoaka, Nokes Nor.ks, stroked str'oa.kt, bowl boas1 (or boa-trl;. when R ball, mmetimes boul), dole doa.1 (or doawl), foal foa-l (or foa'wl), god gon.1 (or goawl), hole, whole h0a.l or hocrul). coal koa.1 (or koa-wl), mole 9noa.l (or rnonwl!, pole p0a.l (or poawl, roll v'oa.1 (or r'oawf), droll dr20n-l :or droa.wl), ~croll skr'oai (or rkr'oa.wl), sole, SOIII, soal a0n.l (or aoawl), shoal ailon.1 (or ahoa-wl), toll tonml (or toawl; I find thnt I do not say oawl in any cam, but thnt I do cloae the lipa a little more at the end of the oa tbn at the beginning, not, however, to the complcte 00 position, and that the tongue remains still, EO that tho sound begins with pure oa and ends with an oa dightly inclined towards 00; tonay oawl ie unnatural to me', holp howlp, bolt bowlt, doit doa*lt, jolt jowlt, moult mna.lt; bolts booth, dolts doa.lt8, holes honk, dome doam (or don-wan, but in all the following worh I 0nd that my lips come only slightly nearer for on. nnd, fdr suddenly on #n without pawing through tho 'form for 00, compara doo.mn, d0a.m in the mirror and ECO that they do not end dike), form fonm (or foawm), home honm (or hoo.rom), comb koam (or koawm), loam k n (or ~ loawn), ~ clomb kloa-m (or kloowm,, &nome. noam, roam r'own,'.hme toavn, foamed. fia.md, combed konsad, ronrnad r'oamd, combs Coamz. mamn r'oa'mz, tomes ton'sc, own 0a.n (or maka, the oww more common), bone born (or boawn), hone hoyn (or hrwn), loan, lone loava, blown blaw (or bfoawn', down joa*ra (or jpoalcn), mdn tllw'fl (not often 111ww1), known noa-n (or noa.wn), roan r'oa'n, drone dr'oa-n (or droa.wn,, grown,!/r'oa.n -(or groa'wsa), prone pr'oa-n, -strewn, drown sk"wn, thrown, thene h'ea fa (or tk'w'wfi), sown aoaw (or boa.w#a), shewn,,shown rhoan (or ahoa.wn), tone town, stone rtmn 'or aloawn), don't doa.dt-(often &o:wnt', won't woa'nt (eeldom woawnt), bona boam, BtOUeg. atoa'fls (or atoa'wraz, ope any (K 6nd oawp rather difficult, yet I think I hear it ocpaionally), hopo hoa-p, cope koa+, elope doay, mope inoap, pope -p, rope r'oay, grope gr'oay, soap aoap, how Loayr, ropes r'oa-pa, groped gron+;, doen dw.8 (EO- eay k a ), dose (adj.) kloa.a, boast boa:at, ghost g00'86, hast Aoaat, coast koa-at, moat?non.al, post pn:rt, roast r'on.rt, toast toart, ghosts goarte; hosts hoa,da, oat on't,. boat boaat (I have heard.boa*wt, and even boaw-t, but thought them very strange), dote doat, goat goa't, coat koa-t, bloat bloa.t, flocrtjooa-t, gloat gloa.t, moat tnoa't, note rzoa't, mtc r'oa:t, thmt. thr.oa.t, oats oa'tr, boats 'boa-la, throats thi.'oa.ta. oath oa'th, both boatk mot boa.wth, nor boa.dh), loth looath, ~10th sloa,th, oath's mthn (but mths Oa;dhz), hove haw (or hoawv!, Jove Joa-v, (or Jon.wv), cove konw (or Æoawv), rove r'oa-v, drove dr'oav, grove gr'oau, strove sb'oa'v, shrove ahr'oav, throve 61ir'oa.v~ wove wwv (never woa'wv!, coved koa vd, cova koawzi' groves gr'oa'vz, dome dore, th- dh0a.e (or dhoawa), foes foa.6 (or foa-wz), goem goav (or goawz), hone k~z, blom blw2 (or blocwe), íiows3oa.a (orjoa-wz), glowe, gloze gloaz, (and, an glows gloa.wz), che,v.j k1oa.r ;orkhawz), now noa.5 or uoa-wi pcrhps, but not often', pow pon.?, mm r'oaz (or r'oa-wz perhaps), frome fmaz, pwsgtwa.z (or grorwz), crows kroa-z (or kr'oa-t+), proen pr'oaz, drewe,etrows s6ron.r (Or Bb.'OWWZ), throws thr'oa.2 (or Ihr.on-wr), ~ 0Wb (V.) roa% (or IOWWZ, but BOWE (E;) BOW), shewe shorn ah.6 (or rhonwa', toes, tom 1011'8, WO& WWZ. %'oak md strong, in open sylhblm, and then often -R, which when final. is confounded with m by many G.. E mpeakers, that h, they connider themnelvw at Libmty to add an v' when L vowelfollows, or to.rhyme with wo&.in -W, na ' +ndow,, cinder;' this should be carefully aroidod. Thcre is nev& any tendency to change OB into oaw under subh bircumsttmnces. Felloe fd-oa (very often pronounced feki, and even mitten ' felly,') mistletoe.mia.ltoa, tiptoe tip.toa, hero hcs-w'ora, negro neee.groa, tyro W-rr'oa, aleo awkon, potato potai.toa (often Wai'tu), mulatto mcrrlnkon, motto szotvd, grotto gr'oton, bravo br'aa.voa (not 61~ai.~oa, still leas braiv+oa', ealvo satvoa, embryo c111.6r1ioa, elbow aimboa, rainbow rai.~rbon, mdow med.ora, shadow ahad.oa, widowwid.oawindowwirrdoa, furbelow fur.biloa, callow halon. fallow fatoa, hallow hakoa, E U ~ O W ahatoa, eallow salon, tallow tapou, rallow wokon, swallow awol.oa, fellow fel.oa, bellow bdon, mellow tnstoa, yellow yeton (not ysl,u, or yater), billow bikoa, pillow,pil.oa (distinguish from pillar pitcr), willow wikon, callow katoa, follow fotoa, hollow Jdon, minnow rnin.oa, winnow win*oa, arrow ar'.oa, bmaw bar..oa, farrow far"oa, harrow hsr' oa, ROW tnnr'oa, narrow vrar'va, E P ~ W apar'.on, morrow mor"on.; mrmw aor'.oa; burrow bur'.oa, furrow frrrr'.on, tornado tnurnaidoa, lumbago lwn5&goa, virago uir'aigoa, sago sai-goal indigo in-digoa, vertigo ver-tigoa, cargo kaa.rgon, echo sk-ou, folio foalioa, ratio rai-ahioa, buffalo buf - don so10 soa.loa, volcano volkai~non (or volkaawoa). indont in.aoa/ent, innocence iia.oasmr (compare, in no wnse in nor aswa), trilogy triloqii (or tripu+ï, afd so for dl endings in '-logy,' as) noology zoa. ol%qji, soa-o;?ii, ZoO~ogiCa~ zoophyte mroafeit, Laocoon Laiok.oa-on, innovation iw'olwai.rhsn, impotence imyoatcns, omnipotence omuipoafsns, geographical jer'oagraf'ikel, geometrical jcb.'oamd.r'ikel. Ex. pp. lllb, fleh, 124a, 1318, O'd, e. provincial lip glide, m e m &alp. 66b. Odi, e., a faulty form of oi, which LI-. Od.;,.e. faulty form of' oi, p 46b, not to be talerated for si, p.. 44a.. OAR', f. naecrhsed oa, more liko omg thanmg, p 406., Od-B, e., representing the murmur diphthong ad, with the permimion to add on R trill; not to pronounbod aa.8 or au, p. 60). Always strong and long. Oar, ore m'r, door &a?-, fore fo&r, gore goa.r, hoar hoa.r, core kowr, ECOM akoa.t, lore loa.r, tloorjoa.r, deplore diploa.r, more moav-, Nore Noa'r, more anoa'r, pore,pour pon'r, roar r'oa.r, crore kr'on.r, mm, soar rocrr, shore shea-r, tore toa.r, dore stoa-v, wore woa-r, yore yoa.r, porch. poa.rch, torch toavvh, board bond, ford foa.vd, gored gowrd, hoard hoa.rd, flood jooa.rd, pored, poured poard, roared ~'oi~rd, soared aoa.rd, stored. rtoa~d, hoarda hoardz, fords foamìz, horno kern (distinguish born baum),, mourn cnonmr (also mnwrm, distinguish h m morn muu'r#t), shorn slroa~n, torn torrva, worn woam, mourns 0noam2, hoarae harr.(distinguish horse Aawra), force forra, coarea, course koa-ra, source aoa-va. The distinction betwoen ou..r.t, arc'vt,or awl), oam, aum (or au%', oaw, au'rr 'or ara) shod?. be kept very dear, If any ditlìculty is felt, beb- in two splhbh with oa-er, alter to no-er, ao'er, ao'r, and 888 pp. 131n, OABB', e., utandmg for aodr', p. 50b. Long and strong, bofok a vowel only :' goring goaw'by, scoring akuaditbg, dooring floaw'ing, Flora Fbadu,.snoring anoa.r-r'ivag, roaring v'oarr'irrg, storing atoa.rr'ir?g, sorer ronw'er. See p OA-ri, e. murmur diphthong, faulty form of oar; whichsee. ' od%, e. faulty form of ou, p. 471;. Odvió, e. vanish of oa, p Od W, e. faulty form of ou, p OAW, e. vanish of on, pp. 47b, 651, 124a. OAF,. g. f;, p OE, g. i., EM pp. 30a, 31b, 39a, 1446, OEë8, f. diphthong, EM p OEW, f. nasal vowel something like mg, EW p. 41a.. ' OXY, f. diphthong, see p. 47a. 01, e. g. diphthong, p. 456, i. and f:form, p Uenernlly au; when find and strong, nu boy LI+

95 I72 (when this S weak, an footboy frrot-bo, the diph. thong becomes E), coy koi, hoy loi, joy joi, cloy khi, alloy alloi. (or uloi.), employ nnploi-, annoy wwi- troy troi, destroy destro., toy toi, buoy boi (or boo.ï\, and this remains before inflexional ti, I, - RB destroys dsslroi.~, destroyed destroid, and even poise poi-z, poieed poizd, but before 8 it is more frequently or, and may be always EO pronounced, as oyster oi'stw, boisterous. boi.stur'us, hoiat hoist, joist job6 (not joie, nor jsis), foist foist; before n it is variab1e;aa join join (not jeba), coin koin, loin. loirp (not last), point poirzl (not peint). Ex. pp. I23b, 134a. Oï, e., propw.form of oi, especially before"#, p OIE, e., commonly hlled maw, p. 52a. Oïü, e. attempt to pronounce ' choir, moire,' with oi, wa p. 62~. ON', e. substitute for f. ahn', p. 40a. 00, e. g. i. f,see p. 36b, peculiar g. and Swedish, p. 37n, may be sung ai uo, p Long and strong: do doo., who h, coo koo., loo loo', blue bloo., ffew &m., glue gloo., ch, clew kloo., dew azoo* (or alms), poohpoo., rue mo', brew br'oo., drew dt'w', grew gr'oo., CRW k'oo', Strew Sb'OO', shrew shr'w. (formerly shroa-), true tr'oo., threw, through thr'oo., shoe Shoo', ton, two (and sometimes 'to') too', woo woo', the Zoo dhi Zoo., food foo'd, cooed kood, glued gbod, slewed sloo.d, mood tnoo.d, mood snoo-d, rude r'ood, brood br'ood, mido, kr'ood, strewed atr'oovi, shrewd 8I~r'oo.d~ shoed shoo'd, wooed wood, foods foodz, broods bj'oo.dz, moods. *IWO.&, booth boo'dh, soothe Soo'th, soothed soo.dhd, soothes soo'dhs, ahof rrloof, roof r'oof, woof wwf, roofs r'oo-ft, roofed r'oo'jt, gouge gorj, fool foo.1, ghoul goo, c001 ho.!, School skoo.1, pool poo,l, spool E~oo.~, rnle,'oo.!, tool too', cooled km-ld, rulod r'oo.m, BchOO~E skoo.h, tools took, boom boom, doom doowa, whom Jroo.q Combe Koom, loom loo-m, bloom bloom, gloom glorm. plume pioovn, (orphm), room r'oo'm (not r'uom), broom, Brongham br'wm (the latter not Bv'on-ern), tomb toom, bloomed bloovnd, doomed doomi, boon boo'n, loon 2oo.n. moon moo'n, noon m o v a, sown [not am), m- -1 M, hoop hoop, coop kwp, loop loop, poop POO+, roop #wy, droop dr'wy, group gr'ooy,.,croup' kr'wp, scruple rkr'oopl, hup sooy, whoop whoo'p, hoops hp, groupe gr'wp, hooped hwyt, droopea amyt, goo.ß, 100~ h, loosed loo'st, moot -t, root r'w't, brute br'oo'l (not bt'w-t), fruit fr'oot (not fr'ewt), soot m0.t (or sut or sut), ahoot shoo-t, moota t&-ts, fruits fr'oo't8, hoots ahoo.ts; uncouth urakoo.th, fomooth faursoo-th, tooth (oo.th, tooth's too'ths, move rnoo'v, prove pr'w'v, m6ved mnoowz, proved p'wwd, moves moo'vz, proves pr'oovz. Long and weak, in dosed syhb1ea : forenoon foawaöon, Blaokpool Blnkyöol, storeroom stoo'~~'öom. Short and weak, in open syllables : inta in%o, unto wadoo, influence in.- poobns, rheumatic r'oolnnt.ik, rnpe roo go^'^, rubewent r'oobwnzt. Ex. pp. llbn, 117r, 1319, 132a. 0'0, e. prov., an 00 begun with the mouth open, Bame aa ICoo, p, 37a and p. 65b. &4R, i. f., ~ s~lly written wua, p. 49a. OOZd, i. slurred diphthong, p ÕÕAAëZ, -i. clnse fxiphthong, pp. 45a, 49a. ÕÕAI, i. close diphthong, p. 49n. 3A0, i. dom diphthong, p. 49,. GAOëë, i. clow triphthong, p. 49a. ÕÕE, e. form of we, as dwell dõõel, p. 49~. GEE, f. form of oui, usually written wee, pp. 460, 49b. ÕJI, e. form of wi, as twin trin, p. 49a. OPE, e., p. 50b, the mumur diphthong W.Ü, with permission to append a trilled T'. Strong and long: boor boo-r, lure loo^ (or leuv), moor tnoo~, poorpwr, sure 8hao.r. (or shawr). Weaktmd long: Dartmoor Dnav-tria6or. See p. 137a. OO.=, e, meaning tww, p Long und strong before vowels only, boorish bww'ish, mooring mmwrr'ing, poorer poo'~r.'er. ' OOri, e., p. 50b, the murmur diphthong in oor, which see. OOY, g. i. f., p. 46b. OU, unanalysed diphthons with different speoias in e. and others in g. i. f., me p hng. bow (v.) boil, thou Aou, how hou. cow. km, in# kowding, ' louring kwts'iny, glowering plpu, slough ofou, mow (E.) mmr, now nou, I ghrrr'iny, towering touw'ing.. See p bowed kowd, loud Iod,. proud pr'oud, vowed voud, bow-wowed borrwou'd, mouthe moudh, south (v.) rprrdlr, mouthed moudhd, southed sosrdhd, owl oul, foul, fowl foul, howl hod, jowl jod, cod koul, growl gr'oul, prowl pr'oul, growled gr'ould, prowled pr'ould, howled hosld, owls oalz, fowlm fouh, down daun.. gown goun, brown br'oun, drown dr'ourr, fròwn fv'oun, wwn kr'oura, town loun, bound )Oma, found found, hound hound, mound mound, pound pound, round r'ound, browned br'mmd, drowned dr'ound, frowned fr'ound, ground gr'ound, mwnd kr'ound, wuud sound, wound (p p.) wound, mounds ioun&, pounds pound%, ílounce $mm#, pounce poui16, h'oujlce tr'oikjl6, flounced jofirret, trounced tv'owet, fount foutrt, wunt kount, mount mount, fouta f~ts, mounp moulats, gowna goune, IXO~~E krounz, hounds houndz, chouse ohoua, dowe doua, house hous, lowe loua, mow (n.) #MIM, grouse.gr'", sow ms, sowd eolret, out out, bont bout, doubt doal, gout gout, lout lout, flout $out, pout rout r'out, drought dr'otrt, sprout spr'out, trout tr'oul, shout shout, hut tout, doubts huts, trouts tr'outs, shouts shouts, mouth mowth, south rorrth, cows. koq plough plorrr, brows br'ouz, prows pr'ouz. Ex. pp. 1236, 134b, l35a. OU.EB, e.,.p. 626, two syllables, aa distinct from F. our, which me... I OU-EBB', e. form of ou.ur', p. 62b. L73 P, e. g. i. f., p Initial before voweh : pt pat, part paart, pate pai.t, pall, Paul paul, pet pet, peat pwt, pike psik, puisüe, puny psuni, pit pit, potpot, polepoa l,poiranpoi~z~a,~~l~~~.l,pout~ut, pnnpun; pull puol. Initial before l and r' : plait plat, plaister, plaster plm-ster, play plai. (or plni.y), plamlits plaudits, plenty plan-li, pl- plsc, plight pleit, plinth plinth, plot plat, plume ploo'rn, plough plou, pluck pluk, prattle pr'at., prance pr'nnr~r, praise, prayn pr'aiq prasent pr'ss'ent, prcach pr'erch, pride pr'sid, pretty p#it:i, promise gr'orwis, prone pr'oaw, prude proudpr'oud, PRlsSim FVrMhra (not Pr'oo.shm). Medial between vowelm : clapper klapw, apish niyish,' pepper pep.er, creeper kr'erper, poppy pop.i,. popery pwpur'i, looping loo'piny, supper aupr Doublo, between vowelu: the top pinnncle dhi top pirrubl,?up plate swy phi-t, pump-powerpump.- pow, to chop poles too chop pa. z, slop-pail slop.- pail. to-gallop post haste too galup poad hai-st..p, e. click dterp final, p. 636, 94). PF', g., sometimespf, p. 66n.. P.H. g. poet-wpkted, p PE, e., flatus after finalp, p. 636, Blb. 'PR, theoretical tlated lip trill, p B, e., p. Ha (not g. i. f., p. 65a', a direction to make a murmur diphthona or triphthong with I preceding long vowel or diphthong kd add a trill OU.BB', e., p. b2b, meaning ow&'.."'long and B', e. g. i. f., p. 746, much weaker in Englieb m t r o n g : soum nnu~r~~'er, sourish sou.fr'irh, cowm I than in Italian. Initial before vowela: rat r'at,

96 174 rasoal r'aa.rkel, rail r'ni.1, rare r'ai-r,' wrought r'awt, wretah r'ech, reach r'eech, writer r'eitsr,., writ #it, rot r'ot, roam #oajn, mpterer roi-stder, mom r'ooj!&. &t r'o~tl, rut r'ut. Initial r' does n$ occur before consoninta. Medial between vow& : Harry Ear'-, starry staar'i,or atan-di), memy )no'+, spirit spir'.it, E O ~ W sor'.oa, hurry hur'.i. 8ee ale0 narr', airr', ea+, 'airr', eurr', ourv., oorr', ouw' and err', Firn1 r' neveroccursin. English except &E a permissive trill, seo r. Ineerted r': e EX. pp R', o. provincial;, e. dentul r ' dter i', d', in which -,it possibly &o occl~re in g. i. f., p 'R, f., Parinian L uvulnr r,' p "R, Northumberland uvula rise, p. 84a.,B, e. provincial ' reverted r,' p. 76a..,,R, e. untrilled r,' or 'point rise,'p. 76a, fop which in London is alwnj.8 substituted r, which see.,ii, Duniab ' glottal r,' or cronk, p. 6Ob. R'E, flated form of v', p R'E, flated form of r", p. 74b. 'RE, tlated form of 'I', p. 83b. * &RV', Northumberland labialised uvular 'r, p. fl4s. 8, e. g. i. f., p 70). Initial beforevowels:eat rat, eerjeaat, surgeant aaa-rjsnt (not ser$mt), anme ruivn, aought sau't, set set, eeal seel, sight seit, suit rrwt (not so0.t or rhoo.t), nt sit, sop sop, map soay,.. my soi, soup sooy, sow (a ) sou, sun, son sun, 'soot auot (or sow1 or sut). Initial before conionants: sphere sfeu-r, ecatter skat.er, skate s/cai.t, mare rkair, wald rkauld, sketch rkech, eoheme skcem, sky skei (not skg'ei or awiei.), &ewer skeuvr, skip dip, mot akot, scold rkoa.jd, school skoo.1, scowl rkrrl, smap skr'ap, match akr'ach, serape ab.ai-p, ~craw1 sk'aul, ml1 rkr'oa.2, scrntiniee sl.'oo.tinei:, scrub rkr'ub,' equal1 skwaul, queere rhwee.;, squat skwot, dam slam, date dai-t, slaughter rlau.ter, sledge skj, deet rlw.l, elight, deight deit,.slew aleu (or sloo:, elit slit, dop slop, dope -#loay, douoh slouch, dudge slqj, smatter *t:sr, mart smaa'rt, smite sm.si't, emit emit, smock mk, smoke rmoa'k, smooth rmoodh, mudge #m*, snap snap, snarl maa.rl, make maj-k, enort mauw, sneak merk, snipe s~i'fl, snivolled sraiuld, snob snob, snore snoa'r, mooee moor; snout snou-f, Snub snub, span span, spark spaa.rk, spake spai.4 spectacle spk.tukl, speak spsc.k, spike qwi.k, spume speu'm, lrpin apin, spot spot, spoke spoa.k, spoil spoil, spool spw.1, apoue ~poporca,sponge spunj, sphh splash, splay splai., splenetio splen.'stik (not aphetik),, spleen splee-n, nplice spbir, aplit split, Splutter splut'er, sprat spr'at, nprny spv'ai, sprnwl spr'nu.1, spread &ed, spree spr'es., sprite spr'eit, sprinkle spr'ihgk.1, spruce spr'oo's, sprout spr'out, sprung spr'ung, stand stad, starling staav%ng, state stakt, ntair stai.,, stem stm,-steum stwm, stile, style steil, still rtil, stolid #to -id, dole stoad, Et001 StOO'~, Stout Stout, Etld #tuf, straggle Sk'Ug', straight ab'ai.t, straw str'uu-,. stretch str'ech, atream atr'erm, Etnpe str'eip, strip str'i?, h p atr'op, stroke str'w'k, h t &ut, swagger swag-er,.swarthy moaa'rthi (or moazrrthi), swelter swel'ter, sweet rwwt, swine #we+, snit* swich, swab swob, swollen suloah, awoop wooy, swum swum. Medial between vowels : hook has-uk, nases aa'sez, tracing trai-rirag, eauw anu'sez, mesuea ~taerez, piecing pcsring, spicy apci.si, missing mis-ing, towing tos-ing, (or tau.risrg), mosey ms.i, doses (E.) doa-em, choice.choiwz, ~pruces rproo'sez, douses dou.raa, fusing fwing. Final &er voweh : grre gar, m8 aa.8, fase' kai-8, eauce saws, chess chsa, piece pev, spice speis, ose eu3 mim mir, moss mm, close )looms, rejoice rvoi.s, looee loo-r, mouse monæ, fbfw. Doublebetweenvowels or a vowel and consonant : mimt missewt, Mies Smith dciu smith, Mm Stila Mirk Steidz, Mim Btrange, diir Strai.nj, this stretcher dhk stretoher,.thia story dhia stoaw'i, this dew dhir atm., See p. 121b. S', e. modification of 8 after t, pp. 7Ob to 71a... BB, e. g. i. f., p.?la. Initial before VOW&: sham sham, sharp shuu~p, shale rhai.1, ahawl rhau.l, abed rkd, aheet shuess.t, shine skin, shin shin, bot ghat, boa1 shoa.1, hoe shoo., shout shout, shun Jhun, book rhuok. Initial before the can. 8., '.* umant r' : shrapnel rhr'rp-nel, shred rhr'ad, hike i' -8 rhr'si.k, ahrill. shr'il, ehrewd shr'ood, shroud --~ h'&, ehrub shr'ub. Medid between VOW& : t habhing harh:ing, meshing nwuh%q, lenshiug,'., kshitag, wishing wish.iwg, gdobee gulwh-ce, ' 0neheSpushss. Final after VOW& : splaah splarh, mesh msrh, leaeh krh, wish wish, bo& ksi, gush.gush,, bush bwrh, push posh- Double: I wleh ahe'd do it si wish sliss-d &o it, do you wish shells to day P dw ers wish skb loodai.? the bulruah ahakee dhi budrueh rhaiks, boyish hm0 bokirh '.&.m, vanquish shame wangkwish sham, icebergs crusb ships si-sbergs krwh ships. See p ' SE, o. variety of sh &er ty' in ch, which in : really ty'sk, see pp. 49a and!46b. '. SZ, 8. initial, for I, me p. 72a.,. T, e. (the g. i. f. forrq is t'), p. 69. Initial before vowels: tnp tap, tart taa.rt, tata! tan-taa.! tail taid (not toi-yl), taught tawt, text'tekrt,,teach. terch, tile teil,. tune teun, tick tik, top top, toad " tm-d (not toa'wd), toil toil, tool too-1, town tow, tub tub, took tmk;.initial hefore consoninta: t1 in often raid for kl, but it is not acknowledged : track tv'ak, tra& tr'ash, trail tr'ai., trawl tr'au'l, trend t#&, treat ti'es.t, trite.weit, trip tv'ip, trot tr'ot, trope tr'ocp, troy tr'oi, hruth tr'oo-th (not t#uoth), trout tr'out, truck tr'uk. Medial between -.voweh: patting pat'inq, prating pr'ai.ting, tightar, tau'tw. (aailor'a pmnunciation, tei-tw recpjved); tutor tm.ter, tittar titw, boating boa.ting, ndroiter. adt.'oi.ter, mooted rnoo%d, pouting poicting, but-.. ting rhuting, putting puot.ing. Doable : boot-tree. boo'ttr'ee, to hit two too hit- too', that time dbt.teim, wet.turf luck tn-f, most terrible moa.rt tw'ibl (the flrnt t is commonly omitted, Mat told be Md t0a.m me, bat-trap-and-ball bat-trap.nbnu-l..' T, g. i. f. form of t, for whichenglinhmen may : t without hesitation, see d' nnd pp.' 69b, Ion, 146a, 148a, 149b.. T e. provincial reverted t, most probably wed before,r in the West of England, p To, e. click after t final, p. 94b.. PH, e. htus driven out t final, p. 9Oa. T-E, e. faulty p&-aspirated t, p. 92b. TH, e., me p. 66b. Jnitial before FOW~~S : thatah thach, thaw thuu, theft theme them. thigh thei, thermic thwmik, thewe theue, thick thik, thong thong, thole-pin thousand thawsend, thumb thm. Initial before consonnuta : thrash thr'ash, thrave thr'ai-v, threat thr'et, threc thrke, thrive thr'eiw, thrift thr'ift, throng thr'ong, throat thr'oa.t, through thr'w, thruet thr'ust, thwack thwak, thwart thwau-rt (or' thwaa'rt). Medial between two voweh, not found, but between a vocal and vowel sometimes, na'wealthy wekthi, filthy flthi. Fiml efter n vowel: hnth hath, faith fai-th, breath k'eth,, -th r'eeth,. earth erth, youth ewth, pith pith, wroth r'oth (or r'au?h), broth br'oth,!or brauth), both boath. not boadh), tooth tuo-th, mouth s.! mouth (v. Fzuih), doth drtth. Double: both thunk you bowth thaclgk CU, both thieves boa.th thee'wz, uncouth thought unkoo.th thaul. TEDE, e.. provincial beginning with flatus and proceeding,to voice, % dhth and p. 92a. T'El advanced 8, the Spaninh z, see p T8',e. final in cats kata, may be used for the g. and i. initial t's', which we, and p. 70b. T'S', R. i. initial E, BBO p. 70a. TT, e., probably the proper form of the stiund ' written tlo in twine twain, pp. 49a, 83a. TP' e.. attempt to my t and y at onoe, p. 60a. TP'SB, the real dyeis of ch, p. OOa.. U, e., pp. 34a and b, 360, 38b, for which I~U ia very frequently ueed in strong syllables, p. 34bl and may be prnctimd in the following examples. Strong nnd short: chub chub, dub dub, hub hub, oub kub, blub blub, club klub, snub, anub, rub r'ub, grub grlub, scrub ækr'ub, shrub rkr'ub, trouble tr'ubml, sub fub, tub tub, rubbed mbd, mubbed rnubd, clubbed klubd, hulch huch, cluch klucli, much rnuch, such auch, touch tuch, clutched klwht, touch4 tue&, bud bud, cud kud, mud rkud, blood bcud, flood pud, mud mud, puddle pdl, sud sud, thud thud, buda bude, suds sude, buff bufi chough chvf,. duffer, dufer, hul huf, cuff kufi scuffle akufl, luff lu$ bld bluf, íluffjuf, muif muf, snuff rtiuf, puff puf, rough, ruff r'16 arm% grufi acruff..

97 I aær'uf, tough tuf, PUBE pu& mugha r'yfæ, pdcd puft, cuffed kuf, tuft tuft, tuftu tufta, bug bug, dug dug, hug h% jus jw, lag lug, dug alk~, mug mug, pug pug, ~ lt%, g h g dr'ug, h g ahr'w, ntruggle ætr'rrg.1; tug tug, thug thug, hqgd hqd, shruggod æhr'ugd, muga, hw hug+ tugs tugs, budge byi, fudgefyi, judge irti, sludge ælyi, smudge rmqj, nudge n& drudge d#qi, pdp.$r'uj, trudge Wuj, nudged drudged dr'ujd, buck btrk, chuck ahuk, duck dtrk, luck luk, cluck kkrk, pluck pluk, muck muk, puck puk, ruck r'uk, atruck ætr'uk, truck h'uk, 'tuck tuk, 'stnck rtuk, duclre dukæ, lrucke tr'ukæ, plucked plrrkt, tucked tukt, dul dd, gull grrl, hull W, cull kul, lull Id, mull rnd, trull tr'uli bulb bulb, bulbs bulbz, dulled duld, lulled Md, gulf gulf, gulfs gulfs, bulge bu& bulged b~cd, hulk buzk, hulk hulk, sulk sulk, bulb hnlkæ, sulks æulks, sulked æulæt, Hulme Huhn ( m y Eoorn), culm kukn (in one syllable), gulp g"$, pulp pursr, gulp gdpr, gulped gulpt, hull5 h&, cd8 his, chum churn, dumb durn, gum gum, hum hum, come Æum. scum æhm, glum glum, slum alum, mum mum, numb num, rum #um, drum dr'um, crumb kr'wn, ntrum ~~T'YIII, thrum thr'unr, sum, some æum, thumb th-, drummed dr'wnrd, thumbed thucnd, bump ' bump, chump chump, dump dmnp, hump hump, jumpjump, lump lump, clump kiunrp, plump plump, pump pump, rump v'ump, h p p'uinp, grump g#wnp, trump tr'ump, thump thump, jumps jumps, mumps murnpe, thumps thumpæ, bumped bumpt, humped humpt, thumped thmpt, wmen Psrnz, ' drums dr'uinz, EUUM suinz, thumbs thurne, bun bun, dun dun, fun fun, p gun, nun, none nun, pun pun, run løunl sun,, m sun,,sh?n shun, tun, ton tm, one, won faun, bunch bunch, hunch hunch, lunch lunch, munch munch, punch punch, crunch kr'wach, munched rntmeht, crunched kr'uncht, duund dund, shunned riund, lungß lnnj,.plunge ~llmj, plungedplungd, once wuna, hunt hunt, blnnt bhmt, punt punt, runt r'nnt, k t punt, grunt p'utat, shunt rhunt, stunt ahnt, wont wunt (often, but WcaeiounUy woa-d, whioh is properly Walt), hante hunts, grunts gr'untr, shunts ahunta, byn buns, guns gun:, bung buug, duryl. dujtg, hling hrrng, fiungjung, clung kltmg, dung rìung, wrung, m g r'uwg, sprung æpr'ujlg, strung rtr'ung, sung sung, tongne tung, bunged bmgd, bunk bungk, funk fungk, hunk huyk, junk JungÆ, duhk rlungk, monk mungæ, drunk dr'tmgk, nhrunk #hv'un.vk, trunk tr'ungk, sunk aungæ, bunks bungææ, hunks hungkr, monkg mungær, funked fungkt, bungs &na, tonem tungs. CUP h, PUP PUP, sup WP. anp hæ, pups pupæ, bum h, thus duæ, fw fus, RUM Rue, busk bruæ, dusk duuk,, husk hwk, musk tnuæk, 'msk r'usk, tusk tuuk, hwks hwkr, tllsks tuskæ, CUSP kuap, CUSPS hps,.cusped korrpt, but buut, dust dust, fuseod furt, disgust dìægurt, just juæt, lust lust, muet murt, ru& r'wrt, crust kr'uut, tmiat tr'urt,, thrust thr'usr, busts buuts, tmts tr'urtæ, gunh pnh, huh hurh, lush bræh, blush bksh, flush-+wh, plush plush, slush rluæh, Wh #ushl brush br'uæh, crush kr'twh, thrueh twuah, tush tuæh (the taehoe of n boar.are sometimm tumb.&) gushed ywh6, huehed Iniiht, butt but, Pt gut, hut hut, jut jut, cut ht, glut yht, elut slut, nut nut, put (E.) put, rnt r'ut, strut rtrut, soot art (or ækot or æo0-6)~ &ut dut, tut tu6, hut0 huts, nuts nuls, strub ætr.'utt, doth duth, above c h w, dove duu, love lau, glovè glw, shove rhuv, loved luvd, shoved.dwd, dores dum, glovea gluus, rloa (v.) duz, fuma fug, buaz.bue. Weak sndnhort, in open syllablen, never uu, but often u' ; find and initial, when writtern u m y be q', aird maybe nlwnys EO sung, genernlly written a, which EW; before I' al+nys u, being the remnant of weak ir., in which the permisbible trilled I' in given.entirely to,the following VOW&. Initial: abandon uban-- den (ur a'ban.&), nbsee &i.æ (or n'bai: ), ab& ubla.i.5 (or n')lai-s!, abolish uboliah (m a'boki8h), account u-kount (or n'kownt), ndnpt u-dapl (or n'dup-t), &nir u-facr (or ayai'r), nfront, &-Ont u...'m't (or a'fr'un't, done u-loa~ (or a'.-lria:n), B~~BB u-muar (or i-ma'r), approve u-pr'oo.u (or app'oov, a'pr'oou), a d uwauvd (or a,'wau.rd). Final, mg a. In th& piddle of m&, weak u is not more than d d on 0 the fohwing lebter : pppnnp apw+yj, retable rmk+i, heritable h.w'*i+&+bi, notuble nut-*, comfortable h.. ~jwu+bl, mutable mac.tu+b, piiwqprvi.mu+'i, :z &wry feiwu+i, every wu+r'i. See, b o u'. -. -,. Note that in poanible, positive, and such words, u+ must not be wed, my poribl, poritiv, not posvibl, b.. c' pos.utiv, nor yet pos eebl, porcstic. Ex. pp. 1198, T l2ob, 131a, 132a. i T, e. provincial form of 10, p. 37b. V, e., the possible form aasumed by weak ' a,' 1. we u wmk, nnd u weak, and pp. 34b, 38k; may be rung na u, p Ud, prorincinl e, p. 34b. VE, g. f., described p. 29a, confused with ee i in c)erman,.but not in French, p. 396 ; how it differs. ' from 00, p. 37a. See elno pp. 144a, B, GEE, f. diphthong u;, we p. 496, and ueëi?, p. 140b. UEY, vnriety of i%ee, p. 47a. ', O;, e., one of the best spoken forma of the diphthong si, n'; being another ; the singer's form in m;, p ma, e. form of, the murmur triphthong aiü, involwd in air, see p. 52n. ' un', e. substitute for f. M', p. 40a. UO, e. g., used in plnceof short 00 in closed ayllnbles, much used in the provbces in place of u, p Short and etrong : good,pod, hood huod, Wuld kuod, should Shod, would, wood wuod, book ' bwk, hook hrrok, cook kuok, look luok, nook nuok, rook r'uok, brook Wuok, crook kr'uok, shook shuok, took tuok, bull bd, bullion buolyeu, full f#tol, pull puol, pulpit potpit, bush buosh, cushiod kuoeh-en; push puosh, tush tuosh (or tnsh), foot fuo&, soot rdot (or roo't or sut). Ex. pp. 119a, 121a, UO', acute 160, or 160 pronounced for high notes with open mouth and contracted arches, p. 38b. V0 J, e., the rd form,of the mmur diphthong in owr, p. 60b. UOiír', e., the red form of oo.r).', which see. UU, e, n very common pronunciation of u, in eirong eylhblos, 1108 u, and pp , 39~. UW. e., the sound of 00 when the lips am opened, me 60, p. 37u. un, e., a form of si, just admissible in speech, -. p 440. UtX, e., one of the beat Zorms' of the diphthong ou, of whirh U'U is another;.the singer's form i, aazìõ, see p. 47a. Uüõ, e., an admieeible form of ou, p. 47~. %Od, e. provincial lip glide, n faulty form of, OB, p. 66b. 65'0O, o. provincial lip glide, n faulty form of on, written do, pp. 37a, 55b. UZiB, e., the murmur triphthoug ouri involved h our, p UU3, e., n faulty form of ou, p. 47a. Optïï, e., a very fnulty form of ou, p. 47a. ' UUY, abbreviated form of uui, or uuëë, p. 46e. UP,.abbrevinted form of ui or uüë, p. 40a., V, e. i. f!, p. 67b. Initial before n vowel : val w'st, vsat uaa'st, veil, vail, vale uai l, vaunt vauwt (or uaa.nt), vault unu-lt, vegetable vsj-itub2, velvet velvet, veal ves-l, vile weil, virtue uerveu, view veu', viotuale uit.la, villain uilen, volley voli, void uoid, vouch uouch, vulgar uulyer. V is not found initid ' before a consonant. Medial between vowels : otrvvy raav.i, lava laauae, navy rzai.ui,. bevy bav.i, lovy evi, leaving leewing, Levi Lesuei, 3trivin.g ætr'ei.ving, serving Æerving, living liu.ing, lovereign æw.ur'in (or æou~'in, aome say suv.rin, but this is archaic), coving koawing, moving WWOTIkg, shoving ehuving. Final after n vow$: have bao, stave stai-u, reeve #ero, alive.u ei.v, serve tew, sieve sb, grove groa u, gmovo gr'oow, love!uv. Double : love virtue luv urr.teu, sportivo vice poa.rtiv veir, a festive voice u fertiu uois, a live Vandal u kiv Vawdel, five vowela jeiu uo~.ela, ibove vaults ubuo unrr.ltæ, Ave villrinb feiu vi mz, ;welve vines twelw ceins. Ex: p. 122a. V', g., the nound of g. ' W,' she p. 65ul b. VF. e. final v at end of n I:EW fiv6 Lu alive? ei 8ee feiuf, awl ulei.uf.2 oee p. 93b- W, e. p. 64, used in Glossic of i. f. fur W', formng n diphthong, as wee for otee, Bee p. 82b. Initinl lefore VOW&: wag tuag. W& uraa.ft, waif WU;:^. nater waa'ter, wet urst, wed wed, wile cosi.l, Worb werk wit wit, wot woc, woke tuoa-k. woo 'N

98 '.I 7b wotlnd (W.) wound (L 'to wound, R wound, ' usually wownd, but Boldiera d ay wourrd), wood wrrod. W is not found initial before coneonants, medial, or double. Ex. p. 122a. IVAA, ubbreviated,fom of, i. and f. %an, p. 49a and p. 60n.. JpddY, abbreviated form OF i. and f. ÕÕnaZ,. p WAE, abbreviuted form of f. òöne, p. 49b. WAEN, ubbrevitod form of f. BJasn', p. 49b, %ad p. 50n. TAI, abbrevinbad form of i. Bai, p WdO, abbreviutedform of i. ÖJao, p. 49a.. WAOY, abbreviated form of JJad8, p. 60n. ' WE, e. abbreviated form af JJe, p. 49r. 7VEE, abbreviated form of f. p. 49a. WI, e. abbrevintod form of ÖJi, p WY BE, form of see, not uaed, p. 60a. ' WE, e. p Initial before vowele: whsck, wlrak, whale whail, wharf whawrf, whet whet, wheel ~liw.l, while whsil, wjirl wlrl, whit whit, what whot. Wh is nevor found initial before n ameonant, medial, final or double. As the sound of wh is dying out very generally in the South of England, and. it is advinable to ret8i.n it, the. following contraste &odd. be observed, and nedulously praothd : whale,.wail whai.l, waid, what, wot whot; wot, wheal,wheol,weal wlrl, u-w;~, when,. wen whm, wen, where, -wear whai.r, gmi-v, whet, wet Ohst, wet,. whether, weather, wether whedhvr, ruedh-er, whey, way wlbai., wai., (or whniy, waiy); which, wit.& which, wich, whig, wig whig, wig, while, wile wheil, weil, whilediwild rulreild, weild, whin, win whin, win, whine, wine rchein, weh, whirld, world wherld, wwld, whist, wist tohist, tuirt, whit, wit whit, wit, white, wight. whd, (Isle of Wight Eil ow Weit), whither whidh-er. whort, wort wh,art, wert, why, Wye wbi, Wei. 9;. 1~1L ' JP., e. faulty tight lip trill.for I.', seo p. 60). ' TVY', f. abbreviated form for ü8 diphthongs, p. 60a. y, e g., p..78e, in i. f. it is used in Cllossic for eü a i, forming a diphthong with the following vowel, p 484 b. Inltial Wore vowelß : ram ynm, yak yak yankw y,angæ;i (sometimes ynrag&kds), yard yaavd yea yai (not yaiy), Yule Yai.I, yawl yawl, yawn yawn, yet y#t (not yit), pes yea (not yis, or iæ) ye yw (not 66). year ywr (not err), yield yes-id (not erkd), yean yeew (not ern), y& yw.ut (not ee'st sometimes y&), yearn yema, yew ycu (that is, yïoo), yulo ymrl (thnt is, yiool), yacht yot, yolk, yelk yoa.k (" yelk ': is eometimea yelk), picks! yoikr! you eu (that is, yoo), your eu'r,that is yoo'r; when weak, often yer), you'll awl.that.ia, yooml), youth rwtk (that is, yoo9h), young yugag. Y in not found initial before coneonante, medial, flnal, or double in receiyed English. &me e. speakers say. tq for es flnal, eome g. Lulty speakers say yr.-,md yl- for gr',- gc initial. FAEY, form of i. ëüadë, p. 49a,, l%u for yïw, a form of e. mr, p. 40n, b. IÏOO, a form of e. eu, p YE, e., p. ï9n, initial in yhku huo, hew, Hugh, yheervsun human, 1 - b Hume, ~ ~ YLuz Hughes. Them word^ are often pronounced hko, hioomerr, Eiowm, Hiwx, which I~SB written Lu, hsumerz, Hewm, Esau.3. %e singer uses the-form kioo. POO, form of i. 8Zoo and e. Zoo, pp. 481, 49a. 2, e. g. i. f.,' p Tnitial before,vowel#: Znntiote Zawtiot, zany eai-ni, Z ~ ~ ~ Oeslus, U E zeal seeml, zero eerrr'oa, zinc eingk, socle mkl (8180 Rocle aok.l), eodiac coa-diak, zone eoa'n, the Zoo dhi Zoo., sooke! soo.ks.' (or errob, gone out of use), zounds eoundz. Z is not found initial before consonanka. Medial between vowels : haeard hazvrd, mazard mnas'erd, lazy lni-d, mamy mai.zi, pleaaing plsssing, wiser weizer, Mersey diwzi, kersepmere kersirnëer~puaey Psuei; gizmrd gkrd, wizard wizvrd, positive pozritiv, posy yoa'ci, m y r'owei, laming ko.sing; oozy op-ei, drowsy drowei, carousing kr~r'ouvimg, buzzing: bwislg. Final after vowels : hau haz, baas barn, baize, bays bai.#, plause-gauz, gnaws nau'z, fez fez, feea fee.z, freeze fiere, wise weis, prim prsiz,,pies POL; firs, fura fm, ewes. uw (v.) ewe, hie his, pose pom, knows, nose *IOW;, F boi-z, los0 h0.5, shoes rhao.z, brown, broase -.. twuz, bum brrr. Final nftor conronante : cubs kubz, ddn a&, breathee br'erdlu, oggesgs, bella.beb, jami inns, nuns numz, eonp aougs, loves lucre, wvea saiw, -vea wai-vs. Double : his zeal hiz wl, wise z d sosia sss.1, it flies zigzag it fiiz aigzag, he ßhews.cet Irw sho& mat, prize zino pr'siz siugk, hie zone h.jzzqa.n.. Ex. p. 122a. 2, advanced S, heard in i. initial &i, see p. 72a. XE, e. f., we p. 72a. Zh does not occur initial, W, or double in e., but is frequently initial and anal in f. Medial between vowela: 'division divizh-en, ocoaaion okai.zhm, invasion invai-sh6nl t ' pdual,' a tul*ed I, signifyirrg the gradual lttack and release of voiced sounds, pp. 57a, 92a. th, the unme =de very perceptible; p. ÖTe. 8 ' clear,' a turned 1, signifying the clear altnck,rind release of voice nounde, p (,) ' check,' a semidon, signifying the check of the voice, p 68n. (!) ' bleat ' or laayu. turned somicolon, signifying the Arabic bleat, p. a b (O) 'imploded' or ' Watd ' or 'clicked,' small &c10used for degrees,. placedbefore a eonant, makos. it signify an implodent, p. 64n, placed before a rowel indicatea flatus through the vowel position, ai OW, p: 5611; placed before h as Oh d e a it nignify smple 5atus, p. 56a ; placed beforo lb' 81s Oh' makes it signify simple whisper, p. 661 ; placed after E flnal mute, as t", indicates the gentle English f i n a l. click;pp SIONY. I79 persuasion parwai-zh6n, &&on adls.ehm, decision diaizhwa, vision oizh.cn. revision.riviehxm fusion fe-.zhen, condurion kunklowshwa, deluaion dibw2h.cn (or diloozhm, inhyion inlr'wxhm, contyion kunteu.zhm, pleasure plsshvr (or pkhwur) mwure rnmhvr (or rursehwrr), treaaure trezhw (or treeh-sur), ewai-elur, leinure bshw (or haheur, somdimea ~es.2br or hwzkur), closure kloarbr or kloadt?~), kposure ekspoa.eb (or ekspon.shsur). Ex. p ZE', e., the p in judge juj, whioh, when fully analysed, is dy'zh'udy'eh', p. 8Oa. ZS, e., Anal 2 at the end of a phrase, as 'tis his tia h&, p entidy, see the letlem with these marks a5xcd in the preceding index. (.) ' amant,' turned period, p1awd.after.a vdwel, shewm that it is strong and long, na mwt meat, p ; placed after a coneonant shews that the next preceding 'vowel is short and strong, as. fasn%li family, p. 105b; placed before a word shews that it is omphatic, p. 105a; placed after a systematic diphthong, it hews tbpt the strong element ïm short, na uï.lid uy.lrd eyelid, p. 43b. It does not separate syllables. (.') ' sub-wwnt,' turned period, followed by m apostrophe, placed &er a vowel &ewe that it is long and has a secondary accent, na vm'.tihi-'ted ventilated, p. 105a;placed after a consonant, shews.. that the next preceding vowel is hort and haa a, secondnry accent, aa dew'oat'alikel, p. 106a. The secondary accent is ddom dietinguiehed from.

99 l80 (+) s~u,' between two letters. ehe- that there ie a ' loo#& glide ' or ' dur ' betwm them, 88-0 in Italian diphthongs, pp. 46a, 876. This i6 omitted except in theoretical writing. (...) break,' bctween two letters. shew that there is a ' silence' and no glide or dur bctwthem, p. 87b. When wwde are written separately it by no means foliome that there is no glide between them, hence for theoretid writing, although tho close glide may be diil omitted, the dar (+l and the (...). ahouldbeused, and there should be no separation between the words desf~ there ie a mniible pause. Thu : ' Command your- Rolf, if you would command othera,' which in ordinary Gloesic would be kurnnnwd eul'aetf if C16 wlmd hurnacnd udh.erz, would be theoretically written ku+nnu.nwz+yrwzaeuf..., $'yoo+wrrod +ku+nau.nd+udh.t+z, where the nn, II shew long VOMIE. (-), hvphen,' betwocn groups of letters, is uscd merely to guide the eye in the eeparatiou of the pups, &B lue-cc, pol-how, it does not indicate gliding or durring, except in euch combinations n8-e used to mark Italian slur, p It mayalways be omitted when other meuns mark &o scparation of the groups, as the.accont mark In pokhoas, or the gliding mark in lülee. (-1 ' gliding mark ' in diphthonga, phced over the letter or lettera which represent a single vowel sound, when it ie weak and the preceding strong vowel glides on to it and fo'ms a diphthong, a8 1 CGÕ, p. 43b ; whon thoeo weak vowels are i or Be, it is ueual to write y only, ae 16y, for either cd or dl, p. 468, and when the vowel is ÜX or õõ, it is uwl to write W only, as wu, for either u30 or ok, p. 47b ; when the accent (.) is used, it is placed sfter the firet.element when that ia long, aa uci or awy, and after the. second eloment when the fi rat element is ahort, as noi. or my'-, p. 436, wd in weak. eyllables it is omitted altogether. The gliding mark is also used over tho lcttcr whioh represents a single vowel soiind when it is weak and glidee on to the, following etrong voyel, aa iaa, õöan ; when these weak voweh are i or Et, it ia usual to write y for í.bm. XII. either, an p a for ïau or Jlaa, and when they are XU or Ja, W ò&au, Uaao, it is usual to write W, a8 raa, wuo. The lehgth and strength of the second element is then treated in the usual way. When great phonetic exactneee ie required (as in discusmone) it is neceeaary to dlstbguish iaa, iaa, yaa accurately, and similarly for õõun, üh, wua. When W in one of the elements, the sign ought to be wed, am Eee, but lue-ee is often quite enough. When it is necessary to mark the length of the weak element, the long mark ia u&, IYI o&& but thie is EWIXI~ ever neceasarp. The a& or uuy leave8 the length of the second element detqninod. generdy un- (-) 'short,' over a vowel letter, or first of two lettera representing, a vowel, when it is not followed by a vowel, hews that it in ehort. Thus the vowels de, ai, au, no, ou; 00, being generally long in Engliah cloaed syllables, it is much easier to the rder to aee the &Ort mark applied when they are short in foreign languages,,pa rddky'h milch,g., skyxil.tòo- sehietto, i., mlim mm, g., dom homme, f., aõa&.tja aotto,.i., põol. poule, f. This is unnecessary in g. i. f., because the rule should be that the vowel is always short, unlegs marked long. ln other 'caasa the I') is a ' gliding merk ' (3 'long,'over a roiel letter or first of two 1 Letters representing R vownl when it ia preceded by B consonant and not followed by a vowel. This.h I sometimes convenient in weak syllables, as prim.-,öas primrose, and is necessary in French.where no accent can be marked, aa pcihuyoarr' passion, but the long syllables are not carefully diatinguished in French speaking. In other maes (3 is e l sliding mark. See end of t") ' gliding.' (") 'medial,'over a letter, or the fint of two 1 L&,mE representing a vowel, hews that, it han 1 medial length, p: 104u, as fiust ; thie is &o repremted by l:) before the vowel, 88f.'UUst, p v) wute, after a vowel, epoken above the usud pitch of the voice, p. 104b. (') detached, 'acute,' spokenabove thr usual. printed by any pinter in any i-t of t+, aad pitch of the voice, p. 1046; attached, BE in do, da, haa rather the eppearance of a reformed system of da, indicates certain provincial glides, p spelling with the old alphabet than of a totnlly r) detached, <grave,' spoken below the usud different and perfectly eystematic orthography, pitch of the voice, p. 1046; attoched, used to precisely indicating pronunciation, UEing the old distinguish provincial ai h m YO, p lettera, indeed, but sn an entirely novel system, (") pitch glide from high to middle, p 'namely, the absolute restriction of one comhin- Note that when the rnarka -t f.'' ' are ation of letters to mean one combination of eonnds, omitted (and they are unnecessary except for ex- eo that given the one the other ean be immedi-,. hely refined phonetic work), Gloesio rw he I ately determined with nhsolnte &rtainly\ a I

100 - ' ' 1 ea ENOLIEE PRONOUNCINQ DICTION~LBIBI. XIIL: ENGLISH PRONOUNCING ' Xngllrh Pronoundug Diotionrrier Nemare.- Our language rejoim in such n remarkable orthog raphy, that no one who merely sew a word can bl quite sure how it should be pronounced,'and n1 one who heara a word can be nt all aure how i should be spelld. Both pronuncintion and Epdinl.have' indeed varied materially during the laat sil centuria, and even during' the last two centyiee without any definite conneation having bcer estnbliahed between the two., Hence aro88 durin& be hat hundred yeare n feezing for the necemitj of Pronouncing Diationariea, which purpose b~ additional marks, or by,p-epdipg the worde accordiug to some ayeternatic phonetic principle, tc rupply,the neceeiary informntion. But hm mother di5culty occur^, no one is empowered tc declare whet i# or ahould be the pronunciation oì Engliah. In point of fact, English is spoken-very dbemtly indeed in different pa& of the country, and material diknces &ct even men of the high& education. We eeldom 'fnil to detact a Scot, an Irishmnn, or American after hearing him speak n few won%:now our firnt Englieh pronouncing vocabulary was etten by B 8c4t (Jmw Bu-,. in 1767) our flrat Engliah pronouncing diclionaty waa writh by an Iriah. my^ ("homm Sheridan, in 1780', and one of ow mont widely-used pronouncing dictionaries nt the present dny is by an 'American (Joseph E. Worcester, 1847.) There is no doubt in my own mld (and1 have devoted 'much time to the study. of this subject: that all three would have pronounced their key wod in different WB~E, m that DICTIONARIEci we cm only approximate to tho resolt by following them. Moreaver, I probably prdnounce th- key won%, in a different way from my one of the 'three. At the aame time, if those who have studied the value of thc. Gloasic symbole from the detailed Becountof them here given, pronounce the key wo& an my symbols declare, and thence deduce the vnlue. of symbole in pronouncing dictionaries, he will nmvo nt multe which will be quite god enough for any practical purppeo. IMerent orthoepiats fato.lhoa'epists/, or pemns who take upon themselves to decktre what is tho correct pronunciation, differ in opinion from one [mother. " Who's. to decide whan doctora dis- ~gree?" The only means if3 to listen to nummus perbna of education with whom the listener has come into direct communication during a long poriod of yeare. Even then very much more than half the wordnof the lnnguage will never havo been heard, and CILU be. pronounced only by the malogy of thorn known. In giving the pm iunciation of numerou words in. the preceding 3losdc Index I have often added an alternative?renunciation, which I have frequenti)- heard from ducated spkm, and I hnvn also directed othm KI Le avoided, because I have found them t:, be :cneqlly avoided among those who nre.tho*ht ;o apekk dwntly. But whatewr pronunciation is- ;hqe mentioned haa been heard, and heard often, Ny opportunities havo been, education for four ream nt n large privato elaseid achool, for thmd a half years?t Shrewsbury achool, for &S 1eWE nt Eton College, for four ymra at Cambridge, 'i* follow it, wijl not be held to make default, although on many little pinta they might be called in S question'by others. whw pronunciation I might also perhaps call in quwtion on the same, or ' numerous other points. This is a mntter for pmaonal choico. But beyond euch limits thcre. are 1 'I..varicti?~s in which no speaker can inddgiwithout bcing condemned 88 ignorant. E must never be omitted, except on very we occanione, and none. muat ever be ineerted'whem not written. Trilled. v' must never be added when no r appears in the. spelling. Theso three am' heinous offences, which nome people never. forgive. di must never approach to the sound of si, nor OR to' the sound of...' ou; neither 'must ei npproach aey or oi, or oz& approach new, OBW... No B muat sound as na, no II ns wo, or wo aa u. No to must become n u, and no v n W.' No cr must be sounded 88 er' or ur', with n short vowel and trilled r' thcse uaage~ mark. prorincialim or vulgmiam~.,-y othern have. been already incidentally pointed out., While, therefore, the boundary which sepamtes Meeived..from inadmzbsible pronunciation is by no means a matheanatical line, but is a eensibly broad.band,. there are distinctly inadmissible pronunaintions, which dl who wish to cultivate refined and carefa1 pronunciation must diligently avoid. No better plan can be followed than learning áccurntely the natura of sounda, and acquiring n facility in prouounaing both one WRY ruid the other, because. whon this is done, the ear and judgment cannot be deceived, and the apenker con~ciouely.adopts. a. particular pronunciation na the most desimble.!cho ditkulty always consinte in mnking,the 'LON IARIES. 183 spenker conuciounof differencee, and capable of understanding wherein they consist. Ln Shakspends trngedy of "King John," Mm. Charles Ihn hd to me the word ' cnlf ' with grant energy, and Mr. Alfred Wigan had to repeat it after her with equal force. The lady said ka$ the genfjeman mid kaof, which had the deet of correcting her pronuncintion. Yet probnbly no one preaent, except 'myself, perceived the difference. We are EO accustomed to listen t0 sense, and- not observe the sound by whiah it is conveyed, that when the difference of sounds i8 within the limits of uaage it is not remarked, except by special observera. 'Calf' is n word which in hoard as karf, ka'% kacj, km6f, hence, there waa nothing stmnge: Bllt if the M y had anid Æay (m Bome do, in ladid refined Yorkahire sp~ech), and the gantleman said kavf (aa in Cumberland peasant speech', the effcd would hare bcon ludicrous, and Mr. Wigan nt lend would have bean groetod with a shout of laughter.. For the ordinary words of song, n prono~mcing dictionmy ought never to be necessary, but aa spakern have no opportunity of henring half the words of any language in actual spch, they have often to refer to nuch n book for assistance. Eence I add the tithe and key words and modes of EymbOlhtiOn ndoptcd in somo of the most acccnr sible of thcm.works. A' Critical l'rodouncing Dictionary and Expoeitor of tho English hnguage, in which not only he meaning of every word is clearly explained, and the sound of every syllable correctly shewn, but, where woids are subject to diffmnt pronuuciations, the authoritiee of om best pronouncing dictionariw aro fully exhibitcd, and reawns for each nt large displayed, nnd the preferable pronunciation point.ed out. To whirh are prefixed, Principles of EcgLish Pronunciation, in which, the souads of letters; sylhble, Md words are critically investigated, and systcmtically arrhnged, the influence'of the Greak md Latin accent and quantity, on the 'accent and....

101 C."...: ~ INQLISH 1)ICIIONiRILS. PltONOUNCINQ quantity of the English, thoroughly examined and clearly defined, and tho. analogies of the language EO fully shown as to lay 'the foundation of a consiatent and rational pronunciation. Likewise, Rules to be observed by the Nativos of Scotland, Ireland, and London, for avoiding their respectiva peculiarities; and Dkectio~ to Foreignere for acquiring a +owledge of the une of this dictionary. The whole interspersed with obaeivations etymological, critical and gnunmatioal. By Johri WaZker, author of Elements of Elocution, Rhym-. ing Dictionary, &c, &c. Q+rë, Ei fleri potest, et verba omnia, et VBX, hüjus alumnum urbis oleant ; ut 6ritiB Römäna plinë videätur, niin civitäte donlita.-quint. [Whcrelom, if possible, lct every word and sound aavour of a native of this city; tht your speech may be unmiaiakably Roman, snd not Romanised.] The fourteenth edition, London, 1814." 8v0, double C01UmnS. Prelim- inary matter 92 pee, Dictionary G02 pagcs, doreotyped. The arst edition published in Thc previotls authorities rcferred to are-johnson, 1755; Buchanan, 1767 ; Entick, 1764; Kenrick, 1773 ; Ash, 1776; Perry, 1775; Sheridan, 1780; Scott (new edition), 1797 ; Nares, This is u most painstaking wcrk, by a man who devoted his whole time, thought,.and cnergy to teaching pronunciation. But he had not had the ndvantagc of IL high education, or of associating on equal terms irom childhoad with the childron of persons of high education. He wan born at.-colmy Hatch, Middlesex, 18th March, 1732, was brought up to trade, becamo un unsuccessful actor, quitted the stage in 1767, became a school master, und in 1769 began to teach elocution. He died 1st August, His pronunciation, thereforr, be1,ongs entirely to the last century, and it is perceptibly antiquated. It is full of instruction to thaw who wish to study the history of our, pronunciation, and ramember the circtlmstances undcr which the author acquired his knowledge. Rut it is :lot a model to be followed at the present sly. Modern editions, and so-called ' pocket Walkers," nre simply worthless. Ber. XIII. WALKBH'II KEY WOBDE, AE completely spelled.by himself in the body of the dictionary, oat as imperfectly given in his list. These have superior numbers l, a, &c., placed aotually over the leth, special types having bcen det, and this arrangement makes them rather difficult to read. Here these numbam are placed above Ud to the right for convenience of printing. The Ihn& examplea are given by himaelf. My own pronunoiation of theae English aid French words is added in Glmsic (in italica). al: falte, p1'-puzr fai.t, paipr; 6 in fée épée, fai aipai. al. fa%, fa%hezr, pa4-paa1,.ma4m mas'. faa-r, faydh, pupaa., mumaa. (or paapaa., maarnaa.) ; a in fable, râble, fahblzö, rahblgö. as. faw, wasll, waj-tu2r fawl, roatrl, wlrrr'ter; 1 in age, Chalone ahzh, Shahloan'. :LA. fa%, malt, ma'r'-re1 fat, mat,.cnar'.i ; a in fat matin fcat, mädae/d'.or fo't, ala'tnna'). d. me1, hebe, me1'-to2r, mel'-del-uzm or me''- je'-u2m mec, Ace-r, mee'ter, nlcedysrrr; i in mitre, épitre srktrëö, aipktrãö. el. melt, Wt, go*t met, [#t, gst ; e in mette, nette mast.?laet.. il. pi'ne, til'-tl yeill, tei-tl;, aï in laique, naïf ka-eek, naa-cef. il. pi%, tizt'-tl pin, tit.1; i in inné, titré ZcnnnnE, t#&& [quite different from tea-tray tee.tvni.']. >l. no', no'tc, 'nol'-ti?s groa, nort, non'tis; o in globc, lobo gläob, lüob. i:. mo202v, pro20'v moo'v, pvoo~~; ou in mouvoir, pouvoir waöevwaar', pöovioaav'. ' P. no+, fo", osr, 'l like the broad a3," nau.r, fnu,r, au'v ; o in or, for, encor äor,, f&r, aha'. käor'. ~ 4. no%, ho%, 60% rlot, Iwt, got ; o in hotte, cotte iot, kczot tulbe, kul'-pi2d [not in the body of the work, spelling takeu from kul-pi?d'-el-te' keupepid.iti] hub, kerrpid; ioil in Cioutat, chiourme 8yõotau, shyöor'ra. ' 13..tuzb, kuzp, su3p tub, krrp, rup; BU in aouf. veuf l&j, lg$ foule, oule i&~, faoz, &l. oap oil; oï in cycloïde, héroïque sëeklöa-ëea üir'öa-ëek. $us. THO~U~, po3u3dd dhou, pomi; aoû in Aoû 00 (could it have been anõö in Walker's time P) th. thilngk, thiln thingk, thin. TH. THi'E, THa't dhis, dhat. g. gelt, gok, go',gi+, golelse get, gon (or gown) goa, giv, gee's. j. ji"-a+t, jizn'.ju*rjei.olt,jira~~r. s. sizn, su2n, BOI, silt, selnse sin,,sun, roa, rit Send. E. dee, mlze voa.2, rai.e. Smart.---" Walker Remodelled. -A new critical Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language, adapted to the. present state of literature and mience, embodying the original stores of Johmon, the additions of Todd and Webster, and many WO& in modern uge not included in former dictionaries, exhibiting tho pronunciation of W O ~ S in unison with more accunte schemes of sounds than any yet furnished, according to principles caiofully and laboriously investigated : explaining their meaning by classification and mutual referenco, as well as by improved definitions ; and accompanied by-i. Hints for surmounting defe.:ts of utterance, forcign, provincial, vulgar, and impodimental ; ii. An etymological index of common terminations ; iii A key to tho pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and Bcripture proper names ; iv. A brief appendix on the pronunciation of modern foreign names. By B. H. &nart, author of an Outlino of Scmatology ; a Practical Grammar of English Pronunciation ; Theory and Practice of Elocution, kc. London, 1836." SVO., double columns. Preliminary matter 64 pageß, Dictioand Appendices 738 pages. This istill a valuable work of reference. A!though the author (who died a few years ago), like all othern of his time, had not quite an rdeqlurte knowledge of phonetic relations, the work shews much independent study, and is n 185 peat advance on Walker. There are Romo pronnnciations which are rather. archaic and '' thin," and many which hew the eiocution-master rnther than one in the habit.of hearing and conveming with people of high education..but certainly no one could be blamed for adopting his pronunciatioii.9.,he takes the (' well-educated Londoner " for his model, and does not allow quito sntlicient latitude of pronunciation. Por study, the work is indispensable. In his spellkg he adopta letters with numbern. over them in a few cases, here given by superiors. He has a peculiar l' script " character occasionally, which is here represented by italics, and his italics are distinguished by being placed between parentheees, as (n')a, the a being in italics and the h in script, for th, dh he uses peculiur letters which are here written th, TH,.BB in Walker. The mode of iddicating pronunciation is EO singularly laborious and intricate, that he avoids it whenever he can, so that not half the words in his dictionary are spelled at full according to this scheme, but the sounds am meroly indicated to belong to some prcccding word, by italica, &c., and even in his scheme he haa spelled. only the syhble of the example containing the peculiar sound at full. This occasiona considerable dificulty at times. The mode also in which he has grouped his words according to etymology often occasions delay in 6nding the word required. The key words' are here spelled as in the bodj- of the dictionary when they occur thcre. The Glossic (in italics) gives my own pronunciation. - SMART'E KEY Woans. "Note that n, c, i, o, u, y, 'IC, h, 60 printed, are mute, though in general significant : Note further thathe murk (-) changed to (l), as B to al, signifies a change in the quantity of the corresponding accented vowel; that an italicletter [in R parenthesis] implies a change or corruption in the quality; and that no change of indication implies that there is no change of quantity or palit!-, the difference in such case being merely '

102 i that of rernittod aucent. N& likewise that twc m more ~ nye of mar9ng.a sound 'e, or c, or ea, fol inetanoe) imply no difirence in th eound iteelf'." I. päy, gai.t, gai.t, pai. 4. a', nli, aly, a'-ë'-rel-(gl, d-taii1, gäta.walyl aier'isl, reetail, gai.twai. 3. S; S, ëa, më, mita, më& [in the dictionary ; in thn echeme, mëd, mëd], mm, Øhect, mat. 4. e', e%, ely, de1-y'. pëd'-el-grele, gid-lely, difei., pd-igiw, gat;. ' 5. I, ïe, p,.wide, del-fied', del-fy, weid, difeid,. difei.. G. i; is, j, i-dë'-(g), for'-b'-iise; fof-tel-fy, eihu, fauv-tifmic, fawrtifei. 7. 8, öa, 66, öu, ÖW, nü, böat, föc, sörrl, blöw, rroa, bou-t, foa, roa-l, bloa. 8. o', ob, o!-bäy', fõl'-lol [in the dictionary; in the echeme, fol'-lolw], oabni-, folnoa. 9. ' i, e, üi, cübbs, diï [in the dictionary ; in the. echeme, dw], slit, keub, deu, seut. 10. ul, uls, u'-aurp', ä'-gui [d-gule in echerne], eumrp, aiyeu. 1 I. 6, dn, chip'-m(u)n [in euheme here chipmm], man, chnpmva i! (a), 'rck-nëpt' [Kc-oept' in roh;], chap'- m(n)n [chap'-m(d)q in echeme], aksept, chap.- men. 13. ë, lht, lent. 14. E, ei'-lënt, seiht. lb. 1; ptt; pit. 16. i, nad-pit [sad-pit in echeme], sawpit , n&, dm'-m(a)n [cömmon in scheme], flot, kotn.eb , (a), põl-l'öüt', c(a)m-mlnd, cõm'm(a)n, puleut, kumaawd, kornvn..19..t, nüt, cìid-t 'n)rd, nut, kwlerd. 20. ü, wa4d'-niít, eer'-kñe wau.jnut (or.wuunut), reyh [the ie eingle but large, coveling both letteraj, gõ8d, hõid, gwd, haod. 22 3, ch(i)ld'-h(oo)d [in echeme, child'-hõi3d, in the dictionary child, BB a principal word, ie given ae ohiled, and the (i) rafere to this] chei.ldhmd äsl äah, p(as)-pi3', ish,pupaam, ma. 24. (aal, p(a~)-p~s', a-n(as), ds-b-(nj;h, 'pl(f~a-, snanw, mesei-u ;or macan, mnenei'aa). 26. ä4w, ä4coe, dw, lä%u, 4% iu mhome], lau; au. 26. a4w, jackdaw [jaok'-da4w in Bchy~e],juk- sau. 27., öö [tho is eingle but large and covering both letters], pöö1 p0o.l. 28. W, wher1'-pool [where cok means hw ; whirl'- pool in wheme] whwzpool 29. oi, oy, toil, boy, toi.!, boi. 30. oi, oy, tur'moil, fõit'-boy. terroii,flrot-boi. 31. ou, ow, noun, now, brown, (aoun, ØIOU, br'os~r. 34. ou, ow, prol'-nown [apparency a midalte for PI-Ö'-nom], nüt'-brown, pwwnoun, wrtbv'oulr. 33. ar=äjr, ar'-dènt, nu.rdent. 34. ar, (a)r=a3r, (asp, ar-ddd, d8y-l lair, nariaid (or unkaid), dokm. 35. er, ir,' &-min, vd-tue, trmin, uer.teu er, (c)r, (i)r, ch'-merw, l#-t(e)r, ni'-d c)r, Jmmwa, letw, rtaivikr. 37. or=ä4wr, or'-d(e)r, arr.r&r. 38. or, (o)r, etü-por, &l'-(o)r, steupr, sai-kv. 39. ur, ur'-gent,, crjent ur, eil'-fur, sutfer. 41 üre=ä'ur, mire, mai.,. [he writcs mayor= mäy- 'q:r=mä'-ur=märe]. 42. alre-lur, wëy-falrc, wekfair ëre=ë'ur, mëre, meer. 44. elrc=elur, ãt'-m6e-felre, at-rnusfeer. PS. ire=i'ur, mire, w1ei.r. ' L6, ire=iw, ëm'-pire, ewpeir.. L7. Gre=B'ur, möre mwr. ~8. o'-re=o'ur, Twei-foh dlraivjikr. L?. üre=ü'ur, miire, meu'r. 10. u're=u!ur, fig'-ulre Jg-cur (or jgycr 01 &.er.. il.- öör=öö'ur, pökpoo'r. i2. oor=oour, b1ìick'-(a)-moor, blakurnoor. i3. ower=ow'ur, power, y0s.r.. i4. owm=.owur, c(au)l-e~-0owcr, kokijour. 15. ('), A slight eemi-consonant sound betwcen el and y consonant, heard.in tho transition from certain coneonant to certain vowel sonnds, as in p. XII1. IrNOLXS8 PllONOUNClN& DICTIONAUIEE. I- lute' (l'üöt), nature (nä'd'oor) [i. :.: the dictionary thie ia called colloquial," md ni'-tuirs is given. aa the hat form], g'armenl.,[in the diotionary gar'-m6nt], Find [in the. dictionary kined], kut (or bot), jeu [.or joo, L gai-teur (or caui&w!, gaa.rcnmat (not gyawrmbnt), i (not kysind). 66. h, hind, per-hape' [meuning,p(e r hãps'?] vë'-hei-mgnt hand, pa.-lurp.a, uee~jbimpnt. (or. ' ucc'irnent, uerurnunt, the last is commonest) W, Wë. bel-wäre', frü'-w(o)rd, hwënt=hw&t, W, biwai-r, fr.oa.erd, wkt. " 68. y, yü6. 700, eu; "And this sound is alwais to be.underetaod as present in 1, ul, ulre, which.. are equivalent to y68 and yoor." 69.. e, 88, also c or 80 bofore e or i; &l, cell, elt,. citi dee, dne=eëen cene ne], ei'-ënce [eci.ence], ad, se, sil, sit, fnaa-d (or maas.), 8ee.11, seiens.. 80: E, EI, Et, aial, búa, mkc, b q ØUI1Ri.Z..8!. eh, mïsh'-ün, rnishw zh, viah'-ün, vizher. 83 ch, tch, [chair]. chäre, ëetch, mãtch, chai.,., weh, mach. 84. j, and also g before e or i, jag, jim, ägs, jin, jog, jcrn, ui3,jin. G. f, i, fe, fõg, CÜB, Me,fog, Auf, /ev. 88. v, ve, [vain] väne, lüv [love], vui.18, iuw. 87. ljr, thin, plth, thin, pith. 88. TH, THe, TIih, WiTH, brpcihe, dhea, widh, brea da. 89. ' 1,11, le, Kt, mill, &le, let, mil, ßai% 70. m, mm,;me, miv.. hüm'-m(+, bllme, ïnui, harn'er, blaivn.,tl. II, m, ne, nb,. bün'-n(#)r, tiins, #loa, buwer,.. teun. 72. ng, ring,,bag. ' 73. r, IT, "m audibly beginning a syllable; or being one of a combination of consonante that begin a. eyllable," räy, e'-rëct', tlorid=florrid [in the dictionary only FLOB'-ID, meant for fll-ridp], torrid [meaning tõi-fid,, i n dictionary TO~'-ILID, under tir'al-ff], präg. epriid, +'ai, cer'skt, fbr'.id, tof'id, pr'czi, sp~'ed, " Under other circumakncee' the lett& is a sign of mere guttural vibration." 74. P, PP, P4 PCP, efip'-p(eb, hepa, POP, 8uP.n. howp. 76. b, bb, be, bõb, db'-b(e)r, fib, bob, robw, roa-). 76. k, ck, kc, &o c flnal, and c before a, o, or u; or a consonant, king, hãck, bäk6; in'-tick, &t, cat, cüt, cliim, kitzg, hnk, bai.k, ar-tik, kat, kor, Rat, klai.cn. 77. g, before a, o, or u, or a consonant, güp, göt, gün, gdae, pw% qrim, gap, got, gun, ges, pluig, gr'ìrn. 78. t, tt, te, %n, mit';t(e)r, m&, tefa, ïnat'er, mai-t. 79. dl. dd, de, dën, mid'-d(e)r, mäds, dm, ma&er, inai.d. An Epitome of *' Smut " is pullialled. Woroeater.--L' A Critical and Pronouncing Dictionary of the Englieh Language, including Scientific Terme. To which are added Walker's, Key to the Pronunciation of Claasieal and h ipture Proper Namee, much enlargeal and- a Pronounhg Vocabuhry of Modern Geographioal Names. By Joeeph È. Torwater. London, 1847." Large Evo., Preliminary matterr 75 pages, dictionary and vocabulary 966. Worcester is an American, eo that poesibly the eounde he,attributes to hie key worda may Mer in many pointa from.those here given. But tagen BI those, this dictionary is the moat complete e d serviceable 6ne I know., Wherever thare is a noticeable dieagreement among Sheridan, li80 ; Walker, l791 ;.Perry, 1796 : Jones, 1798; Fulton and Knight, l802 ; Enfleld, 1807 ; Jameeon, 1827 ; Wehter, 1828; Knowles, l835 ; am&, 1840 ; and Reid, 1848, it is here given, and asmgned to the proper authority..every word is reepelled or ' ' marked in a manuer equivalent to respelling. Tho preliminary account of pronunciation doy not mbr at'all the principlea of e&, but there is a good deal,of other interesting matter. The v~bulary is altogether more complete and more handy. than Smart'n. The principnl defeota are. the treatment of the unaccented vowels, and the vocal r. The letter r ie certainly diffwntly pro....

103 RNQLISE PBONOUIClNQ DICCiÒXAnll38 Bec. SII1 nouncod in America and in England. Ask any Amcrican to pronounce the word America, and listen. If, however, we read by English ruh the whole book becomce clcar and uneful. Worcester's make for indicating pronunciation often require new signa, and in that cam they are here put in italics or EIM~~ capitals, and described. If not otherwise mentioned, italics indicate under-dotted lettere. The spelling ie that in the body of the work. with the respelling if there givcn. The unmarked vowela in a combination um mute. The Glossic (in italics) givcs my own pronunciation. WOKCESTEI'E KEY Wosns. 1. i. fäte, lice, iid, piiin, plëy'er, plë'er, fni.t, lei.#, aid, paiw, plaiw fit, mün, lñd,, cñr'ry,,fnt, mala, Ind, Par'.i. 3. ti. [B with I over it]. fire, rire, ptiir pur, beir bär, fair, r'ai.r, pai.r, bai.r. 4. ä. fär, ~U'TH~, piirt, hm, oälm kim, fauv-, fnwdher, paa,rt, fla'm, kflnvn. 5. A. (a with a + ubove it), f.&, bunch, grup, [this is meant for a', stated to be "intermediate between ita short eound, M in fat, man; and ite Italian eound, as in fan-, father," but; whether long, or short, or medial is not stated], faa'st, br'acnch, gl"nnrp, gr'an.8., 6. P. fill, hall, hiul, ~Bwk, warm, fnu., hnwl, hau./, wnrrk, wmcrln. 7. n. War, pül'me, ri'vnl, ilb'ba-cy, ìeier, palen, r*eiwel, abwei mëte, sëd, fl.ar, kgp, mee.t, real, fear., ketrp. 2. é. mét, mh, sëll, fér'ry, met,men, eel, fer'+. 3., C. like h, heir Ir, T&e mar, whère hwir, ni.r, dhni.r, wjmi.r. 1. ê., hër, hërd, fern, fër'vid, her,, herd, fwn, fe?"vid.. b.' e. bri'er,fü'el,cgl'ery, brsiw, f#wel, eelur'i. 1. i. pine, file, find, mild, fire, pein, feil,feind, wild, fair. S. i. ph, flll, miw. mir'ror, pin,ji, mis, nlrfw. 3. l. like i, ma-çhlnc',.po-ipce' Po-h', mlen mën, ma-rtne' ma rèn', muahern, poa,lss.s, mee'n, mur'ee i'. fir, ~'k, bird, iirt'ue, vïrt'ytt, fer, ser, berd eer'teu. 5. i. e-lix'k e-ltk'sur m'in, iög'ik lõd'jik, ilikrer, r'oo-in, hyik, ubiliti. 1. ö. nöte,. föal, töw t6, eöre, noa't, foa.1, ton-. e0a.r.' 2.. i. nöt, cõn, õdd, bõr'rö, not, kon, od, bor'.oa mhe, pr8ve, fbctd, &n, mao'w, prao v, fwd, roo-n. 4. ö. like 8, nör, furm, ~ört, öught Pwt, nau~, fauwn, sau'rt, awt. 6. a. (an o with L over it), ah, dhe, c6me, dn'q, 81616, dull, kum, 0lulr.i. 8. a: ic'tor, con-fëd, fel'o-ni, ak-ter, &nfir, fc~?wli. 1. ù. tübe, the, eiiih eüt, püre, twb, tmn, m:!, pnw. 2. ü. tüb, th, hùt, hür'ry;tub, tun, hut, hur'.i. 3. Q. bíill, fw, piìll, pû&, buol,fuol, puol, puoeh. 4. ü. für, th, miir'nlur, hiirt, fa, tern, MI"- mer, hert. 6. v. (u with A- over it', like a, rule, rude, true, *'ow, r'ood, t1"oo.. 6. u. eü1'phur sül'frm, miir'mur, dëp'u-ty. æutfer, mer-mer, depmti. 1. f. type, etyle, lyre, teip, rtei2, I&. 2. i. sjl'van, sym'bol, crjfs'tal, ailven, tirn.bal, kr'irtel. 3. ji. mph mïr, mwe mïr'tl, rmr, wt2. 4. y. truly trdld, ëivy, mäftyr, tr'wìi, mvi, maa'rter. öl, ÖJ, boil, toil, boy,, toy, boii, toil, hi, toi. öû and öik, boíind, t öh, nö$, bound, Loun, sou. e+, like ü, few, nei6 dei, feu, neu, h. y, like E, ñç'id ñs'id, plñç-id, asmid, plasid. c '(c with A under it, or O &th an oblique line through it), like k. flldçid. ucep'tie, flak.sid, rkertik.. E KXQLIBB oh (c 88 before), like k, ahirr'cc-ter kãr'ak-ter, 8Msm kbm, knr'-aktm,'kaem. i çh,. like sh, qhëise ahäz çhëv-a-uër' &ëv-a-iër, ' shai.z, ehrsvrrbrr [Fr. shewttaìyai.]. ch, like t&, chh, chürch, cjbaa.rm, cherch (g with A over it, oit, Give, GE^, get, giv, gvt. ' g (g with a half moon over it; capital,. with re-. verted half moon under it!,.gën'der, gi'ant, jsn der, jei.ent. 8 (E with a half moon under it,, like L, ma=, GhaBse, WUZ, chove. x (x with a etraight line under it) es-m'ph egmnm'pl, ed&' cg-eist', egzaawapl, eg.zi8.t. TH (in. capitale the T htw a moas line through its., stem, in smd loth tho h haa a cross line through ita Ebern), Tare, THëë, dhis, dhee, dhen. tion, ion, like shun, nä'tion nü'shun, no'tion nö'shun, pén'aion pën'shun, mis'sion m'dm, - saishma, ma-shen, pen-shm, mish*en. wßn, cian, like h, $'cean ö'shnn, op-tr'aian op-tish'an,oa*rhma, optishvn. oial, dal, tial, like shd, cum-mcr'cial kom-mër'bl, chtro-vër'eial kõn-tro-vlk'shal, kumner.shel, kon-, - troaverrhel., ' mus, ciorrs, tioue, like shun, für-i-nä'ceous für-e- nä'ehus, Ca-pë'cioue ùa-pä'shus, ecntën'tious sen-tën'ahue, far'inai.rhus, krrpai~ahus, seatenthus. gm-, gious, like ju, cou-rä'geous kur-d'jus, re-llg'ious re-ud'jue, kur'aejus, rilijrrs. qu, like kw, quéën kwën, quës'tion kwëst'yun [but the &st spelling ought to have given kwës'shim, me tion aljove], kween, kwertym. Wh, like hw, whën haén, while hwil, whew, wheil. ph, like f, phñn'tom, nër'aph sk'af, fawtevn, ser'.tlf (or ser'.rlfl. Ogilvie and Cull.-A Smaller English Dictionary, etymological, pronouncing, md explanatory, by JoAn Ogiluie, LLD. The pronuncbition dapted to the best modern usage, by Richard Cull, F.IS.A., 1875, London, Blackie, pp A compact, useful, and very chep litde book (Ys. Gd.) l~eautifull~ printed and got up. Mr. Cull P~ONOWNCIN~ DICTIONABIIEE. 1 i39 i8 a well-known orthoepiat. His usliges and recommendations will, however, be found ta differ in many respects from those here given. For example, he UEW the vaniahea &.y, op W ~ W ~ ; Yhe E doea not distinguish r, r', rr', and does not recognise murmur diphthongs, and he treats weak syllubles aa if they were etrong. The following key words run along the foot of euch page. They are here given in Ur. Cull's orthography, using i, ii ftir a, n with two dots under them. To these are udded a few other words to shew Mr. clill's treatment of R and weak syhbles. The Gloseic in italics gives the pronunciation. indicated,. and where ït diffcre from my own pronunciation the latter is eubjoined in H pnrentheais. OGILVIE MD CuLl.'s Km 'WOXDE.. Fäte faiyt #act), fiir fea.?' (fay,, fatfat, fan fprrl; më mee, met met, her hrkr' firet) ; pine pein, pin pila ; nöte gaoawt fnoa.t), not not, muve moo'v ; tube teub, tub tub, biill bzrol; oil oil, pound pound. Cb5n chui.yrí (chai-n) ; job job; gö, goa-w fgoa) ; uing sing; THWI [the stem of the T is crossed] dhen ; thin thin; wig wig; i'zhür aiyzheur faixheur, ai.zhsr, Reh.eur, aeh.er). ÒTREB Womw-mèr'fi slee.r'zi /mesrlu; eë'ga awr'eea,fsee.rr'ieez), rër r'ai.yr' fr'aiv), rë'rè.fi r'eiyr'eefei fr'ai'rr'ifei), öhl oa-wr'al foa+etj, pötp0o.r' fpowr), Wbir-ir Zaiybur'ur' flai.bur.'n.), ' dë-pedant deependaht fdipen.dent), dë-pend'mlt :. despardent fdipewdent) [these two kst words are usually identical:, rë.jon rerjon frevymjsrr), or'p or'mgan faurgen, awgen), for'tü-nät for'-tezmai.gt fnu~terrrret, fau-churlet), hor'rid hor'.r'id fhr'.id), flo'rid Jior'.id [these two lid wo& rhyme perfectly], flo+istfir'.irvt f'oaw'iatj. As I am personally acquainted with Mr. Cull, 1 know that the pronunciation he usee in converwtion and public speaking doer not differ from my own EO much as these words would imply, and hence I recommend those who um this dictionary to rend the pronunciation there given in accordanw with the above indicatione. '

104 ' XIV. ALPHABETICAL KEYS TO GERMAN, ITALTAN, 1. hnnan.--for GcrrrtcF,a it is not usual to give any uaajstande to tho reader, and most are under the delusion that they epell as they pronounoe. This in not the me. High German is a litwry language which owes its predominance :o the fact that Martin Luther fluol'ur'j wna born ut Eisleben frlay.szaa.bsn) in Saxony, and uaed hin own dialect for his translation of the ' Bible. In different parte of Germany dihnt..' system of pronouncing thia literary language prevail, dietingaished. by their twtment (1) of German e, (8) of tho diphthongs, (a) of the 'corre- -epondence of short vow& in closed syhbles to long vowelb,,4. of German g, (6) of krman E, and (6) of Garlnan ng. The three principal.. oyetema ara thus ddned and den&,bed by H. M. Rapp, in.his Physiologic der Sprache," vol. 4, D. 86. '. AND FBENCH. Introdnotion:-Although it is notpossible tcrlay fl?aasa.buorklr,, Lurback, Bravman, HUO~8laayc1, dowi rdes which will enable a -der to ascertain i Ihawoaiuur'; FrwrldnrdJ; Through Hamburg Be munde from the ordinary rpellins of English ' and Heover (which we write Hanover, and fall wo&. this ir'mkch more nearlv the cese. with i ITan.stwcrJ. this system 'ehieflv reaches England. but the point to -which the English oling YE the j fifth, concerning st, sp.. (1) Short i, u, ii become a, k, ir, o, ö become L, X, F. 12) When I e ' long ia derived from a ' long, or 'i' long, it becomes a#: long, and is otherwise ailong. This custom requires a knowledge of the Dr. language, or marked VOW&. [Mr. Henry Sweet, in a papor on 'l The Characteristics of North G-mmn," read before the Philological hciety, 17th -ch, 1876, immediately on returning from a six months'residence in Hanover, stated that thh distinction in now entirely given up, and that long e' is invtiriably ai., no matter whence it is dmived.1 (S) The diphthongs,i ai, ei ' +y both aay, I au ' is mw. and iiu, eu ' are both oy. (4) Initial ' g "il g at the beginning of syllables, and gh or gy'h at the end of. Eybbles. [Mr. voweh no such g is h&. swect knows only Hgk flnal, but even this- is now diacounhaneed, and 91.q alone is wed.] F. '. B. Th Estorioal Systsm of Prolrunciatiota, 2, in the North West of -ny, Berlin, Bden- bnrg, th6 ahores of the Baltio from Mecklenburg, through.pomerania to the Ruesiin borders ; also in idated districts in the middle provinca, on the. lower Rhine about Aix-la-Chapelle and Cologne, " near the river Fulda in Fmnconia, &c.; and like- :. wise in South Went Germany, in Swabia, Alsetia,.Bwitaerland. fbaa'lss.n, Br'ãae-dsnkor'ky'h, iua8kienbwrøky'b, Paoaawr'rl, French. Aca laa- Shãapcl, Kaokony', German da.khnr, Koch, Plrptdaa). " (l) The short vowels have the name quality n8 the long vowels. _- h. XIV. ALPEABWCICAL KEYS TO. QLIYAN,.ITbI.IAlC, AND FRENCH. 191,,the full labial p-?lb) are always heard on the. &ge and in publio spaaking, and at-, ßp- may be uodered ta have practically t3ieappeare.d.j (O) Final ng ' adds on a g, BB flgg, but between [a. '. (2) The use of ae, ai -long, &E in the Ortho-.' gmphical System.. (a) A very complicated diphthongal syet?m, ' flmt, the ' eil au, eu ' cormapouding to the old mimple vowels k, öo, ris, are try, uw, Urië ; secondly,.. thme corresponding to the old diphthonga are ' perhap my, ow, la; thirdly, m hen either of these precede ~maals, they home aaj, aaw, orüë. ' ' (4) The L g ' is nlways g, except in the termina-, tion ' ig.',. (5) The lnitial ' st, ~p' become aht, s?y (or perhaps art, sh'p:. : (6) Thw ng tfeated as in the Orthographical ~syet m. C: Th8 Practiwl. 8y'Ysfsrn of Prolzacnciation,'used throughout MiddleGermany,from the Polish to.the French frontier, in Silesin, Upper Saxony, Fqmconia, the Palatinate of the Rhine, and Upper Pnlatinate, and also in Bavaria and Austria. (1) Short and long voweh the came in quality. (8) All long I e ' ape äi [but cie is. often. heard in 3axony.I ' (3) The diphthongs loi, au, eu' are aay, aaw, aay [but oy or my is used for 'eu' on the shge, the being thought, vulgar; hap upp pose^ a theoretical oris', othei theoreticians gib a theoreti-.-. ~d M&, I have never heard either.] (4) Initial g ' is g, final g' is kh or ky'h, and. L g' between vowels, and after a liquid and before a vowel, is gh or gy'h. (6) Initid 'st, sp' always shf, shp [or, in Saxony, in the most refined speaking, more. exactly.. rh't, sh'p.] 6) The ' ng ' is always n9 without any final g [or b.] It is this grstem of pronunciation to whid 1 have bmme a'ccustomed by three pare' residence in Dresden. Rut I always took the liberty,of using those pronunciatiom kndwn in other parta of Germany, which were easiest for my own orwns, and I recommend,other Englishmen to do the name. Thus thw short (hrman vow& ' a, e, i, o, u, 6, ii,' I miammend pmnouucing as h, i, i, i, ùo,. b, ÙS, and the long &B 64, äi, L, öa, öo, ëo, tic.. The diphthonga I ei, au, eu ' 'may be taken exactly &B Englieh ci, ou, oi, in the form.most USld to the Epeaker. Tho ' g ' may even be always!i, except in '. ig;' but 'it sounds very had, and when the learner ha3 once mastered ky'h, kh, which are quite indispensable, he will findno dif ìcdty in usinggy'h, gh. The sh't, sh'p or sht, shp initial are indiapenmble ; the. 84 sp have a strange, shorttongued &ed, and, a# seen above,,were confined to 'L very limikd district, whence they nra disappearing: The L W ' may even be pronounced a~ v, d the hp prese the teeth very lightlj-, but v' is EO much softer and pleasanter that it, should be adopted if possible.. The placa of the accent offem no di5culties to an.engliliehman. With these libertiw it doea not become very di5cult to assign rules for pronunchg German from ordinary splllng, ind these I have tried to. give in the following Alphabetical Key. The pronnnoiations are given on my own.responsibility. I have paid great nttention to (3erman speech for more than thirty yenra; 8t one time I ed tu

105 speak well enough to be mistaken for a German by Germans; I hnvc had much conference with Gemurns respecting pronunciation, and have studied many German orthoepicsl works. My directions may, I think, therefore, be followed with considcrable confldence. II. Italian.-For IlaCm, the spelling shews the pronunciation almost exactly, except in four imporhnt points, the double use of the threq lcttera S, o, e, Ud the position of tho accent. It ie nuite impoasiblc to give complete ides for overcoming these four dificulties. All elementary Ittilian books wd dictionaries should have the broad sounds üc de, äo do, L distinguished in mule way from the fine üi di, öa Ba, ta; learners otherwiee fall.into dificdties which the! can never correct. Althcugh I raided eighteen months in Italy, and wae at one time able to speak the bnguage fluent1y;i have not attempted to grapple with these difficultiea on my own responsibility, but have always consulted tho excellent work of Valentini. A Dictionary that maybo recommended is Graglia ß Italian-English and English-Italian Dictionary, with Grammar, yubliehed by George Routledge & Bons,price 2s. 6d. Besed upon these help and my own familiarity with the language, the following Alphabeticnl Key will moat probably slways led the student oorreotly. III. French.-Thcro is this peculiarity about Fmbch spelling, that though it is quite impoasible to guess the spelling of a word from its sound, the reverse process of telling the sound from the.spelling is tolerably certain, and admita of reduction, to rule, which will generally, not always, qlffice. -4Ithough I have been familiar with fiench from childhood, have resided many months at various tim- in France, during which I diligelltly studied the pronunciation, and &ve indubiously worked through many French treatises on the subject, I have been very glad to rely for the following- Alphabetical 14y on an admirable Little work bp Thtriut, cited below, and now apparently out o? print. With tliis holp, I hope that my Key will prove ueeful even O those who have coneiderable acquai.ntance with the language. But a pronolrncing dictionary or vocabtdary is dill necemy, and for those who can rend French, L rocommehd Adrien Feline s I Dictionnaire de la Prononciation de la langue Frtmçaise, indiquée au moyen. de c+macteres phonbtiques, prkc6dé d un memoire su* la Rkforme de l Alphabet, Paris, 1861, 8v0, double columns, 383 pws, H, work I.bd constantly useful. The following is a comparison of his eymbols with the Glousic. 1. a an 13. u se I 2. iì.air 14. û ly 3. a ahn 15. ; m a 27. y y 4, e cri 16. p p 28. f f 5. 6 ne 17. b b 29. v u 6. oe 18. In W W 7. W 19. t I 8 8. i ee 20. a d 38. I e 9. i am. 21. n h sh 10. o (to 22. k k 34. j zh ou 23. g y 35. r T 12. _o oad 24. S rry These Alphnbcticd Keys were origihally written and stereetypcd for ßeparate use, and heqce they have been constructed independently of the preceding pages, with a separate key to the eepech1lg foreign eounda, which W ~ E continually referred to This Key is therefom retained, and although the full explanations already given may have rendered it not EO neceanary aci before, yet the reader may find it convenient to have n atatanent of all the new eounda he has to learn put before him at once, with a refemnce to the other fuller aecounta. t....ka. x;. ALPEAdETIOAL &EYE TO BERHAN ITALIAN, AND FBBNCE. 198 i EXPLANATIONS. OP FOREIQN 80UNDS. Bk Vowelm, heard in Provincial &gliah. [l.] n8 is a with a higher larynx and mewer throat, a eomewhat broader wund of ai in air, p. 3%. It hm no resemblance to au. It is very. common in Qerman, Italian, and French. l hm who have a difficulty in pronouncing it may use ni h g and 8 short. [2.] ah is aa with the back of the tongue dep-d, a thicker, broader sound of na, producible.from au by opening the cornere of the lip (p. 33b). Common in French, common (but not acknowleaged) in Qerman, quite unknown in Italian. Those who have a di5culty in pronouncing it may une a5. [a.] m, confined to the diphthong oar = a-u-(r ) in received English, but ased provincially before rill consonante, p. 35s. Common in Qerman, Italian, and Frenoh before all ecneonante. Thow who have a difficulty in sounding it may use of8 long and o short in Geman.and French, and nu long and o short in Italian.. [4.] u# may be immediately sounded by tqing to say 88 OP i when the lips are placed for 00, p Oommon in French (where it must be rightly. pronounoed to.be intellillible), and Qerman (where it may be ded m or i, that being a vdg? native. pronunoiation), but unknown in Italian. In French it forms B diphthong with the following vowel, generating a sound much like an attrrmpt to pronouncew and y at the w e time, giving the (o, seo p. 494 and greater predominance to the U1 in the French Key, p. 210b. [5.] 80 may be immediately sounded by trying to my ai when the lipa are placed for ou, p. 318: Common in French (where it must be rightly pronound to be intelligible), and in German parts of (?rormeny (where it ie always long, and may be called ai, that being B vulgar native prcnunciatim), but unknown in Italien. At the end of woda -k,-96, -me after consonants we pronounced in French with the faintest possible indication of thia sound, which is written gö in ßldc. Sea p. g4b. [S.] 06 is produced by trying to say MI, (instead of ai, as in the h t cue when the lips m placed for oa, p. 31a. Common in French (where it ia distingui&& from eo by careful apeakere, but munl. not be confounded with any other eounda), and in #erman (where it is dwap short, and may be called 8 or (lb, the httm being a Vulgar native pronunointion), but unknown in Italian. Veq like English H with untrilled r, but the lips are not rounded for W BB they, are for Oe. Four lud VOW#~B; peonliar to the Frenoh ad, produoed by keeping the nvula away,. from the pharynx, m in diagrama 22, 23, 24, all the time that the speaker tries to say ue or 5. Not to be confounded with mg,.which consists of a, a glide, and mg, whereae m is one simple vowel on whkh a note of any length can be sung. But thia m is sometimes heard during the glide, in pawing from a to =g, when the vowel is continued,. evai while the uvula is relaxed, na in diagrasl 24 for the rrg. Practice aaying ue-ue~~ -w-umi, kc., in one wntiuoun embeion of breath, feeling the motion gf the uvula. EXMU~M the &t of rjoeing the mouth and nostrils alternately, by tho hand only, while saying am. See p. 40a..[&J ahn, produced by keeping the uvula away from the pharynx, as in diagrams 22, 23, 24, all the timo that the spealrar tries to say ah (or au; but try r d to round the Lipe). DSm from aang M ang hm. um. Exerciee oh-ahd-ah, &c. BE in [7]. Never call this ong or mg..neo p [g] om, uvula na in diagrams 22, 23, 24, nll the, time that the speaker tries to say 05. Ex& ua-~m -ou-oa~~ &c., see [7]. Never my org. Dirtinguiah clearly hetween aha and m. Engliah sp~aker~ me apt to oall both ong. Bee p. 40b. [lo.] WH, uvula BB diagrame 22, 23, 24, a I the time that the pker tries to say 01 (or u.) Q

106 Exercise o+om1-w-061ì &c., we [?l. Never "y mag. Le p Bi. Qermm Co~onmtl, of whichtwo m provincial English, and the other fom my be pronounced with received Englimh sounds. [Il.] ka, lips open, tongue almuet RB for 00, digram 5, but even a little cl- to the ~lvula, 80 that the breath escapes BB a huwking, ramping hies. The Scotch ch in *Loch'=lokA. Never eay R. 'See p. 83n. [la.] gh, the sume 0s'X-h (see [l113 with the voice laid on, produoing a harah guttural buzz. Thin may be al~ay~ called 'g in German, that being the pronunciation of ono district. 8ee p [ls.] ky'h,,an attempt to say both y and kh at 'once, tonsvque very nearly in the pition for ee (diagram 1 and 81, or ai (diagram 2 and 9). The sound is elm& YA, ns in English Hugh Pheu, and this sound may always be used for Wh. The Scotch ch in I nicht'--ncky'at-never ea>- #h or cb, which are common English errors. 8ee p. ela. [14.] gy'a, the asme BB ky'h, [13], with the voice Leid on, so that it is very nearly y, but a little bsrsher ;' and y is Rvulgar Gmmn pronunciation. This mny be ulways ded g in German, that.being the pronunciation of many personsin North a9r-y. &e p ' [16.] f ie anf made with the lips in the position for W, M in diagram 12, but oloser, taking.- that the lower lip doea not touch the upper teeth. F' ie an.attempt to say f without using the, teeth. But f may always be.used, that being B very general pronunciation. ' See p. 66. [M.] v' is a v &de with the lips in the position for W, u in diagram 12, but closer, taking m. that the lawer lip doea not touch the upper teeth. Itief, [16], with the voice laid on; that is, it ir an attempt to aay v without using the. hth. But u may be alwaye used. Englishmen are cautioned against eaying W. See y 'I I l'wo Liqnid Counomut., prodiir 6 Italtin md French. [17.] ly' is un atteplpt to pmnunw I and y at the name time,,eo that the front, of the tongue is W in diagram 20, nnd the back &p in diagnrm 1. I3 id eaying billion '=bilc/un we prolong the 1 till we begin to uay y, we produce Q' as an intermediate glido, thus b i-ly'-ywa. It is not &. Common in Italian and in tho pronunciation of elderly Frenchmm, but within the let M) years it hm been replacqd by y 'in France. Never we y for la/' in Italian. Thin is dod l' 1 mouillb " nei nrdoyai (formerly maog'ai) in French. h e p. 81b. [le.] q' is an attempt to prbnounw II and y at the Bame time, so that the uvula and front of the tongue are BB in diagram 23, and the, back BB in &gram 1.. If in =ling Lunion'=wr'yun, we prolong the A till we begin to eay y, we pmduce ny' ns h intermediate glide, thus.ua ay'-ym. It ie not *y.,common in both Italian and, French. Beware of calling I Boulogne ' Booloir, or Bwkmg, or Booloan, it is properly Boolaony'.. mis is ded "n muill6 " MI& mdoyai (formerly doly'ai) in French. See p. 8%. ' Two Conronrntrl Diphthongr, wed 5 dy, but not initidly in English. [le.] LB; if in enying pat8 we pause at the t, keeping the tongue.u in diagram 16, and then explode' from t to B, thus pat-ta, we produce the initiel tr. Common in German and.itslien, but &known in Frenoh. See pp. 7Ob and 7la. [XI.] de; if in sayin6 ' pada '=p~k--, we puee at the d BB long as we can sound the voice in that pition, and then, while the voice is still nounding, come suddenly down on e, thru, p&-& (taking care not to drop from 'c.into I, as Englishmen are apt to do);we produce the initid a. -Not uncommon, but not very common, in Italian; unlmown in Qemn and French. See p F- fid sfter-sounds of short ee and 06. This trick is' F quií unknown abroad, and is extremely unk- pleasant, often unintelligible, to foreignem. L. t Cautions for Englirh Bpeakerm of Geman, Italian, and French.', [22.] The lettem t, dl II, a, 1, v, are pronounced.. lo &rmm, Italian, and French, with the tip of the tongue rather more forward than in English. I) PLI to lie quite on' the roots of the teeth, almost PLI much as for Engliah th. See t', g, p 70a ; n", p. 77a ; 8, E', p. 706 ; r, p. 736; T'', p. 74b... [29.].Vocal v is unknown in German, Italian, and French, and Englishmen amc- therefore cau- '. tioned against uqing. it, BE they will be conaidered ' to have omitted r altogether, and would heqx, ' b m e unintelligible. A strongly-trilled t-' must,. dwsys be used. Germnnw and! French (not Italians) often uee the Northumbrian burr or.. uvular trill 'r (p. ML), but this is always &iderd erroneaun, even bythose who um it. Be cnreful never to introduce a trillad r' between the final aa, u, of one word, and the initial vowel of. the next. This is quite unknown abroad. [24.] The aspirate h is unknown in E'rench and Italian, but is muer dropped in Qerman. The French so-called " h aspiré " aa~h aarpew'ai is a mere hiatus. [Zti.] Diphthongs in.german are very alose,.. but the first element being longer than ii Englisa, sound very broad. In French and. Iwan the 'vowele are rather rdwved together than united into a glide to form a propor diphthong p. 45lr). When in Italian &veral vc~wela come together on one n& in singing they are all t0 be distinctly heard, and are to be slurred together in this way. 8ee Section.XV, p No kitten vowelmunt h left out in speaking or ainiging Italian...

107 I g, I 'W ALPHABKTICAL KEY To QEEMAN PRONUNCIATION. Seo. XI0 I. ALPHABETICAL KEY TO QERBfAN PHONUNCIATIOPU'. O+y ma un-englinh sound is absolutely nooes-, cary for speeking Ctermun intolligibly, namely, kh, the Scotoh ch in loch [ll]. The braaketd numbm refer to the explanations on p. 193, where it will bo. men that 11 other new sounds, or oombinntions of frequently incorrect, or, more propculy, vulgtu. In- the following al habetical list, Itnlica mark the pronunohtion in d k c oharacters. A iß long or short ad, nover English ai, n, aa Stras&e Jtr'dom, h maan. Ä is long or short W 1 l], DO spräohed shpr'lia.ky'hsi, Mäu.uer mdsn-sr' ; but my be misealled ni, c, as shpr'di-yhm, mn.ar'. AA is always 10% a: as RI aal. Wead of it in capitals.. 1 AE ia precisely the same aa Ä, and is often d bxu is preoiaely the aame as ÄU. AE is always long an, chietly used befoie L, Y, N R, as Pfahl pfdd. -m r'lnm, Ahnen lwnm W e. bmrr'u. AI is precisely the mue as EI, and may be pronounced as ci. AU is ou, taken as m&, and the aa m y be made long; as Laut lout (amcely to be distiguiahed from English lout.') ÄU may be alwa~ called oi BB in North Germany ; it is profwaedly aa-la [4], and is often oonfusad with AI, as Hnuser Aoiwr', or haajszer' often IM.w'. see [25]. B is b at the beginning of words or between the two vowels (lengthening the preceding vowel), but p at the end of.words. a9 bnt bàat, graben grdamban, h b Irdap. BB in b, and sheens the preceding vowel, BB Ebbe icb u. c before & O, U, is k, in which c.me it is often replaced by E ; but before AE, E, I, UE, EI, it is ts, in which tuse it is often re haed by 2. ~efom any othor lettempt H dg, C is odv used in foreign words, au Capital knapsstäa-i, Ceder tsaidsr'. CE after -k, o, U, AU. is kh [Il], and generally (not always) Sh01-h~ the premding A, O. au machen cndakheu, pochen ukkhvrr, p8kh.eu, but Buch bkkh. OH after AE, E, I, EI, EU, AEU, R, L, N ; that is generally, is ky'h [la (nearly yhr), and &a often shortens the pred E I as Pech paeky'h or peyh, ich Jeky'h or iyh,%oid tì&lky'lr or dalyh, mbnch ~n&~rky'h or mrktnyh, durch dõor'ky'h or dõor'yh. In the final syllable ohm it is &o ky'h, aa Nidchen mldkg'hsn or mai.dyaan, the on1 Germnn E Uable in which OH is initial. In foreipn worl from (freek it is kh. ky'h, wording to the followin vowel, sometimea k, and from French it is sh. as 8hauwee hasdi.. CHS is always ka, BB secha &ka or mka. CK ueed for ICE; which is often written, is k, and shortenn preceding vowel, as Mücke m&kw or miku, D is d at the beginning of words or between two vowels (lengthening the preceding vowel), but 1 at tho end of y:&. as dae &S, Ador drder'. stand shtcinnt. lhe Germans advance the tip of the tongua nearer the teeth thnn the English [%2j. E is gennrally ai [21] when long, and may be always bo oalled, but is sometimer ad [l] long, and before (L consonant is tie short, but may be called 6 short When flnd and unaccented it is practically II,.W English dual A in idea.' When in rr flnal syllable with L, M, N. R, it S indietinct, and maybe ded 'e, very lightly pronounced, and L case of -el. -m, tho vowel is eometimen entirely omitted. Some German writern on pronunciation allow -ER, -ES, flnal to be -ur'. -. Examples,heben, hdi.ben, Eher ckw.01 &.bar', eine ainu, Adel dn.del n&lp da.dl. offenen Jnfsnsn or ofmerl, Nudeln tumddn (not ~~twdsl-r, or noo-dh~, aa Engl+hmen often my). EE always long ai [21], ea Beet bdil. EH always long ai [21], or long W 1 the lath rare ; generally used before L, M, as Ehrc div'u, dompare Aehre dvr'u or di.r'u. E'. ma. SIP. ALPEAHRTIC~L KEP TO GRIYAN PHOIWBCIATIOBI. 107 EI is ai hken as aau that is aa-ja. and the &nt, YX'in m, but shortens ~reoeding vowel as kämmon See element-may [as]. be 1Öng ; as rein r'aayn or r'mn. I N is n except before K, when it sounde "g, aa drin. UU in preoisely the &me as AEU. andmay be alwaye nen drjan.erc or drinin.au, drinken dd6ngk.an or called o BE in North German, but in profwedlg drãngk.en. m-& [4]. and is often coofaaed with AI or EL, Na is always rag, as in Englinh 'long,' and never M Eulo ni-lrb: or aail,.lu. often q i h See [26.] ng-g ns Engliih ' longer ' : thus, lang liinqer. F alway~ f, but in E O ~ districtaf' O [M] after p. 1Jang &ngvr', or &rg.cr', not &ng.gar', m I ijnqyec.' Final NO is sometimea erroneously I FF alwa fshortening preceding vowe1,as Staffelei nhtanfiei. called tagk, as.lang. l&arrgk. 0 may be alwap called g when at the beginning 0 ir long oa and shórt an 131, or EhOrt o (heard in North Germany), which may therefore always : \of syllables, or between two voweln, and k when at the end of words. except in the syllable-ig. be wed in place of the more di5onlt ahart.. which m y becvlled 4"ak./h I 131 or -Zyh. In m, as grosee gröa.aae, Ochs.kks, or õks. ' the middle and' Bouth of Germany,(that M, more 6 when long ia eo [S], and when short oe [S], but. gonerally) G at the beginning of words is called may be called ai when long and L (or a) when and in the middle of wordß gh C121 after ehort. as these am oornmon vulgar pronunois. A. O. U. AU, and gy'h El41 after AE, E,-L EI, tions : thus. ' gr6ezer'.properly vulgarly.. EU, AEU, R. L, but at tha end ofwo& kh. gräiwr' ; Ykonnb,' properly k&.tu, vulgarly k!/'h after theselettern respectively, andlengthem 8 the preceding vowel; as tag tàgkh. or tdak, woge o'öwghu, or vòkv/u, lug tröokh, or l8öok ; age särqg'hu,. or zaqu; Siep &.gy'hu, or ' tirgu, feige,fai.gg'hu, or.fei.gu, äugeln oi-q/'hsfia or oi:ysln. de is sirnple y, but dhortens the preceding vowel, as hggen r'&g.e,k. or r'óg.m. E before a vonel A [24], a.9 h&& hieer', exoept in TH,.which see ; after a vowel, mute, lengthening the vowel. See AH, EH.- IH, OH, UH. I is long and short ee (and short i in North of Qamnny, EO that short i maybiweyebeused in plnce of the more difficult short as), as Ver- gise-meinaioht fer'giiea.-~rari~a-r~#~k~'~t, or feøyir-meijr.näyat. XE is long &,except when flnnl in a few foreign wo& where it IS k-u.. or yt6, as Liebe lëe.brr, Lilio M e 3 ~ 4 or, Uel,yu, ' I H is long ce, as in ihnen iman. J is I; in Germen Gothic print the capitala I J are. not distinguished. K is Æ; avoid middle Germnn pronullciation of K, 8s Æ-b. when beginning a syllable, as komm k-haom, and SEy.kaOln or Mm. L in l, BB ldcyy'hu or, intelligibly, Imp. LL M i l, but,shortem preceding vow01 as lallen 1 I d n l a a. M.in m, m Mutter ndotor'. i. l i I i l' kjeiz.tu or k#n tu. OE, Q ' the aame as 6, usually employed in'namea as (vulgarly Qdi.tu like Engliuh 'gaiter '). OE is long om as ohne ownu. O0 is long OR au Boot b0a.t (never BO). P is p BB Pass pisa. (Ionfused with B in Saxony, PF properly /If' [15].. m g be called pf (never simple f), as Pfaffe pf'dlnfu or pfdafu, neve1 jjufu. PP in p. but shortem preceding vowel as Pnppe pjap.u. is kv' [l6 and may be ded kv, but must %ver be mhrd kw, Quelle ku'dsbu or kcjbu (never kwalu a8 in English ' queller l). E is propbrly r', E] with the tip of the tdngue trilled, but is equently made. by trilling the uvula,.apractice condemned by those who follow -.it. This r' never forms a diphthong with the preceding vowel. as in English em. air, oar, nor, aud (ri, OB often oocur bebre it, u Lehre lai-r'u, as well na short voweln, as sterben shtdsr"bam or ahtj#.bsn, mürbe tn&r'.bu or mt'bu. BB is r', ahortoning the pding vowel M P h rer pf'dar'w'. I B nt the beginning of a syllable, before a vowel or betweentwovowels is alwaye I (never e); at the end of a syllable it is always 1. h

108 198, SCE is alwayn.da,and often shortens the preceding vowel,,88 nuch rdmh, schütteln rlrüotdn or ahit-eln. BP at the beginning of a syllahle is most generally called ahp. ns spiel -6hpia'l, but in Hanover it in called ay, m apjrl. See p. l9ob (6). 68 ie a, and shortam the preecding vowcl, RW kiiesen Æ&am or kben, unlese in Gemn Roman t 08 it is used for,sz, which see. In German Ethie types m is often Used for SS at the end of words and before consonants (never befom vow&) as ' nu= '.for ' nu= ' rrkr. BT at the beginning of a syllable is moat generally called rht aa stehen 8htliw or ahtäiu, but in Hanover it is called st. At the end of a ayllable it 'is always at 4s ist ëcat, or id, and never ' Jht. &e p. 190b (6). 82 M ilwavs 8, and lengthem the preceding vowel, except when in German &thio types it is used for SS, BB is common at the end of worda or before consonante..in German ltoman tvpos SS in often ueed for 82. and when this is done, M is not used'& all. Oompare 'Flunz Fliieee' with ' Nm NW' thnt E ma jds.8 81 or je&wer with ndoa &J.U or niru. T in t with the toneue n&r th8 umer pllllls TZ is t~, used at the end of a syllable after a short rowel (but ths 'J! is frequently omitted), ns nutz.x.#. Ü M long and short W [a]. but may be called long and short W, or W long and i. short, na thia is a vulgrr pronunciation known all over Germeny ; thus, ' Miillur ' properly MzZeter', very often Mkl CI-' or Milw' never (11d.11. Mörlu, Mm-lu, an En lirh people hrbarouslg pronounce I+of. a x Jq~lleF'e name. VE ie often used nm the capital form of Ü. ' UH is long 00, aa Uhlan Oöläa~n. VI in sometimes'used rs a capital form cf Ü in Austria. V is by somo Garmqn theohta called f' [M], but is,moat usually t' (nover v), as von fdon or f811 (never.uõn). Thom &mans who call W V' [le], have the greateat diatcnlty in pronouncing a true u.' V ia u' [l61 throughout the middle and Sonth of c)ermany. German theorkt8 declare that. 97 is always used in the North (though the premnt writer has never found a arman who knew the sound of u), and hence Englishmen mng alwaya use thin easier v (but nnver W), as wer weisz u'#.dein or vier.' veis (uciar' mny be callec uairr', aa in English ' vary ' vniw'i).. S is ka, but only occum is non-german wordn. Y alwaye considered as a vowel, and to be, in the older German dipthhongn AY, EY, nnother form of I. In later spelling AI, EI &re used, andy is confuod. to aon-oerman words, being oalled long and short ce. Z :is always ta [19]. never cla [20] or simple z. very common at the beginning of syllables aa Rzarnpls of drjìcultis8 : Ach! eine einzige üble feurige.mücke könnte wohl nuch miuh bow machen. WBB mir unendlioh leid thiite.. A4kh! tdrk (Ah! a single evil fiery gnat even me ungr make; which to me &te mrro\v would do): &e German Songs, pp ale0 the cantinne [21,23, 261. II. ALPHABETICAL KEY TO.ITALIAN PRONUNCIATION. In the follo Alphabet,, Italic8 mark the pronnnciation ixmsic. A is au.middle longth, BR raro r'aa.r'oa, fatto faatdoa, mea kaaa.aaa. It is rrccdr indistinct, LLB flnnl 'a' in English. Never allow an r or r' to be heard after It. The prepositioll ''a'' when before a coneonant always rnnn on to it, and... doublait; thus.aluina1-bo.*. Whenerer a word.'.. ends in -h, with the amont on it, the following conaonant is also doubled in correct Tuscan. B is b, never confused with p, RB bardo baav-'doa..- BB is'b-b, as if occurring in two' words, ne, in English, Bab Ihlladn ; BB gabbia gnab.heesn. C before A, O, U. is k; and bnfore E, I is ch, hut when CE, CI, CU, CIO immediately follow. a vowel, the t of ch -tsh is not 80 dietiilctly,. heard, so that to En li& m the nound is. nearly ah, but is re& tbat modi.6cntion of ah hed in pldonging the hiae of hghh ' ', hatch, fetch, 88 lang RE possible, but pure eh. is better than pure ah. Ex., mfbo nach.aer'.hoa, faco fieliai. + CC before A, O; U L k-k, BB 'if in two woe, 88 Englieh book-rase ; and before E, 1 IS 88 English fat-cheese, nu accendere aat- I chnm:dnit.'ai, facce fad-ciai. 198 CHI hefore A, O. U, ie nearly thy, ohiodo 1iyno.doa. 01 before A, O, U, is ch, simply (sae C), 88 hcia ohuawchna; More E it ia lrlways chy, na cielo ahyasloa, M cieco chyacri.koa, ojecheaco chyaiknaakon, ciera chyai-r'nn. D is d with the tip of the toyte a inst the Mots of the teeth [22], is never conesed with t, as dah daa*ton: DD is d-a, 88 in two EnFlish wo&, BB m&-diahes-; Ex., freddo fvaddoa. E is sometimes ai [22] and pometimes ae [l], tho formar is called ' ohiuno kyoo~zoa doan. and tho latter ' aperto ' aaposr'.toa open: The mean-. ing of a wordoftqu depends on d i p g this distinction of sound, which ie -not marked in spelling, and can. be fully learned from a dictionary alone. The following rules (derived from Valentini) apply to numeroua, vmy common. casea, and should be studied by those who wrrh to pronounce ltaliltn well... Uso ai (close e) in words ending like the f:>uowing ~IISSEGGT:T~ ynm-aai&jon, de3no dziwy'ou. civilmeete che6uee~rnaira'tai (only when advarbu), alimento aahnaiwtia, bur- IESCOkoJlaio~koa,eaprETTOkaa~d~~toa (only when diminutives), colpevole koa&ai.uoalai, bmza bail-lait.tsaa, ave- nvacr'ai (only '. when verbs in ere long', and. cedei, cede', LEnne, preue, crebbe, &c.; cr&va, CadEBSI, &ßERO;&c., chaidai.86, ohaidai., tairraai, p-'"i.sai, kr'aib.bai, &o ; Waidai uaa, chaidaìa~see, kraidaìa-aair'on, &c., the in pst Of dl verbs, in the rnoqyylhbles "me, te, se, ne, Ce, ve, le, re, tre, fe, &c.; "che," and ita compounds '1 porche, benche," called rrmi. tni, sai; trnr. chai, vai,!li, #ai, tv'ai, fni, kui, pair'kai..

109 ' 800 ALPHABETICAL KEY TO ~PIIOIUNCIATION. ITALIAN bainka? in ALL UNACCRSTELI EPLLABLIS: and whes E replrrcea.a Lntin I. tu cetera cinktai raa, neve naivai, PWCG pai.rhai, kc Th e adverb '' e" meaning ' and ' is also rri, bu t when occurring before a consonant double s it, BB e lui ail-loow ; thin in ala0 the CBEA fo r all wo& ending in -b in proper fiscen. Use ab (open e) in other words ending a S bello badion (with its. inbctions 'I bells I belli, belle'?). dente dwr.lui, semenz1 L ralmsn-t*aa, mestiere ~nni&mwr'ai (not verbs' desideri0 daisssdns.v'won, eccesso ait-~hasr~roa penerally when accented in the laet sylla'ble by TWO and in the monosyllable b M, meanin and generally when E stands for htin!e,' Æ a, IN bene bae'nai, mesto masrton.. F is f, na ferro fasr.r'oa. FP in f-f, the hie8 of f prolonged, and Rome, what relaxed in the middle, ae in Engliat tif-foct. Ex., affatto aaf-faat'ton. O before A, O, U is g; before E,' 1. is j, ae gam gaav'an, gorgo gwr'gva, guacio goo,elroa ; gestc jass tan, gigante jbsgnan lai.. Q0 before A, O, U is g-g, n#, in English big-gatt i before E, I in d-j, na in Engliah bal jest; clssstr'augyw, fuggono fq:qoarzoa. WH, only used before E, I, is g-g! na in English big geese, na sogghigno soty-gw'?*y'on [. 81. W1 not before a vowel iö d+e. na oggi aodjse [3]; before A, O, U, d-j na scheggia ekaaitfjnina. OH, only uscd before E, I, iß simple g, na piaghe ' pynnyai, lnghi anyes. OHI before A, E,.O is almost gy, but the vowel ss is more distinctly hmrd, na it wore pëc, as ghiaccio gyaat.choa, ghiozzo gyaot.taoa [a]. O1 not before D. vowel is jes; before.4, O, U, is j, RE giacere jaachai.r'ni, Giacomo Jaa.kmoa, giugno joowy'oa.. OZ bdom A, O, U ie always gl; before E, I, it is g in the following words OPLY : gleba gh*baa [l], Egle Aiylw, glenoide gkti#rflo'esdai [3], negligere naiglssjaw'ai, negletto naigl&t.toa, glifo y/su:foa. gliconico glwkao-nwkoa, glittograflu glwt~toagr'anfss~aa, glwt.toqraafsekoa,. anglico, nnngyleekon; before 1 in ALL otmn woms it is ly' [17J, or?wly ly, gli C'es. quegli kwai.lv'es, scogl~ akao.ly'ee, caspugli chniapoo3y'rs. OLI before A, E, O, U is always ly' p7], or nearly is I Seo. XIP y, BB paglia pna.ly'aa, aglio aa.ly'o,r, flgliumio fss-ly.ootvhoa, dagliene dua.ly'ainai. 019 in alwnys say' 181. or nearly ny, never gn ; an gnom wy'aok. L on, bisogno bsezaowy'oa, pugni poowy'ss. QU not before n vowcl is goo. hut beforo A, E, I, o. is almost vw. the vowel being rather more dietinctly heard, na it were g&, na gua~ gwaaes, sangue nuwrg.gwai. tregua trwgwaa. H rb never pronounced &E.h; it is now used only in the combinations CH, OH, which see. When formerly writt.cn before vowels as 'ho hai, ha, bavere,' it WS entirely mute ; those words art) now written ' 6, ai, h, awrc', and read an, RB'CF' ma, aavn?vai. I is alway ss, except in tho combinations CI, GI, CHT. GHI. which see, nnd generally before vowels, where it in y, or nearly Je. 'Final--i makes the following consonant to be pronounced double in correct Tuscan. J final stands for II, end in called se-be, as studj atoo-dm-se. Athe beginning of sorde it is written for I, and pronounced nourly as y, but the vowel is more distinct, as if k,'m jeri yas.r'ee. L is alwayll l, &E lui Ido'ic, except in GL which Hee. LL ia always l-, as in Englimh soul-lass, a8 balio baal'loa. M is BIWII~E 'n, na mano 1nna.lzoa. MY is always m-m. na in Engliah Nhaliz VIIMUE, 8.8 fiamma fyaalnwza. ZP is always $1, exce t before C, O, followed bv A, O, U. or before &I, GH, followed by E, 1, in which wes it is "B, na vincere vsurzlrair'ni. fingere fmrjair'ai, but bianchi. bynarq.kec, see NG,. NGH.. AB beforo,,a, o. u is always 919-9, na in English "finger, (LB lungo loojrgyoa, but before E, I is always n-+, as piangc pyaanjai, A0H only uaed before E, I is alwaye fly-g BB in English '' stronger," ' 8 8 lunghi loo~rg.gss. D when' oloae is oa (if anything rather more inclined to un), and when open is CO (or very nearly o or aw, which may bo used for it). As in w e of E, (which aee), the meaning ofteu depends on tha distinction, althou h it is not mtrked in spelling,and an be &y learned from a dictionaipalone The following rule3 (also derived from Valentini) apply to,numerous very common wes, and shollld 110 ntudied by thosuwhowißh to pronounce Italinn well. i ' Use pa in words ending like the following:- BlatOJO fss~hatoayoa, biondo byonwdon, buffone bnofyfoanni, CONTE knna,.tai, amore aamocr'ai (Enghh people should especially. note this we, aa,they are apt to say a-mws'i). cplos0 j~ilon-aoa. with their inflections; iu all words where O repk Latin U, and IN ALL. Use au in wordn ending likc the iollowin m- sciolto shaul.)on (unleas they correspond to &in -UL'l!UB. an volto von1 toa countenance '), I gl0ri.a glawv'tenn, oratorio onr'aatao'r'seoa ;. alloro MI-lao+oa, wnfort0 konnfaov'-toa, appqst0 aup-portoa, galeot1'0 gaaiai-aot'toa.., cagnol0 kasq'asdoa ;, in all words whm-6 it -. fdows u in an accented syllable, na uomo waovnoa (nearly); in all words endin in 6.' (causing the following consonant to be!oub<d ' in pronunciation in correct TUECEUI). na am6 ' namao.; in all words whme it replaces Latin AU, BB poco pas-æon; and genmlly jb no means always), whare it mphs Lntin 8. BE moto.. rnao'toa, but voce voavhat. P in alwuys p, SE pianta pynalr tnu. PP in p p na in English sloppail. na troppo traop'poa: QU is nearly kw, but the vowel is, more distinct. almost Mo, na quale Æwuahi, or more nwly kjoaa.lni. B in always r', very strongly trilled, even before n consonad, even more stron 1) than in Scotland, and td~ays with the tip o! the tongue, never with the uvula Carefully distingllinh,carne UWAOCENTED EYLLABWE. kaar'vlai ' meat,' from esne kan-nni ' dog. B han two sounde a and I, th0 a is a very nharp pure him, but the e has the voice held only for a' short time, and either rapidly fdh into a grntle #,,m in Engliah 'that's hw!' dhata him, or at the beginning of words begins with a gentle a. Ume I at the beginniig of a word befora vowels. and the.nonude k, f, t, and in the middle of ' wo& after the sounda of l, m, II, r', anno. aa,~.- ma; S& rkach, schermo skaiv"tnoa dinge rfmjai, spillo rpebl.loa, squama skw~maa, stdo atai.loa ; poleo ponha, censura chainroo-r'aa, yeran vasr"roa; alno in words ending like nmoroso aavnoar'oa.aoa, bramosia Lranmoaaee.aa, finirnoaith anvzwmw'swtna' ; in the paat tanses " in -esi; -eso, -eaero, and nfter the pdes di-,., ri-, mrroapcnding to Latin de-, re-. Use I (verv short cr nearly 82) at the begin- ning of B word before tho sounds 6, d, g, v, or I, m, n, r', 88 sbaglio Lebna-ly'ott, sd0gn0 rsdaivzy'oa, sgarbo ezganr'-boa, svanire aavaanse~r'ai, smorto rrlnaor'.toa, mello reirael-loa. sradioare azrm&wkanmai; and 6 (nearly u) betwben two Towdb (except an before), BE row raona, eaatto aiseab toa, spasimo aptrazasswzoa, enta aiwssbtoa; md nimple I short, in the probes 'dis-, mis-, before a vowel, or the sounds of l, d, g, v, or l,!n, n, r', as disonore Irme-aarwa'rai, dis-detta dwadait'taa, disgrazia dmz-yraah'an. BS is a-# (LB in English min-sent, BB assenza amsaen'tsaa. BC before 4 O, U, is simply aæ, but be orc,e, I, it is a 'cry strongly pronouncud ah, na scena ahfw- VIM, poi pai.ahcs.. SCI before A, O, U, a rery strongly, prononnced ah, na seiocco shoajrka, crwciuto hainhoo.ton. T in t with the tip of the tongue against the roots of the teeth, we D, as taato taa'stoa. TT in t-t (LB in English boot.tree, as fatto faad'lon, quite different from fato fawtoa. U before a consonant, simple 00, as uno Unno oo.noa Oonwoa; before a rowel nearly 'y, but the vowel sound it is more distinct, nearly õo ; nfter a vowel it is short and slurred OR to it, so m to be counted as a diphthong, but sometimea forms a distinct syllable na : uovo wao'uoa, Laura LaaJo.-faa, paura pna-oo.r'aa. Bee pp. 47a, 49~. V is u, never f, na in Vico wrkoa. W is W-, as in English I'vs rowed. aa avvi aav'wee. 2 is either ta [l91 or dz 201, and ZZ is either t-ln or Adz. "he 1s son L are far the most frequent. About 100 words, which must bo learned from a dictionary, take d5; of these thb moat frequent are :-manzo rnnmr dzon. garzone gaar'- deoa.rrai,.amamzone ansrnad dzon.*ai, nzaurm nad-dzad'r'oa, bream brasd.dzaa, bizzarro bsrddznnr'.r'oa, bozzo baoddean, caprezzo hapraid,- dzon, dozzina, doad-dxw-nun, gazza gaad denn, gazzetta gnad-dzuittaa,laseonp laud-dzaatwa na& mezzo rnkddzoa, pozzo piroddsoa a h&' p 0 a l. m taon ' a wall,' razzo randcfzoa, rozzo road.dwa. No rules can bo giren for the placa of the accent (when not written by a grave accent on the hat syllable). Insinging thc musicd accent marks it sufficinlltly., Moat of the preceding rules and examples 'have been adapted from F. Valentini's Grrrodlichs Lsh9.s dm italianisahm Arrrsprnehs, hrlin '.

110 ECCLEBlAETIC.4L LATIN, Or tbnt used in Maeeeg and Mediæ? Hymns, met bg treated precidy like Italian. J!he clessical pronunciation of Latm, h m one centmy before to one century after Christ, differed materially from Italian,,but much more materially from the ppmunaiation Wh.& tijl very recently wan 2"" lent in &and is still prevalent in most, ngksh clussical sahoolg. The clwical pronunciation of the vowels and cousoqnts was probably the same as the pronunciation of Italian, except as re the lettere H, C, G, and Occnsiody Y, Z;?e - H was probably always pronounced as h in claeslcal Latin, except in the combinations CH, GH, PE, RH, TH, where it was u~tilly omitted, EO that theae.combinations sounded an 1, g, p, r, t. 3ccruionally, however, purists. may have pronounced them as k-h,!;h, p-), :-h, t-h. The C, G were always k; g. lhe pmclpal distinction between claeaical and medireval Italian pronunciation lay in the strict obaemance.of long and short vowele, and long und ahort syllables p. losa), by the ancienta, and in their use of a mqaical pitch :yiic04a). Those whowish to enter upon tion of. thaw pointe are referred ta my practical " Hints on the Quantitative Pronunciation of Latin, for the uee of ClassiaalTeaahem and Ling.uista" (132 pp., Macmillan, 1874). But. the singer harr no concern with them. From the..end of, the third century A.D. the didiriction of long and short vowels wu lost in Latin, and the pitch accent had sunk ta the ordinary English and Italian force accent (p 104b), the only remnants of nunciation being the Rounds of the ' the letters Old an 8" the pomtion - of the 8hL. This position requirea evennow a knowledge of the laws of. quantity ta fix, but it occasions no trouble to tho' singer, becauae it hae been already fixed for him by the music In the following examples of wo&, imd in tho Slibat MZtev, hereafter given at len,. the long.vowels, are. not Usually -J% ur prosent Latin orthography (itkelf modern) wil marked by doubling the initial capital, or by 'i, i,i, i, li. They probably sohnded DE La, cis, ëe, lio, öo, and always formed long E llablea. Other vowels ere short, but if the are followed by two conaonnnta in the ame word: or one in ono and the next in tho following word, they formed long. syllable& rhe oldverais.cationdepended entirely upon them long syllables. The modern eidesiietioal -verse depends entirely nn strong and weak myllablca like English. In old V ~ R A there were ALPHABRTICAL KEY TO -1SIbS'PICAL LATIN. seo. XIV duent vowels, as in Ittllian (see introduction to &&ion XV) and this -confluent character also referred to words ending in W, which was never pronounced befom a vowel beginning the next word. In ecclesiastical Latin there were no. confluent vowela, and final m was regularl.ypronounced. Double consonants must be distinatly pronounced twice, BR in Italian. In the following Alphabeticnl Key, italics mark th6 pronunciation to be adopted, in Qlonaic durac. tere. The old length of the row& is marked in all Lutin words, and the length of da dn, äe Cie, ëe, e, äo L, ön, ön, which may be used in singing ecclesiaatical Latin, in also marked M con,venience. No um is made of the SUbEtitUb3 vowels Li, ëe i, öa i, öo rio, which are more wnvenient.for English organs. The pronunciation usually adopted in English school# for the examples, is subjbined for contmst and avoidance. A long or shod, cia, h, never ai, a, never indistinct; rama rlavsobs, factum fãak-töom, fäta wtürr (not rairr'w, faktrrm, factu, as in Ligliah S&OOl#). AE, E, long, cis, aetäa ä&lar, m- ruövs& (not wtm, eatciwus, wwi, as in mtivus &atës'u8oaor, English echools). If &'ie foun difficult, ai may be d, but. there must be no suspicion of the vanish ui.y. AU (raw, that is, BB izaõö, audivi apwdëev~e [not audeivei, BB in English.sohools). '. B, always b, bacca b&k.kàa, abiëe an-b c;ciss (the original dort a- bewmjng long under the ac- ""2: abjectus hby&ætõoa (not bakmu, ab.ieee, abb tus, BB in English schoolsj: There is ar. old cwtom of pronouncing the prefix OB &B aop- before t and a, which may or may not be followed, as obtinuit doptërnöo-set or hbtëe. ilio-ëbt (not obtira-mit as in English schools!. BB always bb, subbibö skbb eb'c)k (not srrbdoa an in English whoole). C, before A, o, u, R,. L (not before AE, OE, E, I, Y', as R, canö, c hö Æda-nao (desiastical pronunciation doea not distinguish these.words), collum kdolgobrn, CUFEUE köor'.sios, m-nis kr'es+es, clämö k2äwmao (not kaknoa, kolun, &wrcrs, 'kr'eivais, kkinaoa, BB in English Fhogls). 1. ' kdomch~aö~, ayniaus cerd6köoa (not Seerer, 'afls.flu, sw'doa, sarknnwaiaw, siwikur, BB in English schools). ', C More -10, -1u8,&c., see a h T before these com- E:, binatione, Ir. jaciö yia.tde-oo, wnciö, contiö 1 kdowtsido (not jai.shioa, kon.ah,ioa BB in English I -, echoole). CC before A, o, u, u, L, &B k-k, before AB m, E, I, I'.BB t-ch, before -IO, kc., as t&, macoulu säakköolòog, occö ãokkäo, multe ãok-köol. ãe, accrëvi ' '. dak-kv'lisuës, acclämö iíak-klüa.&, accendo ãat-ch&n.däo, occids &t-chërräoa, Acciq~, Attius Ac%t.lsèe-öos (not rakeulus, ok.oa, okultee, aww-.si; aklaiwwa, akssndoa, oksbi,aoa., Ak.siw or dtiar, ru in Engliali srhools). CH BL~ simple k (nevor ch), &E chorus klo.ro'or, Bacchus Bãak.köor (not kaarus, Bak.w, as in English SChOOh). Dia d. dö däo, ad k d (not ha, ad, & in English SChOOlE). _BD ru d-d, addö ãddlo (not ad:oa, BE in English schoohj. ' E long and ehort, 'as àe, Crs ; but if thew sounds are found difficult, ai, e may be used, provided there is no suspicion of the vanish aiy, et ãet, etiam äe't~ a-äam, ëjä b'ycia, ëvocãre iewão-, kàa.rris (not etsahia~n, mjaa, woakairvi, aa in EngliSp ~ch~al~). ZI,,if found, must be treated &a I ; but it is only an ancient form. EU, BB amo, that is, a&ö; Euröpa Aewväoyã (not. Bumap, as in Engliah schools). F as f, ferö fäkväo, lücifer löo-&& M (not fier-. von, Isusifw, aa in En&h soboo&. FF asf-fi ofi hffua, officina aoff8sohëaka (not oftr, ofiasi:nu, as in Englisa schools).. O before A,';, u, u, L (not before AE, OE, E, I, v) &E g ; guudium gaawmd8s-km, gävrsus gãavëe.gos,, gbiö glo+ëe-äo. gula göo-lãa, grätia gr'lats&da, glöria glào.r'ëe-za (not gau-dium, gnivsi.srra, go!-- bioa, gwlu, g#ai.shiu, glnur'iu, 'as in Enghsh if found, is simple g. H befoie vowels, h; after coneonants in the eame syllable, omitted; habeö haa-bde-lo, mihi'm-rhk hiijus höo.yh (not haoi.bioa, mer-ei or cwiki, liquyw, as in English schoole). I, long and abort, ëe, ëe, but if k is found too difflcult, i may.be wed : ire kvj&, exitdsk.aëetöbr clivi klärvëe (not sir-r'i,.ckaitus, k-lsivai, BB in Englieh schools). J,.a mediæval lehr, introduced to replaca I when, it aded BB a consonant,, always y, BB &nus Y&nöm, jëjünlls y&yk~rrios, Joclm y&.kõos,. jiicunditäa. ydoköorrd&täa+ jüdmium yöoí?ae= ta +öom (not Jahw, jijeumr, jwh, jbukw~-- dituo,jeudieh&n, as in English schoola. K, alw~y~ k, but not wed except in one or.two words, as kalendae kdal&n.&c (not kulm~:dce, BB in English schools). L, a1-y~ 1, laetiie lärtöoa (not ke-tua, BJ in Xnglinb SchOOh). N, always n except before c, Q, when theee have the sound of X-,.v, in which caw it becomes ng : nam dam, nhie m%wëes, junctus yöongktöos, junga yõmagyao, but. jungem yòowjãdw (not raum, naivria, jrrngk.tw, jbng'gos, juwjur';, as in Englieh sohools). ' NH, always l&, 88 caunae xãmawb (not Kan.i, ' like " canny," as in Engliah sch001~). O, long and short, always äa, L, hut thosewho findthesesounds too dscult may my öa, 8, without, however, any suspicion of the vaniah W W OWUm 6O'VÕOl~ OV", Ö<E äo'vh, &VJ&d (these, of cow, are mediævalmispronuncia. tions), obolum riobaoldbm (not oawtn, oawis, oboalwn, ea in English schoole). P, always p, pater p&tdsf, Appiue Aàp-phh (not pai:ter, Apiw, 88 in English achoolsl.

111 204 ALPEaBETlCAL KEY TO WCLEOIABTIOAL LATIN. eso XIV PH, sither simply p; or p-h ; but y, which came in later, me be also ueed in worda from the Greek, thus. Pd p a PtTslhp-pJoa or FJskïep-p&w, but triumph& trkjompäa.tjbr or.p-häa.- (not Filipwa, t~vi~w~nfai-tus, an in Engliah sch001~). l PP, alwa p-p, as mapb maap-#a (net map.u, as in EngTh schools). QU, alyaye köo- or Aw. as hi Italian: quantum kwllan-tjom (not kzuon-turn, RB in English schools). B, alway~ 1" very strongly trilleci; as in Italian,,as ' mam rruia.r'ãe, marceo mdar'vhda-öa, mrvo säav'.- röa (not main';, maa.shioa, aeruon, as in English. sch001s). BE, simply r', 88 minus Rarnks (not ~~r,rue, BB in English sch~~ls). BB,.very distinctly doubled RE in Italia11 r'4: terris Iisr'.v'ks (not ta.'.is, as in English schools). TH, alweyn t, the. Italiana annot pronouncm th : theurö tdda-c'do, thëeaunls tdasaaw~v'jbr (not thiai'twa, thwau.w, aa in Englimh sohooln). U, long or short, öo, JO, or if this ia too difficult, h, üo, BB mütus mw t8oa (not m n e w h, BB in English ' d1001s. This is a medimral letter, intmduoed aa the consonant of which V WBB the vowel. In medimval print and manueori t we generally flnd U for the coneonant and ]e for the vowel, but in modem boob the converse ueage prevails. V, dways BB English u. as vivö uëe.uäo ínot usi-uoa, 'as in EngW ecll001~) This WBB the arimnal.. III. ALPHABETICAL KEY TO FRENCH PBONUNClATION. The French langnsge offm great diffidtim to on English sposker. It has six new non-naad vow&, US [l of the explasetiom on p lea,an 21, ao t], ud (41, W. [6J M. L61 and althougk a spa er won1 remam mtelkpb e who confused ne with a. ah with au, m with o, and 01 with eo, he becomea very diffionlt to underetana if he confunes W with eithor 1114 or 00 (the flrst is better than the last). or so and 01 with 6+ (untrilled r). It is therefore absolutely necaeaaq to acquire the sounds. of and'either so or os. French has four nasal VOW~E, utterly unlike any English SOUU~E am' 171, ahd [E], om [e]. and om' [lol. If these are &led mg, onq, oang, mg, rebpeotivdy, the result in supremely brrrbaraus, but sinw the sound 1:g doa not occur in French, these sounds could not, be mistaken for any others, and hence wonld bo more inblligible than an, on, oan, un. Observe I the apostrophe after the I', which entirely alters ita meaning in cllossic. Besiden this, the frequent me of the adund of ah (which we certainly know in English division, meaaure diuiahwrr mezh-w, but. not at the' beginning of words), O ~ O U a E diffioulty. The commnt ny' [la] and the oocwional initlal ga, complete the lit, BO. far an the mere ~dy~ia of sounds is ooncerned. But the method in which them sounds &re oonnected into syllables, and the s?lhblos into worth, and words are run on to each other, is EO different h m anythin we hav9 in English, that no attempt can be m& to deaaribe it in tho limited npbm which can here be allowed. Learnere are recommended to ntudy the meaning of some piece of French, BO as to be familiar with the appearance of the words, and then to listen with the attnnlioa while i3h read out to them wry many timas by natives, 'without themeelvea attempting to imitate the ~ounde, till thair earn m thoroughly familiar with thm. By attempting to imitate too early and not listening EllffiCb3d1y, pupila scarcely hear anything but their own failurea, md. generally pronounce wretchedly. No language is EO badly p ~ - nonnced by English as the French they. ay pade io t& to one another. lhe ortho raphv,or ttw Yrench lan age beurn vm little &tion.to ita.sound. It is Lb, therefor& to.consult a French pronounun Dictionary. r-8 Ezplanato" BbtMwy of the.french Languqs, with the ronunciation' in Amoh letters is out of print. #he New Pocket A.Onomn&g Dictionary. of the h h a d EtyZwh. Lamguagsr, by A. Mendel (E. F. O. Poclket Seriw, 1s. a.), marka thepronunciatiou of French worda iu lhglwh lettera, which may be interpreted by referring in them to words wntslned in the following W- Many of the following rules and exampleg have been adapted from Le Phon raphe ou h hnoneialion fi-a~yaiss rewhe fwib 7th lea dtrangsrs, par Y. et Mlle. "hhiat, Paris, valuable work of which the present writer haa 'painly. endea-. vourod to.procure a second wpy. The following rules will therefore be found useful even to persone wall Bconatomed to read French. There ia no strong aocmt in my French word thus, 'complete wmppte.' MmpMrt koan'pkisl, have a totally different effect to English eam an re,mds accent. In the following examplee no phoe of the a0-t will be marked, and the rea& should try to mako the syllables aß even in he as possible, never exceeding, th& amount, of- differbuce heard in sach Englial1 WO& -mi&,.

112 ~ eourd. 206 ~ALI'AA.BPTICAL KEY TO FB.ENCH PBONURCIATIOX. k c XII. ALPHAIIRT~AL KEY TO FBENCI PHoxuBCIATlnx ' hall, turnpike, primrose, Bedhill, breasthigh, retail, i is rir [l], evon in singin: and in veme, HS parwholesale. 8ee D laient mar'&. 2). as the termination of the When no quahity is marked bho vowel mny be third person pik1 of the resent indicative or OP modium length, and d o longer or shorter at subjnnotive it is M 88. W a Xiphthoug in speakthe hoy of the speaker. When long and short hg, and M - Y ~ in einging, BB 'qu'ils aient M&- marks are printed, long nnd short vowels muet be. ab-se or -ae-yeo. rpoken. These marks nre generally put ovor tho firet letter of any combination BE &Y, äe, &n', but AIL h l or before H, au-b na B diphthong, or in caw of R both letters hwe the short mnark, to nearly si. as travail traaun&e noarly traarek, but shew that extreme brevity hna to bo observed. older epeake?.say aaly' [l?]; in other caaee it is At-L. A perdy aq, long or ehort, but frequently ah before S even when, the S is mute, BB il parla AILL 1) before an unpronounued final E, ES, is1 paw' lan, agenda crrrzhwdjnn, ur palirai, ENT is an-ëe na LI. diphthong,' BE medaille rmetk knhrnat, pns ph. See tr following maidaa-ze, Vmaailles Vner'ro-Ja, qu'ik travailcombinations. lent.kht trnrau-k, in ninging trun -uaa-pco, BC.. a), before any other vowel au-y or nmrly si-y RB A hn.9 the BBme value na vaillant uaa-yahn'.nearly uei-yahn', fnisillir fw- A. yam., noer1 fsi-yjsr'. Older spenkers say  is generally ah [2]. BB lbho &chah, but many oauly'ahn' $nlg'w. Frenohmen always use ma. AIM 1) beforo vowels AI-M, 2), otborwim osd [7]. UA. not before a vowel, is ahn' [e,] as Caen mifnim fnsn'. 'K+' but before a vowel is IWI or mm, as AIN l) bnfore VOW& AI-N, a), otherwine mu' [ir], Caennai~ or C& Kannda.,, BB grmi dsn'sw, les minta hz"ll'., AI in M [l], na aine äea, &emsine rmlnasn, irai-je by. 1) before a vowel or X is A-M, 2) otbcrwise w&b; ExcerT 1) in gai gai, geai ahni, hit 'lui, mai mai, malaisé mnlaishent rnankizai mmlaidimahn', papegai paapzirni. quai ka;, &sin6 raisssnni, je. tu sais, il wit ædi, Toquai tmkdi, vainaelle uairael, 2) in tbe beginning of Wo&, bnt at the end of a syllable, when the next syllable does not begin with R. LL. ad siné nizni, S) in verbs, as j'fli &hi, i'ahi ehdah'. A AI is generally ne [l] long, as fraîche frcianh, gaìne gdm; Excwr before N followed by any vowel but an unprononnoed E. and even in that case 'if L or R follow the E, a# chaîne ohaìnette ehden ahdinaet, il 6nchaìnern nhu'nhäiw'nn. A.Ï not before a vowel in aa-ee, BE caïque kan-kk ; befofe a vowel is almost au-y or ar-y, BB aïeul aa-ywl [e], faïence!na- ahn'r or feiiyahda. II 11 os rh, when final BB miie wi'cie. (xxcwt gaie &'li Gie pm-ëe, taie tos-ëe,) and in tho, middle of worda not heing parta of verba, na I gaiet4 glistoi, 2) m Ba final in vorh na 'e paie i pas-&, qwdaie zhac-k a), ai-& na a dipithag in the mid e of elibstantiw, na paiement mahn' 4), ai-m n8 two sylleblea in the mid Ple oof -! T~XI au je paierai par-cer'ni. AIENT 1) nn the termination of tho third pmn plural of tho imperfoct iudicativeaod condhional..! ahd [e], M Adam Adah*', dam dahu', uidam kssdcrhn', &amon Sahn'sany', EIcmT kmner &nui and ita derivatives. AN 1) before a vowel or N in A-N, 'I) otherraise ahn' [e], IUI MM rahn'. AON is 1) au-na,;' [g] in 10 fort de ' Laon Lm-on,,', Pharaon fan-rau-oad, 2) oan' [e] in Saint-Laon &m-loan', taon toan' or tnhd, 3) nh~r' y] in CraonXrahn', faon fah', paon pahn', la VI le de Leon Bahn', 8rrint-&n Sden'tahd. 4) m before another N, nn Craonne Krdnn, pnne pdnrr, Laonnaiso Laanles. AU is a1m-t alwava 8.1 [21], na autnpt Ö~ttdhd, but sometimes m [S], na Aurore Anr'aor'. AW only found in found in foreign words' in twlted BB AU. AY is 1) m-se na a diphthong not before vowels in ' BB are genudy b, BB babil banbrb, ahbé, hbai, Abbeville ddbokl; but B is not pronmnced in plomb, aplomb. eurp1omb, ploa!~' aaphan' ' ~ Jwr*phkn', and Colomb, koaloa~!,~]'lefehme C is 1) 6 before oo~onsnts. and before A, O, U, I.EsoBPT in. &cogne rwyuony' [le, pfune de reine-claude.glöed, csar gelar' en d it3 deriva- - tives, wnd mgoan' and ita derivatives ; 2). and also 'k when W, na beo bwk, EXCEPT in accroc M~YW, almaunch aalma.man, ban0 bahn' [e). bec.jpune lai-zhk,r, broc broa, clero klw', mc ATM, Bohece aishw, emroo airkron, estomac ' ' ai$tcynnau, franc fr'ahn' [a, imtinct asf'ataen' h [a] ' n&, Baint ro pöar', tronc &'öan' ; '. 3) 8 before E. I, (E, na ceux do [;i]. cieux &-L; 4 rh in worde taken from the hliun where Ley are ronound oh, as vermicklle. wasr'wht, vdoncslle ukaloan'shcl : 191- p only used before 4 O, U, is always a, ta^ façon fanawrr' [g 1. : 00 is k in pl- where the sedond C,wonld be k, ' nnd kr where the second U ;vonld be a, nnd t-ah. in wo& from the Italien where they pould be. t-oh, as taccord mzkdor', wo&a mkada [l]. Piccini pml-aheeilw. ' m is 1) nh,, in dl old b o h words. as chercher rhmr'dar [l], 2) k in moat word^ bken re- - cently from or modern languages. EXORPT Reiohstadt R'aiaL.mda4, punoh pönn'rh [e], Chiron Shair'oan' [S]. ohirurgie 8hr'wr'- shec [45. sad ita derivatlves, ontéchisrne kantai- ' ahaerneo' [Sj; drachme drnagdo'.. D in 1). d genemu BB donnor dmnni, 2) unpronouncod.when &.al in the d terminftions AND, END, OND. or when preceded by several. vowelsor by R, as gmnd grnhn' [e]. froi fr'w~. rwr', and n'&&id M'mdree; 3) t when one of the words in (2) run on to the following vowel, BE grand homme grahn'-t-zorn c3 mueil frmrm-t-auk-ode [e], bllt gran& grahrr'd-ahm [R, 21. DD is 1) &cl (as in bai ducks) after E, and in moat foreign wo&, BB reddition rudd-dm-ayo ru' [g], Adda Ad-h. P 1) ie very frequently not pronounced.nt all. and when pronounced may be m or W, for ruthorities diiur : Ex. Je VOUE aime mieux que lui, B &na; ce que je lui demande am km-rh l&we-d ~ mahn'd ; je ne le retrowo pas rhco-n &u+', trop. vdh [2]. que je me r6pent.e km shao-rn raipdh't [e]. In all these wwait is, fully pmnoutloed M m in anging. whorc it is never. mute, and may be lengthened or hure BB much force on 1: an we pleaso even in Oases where it must be muta in speaking, with the sole exwptions of the termination AIENT, and of E ending a word which h, run on ta the following beginning with a' vowel, na Hre Bine f.as# [ 1 ] ninai. In poetry it counts for a syllable where it S ronound in singing. The general rule in speakng is, omit E when ih omission will not bring throe consonantal. ROUU~~ together; otherwise sound it &II 60." The complete etndy of all the wes ie extremuly embarranaing. Final-blu, -b,r, -ama, &c., must have ninaahlaa, Septembre 8a+tshn'- ~wmaatzemzo', and NBmu u# in EngW ' amiable, Yeptembar, rheumatitism.' 2) E is w [l] before final consonant, followed or not by an unpronounoed E, BB belle bud, duel due-asl, Joseph &m.eã?f, il est ë#l da-; EXCEPT avec aawaik, olef khi; 3) 'E is w also. in the middle of a word before several consonanta. rules for E ocoupy sir ro al octavo agea in double colnmn, with ~mlf print, in bh&'e book,of which the above is a very meegre abatmot).. BB honté bomr'tai, 2) un by unpronounced. E or I,,as college khhazh. orf6vm aor'fosrrzõ. S) before the sound of r,in the middle of a word, na mis6riaorde m&dcv'ãsknor'd [1,'3], 4).m [l] i!~ j'bhis, (tant ehnelda mtnhrr', pr.6hur prtrstosr, pr6tura probfder'. k is 1) properly ne [I] 88 &oh dairda, bdve brä6u. 2) ni before' two consonantal sounds which can begin a-syllable. BB r8gllement.raiglj8mahn' [6,8], il 18chera èel laiahran. gher, mqler, failai, ahäinai, mäilui; wha the. next syhhh han not an uupron~unced E, end. in somn other cases. EI is l) ae [l] at the end of words, before a consonant and mute E, before 'any consonant. but QN. M. N, in the middle of words. as n e b

113 ,. I ' 308 ALPEURTICAL KEY ro FBE~PCH PEONU~CIAIION. rhh, pleinement plkmahn' [E], Abeilord -4&:;31; a) at [al] in other casea, ns, pemeaz pink [S], j'enaeignmi ehahn'rainv'rai [E, le.] HL flnal is &.Je forming a diphthong, m conahil Æaan'rar-k [O], ~oleil raolae-is, vieil uyas-h. BLLG before E mute final, is ur-& [l] forming a.diphthong, but More any other vowel ai-y, ea awe aak-ae, merveilleux mw'vaiyk. EIY not wore a vowel i~ am' [7] as Rheims Ram'r. Em not before a vowel ir um' [7], BE deaaeh liaiaam'. EM not before a vowel is 1) ahn' LE], an empire ahn'ph-', emmhger ahu'mainaaz ai, remmener rahn'nmai, ex08 t in nempiterne radm'ptadnael [I], and most foreign names, BB Wibtember Pudtam'bdur' I C', 2) arm [l] at the end e$. namm BB Jernsalem Ziìairuwaanlaem, and before PZ, an bhmnite bdamm&. BXCRPT indemnite aen'dumntwtai, rnlemnel raolaa~rl, and ita derivativen. EH l) genemlly ahn' [E], and when a vowel or N follows ahn'-n na enflé ahnflai, enimahn'nmr'ai, ennui ahn'-nw-88, 2) occseionally add [7], apeoially in the EyhbleE IEN, YEN, not. before L vowel or N. AB bion bynem', ohrhtien kv'aityaen', 89 amen aamam, Beethoven Bnitoauarm [German Bai.t-hw-m]; 8) eometimea natl, before n, as. o3uenne kwaan, hennir aanëur, nenni naaned. =T in th6 third pereon plural of verbe is left unpmnounced in reading, but sounds CO [6] in ninging. See AIENT. EU, l) lm two wunde m [51 oo [6], but different orthoepisb differ in their discrimination of the words pnoseaning them : and Tarver doea not distinguish them at all. It is safest for an Englishman to um os short and m long 8s in German; 2) EU is y [4] in j'eua eu. ils eurent ehus, ue, deh-licr, and in final GEURE, na Eea. XIP. F 1) dmoat al*aym.f, as un œni wd-n-&f [lo, 6,J ' un beuf m' by; 2) u in NEUF the nmcra!, not the adjeotivo) before a vowe I or mute, an neufhommea now-aom; 3) is mute in NEUF (the numeral) beforo a mnsonbt, as neuf Mef, des nerfs dm nad ; un œuf freie wn'-n-eo fi&, die aufs frois d&do-jrck. PP h alwnyn f simple, an di%ì&dibfjrdrj. Q 1) before A, O, U, oud before an conbonant but N, S, T, is g, as gage gam4 Ligue wteq, globe gkd y, Eughien Ahn'gauh' [8,1{; 2) it is g before ning of a word, gnomonique grt::m%i:kc ; and in a few new, and chidy technical wo&, the moat US^ bein8 agnat mgma, ant rtaugnahrr' ; 3) it M g in foreign word^ Zug in g, whig waq, bang Fhdg [e], pouding -g [7],.and.also M ~oug shoo (but not ln conrereahon nnleae a vowel fodows) ; 4) it ia k in brig W&, bourg boor'k, except ail a termination, an faubourg fe ; 6) It is J before E, I, Y, 88 gene shim ; 6) It IS unpronouneed before S and 'J!, ea rurngaue sehr'& [E, 41; vingt ulisn't ['I](obaerve only quatre vingt bckrtrir8 used without t) ; when &al after a mad vowel, a8 long loan' [g], poing pwom' ['L and in the folloeg words Clugny Hluensa, mpi6gne Zoan'pyarn, signat remac, and a few other nsmee. W is g before A, O, U, and geh before E, T, an nggraver aagr'anuni, stïegxhasr'ai. Q1 L dw8ys n#' [le], except in the wes under G, Nos. a and B, an signe Sasni/'. QUE &ml ie g, UE ligue lieg; but observe bripjner brwgai, droguer drogai, and =guar aur'g"is.ai [4]. QUI ir generally gee ; but.gw-ir [C] forming 4 diphthong in a few words ea ai le aigude, Quine Gw-iss, linguiete nlam'gw- P at, ambiguite ahn'bmgw-dtai,aipisar aigw-ami, inextinguible ~nwk#taum'gw-iebi#j. H M never pronounced in E~mch, but, when the peeding vowel is not cut OE btfore it, it is naid to be eapir6 naspeswi, an h hauteur h oatkr' [a] den haricots da aur'ssköa, les homards E d wmmr. I ia generally re, but t etaem two VC W&, or aftel a conaonsnt in the wme syllable it may be con sidered I/. an chantelies drahn'tkr'yai 161. '1L after A, E, EU,'(E, O, OU, has the same effect ' a6 simple 1. See thoso combinationb. ILL in the middle of words, following A, E, EU, CE, OU, or any masonant, or Cu,.QU, QU, has the same effect BR simple I ; that is, is er or &y, arrcept in a few words. flee those combinations. ILLE bal following any consonant cxoept'v, acts RB rimple I. and is culled se or &y, LE famille faamce, exoept in Achille, codicille. distille, - 'inetille. mille. tránquille, and a few other W O ~ S where it ie sel. ' IY before B or P h arn' [T], ns impossible, nen.pao&bw [5] ; otherwiae generally brn nn immense c&rn-naahrr'r [e]. 18 not before a vowelamor n,ia regularly ned [7].ns bnssin baaa~nd.2, instinot am'atcwn' ; otherwiae nedy äerr colline Æuolirn, inuocent &~orah~r' J h dmys rh, m in jute rhjsat, and never unpronounced. K is dmyn k, but is only used in foreign words. O is generally short [3], and P [2l]-long n1 homme now, chose nhinz. See combinations. of O with other lettera below. 6 is alw8j'e in ' [21 as ap8tre aappiotr'ia [6], fant8me jahn'tcarn is]. Ob is genendlg 0.4 but is waa in foarre fwaar', joailler shwaa-ieyai, and its derivatives. OE is wad [l] in modo mwad, and ita derivatives. O# is wm [l in Noël Nwasl, and wna in coëffe kwaaf, goë z ette gvaahst. and their derivations. OÊ is cona in p0816 pwanl, and its dßrivatives. (E is ur [l] or ni [ZII in foreign wo& only. ' (EIL in W-& [6], an a diphthongjn this one word, (EILL is Oe-Zey [S'. an œillade opzeyand. (EU is W [B] or m [6], preoieely, ag EU which see. 01 is regularly waa, ea roi r'waa, but ih a fe+ words it is occaaianally pronouncedwai [2!]..B was often nr 111, but in these words Af :II nom gonerally wntten, an foible (or faible) fasbldj [6]. Om 1) not before a vowel is tomn' [T.], as loin iwam'; 2) before a v~wol is waan, BE avoine auwwttan, moinenu mwannk. OX 1) not before a vowel is oan' B]. as nom. man', comte koan'l, except before aa automnale uatwnmnal, omnibus aornrrrabuas;.2) before a vowel mm, an lbme Raona. I

114 perally not pronounced at the end of words or before another connonant..but it runn on to R following vowel nae.ak trois hommos tr'wda-s-aom. BC initial befem E, I, Y. is simple e, na scene , ECA tique rarptrrk [l], udem a VOwd preceda, ani then it ie oftan M-Æ, W amandant Raa-suhd- &An' [e], ECH, wed in non-french wordn only,, is rh. EH, used in non-french wo& only, is rh. 88 almwt alwnyn eimple 8,. but 8-8 h masile raerml [l]. and a few uu~~ual words. T'iaithl is nlways t. In th- wnrdn whera it beeornee ra in Engliah it M r in French, ns TE.M dwap t, na th6 lai. TT ie dm& &my8 t, but is. t-6 id litthal kttasrad [l], end a few unoommon, chie89 non-... bah, worh. t ' Co. XIV. AIAIBAABITICiJ~ KNY 'L'O FKRNCH PKONUNCIAT~OB br'/ed, Lundi Z~eddw; in a few wo& nan' [g]. dekr), faaulrfiiu [Yl], taux Ida, chevaux.,hznoon, ' aa Dunkerque Doan'krier'k, Undine Oan'dssn, I &o., Bordeaux Baor.'döa, &c.; chcveux slmwk. &c.; before vowel6 uesl [4] as unig tmreetui. ' [6], heureux wr'k, &o., voix vmaa, oroix kr'wua. ' ~~.UY now only wed before vowels, G-'-csy [G, the epoux uipoo, doux dm, rdrix paer'dr'es, prix üj-8~ forming. a diphthong, EW UI,.W appuyer j pr'w, reflux r'mjw [5,4]l".nd a few others.. &p~-eeyai, La Bruybre.Lm B~.'U-eJyäd. 'I ' v is alw8)'e e, and always pronoyced,. n a vive vbw. z E almye I, na gaz gäaq'except in &-m flnal TZ, and S ani& fud Z, when. it becomw ). ' W S only used in.foreign W&, and is general1 8, BE seltz sash r11, c~uz ~r'crsr [a]. Z.flnal in v, a8 Weber Vaibüw [l], waggon vuugoan' [el the ;E2 of. verbs is not pronounced, &B S O ~ Z.:-hut sometimes W, ea whi weg, whimt wert, rwaoyai or rwauyai, and in asma uaeäi, \vindaor Wflen'dzöar [7].!t is not rqnounoed ', in Newton Ywkun' [6], New York da.chez rhii, nea ladi, rez v'&, rie v%c. -. Yuor'k. ZZ is dz in almost all Itaziw words used in Frènoh,. 88 mezzo ïnllsdsoa. - demüa-ed [4] (diphthong), deux a &res &ozau- W Ftr'a8, deuxibme; dixibme, &c. C! flnal is not pmounoed in faix fäe [l], pix p& (but Aix Exarrryk of. -Et puis une vieille carogne et u11 enfant borgne out vendu de mau\~a vin au peuple b8te devant la foule; y O~~S-VOIIS, mon ami P - Ai pea diphthong) ma uyai-b kaar'anny' ai wn'-n-ahn')ahn' baozny' oad vahn' kwd wouvae VWR' ou pkn8 &t &mahn' laa j601, ee net-voa, maon-uamw F And then an old hag ind a child, one-eyed, have aold of (eome) bad wine.to bhe people stupid before the crowd ; there m you (do yon understand), my friend? Û E long [4]. WEIL,.UEILL are os-k [e,] or or-jey, ea ircouoil OaÆw-l, oeroueil r&r; h-& heil.nikm-& orgun7 aor'gor-k, recueil wkoa k, nbw cueillous h.aqoalt. VI ia +.W [4], fodlng a diphthong. BO that üe becmm nearly a oonnonent, resembling W and y pronounced bt the BBme time. It is better to pronounce &I distinctly na a iepmh vowel than E&Etitllte '10, whioh is the usual very bad English mispmnunoiation. Thus lui &-ea (not. 1 8 ~ or ~ s I-), ~ puis +-m(not pk-ss or p.wne)..m M 1) eon' [loj in humble wn'blu, plrrfum par'jwn'; 2) om' [Q] in rninb roan'b, Humboldt &n')&m. (i Qermany Hun.lr-baolt), lumbago h'baagk; 3) mm 31 in faetottlm alhm aalhnnm. te J eum tni Daom, nnd other Latin words ; 4) WI [4] before vowele, u9 dumetta aalusomet, fumemn fwdm'.. UN not before vowels, g::nerally o d [IO], na brun The U connonant. though it may be mute at the end of a word which.o~osw a sentance, or p- cedea a word begi"l'nß with a consonant, is very frequently effective when n vowel follows; thus hez lui ou ohez elle rhuj Eee 00 rhnk asl. This is cnlled a " liaieon" he-ukoan', or I' connection,l' md is. of wurse, most 'important in Ru French apeaking and singing. and. for French wmification. (p. 2140, at,hottom). But unfortunutelynogeneral rula cnu be given tg diatinguish those morde which will form n liaison. lbe diversity of usage nul! be sean bp such examples as : pas un pak osì, pm un ami pak om'n aamae, rant amis.8ahdt auwwt+ cent p et un rahn' pah ai oen', mon pèm moula' pm', mon ami mzols aamee, de son Bang de0soala' rahn', sang et c!auauhn'k ai oa, and so on. Gener-. ally C NUS on BB k, avec elle unvasæ ad ; D IIR t,.- gvnd 'homme gr'ahn't onm ; G as k, rang élevé : r.'ahrr'k ailvai; a8 I, ICE Lez aoi'g'; 'X RE I, ; mix hommes eem mm... i In the above Alphahatical Key thc cnsc of mute,.. NOl'E ON " LIA.ISOrUS.''.. and conn&ted final consonants is merely indicated But to know what words are to be treated in thir wa and what.are not, refewnce must be made k u &ctiosary which. pays particular attention tc the subjeot. John Bellows in his beiutifd littlc 'I Dictionary for the Pocket, French and English, English and French, both dividons on the mme page," second edition,' 1877 (London, Truebnerf, indicatm every case where the final commt is pronounced by adding no mark : where the final consonant is prónounced before a vowel but not otherwise, by ono torned period, as chez:; md. where the final consonant is never pronounced nt all, b two coup-. But space did turndjerioda,.aa not n8ow him to stingush the mes where the coneonant is occasionally connected and ocauion-.nu>- unconnected with the following vowel. Yore information on this difficult point will be found in Féline's Pronouncing Vocabulary (p. I9Zb); and in Littri! S great French Dictionmy. nut in poma casos nenge is not entirely tixerl...,.

115 ~ -. two 212 XXAWPL~I OF WN~E In OERYAN, ITALIAN, AND FRENCH. c XV, EXAMPLES OF SONGS IN GERhL4N, ITALIAN, & FRENCH. krmgemsnt.--in order to. exemplify the pre- and then in Italian. French with false nad d u g Alphabetioal Keys, a few noug have been ' vowcls, sounda very bad indeed. It will 'be selectedby Isfr..Curwen in German, Italian, and : observed that the position of the accent is indi- French, to which I hare added the pronuncia- ' cated in German end Italian, whore it is strongly tion in Glossic. and also a verbal trnnshtion into marked bv the sueakor. but not in hch. where English, which, at Mr. Curwcn's request, has.nlso it is lewstrongly marked, and is variable. The been put into Glossic. The single system of length ofvowels is indicated by %hn position8 of epelling thus used serves to, make the difference the ament mark ( ) efter a long vowel, or lrfter the between English and foreign pronunciation dis- I first consonant following a short vowel, and,is tinct to tho eye. The arrangement is aa fol- strictly observed in German The same position 1OWE:- I. Left hand column, Original Orthogra9hy. of the ment mark in Italian marlre the long nn? short vowel as usdy felt by Englieh speakers, The worde of the sonp are orranged aqmding hut BB already observed (p. 147~) the Italian vowels to the plan of their versification, without my of are nqturally of medial length, and their actd the repetitions which occur in the mueic, and, for length varies with the oxpresaion. When, howeaa~ of reference, the alternate lines are numbered. ever,they alter their length they preserve their No particular order or clhiflcation hes been at- quality. Thus aa, ce, ou, when shortnarsr become tempted, but the Germ1 songs are placed first, the English a, i, o. then the Italk,.and htly the French. The 1. In Oernnn, da, k, are used in closed sylname of the composer, and, when known, that lables to guide the. reader, 88 it wtiuldbo quite that of the writer ir added to the title, both in wrang to nay hdand Ctky'h for häand kky'h; inthe.~~. nntive orthomtmhv. deed.deoidedlv worn than, to =v hand'ivh. II. Bigkt hand column, ~'ronwnciation in Glossie. In' (3ermnn-hit will be fohd that mnny The indications of tho preoeding Nphabetid Keys W ~ e8em E to vary their final consonants at ore carried out without making my of Eose Eng- pleuaum.. The theory of German pronunciation Liah substitutions, which are indicated at the begin. II that, d, g, gy'h, E, nevor occur at the end ning of each of. those tables. These substitution8 of worde, but are always chnnged into p, t, X., mayof courae be made by the singer, but they ky'h, J, reapeotively, however they my'h writneccsenrily disfigure the pronunciation. They ten..but in prnctice, when the worda ending with may be mnde with the least bad &eat in German, any of,the former wnaonants run on to worm be... 'qinning with any of them, or with a vowel, th3 I musical note (unless thoro is a pauno in tho mm) former consonnnta nre retained, but ill other cyes I and me reckoned as a single syllablo in tho YUI" they are altered. Englishmen, however, mny ' (even when there is IL break in tho scnnu, $o follow their own customs of pronunciation in this that there is an abwlute ailonce betwcen thom in m without offending a Germnn ear, which would 1 reading), but they very rarely form anything ap- 'be sc+wly conscious of the alteration. Through:! proaching to R real Engljah diphthong like er, out a large section of Germany spf%kers and writers ' o, ou. T~US in Dimrto sulla Terra, v. 2, Col, Beem unable to distinguish p from b, 1 from d, ky'a I rio dnstino in guerra, Yoal wet%î daietecma-ser h m gy'h, and occasionally 1; fromg, but they I gwner'.r'an, there &.M) onlyscvrm syhbles, which usdly distinguish S from J. ' ought to be pointed out by durs in munic. (The. Tho German vmiecation resumbles the Engliah : English edition of the music gives, by mistake, ' :.. m closely ns to occasion no di5cdty to the reader ~ notes to... ma-mn.). Again (ibid. v. 3), who obaerves the place of the accent. 6 sola meme un cor As sowla# suas'mai. -om 2. In Itnlian it is always posible for an Eng- car).' hai only six syllables. (In the music the lishman to we i, e, o, uo, for b, de, do, öo,. in closed... rnai-oon fall to one semiquaver.) Thus, for. syhblea, but it adda much to the beauty of the them two case, the rnasie is properly divided :- I ' pronunciation not to do so. In opensyllables he may use äu for äo, but äc must have a sound quite distinet from äi, and öa (not Lu or JO) must bo pronounced,whoremarked,before I". -4 difficulty nrisoe from the confluent vowels WEch take the place of English diphthongs, but are in' Italian pronouncedmuchmore distinctly.lepcrrals. When th- occur within the came word as id rio," WYÖZ, IL ei," ai%, the short mark indicates that thc iä or ÜZ foiqie only one hiknowledged syllable with the previoun'e8, and that the two m sung to one note of music without I' attacking " the öi or êz separatolg, EO thut there is no cessation of voice between the ep and the i& In the frequent where üë, iö, come firet, y and W are written, BB the EOUU~E are almost the m e, but they am by no means quite the Mame in Italian, as in English. Thue gwno'+aa poassyaidai would be more broperly and fully written g88-aer'v-'a.a, --. n -- n. n d., I œkc - " r'aa an ma- lna npas'nzai-oon kaor'. In other respects Italian vdcation offers na difficulty to English speakers. 3. Fmneh veraification is founded upon an older system of pronunciation which prevailed when its lawn were established, and which is carried out in ' music. In modern French speaking the Enal -c, -mat, of EO many French words, is not pronounced at all, although it ma9 count 88.8 syllable in the.. verse. Even on the stage, in declaiming trngic verse, these " mute e's " are still really mute, in, most ME, though their presence is ocewionally pona-szz-aidai. This Italian slur has been already indicated, and are always preaent to the mind of conqideredwhen the elements both Occur in tho tho speaker. In inging on the other hand, dame word, on p. 46a. thene -c, -ent (except in the termination -aient), Whm theao confluent vowcls are in different are always pronounced, and may have a very words, ending one and beginning the- other, the long and forte note assigned to them. They mark is used to indicate the union,,thus deatino must therefore be attacked by singers jut as in, daisteess:noa-eerr, spcme un 8pWI18fZi-OOn. In if they were written " eu" in French!etterS. I, this eaae the twovowels although usually pro- Whether they should be called eo or oe (the two nounced quito distinctly, um sung to a single I sounds of French '' eu,") is a matter of dispute

116 arnong E'renchrncn; t Beom goncrn1:y to hear bo, which I hava. thorefoh? written. and mny E'renohmen agree with mc. Othcrs do not dietinguiah wnllciowly betwobn co.nnd oc. Both soundb, when tlml beur so doso a resemblmco to om flnal -16 or -er (when no trill v' is addud t.o the vocal r, that either sound (cnrofally avoiding to trill tho v) m y be used for it by Eng~iEhmon. 'l'hua in "Oh v011 CZ-VOIW lrllor 5".' (lites, mv jeune belle," which in proso wonld bo uw, mãa ;Absu bli, is sung to U dw - ipq own choc - nco bad - rn (In the English edition one note only is wrongly resignad to "bollo," clearly on account of the English trirnahtion.) As Englishmen in singing French nongs try to aroid pronouncing tho " mute a" na much ris possible, and thus produce a very.,rt~ngeffect on e m accustomed to French singing, thoy rrhould-be very careful to observe this oharncturimtic mage,. 'l'o this pronunciation of finil -c (not of -mt) there is one remarkable excuption. If a vowel follows, tho e is perfectly mute, being entircly elided. This is thc only case in French poetry in which a word is allowud to end with a written vowel when the noxt word bogins with ono tiencn, thore aro no 'I conthont " \:OWCIS bctwccn words in French singing or versilmtion as there 'are in Italian. Open vowuls do occur, ' howover, occasionally,,but then theyo ia generally wmc written, but unpionouncod consonant inkerposod, or the word ohunges its. sound 'l'hns, " la voilo ouvre son aile," elid- the " e " of " voile," before the " ou " of '' ouvre ;" the " mn, ' which would cnd with a puro vowel aa soan' change8 its pronunciation and becomes aaon, so that the line. ie sung to thg notes above written a~ I laa : vwanl I oo-vvm saon : as-leo i. The word '' un " before II vowel becomeu ocn'ga in thd sa~ue way. Many consonants not usually pronouncod at the' end of W O ~ S are brought to life again by a following rowol. 'here nre very few case8 of an opon vowol in the examplos, which are gunerally flrr from chtasical, and in most of thoso cam the con- &nt in mitten : (La Munola, v. 28, raiponn'dcc : wed; v. 12, Zhootaa Aaraagoana&a; v. 18, ~nndres(d) RC. l'artant. pour la Syrie, v. 21 ; fe# Eczaabacleo.) III colloqnirrl.french the íìnul -e, mute, is almost irlways (not alwap) omitted, hut an' emphatic utterance calls if faintly to life. In rcadislg poetry (ag distinguishcd from singing) this vowel is also omittod, but tu the line would then be too short by me or more syllablou, many French readers aeelc lo supply tho miasing syllable by lengthoning t110 wnsonnnt preceding the omitted -e. In the pronunciation marked below, the Italic CO points o111 theic caaes. In rcadi,ag tho.podry, then, omit tho m and dwdl eomewhat on the precedingoonsonmt, or make R little pause after it, as dit- kaazhocnn.hell, for " dik3 h jmns bo&. In the alphubetic table tho!mgth of the vowels is mnrked as assigned by Dï. ThCiat. In 11. THrvcr's edition of Tardy's dictiodary tho length of the voweh is also much dwelled upon. In M. Félino's dictionary almost every vowol in indicated 11s short, and'the tondency of modcrn French pronunciation is to shorten all vowels. In theso. cxcrmples I htve loft the length of thc vowels unmarked, because ln listening carafully whon they were read over to me by two Fccnch gantlemen, I fonnd no cortainty in the we of long and short. In singing, of coursc, the length of the vowcl is, detorrnined by that of tho muaical note assigncd to the eylhble, and the extreme. variability of French usage in this respect has been taken so muoh advantage of by musical composers, that. when a French song is sung to English words, it is often extremely di5cult to got out our syllables, hampered with numerous.oonsomnts, with sumoiont rapidity, and when we, do BO, thealterationof rhythm,quantity, and amont, makes the reault much more unintelligible ' thrn wual. Evan in Italiun translations.of French.operns,W Uolmod's Pn~st) the mme evil is greatly felt. The Ehnoh syllable is suppoclod theoretically t0 tepinute in a vowel whenever the next consonant Or consonants. can be pronounced without the preceding vowel. Thiv plan may therefore be always followed in singing. But the actual wage of Frenchmen [na laid down by the late BL Jobert, in his " CQIloquial French,") is to run the vowol on to. the following consonant whererer ít ie pmcticable. and. of come. also thhue : belle bncl-eo, not kc-h. French singere' alno wem to mu to follow this practice wherc convenient for them. English singem am there- word to tranelate what is either one word, or in fore &t fnlliborty to um either plan, in. any word written a8 one word in the original, EUC~ words.m.br it my bast suit 'them. III speaking, however,. and dig, they ehould follow the latter plan, and call p&0que pdcw-è'sf-èck, and not &z-sda-fëk..b already indicated no proper diphthong occur in French (pp. 466, 49b), but 00, W, occasionally run on to the following vowel, and are then written W, y, in these examples, aa: soit #waul language. Such a word is inserted in parenthem oui wee, yeux yw, for which sõõaa, õõm, ëèm, would which Ure not hyphened to another word, as in bo more oorred..in the case of u# this notation 1' Wie kann ich iroh," v. 3, dhat too-msa 806 had to remain as lui lzïèm, suis rsw, nuit fli c#, fia), and ibid v. 8, ho0 fis) fmr h r! where th- Juanetta ehzzaariwlaa; and similarly for ëè final, 08 : gouvernail gowasr'naazè, cueillir tw-èjyes8. French singing hna altogether a diknt ntyle from English.. The pronunciation given is not intended to do more than enable a E'remohman to is no German word COmEpondiUg to.iz. Sometimes, on the contrary, a word, auoh a8.the definite nrticle, ia found in the original where no cquivalent word would bo used in English, and in this case it is duly txndnted and placed in quare twcogniise hie own language -in an Eu~~~E~u&E brackets, 88 in "In diesen heiligen %Ilen" v. 1, mouth To acquim the true French delivery in talking or singing, is a labour of many years to an Engliuhha~~, and complete EUWXEB is very rare indeed. Frenchmen find tho mmo di5culty with our language. III. Bottom of page, fiundation.. l'hi8 tradat.im is arranged to Berve as a glossary for tho~e qnite unacquainted with german, Italiun, and phrich. It follows the original, line for he, and word for word, in'thc anme odor, which is, of &m, often not tho' English order. When. however, the foreign ordcr of tho words tbreatcns rond? tlle pasaage unintelligible, a little pm- 'fl~ed figure points to the English order, thu3 : ilmaigloeokchen," v. 11, luoh adhem aj*nrvilili 'at, means iuoks at dhen fmn.dlili. Sometimes the literal tramlation of a word would be unintelligible or mialeading, and hi that caw another interpretation is addod in parenthonis preceded by a hyphen, as (ib. v. l.): Mai-hl flili W dhi vakil, whioh shows that I V ~ is translated " May-bell 'y (a. tmlation necassary for the whole thought of the little poem), is the name of 'a flower which.in England is.called " lily of the vrillcy." Sometimm it is necesaary to UM more than one then connected by a' hyphen, aa (ib. v. a) : zum twom is rendered loo-dhi, and allauml dnktsom~wa~~ ' is renderdaul-al-wuns. Sometimen it is neoesaary to insert a wad. in Englieh for which there,is no foreign equivalent in the text, although it is implied by the mge of th [Si] vcn.jsn8, in G6rman, die Rache h a Rdakh*s. Finally,.eametimea it 'might prove di5cult tu make seme of seved words, or of a whole phe, and in this casa!n equivalent is added in hypbened pamuthesee p b d after the laet word,.. while a hyphen is ala0 placed.bt$oo,.s the fi& word of the phrase. Thus: " Maigloeakchen," v. 21, -N~U hoafi-it owboa m a -not mar-fnoa tong.gw- -too how-fat hoa m) - fnou ai, too, kan stai ma long,- ger at hoa.m), dews that.'the whole long p h s from -Neu to -/Nor6 is reconstructed in the lest pareentheais, and &o timt within the long phraae, two short OUM have required re-writing, fqr not morir menne aoa longgar, nnd tra hoztd mcms at honm

117 By these simple means the real meaning of the passep in eo fully indicated that it has not nppeared necessary to add a free translation. In the mode of rendering the English into Glossic, I have been more exact than would be necessary for ordinary purpom. 1l1e plaoe of the accent is marked in evêry word, and the poeition of the ament mnrk show whether the vowel is long or short. The trilled r' is everywhere.. +stinguiehed from the vocal r wgch.forma n diphthong with the preceding long vowel, and with er forma a peculiar indietinct eopd nlready spoken of. But vod r is never written except where it may be followed in speech by n trilled's-'. The diphthongs ri, oi, ou, eu, nre left unanalysed., The hal h, und o h the initial a, is gonerally pronounced obscurely like u or cr (without any permidon to trill) but it has been preserved ua, in prdimry glosaic. The final e, 6111, cid,. wben not ucknowledpd to be simply the vocal coneonante I, m, n, nre written in this manner, whatever the original vowel may have been, 88"' -al,-01; -om,.um, -m; -en,-en;" and er reph all " UT, m, C," nnd nnaccantsd "-ar, -er,.ir, -or,.our, or." The final unaeccnted '' -age" of "pillage," is written -.y', &B pitqj, Bto. The unac-ted "e," when not before "r,.'. or in the wmo eyhble with a consonant, is written i, BR beloved bilwd, rejoiced rqoi.ot. See Glossip Index. The names of foreign composers nre given with the proper native pronunciation in the column of pronunciation, but in tho trmrblion they m fitted with bhoroughly English sounds. The French take the liberty of pronouncing ell names which occur in French speaking according to the rulee of French orthography. There is no fixed rule in Englieh. 'hua we say Harr'd, rlioazawrl, for the G e m Hns.aSl, Xowtrdar't, Nometimes even Wag%er for P'wghnor', end so on. While other names, na Goethe Gartu, Miiller dfuel.cr', often entirdy puzzle the speaker, although such thoroughly English sounde ns ffaidu, Mih, would bu perfectly intelligible to overy German. It does not nppear thnt Xm-dran is more objectiunnble thsn Jo~vrsa. although, of oourae, thm i no objeotion to using ~w&h-eoo.n nt full 'l'hi conception of anglicising. the pronunciation of foreign nnma is carried out in Wion XVl OWGINAL ORTHOGBAPHY 1 dfaiglöokehrr rnzd dis Bliimckin Mueik von,mendeldm. Mniglöckbhen liiutet in dem Thal, 2 Dna klingt EO hell und fein : '' So kommt zum Reigen nllzumal, 4 Ihr lieben Blümelein!" Die Blümchen blau und gelb und weise, 6 Die kommen all herbei, Vergissmeinnicht, und Ehrenpreis, B Und Veilchen sind dnbei. Mniglimkchen spielt zum Tnnz im Nu, 10 Undnlletanzendnnn.. Der Mond sieht ihnen hundlich tau, 12 Hat seine Freude dran. Den Junker &f verdross dan sehr, 14,Er kommt in's Thd hinein. Mniglaokchen spielt zum Tans nioht mehr - l6 Fort aind die Blümelein.. Doch hum der Reif daa Thal vurllisst,.. 18.Da rufet weider eohnell Maiglookchen zu dem Priihlingafost, 20 Und liiutet doppolt hell. Nun hält's auch mich nicht mohr zu Haue, 22 Maiglöckch~ ruft auch mich. Die Blümchen gehn mm Tans hinnue, - 24 Zum Tanze geh' auch ich. GLOSIC PRONUNCIATION. I dfltay.glosk.ky'h~ uold &S Blursnukauyn. Moozwk fnon Merdtlls-mn. Mlaay~gloekky'hen loittrt in daim "sal. 2 DH~E klëengkt eon he1 nont faap :. Zon keomt tsoom Raa,&hen áal%eoom~e.l, 4 Em' lewben Rlue.m&ym!" Dee Blue.mky'hen blaaw uond gelb uand v!aaye, 6 Dee kaorn.cn UP her'baay-, uond Ai.r'enpkay 'E, 8 Uont Fnay.lky'hen zknd daabnay. M.aay.gloekky'hen shpwlt tsnom Tianta ëem 10 Uond ñal~utsan.tsandinn~, ' [NW, Der Mmnd zewt eemen froimdiky'h tmo, 12 HLt maynu Froi.du &itan. Daim 3uong.ker b y f ferdrms. diiaa &ai+, 14 Er' kuomt ëens Taal hëennay-n. Maay.gloekky'henahpee.ltteoomTäantsn;aky'ht 18 Faor't zëenddee Bhe mulnnyn. idr'- Deokh kaawn der hyf dãa Tad ferlcs.t, l8 DIU roofet v'ewder' &iel Meay~gloek~lry'hen h o dni.m Frua lëengksfa.t,!o Uond loi.tet daop-elt hel. LP- Noom heh aawkh rnëeky'h nëeky'ht mnrr tmo 22 Mmyglmk ky'hen rooft nnwkh mzeky'h. Dee Bluemky'hen gnim tmom Tianta hiennnw.r, 24 Tmom Tianhu gni aawkh ëeky'h. &i-bel-ni of dhi vnki) cheimz in the vali, 2 Dhat pundz BO(C br'eit and fein-(eligent) : I 16 -Foarth m- awai. W) &hi floudcts. Son kam too-dhi daan-sing aul-at;w& I 4 Yee deer floudeta." -Hnuev.er skaimli dhi Hwrfr'nust dhi d i leevr -(Yeta&soonaedhihoa.~uet~leftdhival.i, Dhi troudeta bloo and yelwa and wheit, 18 B Dhai h m nul hidher-bei, 'Dhm Skaul~-(invei.ts) 'again 'kwikli Fnurget-mee-not and afee-dwel, 8Mni-bal too dhi spr'ing-feeet B And vei.oalet &BP dhrur-bei. 20 And cheima dnbli br'eitli-(kleerli), Mai-bel phiz faur-dhi daana in-a twingkling, -Nou hoalde-it au-lnon e-not moar-(non long-. 10 And nul dnana dhen, 'p, -too how- a#wm).(nou ei, too, kan Dhi Moon luoks 2dhem 3frondlili 'at, E ~ no I long. at hwrn). 12' (It) hrz ita joi dhnirr'nt?. 22 ~ai-bel nu'e Tee,. ddhi askweir ~Hoarfnaust Panoid Idhat (601~ Dhi flou.~'&e Rmh-dhl daanehe-out.

118 ORIGINAL ORTHOGRAPHT. I GLOSBlC PBONUNOIATION. 2.-Ielr wollt" msins Xieb'. 2.-Eäky'h c.'~zoll ranaynu Lwb. Musik von Mendelesohn. DIuozee k faon Men.delseoam. Ich wollt' meine Lieb e,rgönee sich Eëkfh v'oalt' manynu. [.ab or ~lj~~~,u,zëely'h 2 AU in ein einzig Wort, 2 AÜ1 ëen anyn ttn\-mtwegy h nor t Dm giib' ich den lust'gen Winden, Däa~ pe.b Geky'h-drin luoet.5egylhen V'ëen.don, 4. Die figen es lustig' fort. 4 D& tr'uwgp'hen es luos%eogy'h fnor't. Sie tra en zu Dir, Geliebte, Zee tr'wghen boo Deer', Geleo ptu, 6 Das &eberfiillte Wort, G DWE lee berfue1t.u V'aor't, Du hornt ea zu jeder Stunde,. D& heomt es te00 yai.der Shtuon de,. 8 Du hörst es an jedem Ort. 8. Doo heomt ea äan yai.dem Aor't. Und h t du zum niichtlichon Schlummer Dont hkt doo tsoom naeky'h.tliekg'hen 10 C)eechloseen dio Augon ka un^, 10 C)eehlaoem dëe Anw.ghen kattwm. [Shluomvx 80 wird mein Bild dich verfolgen, Zoa v'ë& maayn Bëeld dëeky'h ferfrol.gy'hen, L2 Bis in den tiefsten Trnum. 12 Bios ëen dnin tmfsten Tr'n!lwm. i' 8.- Vis kann ich froh. a.- v'cs kktr ~o,ty*h flou. Musik von Mendelssohn. Itfoozeek fdn Men dole-zoam. Wie kann ich froh und lustig sein P. V'cc kiian ëeky'h froa uond luca thy-'h m,ayn? 2 Wio knun ich gohn mit Band und Btrnuss P 2 V'ee k h ëeky'h guim miet sand uont Wenn der herz'gc Junge, 8er mir KI liob, Shtraaws P [leep, V'en der' her'4agy'hu yuongq dair' meer' eon 4 Ist über die Berge weit hinnus! 4 Eist uwber d6e Ber 'gy'hu v'anyt heen-tyws. 'S ist nicht der froat'ge Winter wind, s'8eetnëeky'htder'fr'aortgy'hu V'Ben.terv'ëent, 6 ' 6 '8 ist nicht der Schnee und Sturm und'graalma, S- ëeat nhky'ht der' Yhmu uont Shtuor'm uond CfrSaWS, Dooh immer kommen mir Thriinen in 'E Aug',, ' Daokh ëemw' kaoln.en meer' Traimen Een -B 8 Donk' ich an Ihn, der weit hinaus! Aawgh, 8 Dengk ëeky!h lan ee'.n, dair' v'aayt heen-rawa! Der lange Winlor ist vorbei, Der' hngw V'ëen.ter &st faor'bnay,. 10 Der Frühling putzt dio Birken aus, 10 Der' Frue.16eng puotst dre Bëer'.ken WWE, Es grünt und blüht und lncht der Mai, ' EE gruemt u0nd.bluo.t uond laakh% der %ay, 12 Dam kehrt er heim, der weit hinaus!. ' 12 Däun kaimr't er haaym, dair' r'aayt heen-saws! VERBAL GLOSS10 TltANSLATION. %.-Ei rurd IM~ h. 3.-nOu kal, #i Ch6Tfuol Dfouzik bei 3fon.dlsen. Mou zik bei Dfen.dlsen. Ei wuod mei luv wuod-pwr itse1.f Hou kan ei cheedud nnd mer'i bee P 2 Au1 in.too a sing.1 werd, 2 How km ci gort widh r'ib en and nwzgui P Dhat Iwuod-sgiv Sei too-dhi mer'i windz, When dhi chaa rming suth, dhat too mee 808 deer 4 Dhai wuod-bair it rnor'ili fonrth. 4 Is "ver dhi-mou ntem faar hens! (i21 Dhai kar'i too dhec, biluv.d, It iz not dhi fr'os ti win.ter-wind, 0 Dhi luv4l.d werd, G It iz not dhi moa and EtaUrm and hor' er, Dhon hwrr'est it 'al Yet ever kum too-mee tcem in too-dhi oi, 8 ' Dhou hee rr'est it %$F:lai.s. 8 Thingk ei on him, hoo (ir) fur henu : And had dhou faur-dhi nci.tli ulum.ber Dhi long win.& ir passt,., IO Shut dhi -(cur) eiz skrimli -(on1 latelv), ' 10 Dhi upr'ing deks dhi berches out, r [dh~ Ilhi, Soa -;in dhat kn1.a) wil mei irn.ej &o pimu [Dhair] 2~z-gr'ee.n 'and 4bloomz %na'laah l2 flntil in%w -(~o~f~~raz) dhidewpcst d9ee.m. 12 Dhen '+ïterne lhec hwm, hoo (i.) fur hens! ORIGINAL OIWHOGRAPHY Iair trnd Osiris. Bfuaili vdn Mozart. 0 Isis und Osiris, khenket 2 Der Weisheit Geist dem neuen Paar! ' Dia ihr der Wand'rer Schritte lonket 4 Btiirkt mit Geduld sie in Gefahr I. U t aie der Prüfung, Früclite sehen I 6 Doch sollen sie zu Grnbe gehen, So lohnt der Tugend kühnen Lnuf, 8 Nehmt sie in euren1 Wohnsitz nnf! &-fia disrsrr.heiligen Hallan! Dusik von Mozart. In diesen heil' n Hallen. 2 Kennt man ge Rache night! Und ist ein &fie:lsch gefallen, ' 4 Filhrt Liebe ihn zur Pflicht: ' Dann wandelt cr nn Freundes Hand, G Vergnügt und froh ins beaa'ro Lnntl! In dieeon heil'gen Jkuern, 8. W o Mensch donmenschen liebt, Ibnn kein Verriither lauern, 10 Weil mm dem Feind vergiebt. ' Wen solche Lehron nicht erfreun. 12.Verdieuet nicht ein Mensch EU seyn. I; -On Ei'sir nlrd Oarei-w'ir. Dfeuzeik bei Moazaa.rt. Ou. Ei.sis and Oaaeim'ie giv,.. 2 SOv-[dv] 'wirdurn'(thel 'Spir'it too-dhi neu paw.. 2Hoo lyeefov-dhi 'ronder'erz (dhi) %teps ageid, 4 Str'engkthen with pni-shorn dhem in daimjer! VERBAL GLOSS 'IC TRANSLATION ' I GIAOSSIC PRONUNCIATION. 4.-Oa E~saëe8 uond Oasest'&ea. Mwzwk faon Moartenrr't. Oa Ee-uëea uond Oawr'ëea, shengket 2 Der.Virayz.haayt Gaayet daim noim Par.r'. Dee ce+ der' Tlwdr'er' Shr'ëd-u leeg.ket, 4 Bhter'kt mëet Geduold zee ëen G-efan.r! Lia& zce der l'rue.foon# Fruoky'ktll zai.en! 6 Daokh zaol-on zee two GrttHa.bu gaten, Zoa lwnt der Tuwghent kuwnen hwf. 8 Nai.mt me Gen oi.r'em V'oamzëets aawf. b.-#& dss.ea18 baay&egy'jw~r Haaterr. M0oaee.k faon Moxtmr : Eën dwzen hany4gy'hen TIäalm, 2 Kent mkn dee Rúakhw nëekv'ht;. Uond ëest aayn Yenrih gefgal.en,.4 Fuwr't Lee.bu eem hr' Pflhky'ht. Däan v'ian.delt ai$& Froindee H h t 6 Fer'gnueky'ht uont fr'oa Ems hes.r'u I~üttnl! Eë, deezen haay.lgy'hen Maawer'n 8 V'oa Men& &n Meden leept, Xian hp Fer'r'ai.ter bw.er'n, ' 10 V'aayl miran daim.faaynt fergee-pt.. Waivi znol.ky'hu Lai+en nëekv'ht erh.6i.n. 12 Ferdee.net nëeky'ht anyn Yeneh tsoo zanyn h dlbcs e hoa.li hauk. Meuxik bei.jl&mu-ø-.. In dheez hoali haulz,. 2 2Noa.z lwun idhi] 4vcn~jens %ot, And if (dlulir) II a man fnu,ln, 4 *Leeds Iluv Shim in too-[dhi] deuti. Dhen Swauka Ihee at (a):fr'endz.haud, 6 Rijoi-st and gld in too-dhi beker land. In dheez hoali wau.k, 8 Whir man [dhi] man luv~, &n noa tr'aiter lour, 10 Bikauz lwun Whi 'enirni 2faurgiv.s. Hoom euch dok.tr'inz.not r'ijoi.e, la lhmvz not a man too bee.

119 I 220 ' EXA.UPL):8 OF SONQS LN BEWAN. Bec. XV. ORIGINAL Ol(TlIOQBAPH1'. QLOS8IC PRONUNCIA'l'l3N. I 6.-Der Ev'l-kso.btèeAy'A. &-Bor Erhtüjlig. Gedicht von Goetho, Muaik von Schubert.. 1 Geaekylht faon Geo.tu, Mooeee-k faon Sha0.ber-t! Pai-r' r'aay.tet zoa &pad duor'ky'h Nãakht Wer reitet PIO Bpiit durch Nncht und Wind 9 i uond V'ëent P 2 Es ist der Vater mit seinem kind. i 2 Es ëeat der' Faater' mëet eeaymern Kzent. : Er' hiurt daim Knaaben v'wì ëen daim Aãr'm, Er hat den Xdaben wohl in dem Arm, : 4 Er' firmt eon +ky'her', er' helt an v'b'm. 4 Er fasst-ihn sicher, er hält ihn wmm. 1 "Dfnayn ZoRq v'ilas biier'ky'hst dao ZOB bldng dmyn Gezëeky'ht?" ' B "Zeeat, Faa.ter', doo daim Er'l-keonsegy'h 6'Mein80hn,wnsbirgstdusobltngdeinGeeichtF" 1 ncnkv'ht~ -6 I' Siehst, V$er, du den Erlkiinig nicht?. Da~~Er'ien-keo-nëegy'h mëet Rr'or-n uont I' Den Erlmkönig mit Kron' und Schweif? ahv'aayf P 'I-- II hvu zoan, sat noo.r, Rayn Nai.bcl- 8 '' Mein Sohn, es ißt nur ein Nebelatreif."- I 'Iahtnlay.f." I '' Doo lee.be.9 Këcnt, kaorn. gni rnëet meer'! "Gm' sheo:nu Shpewlu 8hpee.l' ëeky'h &et l' Du liebes Kind komm, geh mit mir! deer' ~~..! ~ 10 Gar schone Spielo spiel' ich mit dir!!.' Mãanky'h.buon.tu Bloo men zëend ãan dai.m 1' Meine Tiichter führen den nnchtlichen Reihn, 20 't Undwiegen undtaneen undsingen dich ein."-- OF SONGS IM ORHYAN. ich seh' gemu, l. l ' GLOSSIC PRONUNCIA'I'IOK. 6hoo.n ; 1' Maaymu Toeky'hter' fuer'en dain noky'htlmky'hen, R'aayn, 90 I' Uond v'ee.ry'hen uont tira3l.teen nont zëeng.en Aor t?.'- l' Mein Sohn, mein &h, 24 íi EE scheinen die alten Weiden EO p u!"- "Up gemw., hm, maayn Zoam, Gtky'h mi es 24 "EE shsay'nec dee hkten V'aay-den eon 23 I VE RUAL GLOSSIC TRANSLATION. -- Hoo. r'eidz 808 &.t thr'co ndit and wilrd? widh dhee! 2 It is &i fau.dher widh hiz cheild. 'l Men i kulwd flourz aar on dhi &'and. Hee haz dhi boi we1 in dhi-piz) W, l2 '' Mt$ rnudh-er haz meni 'a) goalden r'0a.b.''- 4 Hm hm 1dz him saifli, hee hoa.ldz-[keeds). him I. WBBRn.. ~ fea.&=, mei fnudher, andhewrr'ecrt dhou Bhi Brlking-Euntineuai%hen. *' Wilt, fein-(jen.tl) boi, dhou widh mee pa, 1 B 'I Idei dau4era shal dhee tend beutifuoli ; 1' M.ei butera (+l) leed dhi neitli daaus, 20 "And (wil) r'ok and daans and ring dhee in-(tm B~OOp)." Mei faadher, mei fnwdher, and seat &ou not ~Wi, F3 6' Erlkinge dnukre at-dhi gloo.mi phiv?"- 'I Mei E U~, mei nun, ei see it perfektli ; '24 '' Dhair ehein dhi wld wil-oaz " (Too) Jdhi 'faa dhef Phor'.ifeia-lit-(dhi fadhet ehuderz)-hee r'eidz swiftli- 30 Hoe hoal& m dhi gr'oa.ning cheild- Hee r'wchez dhl faarm-how widh-lai-ber and nee.d-(pain and dif ikelti)- 33 Zn hie aarmz dhi cheild woeded!.

120 222 EXAMPLEE OF EON88 IN BRRYLB. ORIQINAL OlWHOGR.4PHT. l.-?#,. 7vflJldWer. Mueik von Schubert. I& komme vom Gebirge her, 1 dampft dae Thal, es brauet dne Meer. Ich 'wandle fort, bin wenig froh, 4 Und immer frngt der Seufzer wo P Immer, wo? B Die Sonne diinkt mich hier 80 kalt, Die Bliithe welk, dan Leben alt,,. B U.nd.wns ein reden, learer eohall!. Ich bin ein Fremdling iiberd. 10 Wo biet du P mein geliebtee Lund!. bucht, geahnt, und nie &rannt! l2 Dan Land, dee Land m hohunpgriin, Pee Land wo meine Itom bliihn, 14 Wo meine Freunde wandeln.gehn,,. Wo meine Todten aufedehn, l6 Das Land das meine Sprache ~priche O Lmd! wo bist du P 18 Ich wandle still, bin weni froh, Und immer fragt der Seder, wo P 20 Immer, wo P.Tm Geieterhuuch tont'e mir ruriick :- 22 " Dort wo du nicht bist, íat dae Clliiok!". OLOSSIC' PRONUNCIATIOX'. 7.-Der Y'&~der~r. M6oeee.k faon Shoohr't. mk 'h kaomu fnom GebBer'.gy'hu hai+, 2 Ee Ampft. &E Taal, ee br'aawat däaa Ifni+. Eeky'h v'bdlu faor't, Um v'aimëeky'h Woa, 4 Uond ëemd fr'nwkht der' Zoi-fteer', v'&? Eëm-er'. v'on P 6 Dee Za0n.u. dueng.tt m6ekv"h hew' eo8 kialt, Dee Bluetu v'elk, dbae Lai.ben Ìialt, 8 Uond V ' ~ E zee r'ai den, 1ai.r'er' Hhid! Egky'h bëen aayn Fr'emvQëcng aeher'ial. 10 V'oa bhet doo P maayn gelee.ptes Gant! Gekkht, ge--nt, uonqnee l2 DändLgant, diaslgant,zoshsn~~~~-~r1u8.n, Däu Lht.v'& maaynu R'ween bluen, 14 Vos mmymu Fr'oimdu vëmrdeln gni-n,., Toa mmymu Towten, aaw.f-er'ehtsin, 16 Dba h n t d h maapmu Shpr'aa.khu shpr'ëeky'ht-. Ou Lãut! v'oa bëeat doo P '. 18 Eëky'h v'giandlu aheel, Men v'ainëeky'h fr'oa, Uond eem& Waa.kht der' Zoi-ftmr;, v'oa? 20. Eënmr' v'oa? Eëm Gaayeter'haaw.kh tewnt-e meer' h- ' ruck.:- 22 ''Dnor't v'oa doon8eky'htbëegt B e d dñaa Oluek.!' ' ara. xv: ORIGINAL OR~110GUBPHY B.-~Addnide Muik von Beethoven. Hineam wandelt dein Freimd I GLOSSIC I'RONUNCIA'I'LOS. 8.--Aadai.!aa-es.du. Moozee.k faon Bui t.hutr.hln. h nzäam v'äanielt dnayn Fr'oind Gam Abendliiftohen im zarten Laube flüetern, fluea-br'n, 10 Zëekberglo8kky'h~ dee Jiaayi ëem Gnra.eu LO Silberglockchen des &YS im Grase siindn, zoimln, Wellen rauechen und Nachtigallen floten, I Vel en ratrwehen uond nãuk.tee&alen flmten,.la-., Adelnide! Einst, O Wunder! entbl*t auf meinem Grabe, 14 Eine Blume, der Aeche meinea Herzens ; Deutlich schimmert auf jedem Purpurbliittchen, le Adelaide! teens ; Doitlieky'h nhhrcr't and yai-dem Poor'. pr'blet*ky'hen, 18 Aadailaa-ewdu! D,-Adikid. Meu.zik bei Bw't-hoa.ven. a!hviter'i waukn.dhei fr'end-(luv.er, in-dhi gnamhi-ov-spr'mg, 2 Jmtli bei-dhi luv-li majik-leit E U ~ nded U. Which thr'oo noding flour-br'aa ncher tr'emblz 4 Äd.ilaid! In dhi mir'ding Bud, in-dhi moa ov-dhi.4lps. 6 'In 40v-dhi hingking #dai a(dhi, 'sbwnld-'doudz In-dhi feeld ov-dhi etaare beemz dhoi im-ej, i 8 Adilaid!. Eewini lit-l-ah in-dhi len.-dér foa.liej whir- P"1 10 -Sfl.ver-lit.l beb ov-[clhi] Mai-(lil.iz ov dhi d.i) in dhi gr'uaa r ua.1. Wain br'aul, and neibinggails peip, 12 Adilaid! Heerr'wfter, oa wun.der-(mir'akl), (wil -. blowurn-up upon mai gr'ai.v 14 A flour, Strom) dhi ash.(ded-r'imaimz) ov m& ' hrt ; Rlwrli (wil) shein upon. err'i ptlr.pl-lit1.1eef Adilaid!

121 224 z 4 6 S l4. 16 ' ORIGINAL 0IWHOC)RAPHY S.---LebswoRI. ' Musik von Schubert. Won naht, um uns zu scheiden, Der Mete Augenblick, In's Paradiem der Freuden Kehr' ohne mioh zurück! Der Tod kenn Freiheit geben Mit milder Freundeahand:. W ein eu neuem Leben ln jenee bas'm Land. Nicht lang' dnd wir schieden Md werd' ich'bei ru win, Din kme Frist hienieden, Denk' inh in Tiebe dein. Leb'wohl dem, bis der Morgen Dee neuen Tag erscheint, Der;fern von Erdemorgen, Ad ewig unsvereint..,,:. _ Bee. XV. QLOSSIC PRONUKCIAl'IOX. 9.-Lni.b~b'0~*L ' Moozeek fwn Shoo*her't. Shoam nwt, oorn uons boo shanrden, 2 Der' lotstu Aaw. henblbk., mn.8 Paar'aad,ee.e fer' Fr'oi.den 4 Kai.r' ornu mhky'h taoor'uek.! Der'.'l'oet känn h*'aay.haayt gupben O Mht mxel.der' Fr'oimdes-hñawt ;. Gd aayn tsoo noi-em Lai-ben, S EBn yainea bewr'u Uant NBeky'ht läang riend v'eef geaheo,den, IO B&dd v'dd &eky'h b y deer' errayu. Dee kuor'.tau Fr'ht heemwden,. 12 Dengk ëekfh Ben Lwbu danyn. Iai.bv'oa.1 den, beea der' Mao$.g).'hen 14 Den noien TM& er'sheayrtt, Dair', fer'n f a Er'-dtmsnr 'gy'hen l6 And ai.v'8egy'h UOUE fer'aaynt. VERBAL GLOSBIC TRANSLATION.. S.-Fair'wel.. Not long -uar wee-(shal wee bee) Iwpw'aitod, Meu.eik bei Bhoo'bert. 10 Swn aha1 ei widh dhee be, Aulr'edi aprwcher, in-au-rdez us too sepw'ait, Dhi shah in3mvel-ov-teim heer-bila, 2 Dhi laad mos.ment, 12 -Thingk ei-:ei ohal thingk) in luv or-dhm. In.too-dhi par'dei~ ov job 4 Riter-n widhou-t mee bak! Feirwel. dhen, til dhi mnuming. 14 Ov dhi neu dui apeem, Which, fwr from erth-mor-oez 16 Faur evm UE eunei-t.a. Ideth %+aibl-too 'fr'wdurn,'giv U rd%lh 'en-tl frende-hnnd. GM m, dur dhi neu leif. 8 In.too dhat betmr-land.,. ORIGINAL OIITHOGRAPHY. 1.-Dirato sulla Terk Musica di verdi. Dieerto sulle term.2 Col rio destino in gnerra. E' eola speme un cor. - 4 Al 'hvnh. Jia r'oi quel cor miede, B Bcllo' di canta fe&, E' d'ogni rb mqgior. 8 Il Trovator dnle/r 91 uw ror~iro. Muaiua di Verdi. I1 balen del EUO EOIT~EO 2 D'una stelle. vince il raggio : 11 fulgdr del.euo bel vieo.. 4 Novo infonde me corraggio. Ab! l'amor, l'amore onde ardo 6 Le fevelli in mio favor, Sperda il Bole d'un eu0 sguardo S La tempeh del mio cor.., l.;-lji;cp.ted ~tp~/a.-[dhi] XrtIt. -?den.sik bci. ' Dizer-tcd upon.-[dhi] Erth, RX.~YPLEI CF ~ONOE 'm ITAIAA~. II. ltalian SONGS. Verdi. 2 -Widh-[dKi] gil-ti-jkr'ooel) fait in- :rt) \+WUT -.Conten.ding agai.net kr'ood fai.t! 312 ',the) 'ownli 6hoap'la 'h& Tim-dhi Tr'oo.baadoo,r. But if-hee &at haart poewoz, 1 6 &u%fuol ddh Ch?Et faith. 225 GLOSS^^ PRONU-VCIATION. '. l.-dssausr"ton soollaa Tasr.'.v'nn. Mtwzeekea dee Vaer'.dee. Deesaer'toa ~00llaa 'l'aer'r'na 2 Koa1 r'ewoo daieteenoceen gwaer'.r'au Ae EW~Q epawmai-oon ho+ i Aal 1kon.vaatoa.r'. Maa s-ai.eo k&il ho+ 6'Bael.loa dm kaaeba frkry.''dai Ae d-oany'ee r'ae. maadjywr' 8 Eel l'roa.vnatoa+. 2 -Eel bnulniva dail mou aoqr'r'wrou.. Mo&eeekaa dee Vaer'.d&. Eel baahim dail 800 oa soar'-r'ee.zoa 2 D-oo-naa etai.i-laa veem-chaíaosl r'sad-jyoai Eel foolgoar' dail 800 o& b l veema 4 Naovoa-eedoadai mai kcar'-r'aa.d-jyon. Aa! 1- aamar', 1- samoer'ai,oandai_aa.r'-doa, 6 Lai frbavael-lce een mmoa faavoa'i, Spner'.daa eel ~~alai d-mn 80o.m sgwaar'.dos 8 Laa taimpaes.taa dail mec:oa kr0.r'.. 2.-Dhi Lsitning ou-[dhi] kr &nei. Meu.sik bei. Verdi. Dhi leihing ov-[dhi] hcismeil S '01 sa Ostaar lkong.kere (serpaaaee) Whi srai,, Dhi br'eihea ov-[dhi] her beu%ifuol fais 4 znep linfouxee d(in -mec akur' ej. Aa! *&i UV, dhi luv, whenns-'(widh-which) 'e ebum, 6 B(Too1 "her lmai-%peek Ioin "mei 12f&ver, 1-bfai.7disper.s 'sun dov 'wun [her] 81uok S BDhi-pest ~"OV I h e i lahaart, -(+i dhi sun ov wun ov her luoks nlepera dhi CV mai haart!. u

122 ORTOINAL ORTHOGHAPHY id# la Vampa. 11ueic.n di Verdi., Strido la rampa. 2 TA folla indomito Corre a quel foco 4 Lieh in sembianza. IJrli di gioja 6 Intomo mchegginno, Oink di sgherri 8 Donna s'avanan. Sinintra splende 10 Bui volti orribili Lo. tetm flammu. 12 Che s'ah!t1 oiel. * Stride la vnmp, 14 Giunge In vittim!,. Neru vestih, 16 Diacinta e scalza. Grido feroce 18 Di morte levusi, L'eco il repeto 20 Di bnha in balm. Sinistra splende 22 Sui volti okribili La tetra flmma 24' Che s'den n1 ciel. 3.-ICraklz dhi F1ai.m. Mcnik bei Verdi. Kr'ak.k dhi flaim, 2' Dhi kr'oud unhi md (mf, rood I Ii'unx too dhat fcir. t Glad in apee-rr'ens. shouts ov 'oi 6 Wound don, Sur'ounded bei grtarde 8 (A, li'idi p[hcraelfl hdvaan.e&. Il-~.mend aheinz ' 10 On-dhi kountenensea hor'ib: Dhi hidyue flai m 13 Whiob U.self Ir'aixez too-[dhi] hern.' Kr'ak-la dhi Wm,, 14 Ar'eiTz dhi vik.tim, ' -Blackly k'loa-dhd-(dr'est in bhk) 16 Ungert und thoonlea. Br'ei feer'wahus 18 Ov deth r'ai.zez.iteelf, Dhi. ekoa ait 'r'ipee.ta. 20 Fr'om r'ok too r'ok. I1 oemcnd aheixy. 22 On dhi kountenensea hor'ibl, Dhi hidyus fln'im 24 Which, %tael.f 'r'nimz too-[&] hewe ORIGINAL On'l'HOGRAI'HT. 4.--&avn Imyine. Mu~m di Mercndrmto bave imagine 2 Damor, di pace, 'h spiri all' mirna 4 Dolce vip. b tal delizia 6. Winvidi, o Cielo, E' troppo. barbaro 8 I1 tuo rip. b.--l?rrcics ciio pianga.., Musicn di Hnndel. Armida dispietata 1 Colla form d abisso, h p immi al m ciel De nuei contenti. E qui con duolo eterno O Vim mi tiene. In tormento inferno. 8 Signor, deh per pietl, kdami piaup. :O Lascia oh' io pianga Lu durn aorte, 12 E Cho sospiri, LR liberth. 14 J1 duo1 infnmgn Queste ritortc.l6 De'miei martiri Sol per pietir. EXAMPLES OF aouos ru ITALIAP. 217 OLOSSIC PRONUNCIA'l'IOS.. 4.-Soa-aawai Emnas~eenai. Mm-zeekaa di Maer'kaadimtai. Soa-aawi,eemnajeenai 2 D- aamoa.r', doc ya chai, Too EpWr'WAd. nwneemaa 4 Doa-lchai vcegoa.r'. Sai tad daileetsee-sa '. G X- eenvwdee,-oa chynelloa, Ae tmppm baarbaar'oa 8 Eel toown reegoar'. 6.-Lawahpa B&oa pyaawgaa. Mooaockan dee Haeh-deÏ Arrr'meedaa dee-spyaitaatm 2 Konllaa feor'.teaa d- uabeeam R+ypeeln.mee-aal krra-m chyne.1 4 Dal myai-ee koantaentee. Ai kwee Boan dwaoknataer'mm, 6 Vee.vaa moe fpwnai, Een tocrr'inaintoasenfmr'.nm. 8 &eny'oa.r', dae! puer' pyaitaa, kshyaarnee pyaan.jarni. ' ' 10 kshyaa k. ee'm pyeanggrur. l a m door'aa anor %W, 12 Ai kai soaspee.-r'ee Laa leebfler'taa.. 14 Eel dwao.1 eenfr'aan.gm Kwai.etai r'eetaor'hi, l6 Dai rnyuive mmr'tfwr'ee ' + Soa.1 p.e.' pyaitaa'. _. - VERBAL GLOSSLC TRANSLATION. 4.--droeel Iwq'. And heer widh di-? iternel Mcuzik bci Meriradan-ti. G Alei-v mee keeps, Sweet im.ej In taurment inferncl., 2 0% luv, ov WS, Dhou hr'ee-hed too-dhi 60n.l. ' i S Ser, aln~! faur $5 Alou mee too-weep. phi] liberti.. Mewaik &i Hardi. l 14 Aarn~wdaa pikiler (Mai) [dhi] dineet br'aik 2 Widhdhi ov foam rbis Dheez (hel) bon& Kar'id-mm, of-fwreibli from-dhi deer hevm 16 Ov mei supufingr ' 4 Ov ma kontertu (hapines). I Ownli faur piti. I a

123 ORIGINAL ORTHOGRAPHY. &--Non più Andrai. '3lusicx di Mozart. Non più andrai, farfallone moroso, 2 Notte e giorno d'intorno girando, Delle bello turbarido il ripom, 4 Nnrciaetto. Adondno damor. Non pia nvrni questi bei pennnehini, 6 Quel cappello Icggem e ßdante, Quella ohioma, quell' ana brillante, 8 Quol vermigho, donnesco color. ' 'ha guerrieri 'uoi fnr h, 10 h n musteocki, Etl'etb enoco,, hhioppo in spalla, eciabla al flanco,,. 12 Cd0 Lritto, mue0 franco, Un gran m, o un gmn turbante, 14 Molto onor, poco contante. Ed in veoe del fandango l6 Una mamia par il'fango, Per montqne, per vdoni, ' 18 Gon le nem, o i eallioni, con& di tromboni, 20 Di bombde, di cannoni,.chi le palle in tulli i tuoni 22 A l'orecchia fnn fl~chiar. Cherubiqo,. alle vitpria! 24 Alla gloria militu... c - - I &--No 11~0nr daou-wilt-goon. ' Meuxik bei JIoaznnrt. Noa m& dhou-wilt-gm, but.erílei.amut"ua, 2 Neit ind dai [ov ar'oumd eerkling, 'Ov-[dhii bbeutiz I disterbing ldhi Vipoa%, 4 Lit% ~rsrslsua, 1it.l-Adwnis ov :uv.. VERBAL GLOSS10 TRANSLATION. Noa moardhou-wilt-hnv dheezbeu tifnol ploomz, 6 Dhat hat bit and galaad, Dhat hed-ov-hair, dhat air brii-yent, 0 Uht vermil-yen, lai~di-lelk-(efem+mt) kulwr. Aurrrag. wor'.iers 'dhou-knnet mailr-(plai-dhipnrt-or) J3ak.us, o. QLOSSIC PRONUNCIkl'ION. &-Non11 pyoo nsndp'aaw. Iloomeknrt dee Moa.tsa;~r'L. Noanpyoo~n&~ao,fRRr'faal-lon.nai_ramol~r'wzoa, [doil! 2 ' Naot.M,ai 'ywr'noa d-eentoar'non jeerlaan.- Dailhi btte1.l toor'bnnn.doeee1 r'eepaozoa 4 Ntrar'clieeaaot ton.,andoanchee'nmd-~~op.r'. Nom p ou navr'ar.ee kwai.etm bae.ee. painnnaceeice,. [tni G Kwail knap-puel.loa Kwail-la kyaomwr, kwall.1- aa.r'yan br'eellaan%ni, 8 KwBilvssr'meo.ly'm,doannniskoakoa~oa,r'. s.. Ir ua gwair'-r'gne.m.pwnow fatar' h5kca, 10 Gr'mn mooetarrkkee. str'aittoe saak.koa, Oongr'aank~8.kon,~-~n.gntaor'baan.tai, 14 Mol~.lton-oanoar', pokm konntaamtrci. Aid een.veidmi da11 fnandaang.p, 16 Oomaa msar'xhyaa peer' eel fmg.goa, Pam' m&tr8ny'nii, pm' vaal-lmn?, 18 Konn lai nni.vee,-ai,oe mal-lemrnee, Aal koenohaer'.toa dee tr'oamhrnee, 20 Dee boambnar':dee, dee kaan-non nee, Kai lai qanl.lrri,een tooktee twmnee 22 Aa Loar aikkyoa fnan feeekyna.r':. Kair'oobeemm. asplan v&- tar.-r 1na! 2;t Aalh gloa.-r'iaa meeloetr8.r' Gr'ai t momhehme, teit bag (nap, Nurkot on shm.lde;, eni.ber nt-dh1 seld. L 12 Nekitr'ait,Aa-(ridik.eulue werdfaurfai.e) bonld, A g'dt hel,met, eur a gr'dt terhen,. 14 Muoh oner, lib1 r'edi meni. And in plai.8 ov-dhi fnndangpn- d m ) 16 A maarch thr'oo dhi mud, ' ' Thr'oo mountenz, thr.'oo laarj-diz, 18 Widh dhi snw, and dhi dog.dair, Too-dhi konmrt of tr'onhmm, 20 Ov 'bum-bds, ov kan.enz, Which dhi hauls in au1 tomx 22 Too 'dhi 6r-m huik Ker'oobewnoa, too-tdhij vikkr'il ' '. 24 Too-[dhi] gglon.r-r'l Imlliter'i! Non B ver? 2 Quando assiso n to vicin Ti parlai, ben mio, damor, 4 Ti ricordi, angel divin, Palpitaro i nostri cor. 6. Ah! P;& non B ver! Nt, n&. Nb, non B ver! Ah! 8 Tu dicesti, ti sowieu? '' Per la viha io t'amerò! " 10 Ma montisti, indegna, a pien, Non fu il cor ohe tel jctttj. 12 Ah! Nb, non B ver! Nò, nb!. 8.-Pur dicdi. Ihica di htonio.htti. Pur dicesti, 0 hcar be?k! 2 Quel suave e cdro " eì! Che fa tutto il mio pinccr 4 Per onor di eutl fwolla ' Oon un bio Amor tnprì,.. 6 Dolce fonto del goder. Noan ao vai.r? i 2 K~vanndoa ma-8twma-m tai veechcem Tee paar'hco, baen meem, d- nnmwr'; 4 Tee reeknor'.deo, aan.jel deovcem, Paalpcntna.roa_ee naostr'ee kaor' P I 6 An! nno, noan ne vai.r'! Nao, nao! I ( 2!! 4 l 1 9 Nao, noan ae vai4! An! 8 Too dccchaixhe, tee sortv-vyae'n? 4' Paor' 1na veotna-coon t- namaireo! " 10 Ifna rnaintee.stee,-eendni np'aa,_aap-pyuen, h'oan foo-eel kaor' kai. tail &it-tao.. 12 An! nao. naon BB val+! Nao, nao. VEltDAL GLOSSIC TRAXSLATION~ Poor' deechilidee,,oa boak.kaa'bae?;lan! ISanil soa-na v ai3 kaa.r'oa " aw! Kni faa tooktoa eel mee'oa yaach:ri.r'. peer' onnoai dee m'as fmcfael-laa Koan oon buxchydamoa.r' t- aspme., Doclchai forntai dm1 goadai r'..l.-not k+t) tr'oo?., 10 But dhou-didst-lei, unwcrdhi wun, toa.teli, Kot wox dhi hurt dht too-&eo-it sed!. Mewzik bei 'ieetoa llataiwe. 12.in : no, not ix-(it) woo! N ~, Not iz (it) Woo P! 2 Whcn sewted too dheo neer ' I (To) dhee (ei)-spoa.k, *pod-(deer) 'mei,. ov luv; ' [divcrn, i).-ncwr.-dhi-be dhou-eai'deet. 4 -Dhea r'imchdeat-(auet dhour'ekolekt), ainjel Meu.aik bei htwnio Lohi apal-pitated [dhij.lour'haarta I Nc\-.cr-dhi-les dhou-enideet, Oa mouth 'bell,ti- 6 An! nce, not 12-(it) tr'oo! Nm, naa. f u01! 2 Dhat swwt and dee-r " p8!" ~ m not, k-(itj troo! '! =ch maiks au1 [h] mei,plerh.er. 8 Dhou enideat, dhee daet-dhou-rlimei.nd-(dust 4 Fnur on.er ov hiz feir, dhourimem.ber)p '. Widh a kis Luv *dhee Impend "'l'hr'oo [dhi].leif ei dhee willluv!" 6 Bwee.t foumten ov dilei%! c

124 280 KXAMPLEE OF EON00 IN ITALIAN. ORIGINAL 0,El'HOQltAl'IIY Paaaenti Numi. heuwica di Norrut. ' 1'OEMnti Numi, hide, Osiri, 2 Date a que'petti mnno e valor! I vontri lumi la cop ia miri 4 E non rdetti omim $error! Del bel sentier giunga alh mckq, 6 O se a lei Per deatin lo vieta,.. Numi, o date degrla mer&. I) Della virtudo lor e fh. lo.-& #&p6 nola E'aCecrlrd6. ItTusica di Y-. Qui d&no non a'aocende 2 E EOggiOrnar non sa, La colpa non offende,. 4 Trova l'emr pieth! hterno amor unime i rar, U In pm i di panaiam COEL L'inganno ui non ride d Nel mas%- il ver : Fra noi ciascun divide, IO L'danno ed il piacer. In pace i di pnsniam mi. 12 Finch& ni vien d'oairi in Bun. -F---- Ea. xv... VERBAL GLOL3SIO TRANSLATION. [See Jwmen loriga, n. 6, p IO.-E60-r. a*ag-ger alrot sitasif 'crrpai*mr. Meu-dk bei Moasaart. Hwr anger 3itself 'infld.ms, 2 And too dwel not noae-(kanot dwel), [Dhi] fault- sin) not ufcn.de, 4 ZFeindz [diil IgFw 2pit.i! Fr'aknel luv ounei ts dhi haarte, 6 Tn pees &i- our) dai2 WM-~WE dhus. -[Dai disee.t sheer *not.'h'fb Ov-dhi beu tifuol path ' mai-it-r'eech bdhi 8 In- L i maasking-ov,dhi tr'ooth- (dime+ moka gorrl-(end), men not hwr bei konnwling tr'ooth) I AUT 'if 'it-(dhi pair) zfeem 4ai.t %-(&h) hung: UE eech-wun ehai rz 'faurbidx, 10 - [Dlu] 8or'oa and rdhil ioi. kitis, 08 giv werdhi rïwaurd 6 IOv-[dhi] sverteu *dhair and fni.th. ECCLESIASTICAL LATIN IN ITALTAN PRONUNCIbTION. ORIQLNAL OBTHOQBAPHY. IL-Stäbat Afätm. IIpssiniue canturn invënit. Stiibat Mäk dolorasa JuxU crucem la 3 Dum pendëbat3: CXjus animam kementem, Contrietantem et dolmtem 6 Pertransivit &lndiua. O quam tristin et afflicta Fuit illa benedicta 9 Mitar Uunigeniti. QFe moer6bat et dolëbat, Et tremëbat cum vidëbat 12 Niti poenäs inclyti..qnh est homo qui n6n flëmt, Chriski Mitrem si vidëret li In tantö ~~ppliciö P Quis nön poeeet conhistid Piam &hm Contomph- 18 Dolentem cum Filiö P 1% pewitis sune gentie Vidit &um in tormentin, 21 Et fligellis subditum. Vidit muurn dulcem Nituln Monentem dëeolätum 24 Dum ëmisit spiritnm. -. I VERBAL QLOSWC TRANSLATION. ll.;-~ipoe-'atandic~q '(dhi)-'diudhr. Hoo. iz (dhi)-man 'ho0 %ot zwuod-*weep Roseeemi l(dhi)-svoa.kel-'meuzik 'invented. SICrei~te 0Mudh.er 'if a(hi)-~~u~ 'e 16 SWoz-'&nnding '(dhi)-wudh.er fuolov-gr'&, ln m-grait pun%hent- atlikshen)? 'Hoo. 'not 2wuod-sbi-4ai.bl 6too-'bee-Baflik-t,ed Necr (dhi)-hn, fuol-ov-km, 11(Dhi)-12peiUs 'SMudhm 8too-!0kon.templrrit a.. Wheilst Swos-'ha ing at kontem hi.tiig), Woos-(dhi Mudher~koa-l 'groaning 18 5Atliktin Oand 'gree.vin Gree.ving wir& (her)-snn P 6 lohae-'qp&-'thmo e[$-bno8d. OR! hou nad and aflik.ted Faur :dhi)-sinz ov-hia pee pl Woa thnt JWZUS in taurments, 9 Mudhw ov-( 1' ' hi)-oaali-ugot.n, 21 And bei skerjer subdeu.d, Hoo woz-moorning and woe-&wing (Shi)-ean. her swee t Sm And woz-tr'em.blin whcn (Shi -woz-neebg. n'cu-ing fauraaikn la Vh-',her)-oSnn &i-apaimn tov]-nd5braited. 24 Wheil Ihi)-eemited (his)-treth...

125 O32 RYdYPLBS OF BONOB JX ECCLKSIASTICAL LATIT;.. Bec. XI Stilar diciter-supplëmontum.. EEjü, Miter, fons ~LDIBI~S! ' JIB sentire vim dolöris 27 W o et tëcum liigenm.. Fio ut ardeat crir meum, In nmindö Chriatum Deum, 30 Ut eibi coinplnoeum. SnnctcL Mätet, iatud ngiu,. ' Crucifixï fige phgis 33,, Cordi meö vididë. lui Näti uulncriti, Jam dignüti pr6 më pati,. 3G Poenb mëcurn divido... Fic ml vürü ti.cum flëre, Crucifixö, condolëre, 39 Rönec ego vierü. Juxtä crucem tëcum stire. Më libenter sociäm 42 In phctii dësiderri. VirgB, virginwn.praeclim,. Yihi jnm nön sis nmirn 46 Fäc më t&nm plnngcre. Fio ut portem Christi Bfortem, Pnnaiönis füc.coneortom, 40 Et plagis recolere VERBAL GLOSSIC THAh'SLATION. '.Gl'rOSSIC PRONUNCIATIOS... Staa.btZat Mäwtad-Smpplnemmn toom. Aeyn! Mnn-taer', fnons umaor'ccs! Mae enentee.r'ae vëem daolaor'eea 27 Faak, not taektom.loo jttu..nam. Faak öot aar'dae Lt ho r' mne wu1 EEn Radan.dso Iir'icsbom Dwoom 30 Oiit swbee knorppla.chne anm. Büanglr.tan Mwtaer', ëes.tilod RH W, Kr:oo.seeflrckmee fewjae plrra.gnae, 33 Kaor'dee maem' vnr.1ëedne. Too.ec Nan tee viio1 nner'anhe, Ymm deegnae'tce pr'ao mm prtqe, 36 Pwnnas 1nae.koom deo.vëedae. Fnwk mne vao+rrd ta8 kkm &er'-, Kr'aowefëek.sao kuon~danlmr'na,. 89 Dmmaek ae.gno vëckmer'ao ; Yõokshn 1rr'oo.chaom tnekoom s6air'ne. Mae leebrrcnk116r sao.tsee-nar'ne 42 Eën plilnngk.too dacsewdrer'm. Vëer'po vëer'.jocnom pmckh r'nn ' Mee.hee yãnm.nao'n sëes unmaer'nn 45 Faak mne tao-hom plünn jner'ae, Fna.k lot pnor'.taem Krëes.tso mnor'*taem Pirosseeno.nees fm.k knenrjaor'%wm. 48 Act phrgaae r'aekaolaer'ae. ' Woz-'atdadi#rg l(dlrij 'dirrcllro-eilmtineuni.rhen. Knuz meo tr'oo li widh-dhee too-wee'.p, Hoa! Mudhm, fount ov-luv! (Dhi,-Kr'ooeifeid.Wun tc.0-gr'ee.v widh, Wee too-fee 1 (dhi)-fwrs ov grwf 39 AZ long-a! shnl-liv ei ; 27 IKawe, nnd widh-dhee. mai-ei-moorn. Neer (dki)-kroa widh-dhoc. too-stand, &u.z dhnt mai-hern *haart h i Mee wiliogli (widh-dhee) too-ason-mhiait, In luv iug Er'oist Qod, 30 Dhat himself (ei mai-pleez. 42 hmmhiishen In (ei.dieei.r. ' 5x0 më cruoe custüdili, Morto Christi praemüriiri,~ 5;. Confoveñ grfitii. Quandö corpus morigtur, Fä0 ut anima donütur * BO Paradisi gkriü. AAmön! In. sempitemn meeulu, AAmën. Intlni-md nnd set-on-feir, I Aimen-! Bei 64 In &eo, (dhi)-dai Verjin, ov-juj.mont. mai-ei-beu difon.ded In.too ev.erhting Ai men' ni.jiz, I.* 61 54

126 234, IXAYPLEE OF ROIPQY IN FEKACE. XX4XPLl:S OF knos LA FBEIPCH... OIIIGINAL ORTHOGRAPHY. 1.-Où corde:-vom cdlw P Musique de Gounod. Ditee, la 'eune belle, 2 Oh VO&%VOUE a h? La voile 011m son aile, 4 ' Labrim vasoufier! L'aviron est d'ivoire U Le pavillon de moire, Le puvernail d'or h.. 8 J'aipourleetuneorrmge, Pour voile une aile d" 10. Poyr moume un h p R. Est-cc dans la Baltique? 12 8ur la mer paoiflqne P Dann l'% de,java P 12 Oh bien dane la Norwège, Cueillir la fleur de neige P 16 ou h fleur 'd'angsoka P I' Menez-moi,'' dit h belle, 18 '. A' la rive fldple, " Oh l'on aimo toujours." 20 Oette rive, ma ch&, On ne la connapt gutm, 22 AU paye des alilour& III. FRENCH SONGS... L-aareeroan' BB d-eevw~'bo, 6 Leo paaveeyoan' b o mwnar'w, Leo goovner'nasee d-aor' fnan'. 8 Zh-ai poor' laeat uen oar'ahn'h, Poor' vwd uen aelso d-ahn'zhuo, POO^ mom om' sair'aafaen'. io Ae-seo dahn' lea B ~lhkw P 12 Suer' las mad eaaeefeekw P- Dahn' l-dm seo Zhaavae? byaen' dahn' lm Naor'vaechro, Koeyyeer' h floer' deo naczhso P l6 00 laa flow' d-ahn'mob P l' Meonai-mwaa," dee laa bselso, 18 " An h r'eevw fwdnelw, " 00 Loan aimm tooxboor'." 20 saetw r'eevm, mea ahaer'm, Oan'neolaakaopne gaer'w,, ' 22. Oa pai-ee dmz earnoor' euzik bei Guon*oa. Sai, dhi-(mei) yung beu.ti, 2 whidher WlEh-yo0 (too) goa? Dhi A.1 mpnz ita wing, 4 Dhi br'ewz is-goaing (too) bloa.. Dhi-wr is ov-eiwu'i, 6 Dhi flag ov wauterd silk, Dhi helm 'ov-agoald 'peur. - 8 Ei hav faur bal-est an or'xmj, Faur ad a wing ov-ai.njd, 10 Fuur krrbin-boi R eer'd, VERBAL QLOSSIC TRANSLATION. Tz it in.too dhi Baultik P 12 Upon- dhi 'WE IPasifik? 'I In.too &i-eil OP Jaamvaa? 14 Aur wel-!elee) inho [dai] Nau.rwai, (Too) gadhar dhi flour ov moa P 16 Aur dhi flour ov-aashoa~kaa- " Jonesia Asoka" Joaneezhia A~xm-ka, dh, feimest floum'ing shr'ub in India). " Tai.k-mee," wz dhi beuti, 18 " Too dhi *ahoar Ifai.thfuo1, '' Whair. wun luve auhaia." 20 Dhat ehoa,r, mei deer, -Wun not it noas haardli-(ie skaimli omu) 22 Tn-dhi kun.tr'i ov luw. 6 8 'l'on doux /Înt me rappelle Les plus beaux de mes jours ; 6h! chantez ma belle, Chantez, chantez, toujours. Quand tn ris, aur ta bouche 10. L'amour n'é nouit. Et soudain le L u d e li SoupCOn s'évanouit. Ah! le rire fidèle I4 Prouve un &ur EMIE détoura ; Ah! riez, ma belle, l6 Riez, riez toujours. - Quand tu dors calme et pure, 18. Dam l'ombro, EOUE mes yeux, Ton haleine murmure 20 Dea mots harinonieux ; Ton beau corps BB révèle 22 &IS voile et WE atoura, Ah I dormez, ma belle, 24 Donnez, dormes toujours. 2.-,Sw'.btaid (lyoking hng, Lulwbi). I Powem bei Vikter Heugoa, meuzik bei Guon.oa. When &ou singest, rokt 2 (In) dhi eeving, bitweem mei my, Hwrr'est dhou mei thaut, 4 Which (too) dhee r'ip1ei.z aul.(kweit: loa?. Dhei soft nong (too) mee r'ikawla 6 Dhi moa& beutlfuol ovmei daiz; Aa! sing, mei beuti; B sing, -sing for'-ev.er ( p a on &g.ing). When &ou laanfed, upon. dhei mouth ' 10 [Dhi&uvjteel:f etapards, And eu en11 &l feels 12 suuepisben [itselr] varisha. i l! I i l I i i.i GLOYSIC PRONUNCIATION. 2.--Suir'ninpad (Baer'suez). Pm-aizee dea VZehor' Ue.&o, muezeek dea Goonoa.. Kahn' tue ahuhn'tm baer'nai-eo 2 Lao EWBBF' ahn'tr'eo mae bna,. Ahn'tahn' tue maa pahn'sai-eo 4 Kee teo r'nipoan' too ban? Toan' doo Shahn' meo r'aapaelao 6 Lm plue boa deo me zhoor' : A?! Shahn'tai, maa elm, 8 Shnhn'tai, ahahn'tal toozhoor'. Kahn' tue r'ee, suer' taa hoshso 10 L-aamoor' E- uipaanoo-eel Ai madaan' leo faar'ooshw. 12 bopman' a- aivaanoo.ee. Aa! leo r 'e eo feedaeleo ' I4 l'roov &n' koer' &n' &toor' : h! r'ee ni, maa baelw, l6 R'ee-ai, r'ee-ai too-zhuor'. Kahn' tue daor' kaah ai pumw 18 Dahn' 1- m'breo, 800 umez yeo, 'l'non aalaeneo mmr'muer'ee 20 Dae monz mr'mnonieo ; 'l'oan' boa kor' 880 fai& 2'2 &n' vwaal ai wan's aateor, Aa! daor'mai, mm baeleo,' 24 Daor'mai, dmr'mai toohm'. ' h! [dhij h. f 1fai.thfuol 14 Pr'oo.vz a haart widhout we& : h! laa.f, mei beuti, 16 Iwf, -1tlaf for' ev.er-(gaa on h,flng). When dhou ilee.pcllt, kaam und peur, 18 In dhi ahaid, under mei eiz,. Dhei br'eth mermerz 20 [qv-dhi] awerdz 1haarmOaniue; Dhel beutlfuol flgeur 'itself lr'iveee.lz 22 Wi&ou.tkonsee.lment andwidhoutadaumrn. m&, Aa! aleop, my beuti, 24 Sleep, -deep for' evw- (goa on dewping).

127 236 Bec. X0 SW. XV. OlUGlNAL OBTHOORAPHT. a -Robert! toi, que,rnirnc! lbéeie de Scribe, musique de Meyerbeer. - Imbelle. Robert! toi quo j'nime. 2 Et qui ITII~E ~ I H foi: Tu voie mon effroi, 4 &h pour toi-mbme Et grlce pour moi!. Roh-t. 6 Non, non, non, non. Inabelle- Orice pour moi, pour toi. B Quoi P ton cmur se dégage Des senneus les plne doux! O Tu me' rendis hommnge. Je nuis ii tes genoux! 12 Grace pour toi-même' ' Et grace pour moi. Robert.. I4 Non, non, non, non. Isnbclb. Grirco pour toi, pour moi. IO O mon hiell suprime Toi que j'nime, 18 Tu voie mon cffmi,. &ûcc pour toi-m6me 20. Et gltce pur moi. a.-rob.crt! dhou hoorn si lw!. Powem bei Skree.b, mcuzik bci Meiwbair. Izabep. bbwrt I dhou hoom ei luv, S And hm r'isoe.vd mei fni-th, Dhou eee.est mei Wed,. 4. Pwrden fnur dhei-eel.f, And pm.rden fnur mee!., Robwt. 6 Nm, no&, non, non... Iza,bek. l'ur-rden fmr mee, fntw dhw. GLOSBIU PBONUNClhTION. O.-Raobner'! twua kco eh-aiw~eo! Pon-aisee de0 Skreeb, muereck deo Mnnydx1i.r' '%miakcl. n'aoher'! (wan ken eh- aimeo; 2 ' Ai kce r'msue mnn frw, Tue rwanpaon neffwnn, 4 Gr'neo poor twan-mnerneo Ai gr'aaeso poor' mwnn! Rnobwsr.'. B Noan', noan', naan', nom'. Eczaabael. Waam poor' mwna, poor' twaa. ' 8 Kwnn? tom' koer' seo dnignnzheo Dae ener'mahn' lae plue dw!. IO Tue mao rahn'dees rrordaarheo, Zhco sü8ece nn.me shwnou! l2 Wllas~o poor' twaa-maemeo, Ai gr'nasn, poor' mwaa. Raobrrev'. 14 Noan', mm', nom', noan'., lhaabnrl.. Waaaetb poor' mwaa, poor twin i 16, On moan' bynen' suepr'nmum f Twna keo eh- nimm, 18 ' Tue rwna mnon nefr'waa, Or'nnwo poor' twna-mmso 20 Ai gr'nawo poor' mwaa. 8 Whot? dhei hnnrt itd-f diaengni.jes.. From-dhi vohs dhi monst soft-a.luving) 10.Dhu too-mee didat ren.der hom ej, Ei m nt dhei nee'e. 12 Pwrden fnur dhei-sel.f, And.pe'rden fnur mee- Robert. 14 Non, noa: n", non. Izabet. Pan-rden fnur mee, fnur dh? 18. Oa mei 'guod Iseupwm,. Dhou hoom ci luv, # 18 Dhou eeeest mei dfd, Paa.rden fmr dhei-self. 20 And pm-rdun bur mea ORIGINAL OeTHOGRAPHY. I.-& Mmda. Musique de Pnul Henrion. ' De l'aragon, de ln Oastille, 2 Toi que l'on dit la p h gentille. hcours vcrn now BOUE ta mentille, 4 Pourquoi tnrder, O Juenetta! N'entends-tu pm lee farandoles P G Lea vives danna Espagnoles, Des'Mnndas jelmes et folles, 8 Au loin chantant, d-nt déjù P -4llms, ma belle, allons, ma reine, IO Vite nu prado, chacun est 1A, Pr& h fster ln wuvaaine 12 De la Jota hagonese! Ne de-tu pm que is Murcie, 14 Que (frenado et l'dndelousie,. I6 Ont envoyé 1s plue jolie Der, Yanoles pour la Jota? AUone,enfant, ln nuit noun gagne,, '18 Dbjja. adrid est en camme Pour voir dansor ln fleur d'espagne, 20 Qui ne nut p~ ma Juanettn! AUOUCI, ma belle, dm~, ma reine, 22 Vite nu prado, chacun est U, Prbt i fêter ln muve.&e 24 De la Jota Arngodse,! KXAYPLRE OF snms IN FRRNCU. 237 GLOSSIC PRONUNCIATIOX. 4.-Laa.Wnarmolan fdhi Spanieh wcrdz' anr hol r pronnonnet az Vrench wcrds.) lfuezeck dea Pon1 Ahn'ree-om'. Deo1- Aar'aagoan', dco lua Knaetee!-co, - 2 Twaa keo 1- onn' dee lar plue ehaan'teeyco, Ankoor' vaer' noo aoo ~R:L rnmin'teeyeo, 4 Poor'kwm tsar dai, OH ZhUtuInaeteri. N-nhn'hhn' tuc pnh he faar'mn'daolco P 6 Lne veeveo.dahn'scozaeaparmy'aobo, Dae Ynanaolaa, zhoeneoz ai fnolco, 8 Oa lwaen' ehnhn'tnhn', dahd'nnhn' dniehm P Anloan', mnu bael ; adorn', mm r'mneo, 10 Veot ou pr'mdos, ahahkoen'n ne lm, Pr'aet ou fnitai lna soovcor'aenbo 12 Deo Ira zhontaa Aar'angoanaezlia! Neo mm-tue p& keo laa Muer'see CO 14 KM Qr'eonaad ai 1- A.hn'dnalooeee-bo, Oadt Bhn'vwaayyni laa plue zhno1ee-a 16 Rne Maanaolss poor lan monha? Anloan, aan'faan', laa nüë.& noo gauny.eo, 18 Dnïzhaa M.andr'ee net am' kaan'pany'so, Poor' vww' dahn'eai laa floeur' d Aespmny'rr '10 Kee neo von pah mna Zhi5nanaettro! Anloan', mnn bnel ; doan', mnn r ~umsb, 22 Veet oa pr'aadon, Ukoen'n ne ha, l'r'aet m fnitni 1aa emmr'mneo 24 Deo laa zhostaa ABsr'nrgoantm?a! VEFSAL GLOSSIC TRAYSLATION. 4.-Dhi Afaarrao.ba (daansing gar1 -dh~ Spm.iah 12 Ov dhi akhnoha-(pikeu-lpr daans, 'Arngwerde. nnr 'heer raehord too dhair Span ish onnecz. munde, okaept when nnimz ovplai.uee, which Not non-est-dhou [nt-au11 dhat [dhi] Merahin, hav dkir hg-glkh munde). I4 Dhat Gr enni,da and [dhl] Andaloo%hia, Meu-eik bei Paul H&r'ien. Hav eent dhi monst beu-tduol. Fr'om'[dhi] Ar'*egan, fr'om [dhi] Kaaetee-1, 18 Ov-dhi Mnanao.lnaz faur clhi Khmtar '. 2 Dhou hoom [dhi] wun kauk dhi moast dnimti, Rum-on, (.mei cheild, dhi neit 1g+.ns-50&.. Run-too tonrde UB under dhei mñantee.ly'aa- 18 AlNedi?d'id. ir-in dhi.kuntr'l-(out ov (huod!, doarz). 4 Whei dilai, O Khwamiettaa Too em dann8 dhl flour.ov Spaim, Not-hee.rr'elltdhou[at-aul]dhifaar'aan.doolHae. 20 ~HooJnot2iz-4werth [nt-au11 rnei Kwhaanaet- (S,yi&h kum- unie öv komee.dienz), tm. 6 Dhi lervh dannsss &miah, Kum-on, mei beu4i: kum-on, mei'kwee n, Dhi Mnanao-leas, Jung and mad, ' 23 Kwik too-dhi pr'aad.m-(publik,$nudene). 8 At dis-tans singing daan-sing aulr'edi? ed-wun ie dhair, Kum-on, mei bewti ; kum-on, mei kweon,.. Redi too fnit-(giv n fewtiv rirrepshen too) dhi 10.. Kwik too-dhi r'aa-doa-(publik ganrdem), sov'ren eech-wun is dimir. [mrren 24. OV dhi 2Khnotan. (pikeu.lyer diu3iiel 'Arag. Redi too fni.t-(giv'a fwtiv riwpdlcn too) dhi oanees.

128 I 238 EXAMPLES OF BORQE IR FBRNCH. Bec. XV. Neo. xv. a39 ORIGINAL ORTHOGRAPHY. La Manola-Suite. =E tout se tait dam ta demeure fa Ia brise seule arrive et pleure, &W lee granda rrrbree qu elle effleure 28 Tout eat silence, et je suis 1L! Quand une voix, d o u w 30 &dit au fond de la *dain parut la jeune fille Pd Qui rkpondit, I Oui! me roa! puie au prado vtte un l entmtno. 34 Et Juauetta la &nola, Uomme toujoure mta la Beine 86 Do ln Jota Anapnh. O.-Partatzt pour k Eyrie. Pothie et munique de Hortense de beau ha mai^. QLOSBBIC PRQNUNCIATION,. Laa Maanaoh-Süëeet. Mae too seo tse dahn tas hoer w, 26 Iaa br eesso mol w wv ai ploer so, &o Ise gr ahn n aar br eo k-aal adow w 28 Toot ae SME, ai she0 ah-ee l+! Kahn t uenm vwas, doos ai ahaan teeyeo, 30 ßor teet m foan dm h e.htadmeeym, 5oodnen psrr ue laa nhoango fwyso,, 32 Kee. r apn dee : Wee! mm vwuh! Pléeez OB pr aadoa veet oar! l- aan tr a,enm 34 Ai Zhlhanaetualaa Maanaolaa,. hmso toozhoor, r aeataa laa r aem 86 Deo laa ZhooCaa Atar rsgqanae&sa! Partant pour ln 8yrie 3 Le jeune et beau Dunois, Alla prier Marie dalaa r ea-ai fir ee-ro 4 Ue Unir E- exploite, 4 Deo%rlineer wmz eknplwaa., Faites, bine immortelle, Fh, Ram eemmaortaeh, 6 Lui dit-il en partant, 6 Lü% deet eel ahn puar tahn. Que j aimo la plus belle, I Keo ah- aimm b plue baelw, II Et soia le plue vaillant. 8 Ai EWBB leo plue vaayyahn. ORIGINAL ORTHOGRAPHY..Parta,at per la Syriu-spite. I1 pave sur la pierre 10 Lo sement de l honnour, Et s a va suivra en perre 12 Le Comte et 8on mgneur ; Au noble vœnfldhle 14 Il crie p combattant,!amour- h la plus belle, 18 Et gloire au plus vaillant! l8 On lui doit la victoire! Dunois, dit eon Seigneur, Puisquo tu fais ma gloire, 20! Je femi ton bonhour ; I De mnfl11e leabelle,. 22 Sois l hpoux ir l instant, Car elle est lu PIUS belle,, 24 Et toi, le plue vaillant. A l autel d0 Marie 26 Ib contractent tous deux Cette union ohkric 28 Qui sede rend heureux ; Chacun L la ahapelle 30 B We en led YO ant; Amour i k plus %de, S2 Honneur au plus vaillaint. GLOSSIC PBONUNCIATIOY. Paar taan pow laa 8ecr ee-süëeet. Eel gr aavco suer laa pyaer co, 10 Leo ~~er mahn deo l-aonoer, Ai E ahn vas aühvr ahn gaer w 12 Leo Koan t ai kan Saeny oer ; Ou naobleo veo f&leo 14 Eel kr ee ahn kaodbwtabn, Aamoor u laa plue ba&, 16 Ai glwaar oa plue vaayyahn, Olm lüëee dwna laa vwktwaar eo! 18 Dwnwna, dee soh hiny oer, Pühakeo tue fae maa glwaar co, 20 Zheo fmr ai ban baonoer, Deo mm fee Ewaabaelm 22 Swaa 1- aipoo as 1- acn atahd Kam aal ae h plue baoleo, 24 Ai twna, loo plue vaayfahn t. Aa 1- ontael de0 ~ee-so 2ti Eel koan tr naktco too deo Saet uenekn shairee-eo. 28 Kee s ~eh r ahn t oer eo ; hakoen aa ha shuaplco 30 S-aih eeahn lacvoayyahn (vwasyyahn :, Aamoor aa ha plue baeleo, 38. Onoer ac plue vanyyahn t. VERBAL GLOSSIC TRANSLATION. But all itsdf keepckweket in dhei dwaing, 86 Dhi br ee-z dm-n ar ei-vn and wiz, I Powem and meu.zik bei Aurtehn s Bowhssmai. Under dhi p ai t tr eez which it gr aieea i aß Aul k =.lens, and ei am dhair! Lwving faur [dhi] &.in, When D vois, soft and daimti, 1 2 Dhi yung and fair Duenwnn,.. P 80 Karns-f&h from-dhi depths- ov dhi elmnemrher. I Went tuo-pr ai Maim i An wer, rïmaimd dhi kwwn 86 Or dhi Rhnwta Aragwneuz, j Dhat ei mai-luv dhi lnoast beu.tifuo1 a And bee dhi moa& valynt. i - Lwuitzg pur [dhi] 8ir G-Kuntin.euidwn. Hee engr ai-vd u n dhi etoan luv, h d himse1.f hens went too-folwa in waur 10 Dhi oath ov [g] 14 Dhi liount and hiz Irrurd. Too-dbi no8 bl YOU faithfuol 14 Heo Wein-in kum.but (az heo feeits\, Luv too dhi moast beu~~ol.,, 16 And gloam i too-dhi nlwt vad.yent! WUIL %o-him*on8 Jdhi vikter i! IH Duenwaa, m hiz Lsurd, Sinn dhou makkest mei gloaw i 20 Ei wil-mai.k dhci hapmn.. I Ovmoi dauter Izabel. 23 Bee dhi huz-bend at (on) dhi iq Eht, I Faur shee iz dhi moast beu%ifmol, 24 IL And dhou cihi mwt valynt. At-&i au.lter ov Mairr i..! G Dhn2kontrak.t -au1 too-(bth) Dhat cumyen chor %ht. 28 Which alwn r mdorz hapi ; Eech-wun at dhi &p.el SO [Himself] heiz.in dhem eeeing(pe tæ Beez dhem) LI~V too dhi mosst beu,tifuol! 34 On.er too-dhi mdbat vakyent!

129 ~~ - b ORIGINAL ORTHOQBAPHY. 6.-L1r Ma~willniae. Poésie et mueique de Rollget de Lisle. ) Allons, enfans do la patrie! 2 Le jour de gloire est nrrivé, Contra noun de la tyrannie 4 L'ftendard sanglant ont lev& Entendez.voue dans lee campagnm 6 Mugir WE fémcee soldats? Ils viennent, jusques dans v08 brne, B E'gorger YOB file. vos compagnes! Aux armes, citoym~! Formez von htaillon~! IO Marchez! qu'un mg impur abreuve nos EUOUE! Qne veut cette horde 'd'esclaves, Keo veo mtw &&o d- sesklaavuo, 12 De traîtree, de mis conjuds P 12 Deo tr'aetr'w, deo r'wia koan'zhuer'ai P, ' Pour qui cea ignoblea entravw, Poor' km mez eeny'aobleox ahn'traaveo, 14 Ces fern dh'long tema prep& P. 14 &e faer' dae loan' tahn' pr'aipaar'ai P Franquis,.pour nous ; ah! quel outrage! lwahn'iao, poor' noo ; au! kael ootr'ahco! 16 QueY transporta il doit exciter ; l6 Kael tr'nhn'spaor'z eel dwaat aekeeetai ; C'est VOUE qu'on ose méditez S- BO v00 k- onn' w w claideetai 1 B De rendre B l'anti ne mlavage! 18 Deo rahn'dr'- au 1- ahn'teek neskhvaazbo!. Aux armes, citoyens!%ornez yo8 batdons! Oaz aar'nm, aaetwaayaen'! Faor.mai vm h- 20 Marchez! qu'un mg impur abreuve no^ sillons neeyoan'! [noa taa-poan',!! 20 Maar shni! k-oennahn'k aen'puor' oabr'oevm Quoi! des cohortes ftrang6rea P2 Foraient la loi dans no8 foyern! Quoi! ces phalanges mereenairea 24 Tepeeeraient n08 fiers guerriers! 6.-.Dhi Ilitrc!rsai& Maarch: Poeem and mewzik bei Hoo.zhai dh Leel. Kum' on! chi1,dr'en'ov dhi-(our) kuntr' i 2 llhi dai ov gloerr'i iz ar'ei:vd, nagaimst 911s. Iov [dhi] %r'.eni 4 'Dhi %tanderd abludi 7lif ted &er-yea, 'in Rdhi 7plain2, G ami'= P Dhai kum, -until. in-(eem m-dhin; eur 6,.. 8 (Too) merder eur EUS, bur kompan yem! VEltBdL BLOBYJC TWNS,LA'l'ION. 4~e1.c.a ~~~oae~~oa.~u~ Too mrmz. sitizem! Farum eur batalyu5! IO Maerch! dhat-(mai) a 'blnd impeur irigait ow fur~w-(fecldr.),!.... GLOSS10 PRONUNC~ATION: g.-lao Haar'raiyaez.. Pm-aizie ai muezeek deo lioozhäe d-i.&l. AaloAn'z, ahn'fshn de0 las Paatr'eo-eo! 2 Leo zhoor' deo glw.ar' Set aar'eevai, ' Koan'treoa no0 deo ha hmenw.m 4 L- nitahn'daar' mnhn'glahn' ae leohi. Ahn'tnhn'dai-voo, dahn' he knhn$mny'so 6. Yuezheer' BBB fair'aoseo. hldaa Eel vyaeneo, zhueskea dahn' voa br'aa 8 Aipr'zhai voa fwn, vw kocm'paany'so! Oa W'UWO, ~ t w ~! F-'=I y ~ ' koa baa- +y):oan'! [noil seeym'.! 1OMaar E ~U! k-oen aehn'k m'puer' aabr'oevw Kwm! dab kao sor'teoz aitr'ahn'zhaer'co, 22 Feor'uehlwnadshn'noafaoyyai fwuayyai;! Kwaa! me fnalahn'zheo maar'seonaer'eo 24 Taer'aaaseor'ae n" fyaer' gaer'yai!.. Whot wil-(mee.nz) &at hoard ov E~U~TZ, 12 Ov tr'd.terz, ov kine kompei.rd-tm.. godh'er? Fnur hoom dhw ignoa.blfetwz, [pr'ipaimif 'I4 llhoaa ohaime -from long teim-(long sins) Wen-chman! for' 'UE ; aa! whot (an) ouwej! 16. Ihot tnwnsprts,ov paahxm),it axt too ekwit! 1t.h -eu dhat wuu &ir2 (too)-med.itait 18 Toa r'eatowr too [dhi ai.ht elai-verï! Tm namz, nitizenr!. J aurm 6ur batdyena! 20 llnnroh! dhaf(mai) a blud impeur irigait our furmaz-(feeldz! Whot! (ov dhi. akocl-haurtn lfor'wn 22 Wuod-maik hhi buz in our hoams! Whot! dhoaz pfdangkeea ]mer siner'i 24 IVuod-pr'oe-hit OUI feers wor' icr?! Bec. xv ORLCIINAL ORTHOCIRAPHP. Lo Ma&lkàisc-Suite. Grnnd Dwu! par dee mains enchainées, No8 huts sou le joug se ploieraient! De vile dee o h deviendralent, Les I M ~ R E 8, no8 deetinées! Aux mes, citoyens! Formez vos bntnillons I Marohez! qu'un eang impur abreure nos sillonr!. Trembles, tynme! et vous perfides, 38 L'opy;re de tous les partis. Tremb ez voa projets parricides, 34 Vont euh recevoir leur prix. Tout est soldut pour volls combattre! 3G Siln tombent, nos jennea héros, La terre en produit de nonveaux P 38 Contre vous tous rcts B ee battre. Aux armee, citoyens. Formez voz bataillons! 40 Marchez! qu'un eang impur abreuve no8 sillons! Amour saor6 de la Patrie, 42 Conduis. soutiens no8 bran venge=! Liberté! Liberté chme! 44 Combats avec tes défem'urs. SOUE no8 drapeaux ue la victoire 46 Accoun, i tes IU$S &ccbib. Oui tes ennemis e x p h 48 Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire. Aux annee., oitoyens! Formez VOE bataillons! 60 Marchez! au'un EU- impur - ubreuve nos done! l ' 26 i l 28 i 30 I VERBAL OLOSSIC TRANSLATION. Dhi Manraaik Maarch -Sùë&. 28 DG uiwaterz oi our dwtiniz! l Too narmz, dfkenz! Faurm em batalyeuz! Luv naikr'ed ov dhi Kunmtr'i, 30 Maarch! dhat-(mai) a blud impeur irigait our 4% Kondukt, su~tai.~, our aarmz aven.jing! fnrw-(fwldz)!. ' Libmerti! Lib-erti cher'irht! Tr'embl, teirr'ents! andeuperlidyus- wum), 44, Feit (on dhi saim seid) widh dhei diferderz. 32 Dhi opr'oabrium ov aul [dhi] sei&. 'Un.der gour %UW~Z, (dhnt dhi! %kter'i Tr'em-bl! e u pr'oj.ekts r'.ieei.del 46 "ai-jran-%p eat gdhei ~ O m a n l%k.wnta. i 34 Knm-(nar goa-ing) (too) r'iseev Yes, (mai) dhei en.imiz ekspei-m'hg dhair preis-(riwnu.rd). 48 See eur tr'ehmf and our glosrr'i! Evrithing is soaljer (m order) too?eu'feit! Too aarmz, sitkm!' Faurm eur bawpena! 36 If dhai faul, our Jung hwrr'oaz, [(wu) 60 Maaroh! dhat-(mai) a blu1 imvr irlmit onr Dhi orth [ov-dhem] prodeweez [ovl new fnrmaz-(feeldz)! 50 II

130 XVI. PRONITNCIATION OF THE NAMES OF COMYOSERS, QERMAN, ITALIAN, AND FR ENCH, WITH A, FEW OTHERS. Introdaotion.-The following list of namee waa compiled under the direction of m. Curwen, and the datee &ed of birth, or of death, or of both. The pronunciatione given are double. The 6ret is ne correct a repreeentation of the native sound ae I am able to give; in a few wee I have not. been eure that the orthography of the name given me wae correct, and heace doubted the pronunciation, and I have often been obliged to aeeign the pronunciation ham the e phg and not from personal howledge. The second is the imitation or variation of the name beet euited to EngW organa of epeech. AEwe have Anglicised,Bau-, Han'dl, Moazaa.rt, Hai,&, Bert-hoa.wn, Xoamwni (&&,Hiindel, Iod, Haydn, Beethoven, Roeeini) why should we attempt to meke foreignere of the othere? At my rate it ie better for Englieh ta have eome sort of wund which is dm-ked from the native pronunciation and which they cam eaeily utter, than to make all kinde of gueeeea on the npm of the moment. The Chrintian namee are in all ca8ea hadated in the second pronunciation, bat ea they have been &ved from varione 80- into whioh they had been previounly tranalated, 1 -not be alwaye sure that they are dwuye rightly given in the bet ALPHABETICAL LIRT. Abt, Franz, Aäp*t, Frãnta. hnnie Abt. Ahle, Johann Georg, ddu, Yoahaurr. Gaikzor'ky'h. Jon Jau.rj Aah Ahle, Johann Rudolph, dn.lu, Yonhaan. R'oo.dmlf. Jon Rwdolf Anlu Albrechteberger, JohRnn Qeorg, Aälbracky'hts. baer'.gy'hur', Yoahaaa. Gai.aor'Ay'h. Jon Jau.rj Al.brektebei.ger Allegri, Gregorio, Aallani.gr'ee, Gragao.r'cc-oa. Qregur'i Alai Arcadelt. Jacob, Aa*r'kaa&wlt, Yaa.kuob. Jtti.mz Aerkudelt. End of 16th ccnt. Arutino, Quido, Aar'aitw'noa, Qweedoa. Qwee.doa Afmitee.noa [meaning. Of Arezzo." &e G~ido.] 11th cent. Arido, Attilio, dwree-aos'toa, dattec.ke-oa. Atilke br'ioetoa Auber, Daniel Frasçoie Eeprit, OabW, Ddanee-ael, Fr'ahn'swaa dispr'ec. Dwyel Fr'mneie Espree Oabair. 178L Bach, Johann 8ebeetian, BboÆh, Yoahkn. Baibrimateeawr. Sibae.tyen Ba+, or Bau Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel, Bdlakh, Xaar'l Fer- Msp A~~MI~ooos.~. ChBBTlz Filip Emmrcud Buk, or Bau li88 BW. xvl PRORUNCIATION OF THE NAMXS OF COKPOSE~. 241 U, Johann Lkietian, Bdlakh, Poahoan- XWMJ- I -ti, M~o, glaatnum-tee, Miwtßyoa; Moct'eioa teewn. Kr'irtyen Rd, or Bau Climen.ti. mz-18aa. W, Jolllrnn Chrietoph Friedrich, BIokh, Yoahaan. Canti, hceco, Hw.ntse, IVXmchairkoa. Kr' ertaof Fr'erdr'hky'h. Kr'ishfer Baak, or Fr'aaneie Kon:ti Bau Converso, Giroh, Koanvadaoa, JscrmZaamoa. Bach, Wilhelm Friedemann, BhÆh, V' elhelrn Jirolwnoa Konver'eoa. Latter half 16th cent. Fv'eedumdian. Wil.yem Baak, or Bau Corelli, Arcangelo, Hoaradlee, Aar'kaaajailw. Bartholdy, Felix Mendeleeohn, Baa?-'tao.Mcs Koare1.i. Fai.lZeks Haen.dsla6oa.n. Fee.ee.liks Mendlaen Crivelli, Domenica, Hmaasl.lm, Domnai.rreakoa. Beartoaldi. See Mendehhu Dominik Eriveli Barthélemon, François Hippolite, Bbr'taìhad, Croce, Qiovanni, Kvowchai, Joatrdlaame. Jon Fr'ahn'swaa EZpaoAt. Fr'aamie Hipdit Icroachi.. ' 17th cent. Bactrtlmen Oserny, C. [Bohemian Chaer"a]. Cherni. Beethoven,Ludwigvon, Bait-hfen, Lwviv'8eky'h Donizetti, hatano, ~oafla~-t~as.pt#, Gaa-aitwfloa. faon. h i e fon Bed-hm-m Uaa-ibnoa Donizati Berlioz, Heoh, Baer'ly'aos, dcktaor. H&-ter Dupuis, Thomne Saunders [French, DuspIWce] Berli-. - mg. Deupww Bellini, Vincenti, Bailkcam, Ylmehawtsc. Finmeent Beleenni D~mnte, Frameem, Door'dan-tai, A'hnobai.skoa. Waameie Door'anti Biohi, Qiovanni Antonio, Byaang-kec, Joauaan.- nee Anntornyoa. Jon By8ugk.i Diirmeer. J., Dubr'vaollr. Derner Bisnchi, Franceeco, Byamg.kaa, Fr'aanchaerkoa. Dneeek, John LBdialas mhemiau ; French pro- Ffaaneie Byangk.i nunciation DwrwÆ.] Deaeek. 1762T1810. Boieldieu, Francois Adrien, Bwaaldyw, Fr'ahn'moaa Eieenhofar Aay.smhoa$br'. Eizen-hmfer Ferrari, Qiacomo Gotifdo, Fas*'r'aa.r'm, Jaa'koamos GoatMfr'ntdòa. J8i.m Wfr'i Fer'aa-?'i. 18th cent. Festa, C., Paes'taa. Fee'tu.. 16th cent. Beginaing of 18th cant. FBtie, Francole Joee h, Fai &a, Fr'ahdMoaa Kaacn'pa~~y'mlss, Zhaozacf. Fr'ae.nsief)Oe.eefFaitis Baartholumeu Eampny- Flotow, Floa-loa. Floe'toa. l Freechi, Giovanzli Domenico,P*'ai.rkas, Jowaan.nsb Aadr'eeaen'. $'r'wueia Aidrien Boildeu Buononcini, Qiownni kttieb, Bwao.nopnehrrree, Joatraan.net Bbttkrtna. Jon Baptiat Bownon- cheeni. Cumpagnoli, Bartolomeo. Baar'toalomcae~oo' mli Carieeimi, Giacomo, Kaar' ersecmee, Jaa.koamoa. Jaims Kuriwimi Doamai.rwkoa. JonDominik Fr'erki. 17th cent. Iheaobaldi, ctirokuno, Fr'aisÆoab~aaPdse, Jedao.- Cherubini, Luigi, Kair'oobsrnes, Maur'ee.aa laarnoa. Fr'wkoaboldi. ' Loo-cejes. Ker'oobewni Fuohe, Johann Joeaph, haka, Poahaaw Yoa.psf. Jhladni,Emd Florens Friedrioh,Khlaadnw,Aer'nat Joaezef Jon Fuoke Floa-r'ms Fr'ec.dr eky'h. Erneet Flor'me Wedrik Kldni. me Choron, Alexnudm Etienne, Kaor'oaN', AbgsahddrE Aityasn. AlekescLnder Btoe v11 brr'on Cimaroma, Domenico, Chnaarao'san, Doamwnwkoa. Dominik Chimmuros.m &ilard, Jeau Erneet, Cfaayyaa.r, ZhaM dsr'nacst. Jon Erd hy.yacrr Qallo, Tgnasio or Antonio, Gadha, Esny'aa'taiaa or Amtoavayoa. Iguai-nhiue am h%& GlUl.08. l639 - Ciaroìa,Manuel[~eh,G~r'.t'hec-aa,Mi~noo-s.l],. Mareuel Ctaamhin am kriu,

131 ,. 244 PPOKUNOIATION OF THR NAHEß OF COMPOSEM. i ßaaphi,~OBBCO, Gaapaar'wnw, Fr'annchai.- Jomelli, Nicolo, Yomwl.&e, Nwkoakw. Nikwlua skoa. Fr'mnai~ hpurwni Yoamel-i Mini, Felice, Jaar'dmnee, Failea chi. Feelika Depria, Joequin, Duopro, Zhapskaen'. awkh Jnardwni Diprai Qluck, Chrietoph von, Qluok, Xr&a.fof faon. Knlkbrenner, Christian Friodrich, Baal.kbr'acrr.ur-, Krinhfer Qluok. fon Br'Zea-tee-awn Fr'ead,'Jokg'h. Rr'intyen wed.- Qomec, hçois Jomph [Belgian; French pro- rik Kai-kbrenm nunciation Ghaek, Fr'ahdewaa Zho~af.], Ealliwoda, J. W. [Bohemian, Haalkeuoad~a]. Fr'wnnis Joaaef Gwek. 18th cent. KaPivoadu. Qoudimel, Claude, Qwdemasl, Xload. Klau.d Knecht, Juetin Heimich, Knwky'ht ~t~rntpe.e.,l Uoodimel. 16th cent EnaywJekyh. Juntin Hen+ Neaht Gounod, Gòonoa. Guonma U3. Kuhlau, Friedrich, Kwlaaw, Fr'ea.dr'Jeky'h. Ciraun, Carl Heinrich. Gr'aam, Kaad Eauyw- FfedTik lioo~lou r'wky'h. Cbaerh Hen~i Woun Kuoken, Friedrich Wilhelm,Kuokm. Fv'co.dr'èehy'h Qrieabmh, J. H., Wee.abbakh. Wewahk nur Pëdhelm. Fr'ed.r'ikWil-yemKuokm Wee.abaa Laahnor, Frane, LadAnur' F~Jlmrts. Fr'aRnsie, Gr-, Wilhelm Leopold, Gv'awu Fael.A.skn Lakner Zai.oopaold. Wil,yem Lewoapodd &'-.u. LEEUE, Roland [Belgian, Latinised Lnasooa, End of 18th mt. Boslaatad]. Hoalend LIWIIE Gaglidmi, Gooly'aelt&e. Qoolidmi Lindpaintner, Peter Jwph, Lëend-yaay~r~tw-', Quido d'a+zo, Gwea-don d-dar'ot.taoa. Qweedoa Paitwr' yoa?ef. Peetet Joaxef Lind.Doin&r. d'ar'etwa. Händel, Georg Freidrich, Hm-dsl, Gai.aor'ky'h Wrvir'Jekg'h ' Jau.rj Fr'ed.r'ik He&. b e , John Adolph, liaam, Yoahuan. Aa-dadf. Jaurj udolfus Haem Hauptmann, Woritz, Eaawptmiata, Mowr'èetn Mor"ieHou-ptmen Haummn. Valentin, Haaw.arndan, 3aalsrPtm.n. Valwnteiu Hous'men. Early 17th cent. Haydn, h Joseph. HaQy'dn, Fr'hnta POCU$ Fr'~~nai~.J~e.~ef nur Eaidn Hei.dn Haydn,,?tfiohaal, aaaydrr,?feskhai-rril. Md kl h m & ow Heih ' Ebrold, Eiraolt. Herdd a~. Hiller, Eàetlur'. Hil.er I: Himmel, Friedrich Heinrich, Ei~wsl, Ff'ea-dr'ieky'h Hy'nraewh. Fr'ed,r'ik, Hen.ri Him-] Hummel, J o b Nepomuk, Huowel, ponk~ 4%yoatnuo.': Jon Nepmmuok Huom] Meibom, Mark, Maayboam, Maar'k. Nwrk lekbom. [Latinised,Afeiboa.mi~a] Yeudelasohn-Bartholdy, Felix, Mamdskwa% - Baa~r'taolho, FaaiBeka. ' Feealike Ma&- hrtoaldi. &e Bartholdp 'Heroandante, Saverio, Mwr'ktZatzdcinnlai, Gamaer'ce-oa. Bnavaim'ioa Y&andan:ti Metarrtusio, Pietro, diait&ataarse-oa, Pyactroa. Pwter MekasWeio Yethfessel, Friedrich, Xai.tferel, Fr'aa>dr'èeky'h. Fr'edrik Mai-tfee ?. Wethfeanel, Albrecht Qottlieb, Mai.Lfsr.el, Aal.- br'sky'ht Qaot.&cb. Albert Wleeb Mai-tfk %feyorb&, Jamb [in Italian, Giacomo!, Mnay.rr'- bai.#, Paa.kaob [in Italian, Jaakoamoe]. Jal.kub nur Jei-mra Meierbair lH64. Molique, B., Ma&sÆ. Modewk Morlaoahi, Franceac0,Maor'laak~kSs Fr'au~achai.skoa. Wee-nsis Mnurlaki,, hloscheles, I., dloa.shrzsr. I m'des Mozart, Johann Chrpostom Wolfgang Gottlieb, Hoa.laaart, Poahaan. Kr'èeraortaorn Faolfgaarag Qaot.dw.b. Jon H'ismtern Volfgang Gotleeb MOUlL%Tt Miille:, Auguat Eberhard,.Mud.ur', Aaw gmat di.bur'haar't. Augushm &.berhaad Mi.ler ~ä~oli,~~rg,nai.gy~as~,eaaaa Qni.aor'ky'h. Naipli. Jau,rj Jak 17~2-18a6. Naumann, Naaw.~ruIan. Noumen Neidhart,Faay'd-haar't. Nei.d-M Neukomm, Sigiemond, Noykamn, ZecgZemnmd. Sijiemend Bokkem Otto, Valerius, AoPtoa, P'aalne.r'eu-ws. VdeeTr'iw moa. Early 17th cat. Paësiello, Gtiovanni, Paa-aiam-netka Joacaawtrss. Jon Pas.aieyel.os Palestrina, Gtiovanni, Paakinistr'eswaa, Joauaan.nes. Jon l'alwntr'eemu l'epusch, Johah Chriatoph, Paiyrrosh, Yoahaan. Xr'ãertaof. JonKr'intufer Pai*puoeh Pergolesi, Giovanni Rqttista. Paev'goalne :W, Jowoa,r.rue Baatties'taa. Ezi. Jon Baptint l'erp Pfeiffer, J. M., Wauyfur'. Faifer; End 18th cent.. Piccini, Nicolo, PZetch+w.nee, Nerkoaloa. Nikulua, Picheed i Pietocchi, Fr. Ant., Pàertaokkm. Pietoki ' Pleyel, Igmz, Pky.sl, ~agfkw'l8. 1gnai.shiUe Pleid nur plaid. l'ra7-1eal. Porpora, Nicolo, Poar'yoar'aa, Nwkoaba. Nikuly. Pau rpum. 1e fiætoriue, Michael, A.'aitw.r'ss-ws,M~haa-ae.l. Mei-kl W~tosdiu~ Rameau, Jean Philippe, R'aamoa, Zhahtì. FãeZZop. Jon Filip Ram.=. im Randegger, A., Raandasgmur'.~ Ean!deg er. Reicha, Jaeeph, R'aay.ky'haa, Poa.esf. Joazei Rei ku Roi&, Anton, Raay'ky'haa, Aant0a.n. Anhni R'ei.ku Reichardt, Johnhn Friedrich, R'nqky'A-haar't, Yoahualr- Fr'ec&àekrJ'h. Jon Fred-r'ik R'ei.k- ' hrt Rizzio, or Ricci, David, Rëet.tuca-oa, or R'ëetdm, Daau&i. Dai.vid Ritsyoa nur R'ichi Richter, Carl Qottlieb, R'ãsky'h.ttrr', Eaar'I Gaol'- ke-b. chaarh Q&leeb R'iehter %ea, Ferdinand;R'ec.s, Faer'deenhnd. Fwdinend R" E ' Itighini, Vincenzo, R'eagm-nca YZmchai crtson. Vin'mnt Il'igeani Rimbault, &,ienne Frsnçoie, Raefl'boa, Aityusn 'Fr'ahn'm~ae. Steev n Fr'aamsis n'em.boa Ilinaldo &pua, dao Xaapoo-na. R'inal,doa av Kapwbu. Early 18th cent. Rink, christaph Heinrich, R'ãmgk, E~'Zea.taoj Hnny.nr'&ky'h. Kris.tufer Hcnmr'i R'ingk. End of 18th cent. Romberg, Andreas, R'aarn.bnar'Ly'h, Ak~drai.äas. An-droo Rom-berg Salvator, Xaoxan, 8aahaatoa.r'. SnIrai.tm' %zu

132 Roscnmiiller, B'on.wnmusl.wr'. Roawunilwr Roseini, Qioaochino, R'oarrwncs, Joa.aaÆÆec.noa..Joa.ukim beemi Ilouseeau, Jean Jacques, R'uoasorr, Bahn' ZhLk. Jon Jnhm Eoooeson Bacchini, Antonio Marin Gneparo, Sirrkkeswce, Aànton.nss-on Maar'wau Qdarpnar'oa Anhni Mur'ei-u c;)rta.per Weemi Snrti, Giuseppe, 8nnr'.tee, Jwsasypc. Jon sef ;du.rti ~~tti,~e~ndro,skãar'lkcracitss, Aahraaun*dron. Alekssander Bknar1rt.i Scarlatti, Domenico, 8kkcrar'ldnt.t~~ Doamni-neekw. Domini k Skanrht-i Schicht, Johann Gottfried, Shkky'ht, ' Yoahaaw Gaocifr'eed. Jon Gdfri Shikt nur Shiaht.. 176a-182~. Schneider, Frans, Shnnay.drrr', Fr'Jante. Fr'mmme Shnei.der Schule, Johnnn Abrnhnm Peter, 8huotl8, Yoahctnn. Anbrrahaa.m Pa+tw'. Jon Aibruhm Pw.tur shuolte Schuh't, E'rane, 8Jboo.kw't, Fr'aartr. lj"arr.~l& 8hwbert. ld Schumann, Robert, Shoowrdnn, Roahe-r'. Rob ed Shooman AÖG. Silcher, Sëel~ky'hr. 8ikker nur milaher. Spohr, Ludwig, Nb'poa.r', hdv'kky'h. Loo.ie 8paa.r, Spontini, Cts~par~, B'twnss, ffãaq.panroa. Qanper Sponkni. I778-lE51. Stadler, M., Bh'tan*dlur'. Staa.dler sta, Agoatino, 8trwffaancs, Aagonrtcrnon. Augurtin Stefuni Storace, St&no, Stoar'navhtzi, Btasffaanoa. Stmvn tltorrr'aechi. [Quite nu Engliehman.] lm tradelh, Aleeeandro, 8tr'aadae.lan, Arbe8rãas.- dm. Aleksaander 8tr'udel.u Tartini, Giuseppe, Tdar'twne#, Jooeasppni JocLeei TdWni. les Teleman, &org Philipp, Tai.Rnnàan, Gai-aor'ky'lr Fss&p. Jnumrj E'ilip TePumen Thalberg, Taa-lbaer'ky'h. Tmlberg. Verdi, Guieeppe, Vasr'.dcb, Jwraapyni. Jua.rcf Verdi Vogler, Georg Joseph, Fooa.ghZnr', Qai.nor'ky'/r Towsf. Jawj Joezef Fwgler August Georg, Foa.8eky'At [or Poakht], Aawyuort Baì-aor'ky'h. Augurtus Jauj FWkt Wagner, Bichnrd, Van-ghnur', RwJcy'haar'rl. Richmerd Vaagner Weber. Carl Blaria von, V'ai.bur', Kãar'I dznar'ec-aa fnon. Chnnrlx Murei.u fonvni-ber Weigel, Joaeph, P'nnyg$kZ, Yoa.rsj. Joazef Vti.gel. ' 176k1846.' Zingarelli, Nicolo, Takng-ganr~crPkw, Nss*konloT. Nikulue Sing.gdi Zumeteg, Johnnn Rudolf,Truorn.ai'tarky'h, Poahotrcl. Rw.drrolf. Jon KWdolf SUO^.^ *.e Mora racent mm- md perlormera BR named in the Pronouncing Li4 in "How to Read Music" (Curwen. Is.). p f &$,% I Children For 5066 Church and Cathedral Choristers' Singing Method. By Haydn notations ; postage Id Votce Production Exercises for Children. By T. Maskell Hardy. For use in connection with ' How to Train Children's Voices.' Pianoforte edition, 21-; Sol-fa, voice partonly, 2d Voice - Tralning Exercises for ' Boys. By G. B e d Gilbert. Hints. voice exercises, and accompaniments. of a thoroughly practical kind are given. Staff, I/-; postage Id Voice Training for Schools. By L. C. Venables. The topics are breathing, voice. production, compass, and registers, vowels, consonants, flat singing, and flexibility. Price I/-. For Choirs 5057 Choral Drill Exerdees. BYL. C. Venables. A series of Voice Exercises. Revised and enlarged. For mixed voices. Staff, q/-; Tonic Sol-fa, 4d Choral Technics. By H. Ernest Nichol, MusBac. A series of short part-songs illustrating various points!g,$ of choir training. ~~iffic~~~tics Colll-,g;:& pressed in short spacc. Miscd voiccs. $ z;;;;; Staff, r/6. $ p $ For Adults I f 'r 5093 Daily Studies in Speaklne end Reading. By W. H. Griffillln. A text-book for pupil teachcrs, corw sponding with the demands of tllc Board of Education. Price I/ cash ; postage rd Exerdses in Voice Production and Enundation for Speakets and Readere. By Dr! Dunstan. Cloth, 1/6 net cash ; postage IF Fifty Voice Exerdses. By Concone. The feature of this edition is the Tonic Sol-fa vocal part above the Staff, and accompaniments. Staff. n/-; postage 3d. Tonic Sol-fa only, d. ; pxtage Id Progressive Vocalhes. By H. Panofka. Every piece is a perfect melody. With Tonic Sol-fa voice part. 1 Parta I and II, I/- each; postage Id. each solo Singer's Vade Mev. The. By Sinclak Dum. A colle&on of Voice Exercises, with accompaniqents. Voice score in both notations. Price 21- ; postage 2d Vdses Facile& Taken from the Methode de Chant of Luigi Bordese. Tbjrty-nine exercises Of medium compass. Sol-fa notation under Staff. Price 21- ; postage zd. $+d.._

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