VERB PHRASES OBJECTIVES:

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1 VERB PHRASES OBJECTIVES: 1. Students should understand that a. Participles are verbals like gerunds and infinitives (words that are derived from verbs) b. Perfect verb phrases are made up of a form of the verb have followed by a past participle verb. c. Progressive verb phrases are made up of a form of the verb be followed by a present participle verb. d. Both perfect and progressive verb phrases can be in the past, present, or future tense. 2. Students should be able to a. Identify examples of perfect and progressive verb phrases in all three tenses. b. Write correct sentences that contain perfect and progressive verb phrases. c. Choose the most effective type of verb phrase to convey the desired meaning. LITERATURE: This unit contains example selections from the novel Drums, Girls, & Dangerous Pie by Jordan Sonnenblick.

2 One Read the following sentences. Each uses a slightly different type of verb or verb phrase. Match each sentence to one of the visual representations below: 1. Bob worked at McDonald s a few years ago. 2. Bob was working at McDonald s when I called him. 3. Bob had worked at McDonald s, so I called him to see whether it was a good job or not. A Present Perfect Bob s employment at McDonald s I called him B Past Tense Bob s employment at McDonald s C Past Progressive Bob started his shift at McDonald s I called him Wordplay Just for fun! CATALOGUE CREATOR: The root word -chron- means time and sounds like kron. How many words can you list that contain this root?

3 Two A progressive verb phrase consists of the verb be plus a present participle verb that s a verb ending in ing like eating, asking, or doing. (An act that s in progress = a progressive verb phrase makes sense, right?) WAS / WERE + PRESENT PARTICIPLE = Past Progressive IS / ARE + PRESENT PARTICIPLE = Present Progressive WILL BE + PRESENT PARTICIPLE = Future Progressive In the following sentences, replace the simple verb with a progressive verb phrase, but keep the tense so if it s a past-tensed verb, make it a past progressive verb phrase: 1. The star basketball player shoots a three-pointer. 2. He starts in every game on his high-school team. 3. He played ball on the street as a kid. 4. Every day, he competed against boys that were older than he was. 5. He will join an NBA team next year. 6. One day, the boy from the street will earn a championship MVP award. Wordplay Just for fun! DESCRAMBLER: Try to sort out the five scrambled words below: KOPE OPDTA RULENA GRRECAH KNICERUH

4 Three A perfect verb phrase consists of the verb have plus a past participle verb that s a verb that most often (but not always) ends in ed or -en like been, eaten, asked, or done. (There s nothing perfect about this verb phrase that s just what it s called.) HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE = Past Perfect HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE = Present Perfect WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE = Future Perfect In the following sentences, replace the simple verb with a perfect verb phrase, but keep the tense so if it s a past-tensed verb, make it a past perfect verb phrase: 1. The astronauts landed on the strange planet. 2. Dangerous creatures roam the planet s surface. 3. The men will risk their lives to explore the new world. 4. The space ship launched from the earth. 5. Five years later, the explorers will return home. Wordplay Just for fun! EIGHT LETTERS: Create as many words as you can using three or more of the letters below (at least one eight-letter word is possible): P S G N T O I T

5 Four A past participle is a verb that usually ends in ed or en (except with irregular verbs!) and sounds correct after have. A present participle is a verb that ends in ing (same as a gerund, except that present participles still act as verbs.) Change the following verbs into their past participle and present participle forms (so you need TWO answers for each verb): 1. Shake 2. Work 3. See 4. Write Using the proper proofreading marks, correct the six errors in this excerpt from Drums, Girls & Dangerous Pie by Jordan Sonnenblick: Have any brother would be horible, I suppose, but having my par ticular brother, Jeffrey, is an Unrelenting nightmare. Its not because he s eight years younger than I am, althow that s part of it. Wordplay Just for fun! VOWEL COMBINATOR: The vowel combination ay almost always sounds like the hard A in play. List as many words as you can that contain this vowel combo.

6 Five Identify the progressive and perfect verb phrases in the following excerpts from Drums, Girls & Dangerous Pie by Jordan Sonnenblick (the number in parentheses tells how many verb phrases you re looking for): 1. (4) I was crying, but when my mom started coming over to hug me, I ran upstairs for bed. If I had known that this would basically be the last time I d have both parents paying attention to me at once, I probably would have taken the hug. 2. (3) I realized one last thing I hadn t thought about since I had walked in the door after school. And I muttered to myself in the darkness, Guess what, Mom? I am going to be the star of my spring concert. In your own words, explain how a different verb or verb phrase changes the meaning in the following pairs of sentences: 3. A) I wrote a three-page essay. B) I was writing a three-page essay. 4. A) She works at McDonald s. B) She has worked at McDonald s. Wordplay Just for fun! FOUR-LETTER WORDS: Take the four-letter word below and change one letter to make a new four-letter word (keep it clean!) Then take that word and change one letter to make a new word. Then take that word and You get the picture. HOOK

7 Six Which of the following sentences matches the visual representation? 1. I had just repainted the house when it burned down. I was repainting the house when it had burned down. Repainted the house House burned down 2. Mark had written a novel in a five-year period. Mark has been writing a novel for five years now. Five-year period Mark began writing In your own words 3. Explain how you make a perfect verb phrase and give one example. 4. Explain how you make a progressive verb phrase; give one example. Wordplay Just for fun! EIGHT LETTERS: Create as many words as you can using three or more of the letters below (at least one eight-letter word is possible): G S M U E R O E

8 Seven In the following excerpt from Drums, Girls & Dangerous Pie by Jordan Sonnenblick, choose the most effective verb or verb phrase from the options: While I (was waiting / had waited) for the school bus on Monday, I (was having / had) a horrifying realization: People (would have asked me / were going to ask me) why my mom (was pulling / had pulled) me out of the dance on Friday night. By the time the bus (had been pulling up / pulled up) at my stop, I was convinced that as soon as I (was getting on / got on), all eyes would immediately swing to the front, pinning me in the merciless glare of teenage inquisition. Write your own example sentence that contains a 7. Past perfect verb phrase 8. Present progressive verb phrase Wordplay Just for fun! FIXER-ROOTER: How many words can you think of that have the same prefix, suffix, or root as the multisyllabic word below? SYMPHONIOUS (marked by a harmonious or agreeable mingling of sounds)

9 Eight In the following sentences, write the most effective version of the verb in parentheses Should it be a progressive verb phrase, a perfect verb phrase, or a simple verb? Should it be past, present, or future tense? 1. I (walk) my dog, Sara, when a bunch of cats ran past and Sara ran away after them. 2. You can t fire me! I (work) here longer than you have! 3. She had just been taking a nap under the tree before lightning (strike) it. 4. I promise I (finish) the job by midnight on Thursday. 5. When I opened the door, I realized the phone (ring). Write your own example sentence that contains a 6. Future perfect verb phrase 7. Past progressive verb phrase Wordplay Just for fun! DESCRAMBLER: Try to sort out the five scrambled words below: RFBA PICUD NPARET DIALCME DVOACAOS

10 Nine A past participle is a verb that usually ends in ed or en (except with irregular verbs!) and sounds correct after have. A present participle is a verb that ends in ing (same as a gerund, except that present participles still act as verbs.) Change the following verbs into their past participle and present participle forms (so you need TWO answers for each verb): 1. Save 2. Forget 3. Choose 4. Catch Using the proper proofreading marks, correct the six errors in this excerpt from Drums, Girls & Dangerous Pie by Jordan Sonnenblick: I d be in the lunch line at at school, and a pack of ring dings would catch my eye. Id say to myself, OK, if I don t eat those Jeffrey will get better. Or I d promise things like, if I never hit Jeffrey again, he ll get better. Wordplay Just for fun! ANAGRAM: Rearrange the letters in the nonsense phrase below to create new words that actually make sense. AXIOM DAD CAN ACNE (Hint: to the north and to the south)

11 QUIZ REVIEW FOR TO S QUIZ: 1. How do you form a. Past progressive, present progressive, and future progressive verbs? b. Past perfect, present perfect, and future perfect verbs? 2. Which verb options are most effective in the following sentences? a. When I (had gotten / got) off the bus, I (had realized / realized) that I (had left / left) my backpack at home. b. I (have told / told) you a thousand times (not to have called / not to call) me that! c. I (will have painted / will paint) later tonight, and hopefully it (will have dried / will dry) by tomorrow morning at 9:00 a.m. d. She (waits / is waiting) for his answer, but he (doesn t know / isn t knowing) what to say. e. Mom (shouted / was shouting) at Max because he (barked / was barking) non-stop. f. The weather forecast says it (will snow / will be snowing) all day when we (go / will be going) skiing tomorrow.

12 Four Four Name: Name: Have any brother would be horible, I suppose, but having my par ticular brother, Jeffrey, is an Unrelenting nightmare. Its not because he s eight years younger than I am, althow that s part of it. Have any brother would be horible, I suppose, but having my par ticular brother, Jeffrey, is an Unrelenting nightmare. Its not because he s eight years younger than I am, althow that s part of it. Four Four Name: Name: Have any brother would be horible, I suppose, but having my par ticular brother, Jeffrey, is an Unrelenting nightmare. Its not because he s eight years younger than I am, althow that s part of it. Have any brother would be horible, I suppose, but having my par ticular brother, Jeffrey, is an Unrelenting nightmare. Its not because he s eight years younger than I am, althow that s part of it.

13 Nine Nine Name: Name: I d be in the lunch line at at school, and a pack of ring dings would catch my eye. Id say to myself, OK, if I don t eat those Jeffrey will get better. Or I d promise things like, if I never hit Jeffrey again, he ll get better. I d be in the lunch line at at school, and a pack of ring dings would catch my eye. Id say to myself, OK, if I don t eat those Jeffrey will get better. Or I d promise things like, if I never hit Jeffrey again, he ll get better. Nine Nine Name: Name: I d be in the lunch line at at school, and a pack of ring dings would catch my eye. Id say to myself, OK, if I don t eat those Jeffrey will get better. Or I d promise things like, if I never hit Jeffrey again, he ll get better. I d be in the lunch line at at school, and a pack of ring dings would catch my eye. Id say to myself, OK, if I don t eat those Jeffrey will get better. Or I d promise things like, if I never hit Jeffrey again, he ll get better.

14 Verb Phrase Chart Verb PHrases Use this chart to identify or construct progressive and perfect verb phrases:

15 NAME: Practice Worksheet One Verb PHrases PERIOD: PERFECT VERB PHRASE = Have + Past Participle (usually ed or en) PROGRESSIVE VERB PHRASE = Be + Present Participle ( ing) Identify and underline the PROGRESSIVE or PERFECT verb phrase in each sentence; then decide if it is past, present, or future tense. In the blank, label the verb phrase as Past Perfect / Present Perfect / Future Perfect Past Progressive / Present Progressive / Future Progressive 1. John has played for the Spartans for three years now. 2. My grandparents will be watching me when I perform. 3. The squirrels are gathering nuts to store for the winter. 4. The astronauts will have completed their mission before the shuttle completes its orbit. 5. My date had just arrived when the dance was evacuated. 6. Sam s older brother was serving in Iraq in Mom and Dad have come to every one of my piano concerts. 8. I will be working in the basement all night, so don t be surprised if I don t hear the phone ring. 9. The police are coming; we need to get out of here! 10. Mrs. Wright pounded on my desk to wake me up; apparently I had fallen asleep during her boring lecture. 11. The date went well, but I m sure she will have forgotten me by tomorrow. 12. The music was so loud that I couldn t hear what she was saying. 13. It s time to put an end to this; we have taken too many risks already. 14. When I met Jennifer, she was wearing a necklace that her ex-boyfriend gave her; I convinced her to get rid of it.

16 Follow the prompts below to write your own example sentences. On the left, you will see a topic that your sentence must be about. On the right, you will see a type of verb phrase your sentence must include. Underline that verb phrase when your sentence is complete. Monkeys Past Perfect Bicycle Present Progressive Pillow Fight Future Perfect Football Game Past Progressive Truck Present Perfect Aliens Future Progressive Soldier Present Progressive Violin Past Perfect Stapler Future Perfect Light Bulb Past Progressive Banana Peel Present Perfect Push Ups Future Progressive

17 NAME: Practice Worksheet Two PERIOD: PRESENT PERFECT = Have / Has + Past Participle Verb The present perfect is used to describe actions that have happened continuously or repeatedly from some moment in the past up until the present (sometimes with the implication that it will continue into the future.) Choose the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 1. My phone (has been / was) dead all weekend; I (haven t received / didn t receive) any messages yet. 2. Ben (has watched / watched) SpongeBob every day since he (has turned / turned) two. 3. I (have told / told) you a thousand times (not to have called / not to call) me that! PAST PERFECT = Had + Past Participle Verb The past perfect is used when you want to emphasize the fact that a particular event in the past was completed before a more recent past event. Choose the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 4. When I (had gotten / got) off the bus, I (had realized / realized) that I (had left / left) my backpack at home. 5. He (had spent / spent) hundreds of dollars upgrading his car just before he (had wrecked / wrecked) it. 6. We soon (had learned / learned) that the frost (had killed / killed) all of the plants. FUTURE PERFECT = Will Have + Past Participle Verb The future perfect is used to emphasize a no-later-than time limit for when an action will be completed. When you use the future perfect, you re saying something will be finished no later than a certain time or event, even if it may be completed even earlier than that. Choose the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 7. The plane (will have left / will leave) by the time we (will have checked / check) our baggage.

18 8. I (will have painted / will paint) later tonight, and hopefully it (will have dried / will dry) by tomorrow morning at 9:00 a.m. 9. The floodwaters (will have reached / will reach) the house by the time we (will have arrived / arrive). PRESENT PROGRESSIVE = Is / Am / Are + Present Participle Verb The present progressive emphasizes that an action is ongoing at the present moment of time. Choose the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 10. We (can discuss / can be discussing) this later I (eat / am eating) dinner right now. 11. She (waits / is waiting) for his answer, but he (doesn t know / isn t knowing) what to say. 12. It (rains / is raining), so we (need / are needing) to close the car windows. PAST PROGRESSIVE = Was / Were + Present Participle Verb The past progressive emphasizes that an action was ongoing at some past moment of time. Choose the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 13. I (watched / was watching) TV when I (heard / was hearing) the terrible news. 14. Mom (shouted / was shouting) a dirty word at Max because he (barked / was barking) non-stop. 15. I (couldn t concentrate / couldn t be concentrating) because my friends (blasted / were blasting) the music at full volume. FUTURE PROGRESSIVE = Will Be + Present Participle Verb The future progressive emphasizes that an action will be ongoing at some future moment of time. Choose the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 16. I (want to go / want to be going) to the game tonight because Rodriguez (will pitch / will be pitching). 17. Jenny said she (would call / would be calling) me tonight at midnight; hopefully I (won t snore / won t be snoring) by then. 18. The weather forecast says it (will snow / will be snowing) all day when we (go / will be going) skiing tomorrow.

19 NAME: Practice Worksheet Three Verb PHrases PERIOD: Match the following sentences to one of the visual representations below: A. She has been working on television scripts ever since she was hired by NBC. B. She was working on several television scripts when she was hired by NBC. C. She had worked on several television scripts when she was hired by NBC. Work on scripts Hired by NBC Hired by NBC Work on scripts Work on scripts Hired by NBC A. He has produced many great works of art during his painting career. B. He will have produced many great works of art by the end of his painting career. C. He had already produced many great works of art when a car wreck ended his painting career. Production of great works End of career Production of great works End of career Production of great works

20 Based on each example sentence, fill in the missing parts of the visual representations below: I m sure you will be feeling better by the time the movie starts tonight. When we bought the car, no one had driven it for over ten years. (Ten years) She was making soup when she burned her hand a little. Write an example sentence based on each visual representation. Pay attention to which type of verb you need to use a perfect verb phrase, a progressive verb phrase, or a simple verb: Raining Midnight tonight My parents divorce Dad s remarriage 1982 I own a vintage Mustang

21 Quiz NAME: PERIOD: Which answer identifies the PERFECT verb phrase? 1. I had just repainted the house when it burned down. A. burned down B. had repainted C. repainted the house 2. Mark has worked at that restaurant since it opened. A. has worked B. since it opened C. at that restaurant Which answer identifies the PROGRESSIVE verb phrase? 3. I was listening to the radio when I heard the news. A. listening to the radio B. heard the news C. was listening 4. I was disappointed to learn that the band won t be performing tonight at least we will get a refund. A. will get B. won t be performing C. was disappointed Circle the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 5. The bus (will have left / will leave) by the time we get our tickets. Quiz NAME: PERIOD: Which answer identifies the PERFECT verb phrase? 1. I had just repainted the house when it burned down. A. burned down B. had repainted C. repainted the house 2. Mark has worked at that restaurant since it opened. A. has worked B. since it opened C. at that restaurant Which answer identifies the PROGRESSIVE verb phrase? 3. I was listening to the radio when I heard the news. A. listening to the radio B. heard the news C. was listening 4. I was disappointed to learn that the band won t be performing tonight at least we will get a refund. A. will get B. won t be performing C. was disappointed Circle the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 5. The bus (will have left / will leave) by the time we get our tickets.

22 Page Two 6. It s snowing, so we (need / are needing) to get inside. 7. You (have watched / watched) Star Wars about a million times already give it a rest! 8. We soon (had learned / learned) that the meeting had been cancelled. Write the most effective version of the verb: 9. I (talk) to my girlfriend, Jessica, when her other line rang and she hung up on me. 10. How did you get the raise? I (work) here longer than you have! 11. She had just walked past the abandoned car when it (explode). 12. I promise I (finish) the assignment by the time it s due. 13. When I turned on the car, I realized the stereo (play) way too loudly. Write your own sentence that contains the suggested type of verb phrase: 14. Past Perfect 15. Present Progressive 16. Future progressive Page Two 6. It s snowing, so we (need / are needing) to get inside. 7. You (have watched / watched) Star Wars about a million times already give it a rest! 8. We soon (had learned / learned) that the meeting had been cancelled. Write the most effective version of the verb: 9. I (talk) to my girlfriend, Jessica, when her other line rang and she hung up on me. 10. How did you get the raise? I (work) here longer than you have! 11. She had just walked past the abandoned car when it (explode). 12. I promise I (finish) the assignment by the time it s due. 13. When I turned on the car, I realized the stereo (play) way too loudly. Write your own sentence that contains the suggested type of verb phrase: 14. Past Perfect 15. Present Progressive 16. Future progressive

23 QUIZ Version Two Verb PHrases NAME: PERIOD: Which answer identifies the PERFECT verb phrase? 1. I had just repainted the house when it burned down. A. burned down B. had repainted 2. Mark has worked at that restaurant since it opened. A. has worked B. since it opened Which answer identifies the PROGRESSIVE verb phrase? 3. I was listening to the radio when I heard the news. A. was listening B. heard the news 4. I was disappointed to learn that the band will not be performing tonight at least we will get a refund. A. will get a refund B. will not be performing Circle the best verb or verb phrase from the two choices: 5. The bus (will have left / will leave) by the time we get our tickets. 6. It s snowing, so we (need / are needing) to get inside. 7. You (have watched / watched) Star Wars about a million times already give it a rest! 8. We soon (had learned / learned) that the meeting had been cancelled.

24 Which sentence uses the most effective verb (circle the A or the B): 9. A. I was talking to my girlfriend when her other line rang and she hung up on me. B. I talked to my girlfriend when her other line rang and she hung up on me. 10. A. How did you get the raise? I had worked here longer than you have! B. How did you get the raise? I have worked here longer than you have! 11. A. She had just walked past the abandoned car when it exploded. B. She had just walked past the abandoned car when it had exploded. 12. A. I promise I was finishing the assignment by the time it is due next week. B. I promise I will have finished the assignment by the time it is due next week. 13. A. When I turned on the car, I realized the stereo played way too loudly. B. When I turned on the car, I realized the stereo was playing way too loudly. Write your own sentence that uses the suggested type of verb phrase: 14. Past Perfect 15. Present Progressive 16. Future progressive

25 Extra Practice NAME: PERIOD: Use a progressive verb phrases when you want to focus on the fact that an action is in progress, or is in the middle of happening. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE = Is / Am / Are + Present Participle Verb Choose the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 1. Mrs. Jones (waits / is waiting) for my answer, but I (don t know / am not knowing) what to say. 2. It (snows / is snowing) right now, so we (need / are needing) to wear coats and gloves. 3. Now write your own sentence with a PRESENT PROGRESSIVE VERB PHRASE: PAST PROGRESSIVE = Was / Were + Present Participle Verb Choose the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 4. I (listened / was listening) to my ipod when I (heard / was hearing) my favorite song. 5. Dad (yelled / was yelling) at me because I (played / was playing) my guitar too loudly. 6. Now write your own sentence with a PAST PROGRESSIVE VERB PHRASE: FUTURE PROGRESSIVE = Will Be + Present Participle Verb Choose the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 7. Jason said he (would text / would be texting) me when he got home; hopefully I (won t sleep / won t be sleeping) by then. 8. The weather reports says it (will rain / will be raining) all day when we (go / will be going) fishing tomorrow. 9. Now write your own sentence with a FUTURE PROGRESSIVE VERB PHRASE: SECOND PAGE ANSWERS: 10. has watched, bought 11. have told, not to text 13. had spent, ruined 14. learned, had destroyed 16. will have left, find 17. will work, will have finished

26 PRESENT PERFECT = Have / Has + Verb usually ending in ed or -en The present perfect is used to describe actions that have happened over and over again right up until the present (and maybe on into the future.) Choose the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 10. Eric (has watched / watched) Star Wars about a million times since he (has bought / bought) it on Blu-ray. 11. I (have told / told) you a thousand times (not to have texted / not to text) me when I m trying to sleep! 12. Now write your own sentence with a PRESENT PERFECT VERB PHRASE: PAST PERFECT = Had + Verb usually ending in ed or -en The past perfect is used when you want to show that a one event in the past happened before another past event. Choose the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 13. Dad (had spent / spent) a lot of money on his lawnmower, and I (had ruined / ruined) it. 14. We soon (had learned / learned) that the wind (had destroyed / destroyed) our roof. 15. Now write your own sentence with a PRESENT PERFECT VERB PHRASE: FUTURE PERFECT = Will Have + Verb usually ending in ed or -en The future perfect is used to show a no-later-than time limit for when an action will be finished. Choose the best verb or verb phrase from the options: 16. The bus (will have left / will leave) by the time I (will have found / find) my backpack. 17. I (will have worked / will work) on my essay after school, and hopefully I (will have finished / will finish) it by first hour tomorrow morning. 18. Now write your own sentence with a FUTURE PERFECT VERB PHRASE: FIRST PAGE ANSWERS: 1. is waiting, don t know 2. is snowing, need 4. was listening, heard 5. yelled, was playing 7. would text, won t be sleeping 8. will be raining, go

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