1 Volume 10 Issue 1 Proceedings of the 27th Annual Penn Linguistics Colloquium University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics Topic and focus in Polish: A preliminary study Karolina Owczarzak Article 12 This paper is posted at ScholarlyCommons. For more information, please contact
2 Topic and focus in Polish: A preliminary study This working paper is available in University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics: vol10/iss1/12
3 Topic and Focus in Polish: A Preliminary Study 1 1 Introduction Karolina Owczarzak Polish has always proven to be problematic for syntactic analyses, as it displays what is called "free" word order. 2 Thus, a simple sentence containing a predicate and two arguments can appear in all the forms shown in (la-e): (1) a. Ania kupila ksi< <. Ann bought book "Ann bought a book." b. Ania ksic:tzk kupila. c. Ksic:ti:k kupila Ania. d. Ksic:ti:k Ania kupila. e. Kupila Ania ksiai:k. f.?kupila ksic:ti:k Ania. 3 Such apparently optional free word order constitutes a challenge for the minimalist framework, especially given the claim that every syntactic transformation must be feature-driven. The question which I attempt to address in this paper is: Is this variety in Polish word order always induced by formal features and, if so, what is their nature? I will argue that most of the possible word orders are the result of the movement to topic and/or focus positions, which is indeed feature-driven. 1 would like to thank Daniel Seely for his helpful comments on earlier versions of this paper. 2 It should be noted that "free" does not mean completely unstructured and without restrictions: for example, a preposition can never be separated from its complement, as can be seen in (ii). (i) Janek pojechal do Warszawy. John went to Warsaw "John went to Warsaw." (ii) *Janek do pojechal Warszawy. John to went Warsaw "John went to Warsaw." 3 The slight unacceptability of (I f) will be dealt with later on. U. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 10.1, 2004
4 138 KAROLINA OWCZARZAK 2 Double Object Constructions In order to gain better insight into the question of deriving multiple word orders, I take as a starting point double object constructions. Double object constructions are particularly useful since, due to a larger number of constituents, they allow us to more fully examine the order and dependencies of the lexical items in different configurations. In a simple double object sentence containing four lexical items Jan dal Marii kwiaty "John gave Mary flowers", out of the 24logically possible word orders, 21 are well-formed: (2) a. Jan dal Marii kwiaty. John(NOM) gave Mary(DAT) flowers(acc) "John gave Mary flowers." b. Jan Marii dal kwiaty. c. Jan dal kwiaty Marii. d. Jan kwiaty dal Marii. e. Jan Marii kwiaty dal. f. Jan kwiaty Marii dal. g. Marii Jan dal kwiaty. h. Marii dal Jan kwiaty. i. Marii Jan kwiaty dal. j. Marii kwiaty Jan dal. k. Marii kwiaty dal Jan. 1. Marii dal kwiaty Jan. m. Kwiaty Jan dal Marii. n. Kwiaty dal Jan Marii. o. Kwiaty Marii dal Jan. p. Kwiaty dal Marii Jan. q. Kwiaty Jan Marii dal. r. Kwiaty Marii Jan dal. s. Dal Jan Marii kwiaty. t.?dal Marii Jan kwiaty. u. Dal Jan kwiaty Marii. v. *Dal kwiaty Jan Marii. w. *Dal Marii kwiaty Jan. x. *Dal kwiaty Marii Jan. The main question is, again, how can we derive all possible word orders above; and can we derive the orders in a way that is compatible with fundamental tenets of Minimalism, particularly, the idea that operations are deterministically feature-driven?
5 TOPIC AND FOCUS IN POLISH 139 My point of departure is the discussion of Icelandic object shift in Collins and Thniinsson (1996) (henceforth C&T), which represents a standard minimalist analysis of double object constructions. C&T follow, among others, Holmberg (1991b), Falk (1990), Bures (l992a), Ottosson (1991, 1993), and Vikner (1991) in assuming the asymmetry of c-command relations between the indirect and direct object. They also follow Larson (1988) in assuming a version of VP-shell structures. In the face of two internal arguments, they propose two Agr 0 projections, one of which is placed VP-internally, as it was proposed in Bures (l992a). C&T add also a VP-internal TP, which allows the derivation to be carried out in one cycle. Postulating a VP-internal T projection is supported by the proposals of Travis (1991, 1992a,b) who argues for the existence of an AspP/TP internal to VP on morphological grounds. The structure C&T assume is presented in (3), without the matrix AgrsP and TP (IO = Indirect Object, DO = Direct Object). (3) Agro1 VPI Subj V' / VI TP T AgroP 2 / Agroz VP 2 IO V' Vz DO give For C&T, unlike Larson (1988), the upper verb in (3) is a causative to which V 2 adjoins in the course of derivation. This move assimilates double object constructions to causative structures of the type John caused Mary to leave home. However, whether the upper V is in fact a causative verb or not, is of no issue here, as it does not influence the analysis in this paper. The derivation of a sentence like Jan dal Marii kwiaty (see (2a)) would
6 140 KAROLINA OWCZARZAK proceed as follows 4 : first, the verb adjoins to Agr 02 ; [Spec, VP 2 ] and the complement ofv 2 are now equidistant from [Spec, Agr 0 P 2 ], so the latter can move to [Spec, Agr 0 P 2 ] to check its q>-features against the V 2 +Agr 02 complex.5 The complex [Agr 02,V 2 ] raises and adjoins tot, then [the new complex [TAd V] raises] to VJ. and further to Agr 01. Now both the direct object in [Spec, Agr 0 P 2 ] and the indirect object in [Spec, VP 2 ], being in the minimal domain of the same existing head chain ([ Agr 02,V 2 ], tv 2 ), are equidistant from [Spec, Agr 0 Pt], so the indirect object can move there. Finally, the complex [Agr0 >V 1 ] adjoins to the already created complex [Agrs,Tt]. Also, at some point in the derivation, the subject rises to the specifier of the upper TP or [Spec, AgrsP] to satisfy the EPP (or, possibly, to check the strong D feature of Agrs). If the structure in (3) and the derivation can be adopted for Polish double object constructions, how can they be used to derive the attested multiple word orders presented in (2)? In the next sections, I will consider a number of possible answers to this question. 3 Multiple Spell-Out Let us suppose what I initially term "multiple spell-out", that is, that spellout can apply after each and any transformational operation in the course of the derivation, therefore resulting in different word orders. 6 This idea seems promising for deriving the variety of Polish word orders presented in (2) and will be now examined. The initial structure prior to the application of any instance of Move a would be as in ( 4) and is, indeed, one of the possible word orders displayed in the Polish double object sentence. (4) [vpt Jan [vpz Marii [v 2 dal kwiaty ]]] 4 1 assume after C&T that Merge applies before Move; since only contentful elements are merged together to build the structure (i.e. excluding empty positions), the specifiers of functional projections are created only as they are moved into. 5 1 follow Chomsky's (1995) definition of equidistance as in (i): (i) y and are equidistant from a ify and are in the same minimal domain. 6 It might rather be assumed that in Polish all formal features that necessitate overt movement (maybe with the exception of the +d feature on Agrs) are only optionally strong, therefore resulting in different surface word orders. This notion of "multiple spell-out" is not to be confused with the cyclic spell-out as argued for in Uriagereka (1999) and Epstein & Seely (2002).
7 TOPIC AND FOCUS IN POLISH 141 However, if spell-out applies now, the +d feature of AgrsP, which is supposed to be strong universally, will remain unchecked and the derivation will crash. This can be avoided by moving the subject to [Spec, AgrsPJ], which will not influence the surface configuration. Now, the verb dal can move out of the lower VP and into the VPintemal Agr0P projection. After it adjoins to Agr02, the sequence in (4) changes to that in (5) (traces are used here purely for notational purposes to indicate the previous position of the element; it is possible that the movement leaves behind a copy of the moved part). (5) [AgrSP Jan [AgrOP2 dal [vpi t1an [vp2 Marii [vz tdat kwiaty ]]]]] The indirect object Marii in [Spec, VP2] and the direct object kwiaty are both in the minimal domain of the trivial verb chain, and so are equidistant from [Spec, Agr0P2]. The indirect object can then move to [Spec, Agr0P2], giving the structure in (6). (6) [AgrSP Jan [AgrOP2 kwiaty [Agr02' dal [vpi tjan [vp2 Marii [v2'.t tkwiaty ]]]]]] ( 6) turns out to be another of the attested word orders in (2). The subsequent movement of the complex verb to T2 has the following outcome: (7) [AgrSP Jan [TP2 dai+agro2 [Agr0P2 kwiaty [Agr02' tdat+agr02 [VPI tjan [VP2 Marii [ V2' tdat tkwiaty ]]]]]]] Note that none of the two following movements of the complex verb, frrst to the upper V, and then to Agrot. will result in any word order changes to (7). (8) [AgrSP Jan [AgrOPI dai+agroz+tz+vi [vpi tdai+agr02+t2 [TP2 tdai+agr02 [AgrOP2 kwiaty [Agr02' tdat+agr02 [ vpt tjan [ VP2 Marii [ V2' tdat tkwiaty ]]]]]]]]] Now, since kwiaty is in [Spec,Agr0P2] and Marii is in [Spec,VP2], both objects are again equidistant from [Spec,Agr0PJ], being in the minimal domain of the chain [ Agr02, tagr02]. Therefore, Marii can move to the specifier of the VP-extemal Agr0 projection. This move, however, presented in (9), will produce a surface word order identical to that in (4). Similarly, if next the complex verb adjoins to T 1 and/or Agrs, the final surface word order will be just like that in (5).
8 142 KAROLINA OWCZARZAK (9) [AgrSP Jan [AgrOP I Marii [AgrO I' dai+agroz+tz+yt [vrt tdat+agr02+t2 ( TP2 tdai+agr02 (AgrOP2 kwiaty (Agr02' tdai+agr02 ( VP I tj an ( VP2 tmarii ( V2' tdal tkwiaty ]]]]]]]])] (10) (AgrSP Jan (AgrS' dai+agroz+tz+vt+agro t+tt (TPI tdai+agr02+t2+agr0 1 [AgrOP I Marii [AgrO I' tdai+agr02+t2 [ VPI tdai+agr02+t2 [ TP2 tdai+agr02 [AgrOP2 kwiaty (Agr02' tdai+agr02 ( VPI tjan ( VP2 tmarii ( V2' tdal tkwiaty ])]])]))]])) All in all, we have been able to derive only four distinct surface word orders out of the twenty-one possible. It seems then that the multiple spellout alone will not suffice to account for the Polish variety in this respect. In the next section, I will consider an approach whereby certain movements are motivated on discourse/pragmatic grounds, which will allow us to derive a number of additional attested configurations. 4 Multiple Spell-Out Plus Functional Reordering A closer analysis of the data in (2) reveals that different word orders coincide with different pragmatic information conveyed by the sentence in question. Adopting the terminology used in functional approaches to language, sentence-initial positions are usually occupied by "given" or "old" information, which is often referred to as topic. Topic can be thought of as an example of a broader category, which is theme and which is best defined in Halliday (1967:212) as "the point of departure for the clause as a message". Topic is always contrasted with comment, i.e. if the topic is "what the message is about", comment is "the message about the topic". On the other hand, sentence-final positions are often associated with "new" information, that is, in functional terms, focus. This ordering is argued to reflect the order of the natural object cognition: placing the "old" information first creates a cognitive background for introducing "new" information. 7 For example, in (2k), repeated below as (11), Jan is clearly the focus of the sentence, i.e. represents "new" information, whereas Marii and kwiaty 7 Focus might also be indicated by prosodic means only, that is, emphasis on the focused word(s), as in the following examples: (i) Q: Kto dal Marii kwiaty? who gave Mary flowers "Who gave Mary flowers?" A: Jan dal Marii kwiaty. John gave flowers Mary "It was John that gave Mary flowers." We will not be concerned with this option here as it has no impact on the surface word order.
9 TOPIC AND FOCUS IN POLISH 143 (and possibly dal as well) all constitute the topic of the sentence, that means, are treated as "old" information: (11)Marii kwiaty dal Jan. Mary flowers gave John "It was John that gave Mary the flowers." A simple way to verify this intuition is by incorporating (11) into a question-answer adjacency pair. Marii kwiaty dal Jan is not a felicitous answer to the question about the event, it is, however, felicitous if we ask about one of the participants of the event, namely Jan. (12)Q: Co si stalo? what REFL happened "What happened?" A 1: *Marii kwiaty dal Jan. A2: Jan dal kwiaty Marii. (13)Q: Kto dal kwiaty Marii? who gave flowers Mary "Who gave Mary the flowers?" A: Marii kwiaty dal Jan. Also, in the answer in (13) Marii and kwiaty can assume the role of a topic, since they constitute "old" or "given" information by virtue of having been mentioned before in the question. The functional reading imposes itself upon most of the word orders in (2). Let us assume that, along with the possibility of syntactically deriving four distinct surface word orders, the remaining set can be accounted for by functional reordering at the level of PF (or, possibly, at some level of functional structure which is nevertheless independent of syntax). In other words, let us suppose that at the PF/functional level lexical items, or their phonological content, move to positions that are associated with certain pragmatic status like topic and focus. This analysis does have certain serious shortcomings. First, some of the word orders in (4)-(10), which we were able to derive in the syntactic component, also carry pragmatic information, which can be associated with both focus and topic. The only truly "neutral" reading is the one in (5) or (10); Jan dal Marii kwiaty is the only felicitous answer to the question What happened? (cf. the adjacency pair in (12)). Why would pragmatic information be encoded sometimes by syntactic movement, which is presumably featuredriven, and sometimes by PF reordering? Such phenomenon seems to be
10 144 KAROLINA OWCZARZAK highly irregular. It could be argued, however, that the functional reading is somehow forcefully "superimposed" on the word orders in (4), (6), (7), (8) and (9), treating the elements in positions different from neutral as functionally extraposed. Even if we succeeded in circumventing this first obstacle, we have to now face another, perhaps even more severe problem. Let us consider the following binding contrasts: (14)a. *Ania oddala jegoi siostrze kazdego chlopcai. Ann returned hisi sister every boyi "Ann returned every boy to his sister." b. Ania oddala kazdego chlopca; jegoi siostrze. Ann returned every boyi hisi sister "Ann returned every boy to his sister." (15) a. Ania oddala kazdej kobiecieijeji ksi<t:zk. Ann returned every womani heri book "Ann returned every woman her book." b. * Ania oddala jeji ksi<t:zk kazdej kobieciei. Ann returned heri book every womani "Ann returned every woman her book." If we assume that the Quantifier Raising applies at LF, as in May (1985), the direct object in (14a,b) should end up c-commanding the indirect object and the quantifier phrase that is the direct object should be able to bind the pronoun that is part of the indirect objectjego siostrze. Clearly, such binding is prohibited only in (14a), a strange result, given that (14a) and (14b) should ultimately have the same LF structure. Similarly, the indirect object ka:idej kobiecie in (15a,b) should in both cases c-command and bind the direct object jej ksiqtk at LF after QR has applied. Discarding the idea of QR (or of its influence on binding) does not improve matters much; the LF structure is then (10), in which the indirect object always c-commands the direct object. This would incorrectly predict (14b) to be ill-formed, and (15b) to be well-formed. The only possible solution lies then in the assumption that binding relationships are evaluated not at LF, but at spell-out, which readily explains the contrasts in (14) and (15). If binding "counts" only at spell-out, then all instances where an anaphor is not c-commanded by its antecedent in the surface representation should be ill-formed, and they are, as can be seen in (14) and (15). With this in mind, let us tum to examining sentences containing topic and/or focus elements. Since movement to the topic and focus position is, by hypothesis, a PF-only reordering, it should not have any influence on the
11 TOPIC AND FOCUS IN POLISH 145 binding relationships established at spell-out. On the other hand, there are three non-neutral word orders that are derived by means of syntactic transformation, and therefore are also (unintentionally) associated with additional pragmatic information. In these three cases, presented again in ( 16), the binding relations should conform to the surface word order. (16)a. Jan Marii dal kwiaty. John Mary gave flowers "John gave Mary flowers." b. Jan kwiaty dal Marii. c. Jan dal kwiaty Marii. Now, consider (17) and (18): (17) *Jan dal jej; ksi<t.zk kazdej kobiecie;. John gave her; book every woman; "John gave every woman her book." (18) *Jej; ksi'l_zk Jan dal kazdej kobiecie;. her; book John gave every woman; "John gave every woman her book." (17) displays word order identical to this in (16c). We can assume therefore that it is derived syntactically and its binding relations, established at spell-out, are correctly predicted to be ill-formed. However, in the sentence in (18), her book is supposed to move to the topic position only at PF, so this reordering should not influence binding. The possible answer here could be that (18) originated, by applying PF movement, from a spell-out sequence that was itself ill-formed, like (17). The well-formedness of (19) could be explained in the same way; we could conclude that it was derived by PF movement form a spell-out representation that was well-formed to start with. (19) Jej; ksi'l_zk kazdej kobiecie; dal Jan. her; book every woman; gave John "It was John that gave every woman her book." Such reasoning suffers from one major logical error: by freely reordering the elements at PF, it is possible to derive (19) from a representation that is ill-formed, just as it is possible to derive (18) from an underlying wellformed representation. A single surface sequence would then have different grammatical status, depending on the underlying representation. In reality, though, the grammaticality judgements on these cases are consistent.
12 146 KAROLINA OWCZARZAK As has been shown, the binding data suggests that the variety in the Polish word order cannot in any case be explained by multiple spell-out alone, nor as an interaction of multiple spell-out and PF reordering. It seems that the existence of multiple spell-out is not supported in Polish. In the following sections, I will therefore assume only one point at which spell-out can apply, and continue to examine the topic/focus interactions. 5 Functional Reordering Revisited If we were to restrict the derivation to a single spell-out and no functional reordering, the outcome would be disastrous: we would end up with only one possible word order instead of twenty-one. Allowing additionally the functional rearrangement of elements at PF will not, however, enhance our position: since there will be only one syntactic representation to which PF movement may apply, all the resulting word orders should therefore "inherit" the grammatical status of that representation. Now, what is the most probable candidate for the spell-out representation? I follow Witkos (1998) in assuming, contra Borsley and Rivero (1994), that in Polish the verb (except in the conditional constructions) does not reach any of the IP projections overtly, that is, it does not leave VP before spell-out. Moreover, my initial assumption is that the spell-out representation should reflect the most "neutral" word order, that is, the one in (2a), repeated here in (20). In the course of derivation, there is in fact one stage that fulfils both these conditions, as shown in (21 ). (20) Jan dal Marii kwiaty. John gave Mary flowers "John gave Mary flowers." (21) [AgrSP Jan [AgrDP2 dal [ VPI tjan [ VP2 Marii [ v2 tdal kwiaty ]]]]] Note that the Agr 0 projection hosting the verb is VP-intemal, so the verb does not leave VP. If this is indeed the single spell-out representation, and if all other word orders are derived by applying PF movement, then all variants derived from (22) should be ill-formed, and all derived from (23) should be well-formed, irrespectively of the surface order of constituents. (22) *Zosia oddala jego; rodzicom kazdego chlopca;. Sophie returned his; parents every boy; "Sophie returned every boy to his parents."
13 TOPIC AND FOCUS IN POLISH 147 (23) Kasia odeslala kazdemu chlopcu; jego; listy milosne. Kate sent-back every boy; his; letters of-love "Kate sent every boy back his love letters." In fact, as was already argued in section 4, such regularity in binding relations does not exist. After we rearrange constituents in (22), we get the following, perfectly well-formed sentence: (24) Kazdego chlopcajego rodzicom oddala Zosia. every boy; his; parents returned Sophie "It was Sophie that returned every boy to his parents." Also, we can deprive (23) of its grammatical status by moving the direct objectjego listy milosne to the sentence-initial position: (25) *Jego; listy milosne Kasia odeslala kazdemu chlopcu;. his; letters of-love Kate sent-back every boy; "Kate sent every boy back his love letters." It seems then that all the binding data conspire to disprove the proposal that the movement to the topic position and/or the movement to the focus position are strictly limited to the phonological level. The evident conclusion to draw is that at least one of them, if not both, has to be syntactic, i.e. applying in overt syntax and motivated by the existence of some formal features. Next, I will examine the possibility of both topic and focus movement taking place within syntax. 6 Topic Phrase and Focus Phrase I start out with the assumption that both movement to topic and movement to focus position apply within the syntactic component and that there exist Topic Phrase and Focus Phrase whose heads host formal features, let us call them +topic and +focus, which are responsible for the movement. If so, where are the projections in question? Looking at the linear word order, elements in the topic position are always sentence-initial and focus is always sentence-final. In order to determine their relative configuration in the syntactic structure, we have to find out which one c-comrnands the other. (26) a. Kazdej kobieciei Jan oddal jej; ksi<tzk. every woman; John returned her; book "John returned every woman her book."
14 148 KAROLINA OWCZARZAK b. *Jegoi matka poslala do sklepu kazdego chlopca;. his mother sent to shop every boy "His mother sent to the shop every boy." In (26a) the quantifier phrase katdej kobiecie c-commands and binds the anaphoric pronoun in j ej ksiqtk, and the sentence is well-formed. On the other hand, (26b) is ungrammatical, as the anaphor j ego fails to be c commanded by kat dego chlopca which has moved to the focus position. It can be concluded from this contrast that focus position does not c-command the topic position (which explains ill-formedness of (26b)), but it is the topic position that c-commands the focus position (which accounts for the grammaticality of (26a)). There are two ways in which it can be implemented in the structure. The first possibility is that the Focus Phrase, which I will term for the time being FocP, is a complement of the lower VP, that is, the lowest syntactic projection. This would explain the fact that linearly, focused elements are always sentence-final and would also account for the c-command relations. However, at the same time it implies that movement to this position is rightward and downward, which is explicitly forbidden in the current minimalist framework (Chomsky 1995). Another possibility is that Topic Phrase (TopP) c-commands all other projections (with the exception of CP) and immediately dominates FocP. Such an approach towards focus/topic projections is widely assumed and was advocated, among others, in Rizzi (1995). However, to achieve the surface sequence in which the focused element is sentence-final, the specifier of the focus phrase (being the landing site for the moved element) needs to be positioned to the right of the intermediate Foe' projection, as shown in (27). Now, such asymmetry, involving the order of only the specifier and the intermediate projection, seems extremely suspicious. It can be remedied if we assume that FocP is in fact head-final, and that the specifier position is created only as it is moved into, just like the specifiers of all functional categories (I assume it after C&T). Then, it is more natural to suggest that the specifier will be created in a place reflecting the order of the head of the projection and its complement, that is, that the whole projection is leftbranching. This option is presented in (28).
15 TOPIC AND FOCUS IN POLISH 149 (27) TopP Spec Top' Top FocP (28) TopP Top ' Spec Foe' Spec Foe Agr 5 P Spec Agr 5 ' FocP Top Agr 5 Foe' Agr 5 P /'-... Spec Agr 5 ' /'-... Agrs Foe Spec There also exists a third option, which we will now investigate in some detail. First, we have to realise that topic and focus are by their nature complementary, that is, there is no new information without old information to contrast it with. It could therefore be possible that the sentence-fmal position of the focused elements is due to everything else than the focus moving to the sentence-initial topic position, as it is presented in (29). The focus phrase could then be just a regular, right-branching projection. (29) [ropp NPl NP2 V [FocP NP3 ]] However, before we commit ourselves to that view, we need to analyse the properties of the topicalised and focused elements in some detail.
16 150 KAROLINA OWCZARZAK 6.1 Topic The pragmatic notion of topic is defined as representing "old" or "given" information in a sentence, which forms a context for the introduction of "new" information that the focus is usually associated with. If the direction of the definition can be reversed, and all the "old" information in a sentence, even when represented by more than one lexical item, can be thought of as topic, and if the topic position is indeed realised syntactically as TopP, then there must be some means to accommodate within this projection multiple lexical items that constitute the topic. In the answers to the question Q in (30), there are two topicalized elements, Marii, and kwiaty, since this is the "given" information mentioned in the question, as opposed to Jan, which clearly is the focus in A1 and A2, being the "new" information provided by the speaker. (30) Q: Kto dal Marii kwiaty? who gave Mary flowers "Who gave Mary flowers?" A1 : Marii kwiaty dal Jan. Mary flowers gave John "It was John that gave Mary flowers. " A2: Kwiaty Marii dal Jan. flowers Mary gave John "It was John that gave Mary flowers." In theory, the accommodation of more than one item could be achieved in two ways: either through the recursion of the TopP projection, or through some kind of multiple adjunction to a single TopP. Another look at the binding facts suggests that the latter solution is more preferable. Consider (31) and (32): (31) KaZdego chlopca;jego; siostrze oddala Ania. every boyi hisi sister returned Ann "It was Ann that returned every boy to his sister." (32) Jego; siostrze kazdego chlopca; oddala Ania. hisi sister every boyi returned Ann "It was Ann that returned every boy to his sister." Surprisingly, (32) is well-formed, even thoughjego siostrze linearly precedes kat dego chlopca by which it should be c-commanded in order to be properly bound. I would like to assume that the first NP moves to
17 TOPIC AND FOCUS IN POLISH I5I [Spec,TopP] and other topic NPs adjoin to TopP, giving rise to mutual c comrnand between the moved NPs. Therefore, the anaphoric pronoun is in fact c-comrnanded and bound by its antecedent, rendering the sentence grammatical. The structure would look like in (33). In this structure, both the specifier of TopP and the adjoined position are occupied by NPs. However, pragmatic topicality is not restricted to NPs only; anything can be "old" information, including verbs, adverbials, etc. (33) TopP NP2, I Top NP Top For example, in (34) below, the verb is clearly "old" information, as it was mentioned already in the question. Is it possible that it also moves to the topic position? It is rather improbable that the verb, being a head, moves to the specifier of the topic phrase, or to an XP-adjoined position, as this would violate the Structure Preservation Principle. However, it could in theory move to the head of the topic phrase. (34) Q: Kto oddal kazdego chlopcai jegoi siostrze? who returned every boyi hisi sister "Who returned every boy to his sister?" A I: Kazdego chlopcai oddala jegoi siostrze Ania. every boyi returned hisi sister Ann "It was Ann that returned every boy to his sister." A2: *Jegoi siostrze oddala kazdego chlopcai Ania. A3 : *Oddalajegoi siostrze kazdego chlopcai Ania. A4: *Oddalajegoi siostrze kazdego chlopcai Ania. This is in fact supported by the data in (34): the ungrammaticality of A2 is the major proof that the verb cannot move to [Spec,TopP] or adjoin to TopP and that in this case only his sister moved, landing in a position outside the area c-comrnanded by every boy. If the verb could replicate that movement, in A2 everything apart from the focused NP Ann would be in TopP, and should display mutual c-command. Instead, the verb is in the head of the topic phrase and only the elements to its left can take advantage of the mutual c-command, as in (35):
18 152 KAROLINA OWCZARZAK (35) a. [TopP Kazdego chlopca; [TopP jego; siostrze [Top oddala Ania]]]. every boy; his; sister returned Ann "It was Ann that returned every boy to his sister." b. [TopP Jego; siostrze [TopP kazdego chlopcllj [Top' oddala Ania ]]]. We can then conclude that TopP is a projection c-commanding the remaining projections and that it can host more than one element, either in its specifier or in adjoined positions, and that it can also host a verb adjoined to its head. 6.2 Focus Having examined the movement to TopP, let us now turn to the focus. Since FocP can also accommodate more than one element, it might be proposed that it is achieved in the same way as in the topic phrase, that is, by movement to [Spec,Foc] of one item and multiple adjunction to FocP of theremaining ones. Therefore, we would expect the same results where binding is involved: an anaphoric pronoun should be c-commanded by a quantifier phrase irrespectively of their linear order. It turns out, however, that this is not the case. Consider (36) and (37), both of which answer the question Who bought whom the books? (36) Ksi<l_i:ki kupil kazdemu chlopcu; jego; brat. books bought every boy; his; brother "Every boy was bought books by his brother." (37) *Ksi<l_zki kupil jego; brat kazdemu chlopcu;. books bought his; brother every boy; "Every boy was bought books by his brother." The pronoun his in (37) fails to be c-commanded by every boy and the sentence is out. The mutual c-command is clearly not at work when it comes to the relationships between the focused elements, therefore excluding the multiple adjunction option. However, there is another type of structure to accommodate multiple elements, which we mentioned before, and it is the recursion of the whole projection, as presented in (38). Then the relationship between focused NPs is such that NPl can c-command and bind NP2, but not the other way around, which explains the contrast in (36) and (37).
19 TOPIC AND FOCUS IN POLISH 153 (38) FocP1 Spec Foc1' NPl / Foc1 FocP 2 / Spec Foe/ NP2 / Foc 2 Like with topicalisation, verbs also can move to the focus position, so we can assume that they adjoin to the head of the focus projection. When a verb and an NP are focused elements in a sentence, the verb follows the noun in the surface representation, as we could expect. This is shown in ( 40). (39) Q: Co Jacek zrobil z samochodem? what Jack did with car "What did Jack do with the car?" A: [TopP Jacek hopp samoch6d [FocP sprzedal ]]]. Jack car sold "Jack sold the car." (40) Q: Co kto zrobil z samochodem? what who did with car "Who did what with the car?'' A: [TopP Samoch6d [FocP Jacek [Foe' sprzedal ]]]. car Jack sold "Jack sold the car." The remaining question is: what drives the movement to topic and focus positions? We have posited the existence of a single topic phrase, for which there seems to be good evidence, and so it is natural to assume that its head possesses a feature +topic that attracts arguments with the same feature for checking. Since there can be multiple topics and we have only one topic phrase, it is possible that the +topic feature on the head of TopP does not delete after checking, making it possible to attract more than one argument. This is not an unusual story: similar accounts have been proposed for the treatment of multiple wh-questions. Just like the +Q feature in wh-questions, it is plausible that the +topic feature is LF-interpretable (as it conveys some semantic information, similar to quantification) and so does not need to delete.
20 154 KAROLINA OWCZARZAK It is also plausible that the +focus feature is not LF-interpretab1e, as it is not associated with any necessary semantic information. The information that a lexical item is "new" in the discourse is not required to process a sentence at LF. Any element that is not marked as "old" is, by default, new information. Therefore, the +focus feature is a purely formal feature in that it does delete after checking; this is the reason why there is one +focus feature for every focused NP in the sentence, and each of these features projects its own focus phrase. 7 Summary and Conclusions In this presentation I examined the variations of word order in Polish double object sentences. I attempted to account for these variations using the current minimalist analysis of double object constructions as presented in Collins and Thrainsson (1996). I argued that multiple spell-out, even with additional functional reordering, is not enough to explain all possible word orders. It has been shown that different word orders carry different pragmatic information: sentence-initial position is associated with the topic, and sentence-final position with the focus of the sentence. On the basis of binding facts, I conclude that both the topic position and the focus position are realised syntactically. The movement to these positions is motivated by features: the topic phrase carries a +topic feature that can be checked by multiple XPs that adjoin to the maximal projection. On the other hand, there can be more than one +focus feature in the structure and each of them will project its own phrase. References Borsley Robert D. and Maria L. Rivero Clitic auxiliaries and incorporation in Polish. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 12: Bures, Anton. 1992a. Re-cycling expletive (and other) sentences. Ms. MIT, Cambridge, Mass. Chomsky, Noam The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Collins, Chris and Hoskuldur Thniinsson VP-intemal structure and object shift in Icelandic. Linguistic Inquiry 27: Epstein, Samuel and Daniel T. Seely Rule applications as cycles in a level-free syntax. In: Derivation and Explanation in the Minimalist Program, Ed. S. Epstein and D. Seely. Oxford: Blackwell. Falk, Cecilia On double object constructions. In Working Papers in Scandinavian syntax 46: Department of Scandinavian Linguistics, Lund University.
21 TOPIC AND FOCUS IN POLISH 155 Halliday, Michael A.K Notes on transitivity and theme in English. Part II. Journal of Linguistics 3: Holmberg, Anders b. On the Scandinavian double object construction, in Papers from the 1 2'" Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, Institute of Linguistics, University oflceland, Reykjavik. Larson, Richard K On the double object construction. Linguistic Inquiry 19: May, Robert Logical Form: Its Structure and Derivation. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Ottoson, Kjartan G Icelandic double objects as small clauses, in Working papers in Scandinavian Syntax 48: Department of Scandinavian Linguistics, Lund University. Ottoson, Kjartan G Double-object small clauses and reanalysis in Icelandic passives. In Proceedings of the 1 1'" West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, Stanford, California: CSLI. Tajsner, Przemyslaw Minima/ism and Functional Thematization: A Cross Linguistic Study. Poznan: Motivex. Travis, Lisa Derived objects, inner aspect, and the structure ofvp. Ms. McGill University, Montreal. Travis, Lisa. 1992a. Inner Aspect and the Structure of VP. Ms. McGill University, Montreal. Travis, Lisa. 1992b. Negation within the VP. Ms. McGill University, Montreal. Uriagereka, Juan Multiple Spell-Out. In: Working Minima/ism, Ed. N. Homstein and S. Epstein. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Vikner, Sten Verb Movement and the Licensing ofnp-positions in Germanic Languages. Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva. Witkos, Jacek The Syntax of Clitics: Steps Towards a Minimalist Account. Poznan: Motivex. Department of English Language and Literature Eastern Michigan University 612 Pray-Harrold Ypsilanti, MI
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