INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OFTHE SOCIOLOGY OF LANGUAGE

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OFTHE SOCIOLOGY OF LANGUAGE"

Transcription

1 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OFTHE SOCIOLOGY OF LANGUAGE General Editor JOSHUA A. FISHMAN Offprint Mouton de Gruyter Berlin NewYork \ \

2 Book review Moussa Chami: L'Enseignement du Franfais au Maroc: Diagnostic des Difficultés et Implications Didactiques. Casablanca: Imprimerie Najah El Jadida, pp. (including tables). The longstanding French colonial policy to promote the French language and culture in the Moroccan society has led to a firm establishment of French in vital sectors such as administration and education. In the latter, French became the sole medium of instruction for ali subjects while Arabic was relegated to the teaching of lslamic studies. Shortly after Morocco's political independence, the restoration of the Arabic language became one of the essential components in the political program of the first government and was soon to be seen in the policy of Arabization, which, in education, aimed at replacing French with Arabic at school. However, this policy was hampered by many obstacles, namely the shortage of teachers, the lack of trained personnel, and the absence of teaching resources. Furthermore, the school population was fast growing, and classroom overcrowding became a major concern. These factors were seen as a direct cause of the falling standards in the French Ianguage, which, although considered a foreign language, still played an important role in Moroccan society, especially for gaining access to the job market. Against this background, the book under review is an examination of the language problems encountered by Moroccan pupils in learning French. In this empirical study, the author, himself a Moroccan scholar, analyzes a large corpus of errors made by secondary school Arabic native speakers. The major purpose is to identify those linguistic areas that cause serious learning difficulties in written French and necessitate immediate attention from teachers for more adequate teaching of the French Ianguage in Morocco (p. 10). As a whole, the book contains six chapters, each of which is divided into various sections. There is also a brief introduction and a conclusion /95/ O Walter de Gruyter Int'l. J. Soc. Lang. 112 (1995), pp

3 114 Book review IJSL 112 In the first chapter (pp ), Chami gives a general account of the linguistic situation in Morocco and explores the element of contact and conflict, both linguistic and cultural, between the languages used in the country. Chapter two (pp ), deals with the structure of the Moroccan education system and the teaching of French in the so-called public bilingual schools. Chapters 3 (pp ) and 4 (pp ) focus on the objectives of the study and the issues pertaining to the research question and methodology. The results of the investigation are finally presented and analyzed in chapter 5 (pp ) and are later discussed in more detail in chapter 6 (pp ). This also includes a section on pedagogical implications of the findings. In all these chapters, Chami presents a good case for the investigation of the language difficulties confronted by secondary school bilingual learners. Over recent years, there has been an increasing dissatisfaction with pupils' general performance in French, but no attempt has been made to look scientifically at the nature of this decline. In the present study, errors analysis is not seen in isolation from other social and cultural factors. Thus, from the outset (chapters 1 and 2), the author embarks on a description of Morocco's sociolinguistic profile, exploring the intricate background of what he calls the "linguistic issue." In the section on the historical development of the languages presently used in Morocco, he argues that the arrival of the Arabs by the end of the seventh century to a Berber-inhabited land and the French colonization in the early part of this century had a great social and economic impact on Morocco and have modified the linguistic structure of the country, where many languages carne into contact and are currently in perpetua! conflict (p. 14). This linguistic antagonism exists between Modern Arabic and French, the two prestigious languages. Modern Arabic is the national and official language of the country and, only recently, the sole rnediurn of instruction for primary and secondary schooling. French, on the other hand, is still used for teaching science and technology in higher education and continues to occupy a rnajor role in sorne of the vital sectors such as banking and commerce and in rnany sections of the Moroccan administration. A few sharp observations are also made concerning sorne realities of the language situation. For instance, the author rnakes no secret of the fact that Moroccan Arabic and Berber are the only mother tongues of Moroccans, and that Modern Arabic has no native speakers, which is not always accepted in sorne traditional circles. Although native Berber speakers are excluded frorn the investigation, the Berber issue is adequately dealt with in the first chapter. Lacking prestige and a standardized alphabet, neither Berber nor Moroccan

4 Book review JJSL Arabic is included in the current language policy. Berber speakers have to make the effort to leam, first of ali, Moroccan Arabic in order to participate in the daily activities of the community, and later Modero Arabic at school, where they are introduced to the writing system. Berber Arabic bilingualism is thus exclusive to Berber speakers. However, one striking omission in this chapter is the use of Spanish in the northem part of the country. The influence of this language, which is clearly evident in the local dialect, is hardly adequately discussed considering that two of the six regions from which the sample is taken are previous Spanish colonies. Also, the phenomenon of diglossia is only implicitly referred to in relation to the role of Arabic in Morocco. With regard to the Arabization of education, Chami stresses that the use of Modero Arabic as the only medium of instruction at school "has never been associated, in the minds of Moroccan leaders, with a suppression of the study of French as a foreign language" (p. 20). 1 While this is true to sorne extent, one cannot deny, however, that the idea of Arabization started as a reaction against French colonial policies in education and elsewhere and has come to epitomize the linguistic and cultural conftict between traditional and Western values, both symbolically represented in the Arabic and French languages respectively. Today, for many Moroccans, Arabic is closely associated with traditional and Islamic principies, while French is a reflection of modemity and Western ideals. It is this situation that continues to increase the linguistic and cultural tensions between these two languages. In the chapter on the Moroccan education, sorne rather dismal figures are given. For example, while schooling in the urban areas reaches 90 percent to 100 percent, only 19 percent of rural children are actually at school. This figure is significantly alarming in that two-thirds of the general population live in the countryside (p. 27). After a brief survey of the school system, the author focuses on the teaching of French at primary and secondary levels and gives a good evaluation of the various linguistic units and the textbooks used for this purpose. The study is mainly concerned with the errors made by native speakers of Arabic in the fourth year of their secondary schooling. The choice of this grade is not arbitrary, since it is considered an important stage in the Moroccan education system, and whatever the pupils may decide to do afterward will depend on their skills in French. Although the investigation is restricted to the analysis of errors in writing, the author does acknowledge the value of oral skills in language learning. However, the emphasis on writing is justified by the importance given to this aspect in the evaluation of pupils' linguistic performance.

5 116 Book review IJSL 112 Moreover, very often, the pupils' job prospects depend very much on their competence in writing. In fact, the functioning of the Moroccan administration as well as the modero sectors of economy are conducted essentially in French (... ) It is mainly in its written form that French is used in the Moroccan professional context, and only a few pupils will need to use it orally throughout their professional life (p. 9). From a theoretical angle, the study relies on the speculations concerning the importance and significance of learners' errors initiated in the 1960s by Pit Corder (1967). The recurring errors must not be seen as a sign of failure to learn but rather as evidence of the failure of the system the learners use to learn the second language. Along these lines, Chami believes that a good description of the errors made by Moroccan Arabic native speakers could contribute towards a better knowledge of the difficulties these leamers face and the processes of learning the second language. This knowledge may, in tum, lead to the elaboration of more adequate "pedagogical grammars" and to the design of appropriate syllabuses (pp ). The concept of interlanguage, first introduced by Selinker (1972), is also discussed. This refers to the language system that learners create based on data they are exposed to and that shares properties with both the mother tongue and the target language. It is related to those strategies adopted by learners to avoid learning difficulties, namely linguistic interference, overgeneralization, simplification, and avoidance. Studies on error analysis have used various methods of research and techniques for the collection of their material, such as multiple choice questionnaires, pictures, cloze tests, and conversation, to name but a few. The data-gathering procedure in Chami's book consisted of asking the subjects to write an essay about their summer holidays. The specific choice of this technique is justified, in part, by the fact that it allows the pupils to be at ease in the way they express their ideas and to be able to make use of ali their linguistic resources (p. 70). For the organization and description of his corpus, the author adopted a slightly modified version of the EFEC grid ( the acronyms stand for Enquéte sur le Frani;ais Ecrit dans les Cégeps) a method developed by a group of Canadian researchers in the Quebec region to analyze the errors made by learners in written French. The EFEC grid defines six major categories: typography, orthography of usage, inflexional orthography, morphosyntax, punctuation, and lexis (p. 73). The characteristics of the population and the sample used in the study are described in detail in chapter 4. A fairly large number of pupils took

6 Book review /JSL part in the investigation, which consisted of 1520 bilingual learners, 861 of whom were boys and 659 girls. All the subjects were native Arabic speakers and al! carne from one of six major urban centres in Morocco. The results of the research are presented in chapter 5. The author's careful analysis reveals a wide range of areas that require immediate action from teachers for the improvement of pupils' performance in French. The elements that are to be considered as signs of learning difficulties are discussed under separate headings and are listed in Table 65. These constitute 88.1 percent of the total errors identified in the corpus (p. 151). Further analysis of the corpus against the independent variables of sex, age, and area of study shows that there is a significant relationship between these variables and the grammatical categories of the grid. Thus, it appears that boys make more errors in their written French than girls, particularly in morphosyntax and punctuation (p. 140). This is perhaps an obvious finding considering that girls, in general, hold more positive attitudes to language learning and are more motivated in this respect than their male counterparts. This phenomenon is also widespread in many countries and is well documented in the literature (see inter alia Loulidi 1990). However, the implication of this result for the Moroccan context must not be neglected in the design of language syllabuses and textbooks. Another finding in Chami's study is that older learners seem to have more difficulties in their written French than younger ones, as percent of ali the errors detected are made by pupils of 18 to 20 years of age. It is very likely, the author explains, that as pupils get older they tend to use more complex structures and therefore make more mistakes (p. 141 ). However, this is only a hypothesis that still needs to be substantiated in further research. There are also significant differences between pupils living in the various regions where the investigation was carried out. Such differences were attributed to a number of factors, namely the geographical isolation of certain areas, the impact of the colonial linguistic and cultural legacy, and the quality of teachers and administrative staff. In the section on the pedagogical implications of the study, the author proposes a set of measure s that may lead to more effective learning of French. For instance, he points out the importance of motivation in learning the second language and stresses that teachers must concentrate their efforts on increasing their pupils' interest in French. The status of this language in the Moroccan society and the importance of its written aspect in administration and education are factors that might work toward improving pupils' instrumental motivation (p. 147). On the other hand, Chami <loes not hesitate to show sorne scepticism about the absence of grammatical explanation in sorne modern teaching

7 118 Book review /JSL 112 methods. The assumption that the teaching of even basic grammatical rules may hinder the process oflanguage leaming has no scientific foundation. Most of the difficulties encountered by Moroccan leamers in written French stem essentially from poor linguistic resources, namely a very limited vocabulary and an insufficient knowledge of the rules and grammatical structure of the language. Chami finds it rather paradoxical that the teaching of Modem Arabic in Moroccan schools relies entirely on explicit grammatical theory, while in the teaching offrench, this is hardly emphasized. This can only spread confusion in the minds of the pupils, who are expected to react positively to different techniques in the leaming of Arabic and French. If Moroccan pupils do resort to their own mother tongue and/or to Modem Arabic in the leaming of the French language, it would, no doubt, be beneficia! to take this fact into consideration in order to highlight, in the leaming of the second language, those "heuristic instruments" adopted in the acquisition of the first language (p. 158). This may even help in gradually bridging the linguistic gap between Arabic and French and may con tribute toward an improvement of pupils' attitudes to these languages. One of the limitations of Chami's investigation is that it was restricted to only urban native Arabic speakers in the fourth grade of their secondary schooling, thus excluding a large section of the school population. The author, however, is far from claiming that his investigation is representative at the national level. On the contrary, he clearly specifies that the study is only exploratory and that further research is desperately needed before making decisions on any course of action regarding the teaching and leaming of French in Morocco. Such research may consider, for example, the examination of errors made at different levels of schooling and may also undertake to compare native Berber and Arabic speakers in order to circumscribe the impact of the mother tongue on the leaming of the target language. This is done, of course, on the assumption that leamers of different mother tongues use different leaming strategies in the acquisition of the second language. Chami <loes not reject the possibility that Berber speakers may adopt different strategies in leaming French than Arabic speakers. This is a highly important linguistic and pedagogical question, which deserves particular attention (p. 58). Finally, although the study was carried out in the last decade, the findings and the pedagogical implications are entirely relevant to the present state of languages in Morocco. This is, no doubt, a contribution to the general study of language and education in Morocco and must be welcome not only by linguists but also by teachers and anybody interested in the state of language leaming and teaching in this country. The book will be particularly useful to

8 Book review IJSL those who are interested in the application of error analysis to syllabus design and teaching methods. The paucity of research in this area is quite obvious as there is really little published work on the language problems encountered by Moroccan children at school. The author is to be commended for having undertaken such a work, which <loes indeed fill an important gap in the literature. University of Ulster at Coleraine RAFIK LOULIDI Note l. Ali quotes are directly translated from the book under review. References Corder, S. P. (1967). The significance of learners' errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics-5, Loulidi, R. (1990). Is language learning really a 'female business'? Language Learning Journal 1, Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of App/ied Linguistics 8,

Investigate Students Performance in using Articles in Sudanese Secondary Schools

Investigate Students Performance in using Articles in Sudanese Secondary Schools International Journal of Education and Research Vol. 4 No. 2 February 2016 Investigate Students Performance in using Articles in Sudanese Secondary Schools Mona Elamin Elnour Ali 1. 1 Faculty of Arts.

More information

CHAPTER 7: POPULAR IDEAS ABOUT LANGUAGE LEARNING REVISITED

CHAPTER 7: POPULAR IDEAS ABOUT LANGUAGE LEARNING REVISITED CHAPTER 7: POPULAR IDEAS ABOUT LANGUAGE LEARNING REVISITED Sp!ng 2012 - A"lied Lingu#tics - LANE 423 Content adapted from Lightbown and Spada (2006) Copyright 2012 Haifa Alroqi 1 Languages are learned

More information

2014 International Conference on Economic Management and Social Science (EMSS 2014)

2014 International Conference on Economic Management and Social Science (EMSS 2014) 2014 International Conference on Economic Management and Social Science (EMSS 2014) Survey and Research on Overseas Students Chinese Pragmatic Competence Acquisition -With overseas students from Ningxia

More information

Error Analysis. Eli Hinkel Seattle Pacific University Word Count 2,406

Error Analysis. Eli Hinkel Seattle Pacific University Word Count 2,406 Page 1 of 5 Error Analysis Eli Hinkel Seattle Pacific University elihinkel@yahoo.com Word Count 2,406 Abstract Error analysis (EA) is an area of applied linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (SLA)

More information

Research Chronicler ISSN X International Multidisciplinary Research journal

Research Chronicler ISSN X International Multidisciplinary Research journal Diglossia: A Linguistic Phenomenon of Arabic in Jordan Prof. Mahmoud Qudah Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Jordan Abstract This study sought a better understanding of diglossia, as a phenomenon

More information

South and West Asia1

South and West Asia1 EFA Global Monitoring Report 2006 1 Literacy, besides being a fundamental human right, is a foundation not only for achieving EFA 2 but, more broadly, for reaching the overarching goal of reducing human

More information

Non-Native Pronunciation of English: Problems and Solutions

Non-Native Pronunciation of English: Problems and Solutions Non-Native Pronunciation of English: Problems and Solutions Norma Nawaf Al-Zayed Assistant professor English Department at Middle East University Faculty of Arts and Sciences Jordan /Amman Abstract This

More information

Affixes (prefixes and suffixes) vocabulary The present study aims to achieve the following objectives:

Affixes (prefixes and suffixes) vocabulary The present study aims to achieve the following objectives: ABSTRACT THE IMPORTANCE OF THE PROCESSES OF WORD-FORMATION IN THE ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE: A CASE STUDY OF YEMENI TERTIARY STUDENTS OF ENGLISH Despite their importance to the foreign

More information

Critical Examination of Iranian Engineering University Students Needs in ESP Courses

Critical Examination of Iranian Engineering University Students Needs in ESP Courses Critical Examination of Iranian Engineering University Students Needs in ESP Courses Masoumeh Dousti is presently a Ph.D. candidate of TEFL at University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. She has presented a

More information

DECLARATIVE AND PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE IN TEACHING GRAMMAR. Bambang Suroso Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto. Abstract

DECLARATIVE AND PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE IN TEACHING GRAMMAR. Bambang Suroso Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto. Abstract 56 DECLARATIVE AND PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE IN TEACHING GRAMMAR Bambang Suroso Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto Abstract When one has to teach a language, he should possess a vlew of what languages. One

More information

English as a Lingua Franca A Source of Identity for Young Europeans?

English as a Lingua Franca A Source of Identity for Young Europeans? Platzhalter für Bild, Bild auf Titelfolie hinter das Logo einsetzen English as a Lingua Franca A Source of Identity for Young Europeans? English in Europe: Debates and Discourses University of Sheffield,

More information

The Communicative Competence Controversy. Ahmet Acar

The Communicative Competence Controversy. Ahmet Acar The Communicative Competence Controversy Ahmet Acar Biography: Ahmet Acar is a research assistant at Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey, where he earned his M.A. degree and is currently a doctoral student.

More information

On the Possibility of Integrating Krashen s Five Hypotheses With China s Traditional ELT Methods

On the Possibility of Integrating Krashen s Five Hypotheses With China s Traditional ELT Methods On the Possibility of Integrating Krashen s Five Hypotheses With China s Traditional ELT Methods Xu Xiaoying Anshan University of Science and Technology Abstract: In China, there is a serious situation

More information

Difficulties of EFL Teaching at Elementary Level in Rural Areas in Punjab

Difficulties of EFL Teaching at Elementary Level in Rural Areas in Punjab 311 Difficulties of EFL Teaching at Elementary Level in Rural Areas in Punjab Muhammad Qasim Ali 1 Head of Department (Education) The University of Lahore, Pakpattan Campus Mehmood Ul Hassan 2 Head of

More information

UNIVERSITY OF MALTA SECONDARY EDUCATION CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION ENGLISH LANGUAGE MAY 2017 EXAMINERS REPORT MATRICULATION AND SECONDARY EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MALTA SECONDARY EDUCATION CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION ENGLISH LANGUAGE MAY 2017 EXAMINERS REPORT MATRICULATION AND SECONDARY EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF MALTA SECONDARY EDUCATION CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION ENGLISH LANGUAGE MAY 2017 EXAMINERS REPORT MATRICULATION AND SECONDARY EDUCATION CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONS BOARD SEC ENGLISH LANGUAGE MAY

More information

A Sociolinguistic Study: Diglossia in Social Media

A Sociolinguistic Study: Diglossia in Social Media A Sociolinguistic Study: Diglossia in Social Media Mahmoud Qudah 1 Abstract In this research paper, the researcher will identify the circumstances under which diglossic behavior appear in different social

More information

Cognate Recognition and L3 Vocabulary Acquisition

Cognate Recognition and L3 Vocabulary Acquisition Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica, 2, 2 (2010) 337-349 Cognate Recognition and L3 Vocabulary Acquisition Timea MOLNÁR English Language Teacher Education and Applied Linguistics Department University

More information

BASIC EDUCATION CYCLES 2-4 WELCOMING AND INTEGRATION. LEVELS of competence WELCOMING CLASSES INTENSIVE LANGUAGE COURSES GERMAN / FRENCH

BASIC EDUCATION CYCLES 2-4 WELCOMING AND INTEGRATION. LEVELS of competence WELCOMING CLASSES INTENSIVE LANGUAGE COURSES GERMAN / FRENCH BASIC EDUCATION CYCLES 2-4 WELCOMING AND INTEGRATION LEVELS of competence WELCOMING CLASSES INTENSIVE LANGUAGE COURSES GERMAN / FRENCH 1 The German language Oral production 2-3 Listening comprehension

More information

IMPLICATIONS OF SECONDARY LEVEL STEM EDUCATION ON ENGINEERING STUDENTS IN NORTHERN IRELAND

IMPLICATIONS OF SECONDARY LEVEL STEM EDUCATION ON ENGINEERING STUDENTS IN NORTHERN IRELAND IMPLICATIONS OF SECONDARY LEVEL STEM EDUCATION ON ENGINEERING STUDENTS IN NORTHERN IRELAND Victoria Frazer, Juliana Early*, Geoffrey Cunningham & Colette Murphy School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

More information

Student attitudes toward their instructor accents in L2 Spanish and French Courses

Student attitudes toward their instructor accents in L2 Spanish and French Courses Student attitudes toward their instructor accents in L2 Spanish and French Courses Carmen Miranda-Barrios University of British Columbia The controversy about language instructors accents (i.e., the manner

More information

ANGLAIS LANGUE SECONDE

ANGLAIS LANGUE SECONDE ANGLAIS LANGUE SECONDE ANG-5055-6 DEFINITION OF THE DOMAIN SEPTEMBRE 1995 ANGLAIS LANGUE SECONDE ANG-5055-6 DEFINITION OF THE DOMAIN SEPTEMBER 1995 Direction de la formation générale des adultes Service

More information

Methodological drawbacks in students final projects (Mémoires)

Methodological drawbacks in students final projects (Mémoires) Methodological drawbacks in students final projects (Mémoires) Bachir Bouhania University of Adrar Algeria Introduction English is becoming more and more important at all educational levels, for business

More information

Student Performance Q&A:

Student Performance Q&A: Student Performance Q&A: 2008 AP Human Geography Free-Response Questions The following comments on the 2008 free-response questions for AP Human Geography were written by the Chief Reader, Tim Strauss

More information

Practice in a Second Language: Perspectives from Applied Linguistics and Cognitive Psychology,

Practice in a Second Language: Perspectives from Applied Linguistics and Cognitive Psychology, Practice in a Second Language: Perspectives from Applied Linguistics and Cognitive Psychology Robert M. DeKeyser, Ed. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007. Pp. xi + 323. Practice in a Second Language:

More information

The Influence of i+1 on Chinese Foreign Language Teaching Methods. WANG Yan. Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China.

The Influence of i+1 on Chinese Foreign Language Teaching Methods. WANG Yan. Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China. Sino-US English Teaching, August 2017, Vol. 14, No. 8, 483-488 doi:10.17265/1539-8072/2017.08.002 D DAVID PUBLISHING The Influence of i+1 on Chinese Foreign Language Teaching Methods WANG Yan Harbin Engineering

More information

CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 5.1 Summary Mother tongue education had been given a lot of importance even during British rule. The Bombay Education Society, in 1821, emphasized that language

More information

Arabic Language Influence on the Iraqi EFL Tertiary Learners Use of Grammatical Cohesive Devices in their Argumentative Essays

Arabic Language Influence on the Iraqi EFL Tertiary Learners Use of Grammatical Cohesive Devices in their Argumentative Essays Arabic Language Influence on the Iraqi EFL Tertiary Learners Use of Grammatical Cohesive Devices in their Argumentative Essays Jasim Mohammed Abbas Muhammad Subakir Mohd. Yasin Kemboja Ismail Universiti

More information

SCENES Brief Presented to The Task Force on Multiculturalism

SCENES Brief Presented to The Task Force on Multiculturalism SCENES Brief Presented to The Task Force on Multiculturalism Penthes Rubrecht, President In cooperation with: Anand Vaid, Vice President; Donna Woloshyn, Past President; Hilary Craig, Member-at-Large;

More information

PARIS, 9 March 2009 Original: French

PARIS, 9 March 2009 Original: French Executive Board Hundred and eighty-first session 181 EX/9 PARIS, 9 March 2009 Original: French Item 9 of the provisional agenda REPORT BY THE DIRECTOR-GENERAL ON A STRATEGY CONCERNING THE ROLE OF LANGUAGES

More information

THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF LANGUAGE TEACHING A BRIEF STUDY

THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF LANGUAGE TEACHING A BRIEF STUDY THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF LANGUAGE TEACHING A BRIEF STUDY D. Padmaja Research Scholar Abstract:The article discusses the various methods in Language Teaching as language plays a pivotal role in this

More information

Ron Crosby. Abstract. Key Words. Error Correction Method, EFL, Speaking Class, Motivation. Introduction

Ron Crosby. Abstract. Key Words. Error Correction Method, EFL, Speaking Class, Motivation. Introduction Effectiveness of Error Correction in a University EFL Discussion Class Effectiveness of Error Correction in a University EFL Discussion Class Abstract The use of error correction strategies in English

More information

A PILOT STUDY OF READING COMPREHENSION PROBLEMS IN ENGLISH ENCOUNTERED BY TAIWANESE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

A PILOT STUDY OF READING COMPREHENSION PROBLEMS IN ENGLISH ENCOUNTERED BY TAIWANESE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS A PILOT STUDY OF READING COMPREHENSION PROBLEMS IN ENGLISH ENCOUNTERED BY TAIWANESE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS Pu Ling-Chen, Far East College ABSTRACT The aim of the present paper is to determine whether

More information

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Introduction This chapter provides a brief depiction of the whole contents of the research which includes the statement of the problem, the aim of the research, and also the significance

More information

Listening and Speaking Skills of English Language of Adolescents of Government and Private Schools

Listening and Speaking Skills of English Language of Adolescents of Government and Private Schools Listening and Speaking Skills of English Language of Adolescents of Government and Private Schools Dr. Amardeep Kaur Professor, Babe Ke College of Education, Mudki, Ferozepur, Punjab Abstract The present

More information

THE ROLE OF GRAMMAR IN COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

THE ROLE OF GRAMMAR IN COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING THE ROLE OF GRAMMAR IN COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING Approved Date:_05/-1/09 THE ROLE OF GRAMMAR IN COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING A Seminar Paper Research Presented to the Graduate Faculty University

More information

Chapter 7. Linguistic creativity and mental representation

Chapter 7. Linguistic creativity and mental representation 217 Chapter 7 Linguistic creativity and mental representation In this thesis, the following main topics were investigated: linguistic creativity, mental representation and (intercategorial) polysemy. It

More information

Learning English Conditional Structures

Learning English Conditional Structures ISSN 17-251 Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 156-16, January 212 Manufactured in Finland. doi:1.44/tpls.2.1.156-16 Learning English Conditional Structures Luu Trong Tuan University

More information

LANGUAGE PLANNING, POLICY AND REVITALIZATION. LING 283 June 25, 2015 Guest Lecturer: Edwin Ko

LANGUAGE PLANNING, POLICY AND REVITALIZATION. LING 283 June 25, 2015 Guest Lecturer: Edwin Ko LANGUAGE PLANNING, POLICY AND REVITALIZATION LING 283 June 25, 2015 Guest Lecturer: Edwin Ko LANGUAGE (RE)VITALIZATION Language planning and policy is a core aspect of language revitalization. Development

More information

abc Mark Scheme Geography 2030 General Certificate of Education Geographical Issue Evaluation 2010 examination - January series PMT

abc Mark Scheme Geography 2030 General Certificate of Education Geographical Issue Evaluation 2010 examination - January series PMT Version : 22/02/2010 abc General Certificate of Education Geography 2030 GEO4B Geographical Issue Evaluation Mark Scheme 2010 examination - January series s are prepared by the Principal Examiner and considered,

More information

Literary Text Teaching to Algerian EFL Students: Pedagogical implications

Literary Text Teaching to Algerian EFL Students: Pedagogical implications EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH Vol. II, Issue 2/ May 2014 ISSN 2286-4822 www.euacademic.org Impact Factor: 3.1 (UIF) DRJI Value: 5.9 (B+) Literary Text Teaching to Algerian EFL Students: Pedagogical AMARIA

More information

Language Dilemma in Algerian Higher Education Pre-university schooling in Arabic and medical studies in French

Language Dilemma in Algerian Higher Education Pre-university schooling in Arabic and medical studies in French Language Dilemma in Algerian Higher Education Pre-university schooling in Arabic and medical studies in French DENDANE Amine, Université de Tlemcen Abstract: This paper attempts to show a language dilemma

More information

COVENANT UNIVERSITY NIGERIA TUTORIAL KIT OMEGA SEMESTER PROGRAMME: LANGUAGES

COVENANT UNIVERSITY NIGERIA TUTORIAL KIT OMEGA SEMESTER PROGRAMME: LANGUAGES COVENANT UNIVERSITY NIGERIA TUTORIAL KIT OMEGA SEMESTER PROGRAMME: LANGUAGES COURSE: ENG 422 DISCLAIMER The contents of this document are intended for practice and leaning purposes at the undergraduate

More information

Blanka Frydrychova Klimova*

Blanka Frydrychova Klimova* Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia - Social and Behavioral Scien ce s 116 ( 2014 ) 656 660 5 th World Conference on Educational Sciences - WCES 2013 Academics at Faculty of

More information

(( ) The POWER of PEERS. How does the makeup of a classroom influence achievement?

(( ) The POWER of PEERS. How does the makeup of a classroom influence achievement? research (( ) The POWER of PEERS How does the makeup of a classroom influence achievement? by CAROLINE M. HOXBY ILLUSTRATION BY TINA WEST/WWW.IMAGES.COM What does the term peer effects mean in a school

More information

Language Featured in the Third Edition

Language Featured in the Third Edition To the Teacher This book contains exercises that provide practice in basic reading skills for developing readers, whether native or non-native speakers. This text has three main goals: 1. To develop students

More information

Educational Research and Theory Language Policy: ESL in Quebec Schools

Educational Research and Theory Language Policy: ESL in Quebec Schools Educational Research and Theory Language Policy: ESL in Quebec Schools In Patsy M. Lightbown I would like to discuss some of the concerns raised in Jim Cummins' paper in relation to another second language

More information

Practical task - generating ideas for language focus and development

Practical task - generating ideas for language focus and development EAP in the North: the Language of Academic English Part 1: The grammar of academic English Part 2: Academic language and classroom materials Sample materials Practical task - generating ideas for language

More information

WORKSHOP 2 Quality Education and Social Inclusion

WORKSHOP 2 Quality Education and Social Inclusion Page 8 WORKSHOP 2 Quality Education and Social Inclusion Co-organization and financing: Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture - OEI Participants in the panel, moderator

More information

A NEEDS ANALYSIS STUDY FOR PREPARATORY CLASS ELT STUDENTS

A NEEDS ANALYSIS STUDY FOR PREPARATORY CLASS ELT STUDENTS European Journal of English Language Teaching ISSN: 2501-7136 (on-line) ISSN-L: 2501-7136 (print) Available on-line at: www.oapub.org/edu 10.5281/zenodo.51774 Volume 1 Issue 1 2015 A NEEDS ANALYSIS STUDY

More information

The Impact of Explicit vs Implicit Compensation Strategy Training on Iranian EFL Students Reading Comprehension Performance

The Impact of Explicit vs Implicit Compensation Strategy Training on Iranian EFL Students Reading Comprehension Performance International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 2013 Available online at www.irjabs.com ISSN 2251-838X / Vol, 7 (12): 869-874 Science Explorer Publications The Impact of Explicit vs Implicit

More information

Application on Communicative Teaching Method in College Oral English Teaching Haiyan Feng

Application on Communicative Teaching Method in College Oral English Teaching Haiyan Feng 2nd International Conference on Education, Social Science, Management and Sports (ICESSMS 2016) Application on Communicative Teaching Method in College Oral English Teaching Haiyan Feng Department of Foreign

More information

Revisiting the Debate of Grammar Teaching: A Young Scholar s Perspective. Mohammed Sadat

Revisiting the Debate of Grammar Teaching: A Young Scholar s Perspective. Mohammed Sadat Sino-US English Teaching, January 2017, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1-7 doi:10.17265/1539-8072/2017.01.001 D DAVID PUBLISHING Revisiting the Debate of Grammar Teaching: A Young Scholar s Perspective Mohammed Sadat

More information

English Language Curriculum Evaluation in Oman

English Language Curriculum Evaluation in Oman International Journal of English Linguistics; Vol. 2, No. 5; 2012 ISSN 1923-869X E-ISSN 1923-8703 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education English Language Curriculum Evaluation in Oman Khalid

More information

Grammar education in Dutch An attitude study among students in their final year of secondary education

Grammar education in Dutch An attitude study among students in their final year of secondary education Faculteit Letteren & Wijsbegeerte Lea Siebens Grammar education in Dutch An attitude study among students in their final year of secondary education Masterproef voorgedragen tot het behalen van de graad

More information

Error Analysis: A Study on Grammatical Errors in the Writings of Iraqi EFL Learners

Error Analysis: A Study on Grammatical Errors in the Writings of Iraqi EFL Learners EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH Vol. III, Issue 11/ February 2016 ISSN 2286-4822 www.euacademic.org Impact Factor: 3.4546 (UIF) DRJI Value: 5.9 (B+) Error Analysis: A Study on Grammatical Errors in MOHANAD

More information

A Cognitive Study on Chinese EFL Learners Visual Processing Difference of English Words Written in Capital and Small Letters Lan PANG

A Cognitive Study on Chinese EFL Learners Visual Processing Difference of English Words Written in Capital and Small Letters Lan PANG 2017 3rd Annual International Conference on Modern Education and Social Science (MESS 2017) ISBN: 978-1-60595-450-9 A Cognitive Study on Chinese EFL Learners Visual Processing Difference of English Words

More information

Principles and methods of ESL/EFL teaching. (A Short theoretical Article)

Principles and methods of ESL/EFL teaching. (A Short theoretical Article) Principles and methods of ESL/EFL teaching (A Short theoretical Article) RITURANI RAKA RESEARCH SCHOLAR UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH TILKA MANJHI BHAGALPUR UNIVERSITY BHAGALPUR BIHAR 812007 Abstract:

More information

The Network-Assisted Process Approach in College English Writing Instruction in China

The Network-Assisted Process Approach in College English Writing Instruction in China Cross-Cultural Communication Vol. 11, No. 6, 2015, pp. 122-126 DOI: 10.3968/7060 ISSN 1712-8358[Print] ISSN 1923-6700[Online] www.cscanada.net www.cscanada.org The Network-Assisted Process Approach in

More information

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Education and Culture Culture and Communication Multilingualism Policy

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Education and Culture Culture and Communication Multilingualism Policy EUROPEAN COMMISSION Education and Culture Culture and Communication Multilingualism Policy The main pedagogical principles underlying the teaching of languages to very young learners Languages for the

More information

THE MATHEMATICS IN MOROCCAN UNIVERSITIES

THE MATHEMATICS IN MOROCCAN UNIVERSITIES THE MATHEMATICS IN MOROCCAN UNIVERSITIES Zineb El Jaoussi Al Achhab Sakina University Abdelmalek Essaadi Morocco Abstract: This works deals with the teaching and learning of mathematics in Moroccan universities.

More information

CEFR Overall Illustrative English Proficiency Scales

CEFR Overall Illustrative English Proficiency Scales CEFR Overall Illustrative English Proficiency s CEFR CEFR OVERALL ORAL PRODUCTION Has a good command of idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms with awareness of connotative levels of meaning. Can convey

More information

English Language Competency of the Post Advanced Level Students in Comparison with their Ordinary Level and Advanced Level English Examination Results

English Language Competency of the Post Advanced Level Students in Comparison with their Ordinary Level and Advanced Level English Examination Results English Language Competency of the Post Advanced Level Students in Comparison with their Ordinary Level and Advanced Level English Examination Results KH Gordon 1#, AU Kuruppu 1 and SM Kuruppu 2 1 General

More information

Students Perception on Training in Writing Research Article for Publication

Students Perception on Training in Writing Research Article for Publication (AWEJ) Volume.7 Number.4 December,206 Pp.305-316 DOI: dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol7no4.20 Article for Publication Rusma Faculty of Teachers Training and Education Lambung Mangkurat University South Kalimantan,

More information

Tchng Engl Second Lang (TESL)

Tchng Engl Second Lang (TESL) Tchng Engl Second Lang (TESL) 1 Tchng Engl Second Lang (TESL) Courses TESL-109A. First Year Experience: Chicago Speaks: Helping Immigrants Communicate. 3 Hours. In this course, the four foundations (Future

More information

1. Review of Literature

1. Review of Literature 1. Review of Literature India has near about 1.2 million schools. Lakhs of students are studying in these schools. All of them do not have the luxury of studying in an English medium school. Though they

More information

Textual coherence in EFL Student Writing

Textual coherence in EFL Student Writing IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 15, Issue 3 (Sep. - Oct. 2013), PP 54-58 e-issn: 2279-0837, p-issn: 2279-0845. www.iosrjournals.org Textual coherence in EFL Student Writing

More information

ALBANIA: Secondary and Tertiary Education Policy Brief #2 How Teachers Teach in Secondary School Classrooms?

ALBANIA: Secondary and Tertiary Education Policy Brief #2 How Teachers Teach in Secondary School Classrooms? ALBANIA: Secondary and Tertiary Education Policy Brief #2 How Teachers Teach in Secondary School Classrooms? Ministry of Education and Science The World Bank The current education strategy in Albania places

More information

The Sociolinguistic Survey of Nigerian English Spoken in Nigerian Public Sector; A case Study of Wukari Local Government Secretariat.

The Sociolinguistic Survey of Nigerian English Spoken in Nigerian Public Sector; A case Study of Wukari Local Government Secretariat. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 19, Issue 3, Ver. IV (Mar. 2014), PP 09-13 e-issn: 2279-0837, p-issn: 2279-0845. The Sociolinguistic Survey of Nigerian English Spoken in

More information

Dictation as a Veritable Tool for Language Proficiency on Project Educational Reform in Nigeria (Pp )

Dictation as a Veritable Tool for Language Proficiency on Project Educational Reform in Nigeria (Pp ) An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia Vol. 5 (6), Serial No. 23, November, 2011 ISSN 1994-9057 (Print) ISSN 2070--0083 (Online) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v5i6.2 Dictation as

More information

The Survey on Barriers of Oral English Learning for College Students in China

The Survey on Barriers of Oral English Learning for College Students in China English Language Teaching; Vol. 6, No. 6; 2013 ISSN 1916-4742 E-ISSN 1916-4750 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education The Survey on Barriers of Oral English Learning for College Students

More information

Fostering Linguistic Duality

Fostering Linguistic Duality Canada s Colleges and Institutes: Fostering Linguistic Duality April 2009 Submission to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Official Languages Association of Canadian Community Colleges Serving Canada

More information

1 Registers, genres, and styles: fundamental varieties of language

1 Registers, genres, and styles: fundamental varieties of language 1 Registers, genres, and styles: fundamental varieties of language 1.1 Text varieties in your daily life Before you begin this book, take a minute to think about all the different kinds of texts that you

More information

4 VALUE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE AS A MEANS OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PEOPLE AND CULTURES

4 VALUE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE AS A MEANS OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PEOPLE AND CULTURES Tema 4 COMO INSTRUMENTO DE COMUNICACIÓN ENTRE LAS PERSONAS Y LOS PUEBLOS. INTERÉS POR LA DIVERSIDAD LINGÜÍSTICA A TRAVÉS DEL CONOCIMIENTO DE UNA NUEVA LENGUA. Unit 4 VALUE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE FOREIGN

More information

Timewise. Improving Pupils' Understanding of Historical Time in Primary School. M.J. Groot-Reuvekamp

Timewise. Improving Pupils' Understanding of Historical Time in Primary School. M.J. Groot-Reuvekamp Timewise. Improving Pupils' Understanding of Historical Time in Primary School. M.J. Groot-Reuvekamp SUMMARY TIMEWISE Improving pupils understanding of historical time in primary school The understanding

More information

An Overview of Models of Bilingual Education

An Overview of Models of Bilingual Education Doi:10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n6s1p186 Abstract An Overview of Models of Bilingual Education Anna Hurajová Faculty of Mass Media Communication, University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Trnava, The Slovak Republic

More information

Linguistic Logic: Evidence of Axiomatized Thought in Language

Linguistic Logic: Evidence of Axiomatized Thought in Language Zientek 1 Laura Zientek Honors 213 Prof. Bryan Smith 23 April 2004 Linguistic Logic: Evidence of Axiomatized Thought in Language This paper will explore the structure of linguistic theory, as put forth

More information

A-LEVEL French. Unit 2 - Speaking Test FRE2T/V Mark scheme June Version: 1.0 Final

A-LEVEL French. Unit 2 - Speaking Test FRE2T/V Mark scheme June Version: 1.0 Final A-LEVEL French Unit 2 - Speaking Test FRE2T/V scheme 2650 June 2016 Version: 1.0 Final schemes are prepared by the Lead Assessment Writer and considered, together with the relevant questions, by a panel

More information

ARA 1511 Beginning Arabic I. ARA 1512 Beginning Arabic II

ARA 1511 Beginning Arabic I. ARA 1512 Beginning Arabic II ARA 1511 Beginning Arabic I COURSE Description The course is designed to develop students language proficiency and cultural competency in Modern Standard Arabic and Moroccan Arabic in the four skills:

More information

Mark Scheme (Results) Summer Set B. Pearson Edexcel International GCSE in English as a Second Language (4ES0/01R)

Mark Scheme (Results) Summer Set B. Pearson Edexcel International GCSE in English as a Second Language (4ES0/01R) Scheme (Results) Summer 2015 Pearson Edexcel International GCSE in English as a Second Language (4ES0/01R) Set B Edexcel and BTEC Qualifications Edexcel and BTEC qualifications are awarded by Pearson,

More information

ICAME Journal No. 27

ICAME Journal No. 27 ICAME Journal No. 27 Joybrato Mukherjee. Korpuslinguistik und Englischunterricht: Eine Einführung (Sprache im Kontext series 14). Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2002. 214 pp. ISBN 3-631-39346-6. Reviewed by Hilde

More information

PSYCHOLINGUISTICS A. The concepts of Language and Linguistics A.1. Branches of Linguistics sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics speech community

PSYCHOLINGUISTICS A. The concepts of Language and Linguistics A.1. Branches of Linguistics sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics speech community PSYCHOLINGUISTICS A. The concepts of Language and Linguistics Linguistics is the study of human language (Langacker 1973:5) is clear enough for students to understand that linguistics to understand that

More information

Customer Survey. A report of a customer survey by MORI Ireland on behalf of the Inspectorate of the Department of Education and Science

Customer Survey. A report of a customer survey by MORI Ireland on behalf of the Inspectorate of the Department of Education and Science Customer Survey A report of a customer survey by MORI Ireland on behalf of the Inspectorate of the Department of Education and Science 2005, Department of Education and Science ISBN 0-7557-7340-3 Designed

More information

The Role of Implicit Negative Feedback in Language Development-Some Reflections

The Role of Implicit Negative Feedback in Language Development-Some Reflections The Role of Implicit Negative Feedback in Language Development-Some Reflections [PP: 01-07] Hind Talal Mashrah Taif University Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ABSTRACT This paper discusses the importance of feedback,

More information

Exploring Sudanese Secondary Schools Teachers Attitudes towards the Use of Arabic Language in EFL Classroom

Exploring Sudanese Secondary Schools Teachers Attitudes towards the Use of Arabic Language in EFL Classroom IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 20, Issue 6, Ver. V (Jun. 2015), PP 72-77 e-issn: 2279-0837, p-issn: 2279-0845. www.iosrjournals.org Exploring Sudanese Secondary Schools

More information

Challenging the traditional axioms: translation into a non-mother tongue

Challenging the traditional axioms: translation into a non-mother tongue SIL Electronic Book Reviews 2013-002 Challenging the traditional axioms: translation into a non-mother tongue By Nike K. Pokorn Benjamins Translation Library, Vol. 62. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John

More information

Contextual Information

Contextual Information DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND PARTICIPATION RATES Demographic information, participation rates and questionnaire results provide a context for interpreting the province-wide results over time. Demographic

More information

FURMAN CENTER. While this policy brief points to an achievement gap between students who live in

FURMAN CENTER. While this policy brief points to an achievement gap between students who live in FURMAN CENTER NOVEMBER 2008 Over the past few decades, a broad consensus has emerged that much of the public housing built over the last half-century was based upon a flawed model, and creates unhealthy

More information

Pre-departure preparation I received plenty of information about the boarding house, and the B&B accommodation.

Pre-departure preparation I received plenty of information about the boarding house, and the B&B accommodation. Note from people and places: this volunteer s placement was designed specifically for them they went through our full matching process, as we ve been doing with you. The placement report indicates their

More information

AM SYLLABUS (2015) FRENCH AM 12 SYLLABUS

AM SYLLABUS (2015) FRENCH AM 12 SYLLABUS AM SYLLABUS (2015) FRENCH AM 12 SYLLABUS French AM 12 (Available in September) Syllabus Paper 1 (2 hrs) + Paper II (3 hrs) + Paper III (2½ hrs.)paper IV (30 mins.) + Oral AIMS The syllabus aims at consolidating

More information

Arabic language and vocabulary acquisition

Arabic language and vocabulary acquisition Arabic language and vocabulary acquisition Mark Van Mol Catholic University Leuven In order to develop a strategy for the teaching of Modern Standard Arabic (hereafter MSA) in the coming millennium, and

More information

Applied Linguistics for ESOL Educators Course Syllabus Summer credit hours

Applied Linguistics for ESOL Educators Course Syllabus Summer credit hours Applied Linguistics for ESOL Educators Course Syllabus Summer 2009 3 credit hours Instructor: English Department 451 Grubbs Hall Pittsburg State University 1701 South Broadway Pittsburg, KS 66762 Hours:

More information

ANNEXE 4: L ENQUETE SUR L ETUDE D IMPACT ET LES DONNEES DE STATISTIQUES

ANNEXE 4: L ENQUETE SUR L ETUDE D IMPACT ET LES DONNEES DE STATISTIQUES ANNEXE 4: L ENQUETE SUR L ETUDE D IMPACT ET LES DONNEES DE STATISTIQUES No. of Questionnaire Survey for Head Master! This survey targets Head Master of this school.! Please answer all the questions.! If

More information

Reconsidering Japan s English Education Based on the Principles of Plurilingualism (2013)

Reconsidering Japan s English Education Based on the Principles of Plurilingualism (2013) Reconsidering Japan s English Education Based on the Principles of Plurilingualism (2013) Selected Papers from the Twenty-second International Symposium on English Teaching English Teachers' Association-Republic

More information

19 Language and social variation

19 Language and social variation 19 Language and social variation When we study language and regional variation, we focused on variation in language use found in different geographical areas. However, not everyone in a single geographical

More information

An Assessment of the Practice of Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in EFL Classes: Kellem Secondary School Grade 9 and 10 English Teachers in Focus

An Assessment of the Practice of Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in EFL Classes: Kellem Secondary School Grade 9 and 10 English Teachers in Focus International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume, Issue, July 20 58 An Assessment of the Practice of Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in EFL Classes: Kellem Secondary School Grade 9

More information

DUAL-LANGUAGE PROGRAMS IN U.S. SCHOOLS

DUAL-LANGUAGE PROGRAMS IN U.S. SCHOOLS DUAL-LANGUAGE PROGRAMS IN US SCHOOLS AN ALTERNATIVE TO MONOCULTURAL, MONOLINGUAL EDUCATION Eugene E Garcia And Bryant Jensen Arizona State University (Draft 1/17/06) Educating in Multiple Languages: Myths

More information

Week 9 Answers Walker (2010), Chapter 3

Week 9 Answers Walker (2010), Chapter 3 Stephen van Vlack Sookmyung Women s University Graduate School of TESOL English Pronunciation Spring 2014 Week 9 Answers Walker (2010), Chapter 3 1. Of the ten concerns expressed in the chapter, which

More information

Factors affecting English listening and speaking abilities of non-english major students: taking engineering students as an example

Factors affecting English listening and speaking abilities of non-english major students: taking engineering students as an example World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education Vol.13, No.4, 2015 2015 WIETE Factors affecting English listening and speaking abilities of non-english major students: taking engineering students

More information

The rate of English French bilingualism in Canada was 17.9% in 2016, the highest proportion ever. The previous high was 17.7% in 2001.

The rate of English French bilingualism in Canada was 17.9% in 2016, the highest proportion ever. The previous high was 17.7% in 2001. An increasingly diverse linguistic profile: Corrected data from the 2016 Census Released at 8:30 a.m. Eastern time in The Daily, Thursday, August 17, 2017 Linguistic diversity is on the rise in Canada.

More information

Oral examination and assessment

Oral examination and assessment CBS LEARNING LAB Oral examination and assessment Litterature: Leth Andersen, Hanne & Tofteskov, Jens: Eksamen & Eksamensformer, bedømmelse og betydning, Samfundslitteratur, 2008 chapter 7. Chapter 7: Oral

More information