Research on Tibetan Spelling Formal Language and Automata with Application

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1 Research on Tibetan Spelling Formal Language and Automata with Application

2 Nyima Tashi Research on Tibetan Spelling Formal Language and Automata with Application 123

3 Nyima Tashi Tibet University Lhasa, Xizang China ISBN ISBN (ebook) Jointly published with Science Press, Beijing, China The printed edition is not for sale in the Mainland of China. Customers from the Mainland of China please order the print book from: Science Press. Library of Congress Control Number: Science Press and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publishers, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publishers, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publishers nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publishers remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. part of Springer Nature The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore , Singapore

4 Foreword Tibetan information technology is one of the important research fields of Chinese information technology, and the research on Tibetan information technology is of great significance for inheriting and carrying forward the excellent ethnic culture and promoting the informatization construction and economic and social development in Tibetan areas. To research the Tibetan grammar system including spelling grammar from the viewpoint of information technology is the core and basic research work for Tibetan information technology. The writer has launched the research on Tibetan information technology since the later 1980s and has continuously analyzed and summarized the technical essence and theoretical connotation of Tibetan information technology during the long-term research. Through the practical accumulation and theoretical improvement for many years, the writer wrote the academic monograph of Research on Tibetan Spelling Formal Language and Automata with Application. Since he is a Tibetan professor majored in computer science and also acts as the director of library in Tibet University, the writer can realize the intensified integration of Tibetan knowledge, computer technologies, and Tibetan information technology, so as to ensure that this book possesses not only systematicness but also theoretical depth. This book mainly features as follows: 1 The Tibetan spelling grammar are analyzed and induced as fully as possible from the viewpoint of information technology; 2 Formal language and automata theory are introduced into the field of Tibetan information technology, the Tibetan spelling formal language is studied, and the inherent law of Tibetan spelling grammar is revealed from the viewpoint of information technology, so as to pave the theoretical foundation for intensifying the research on Tibetan information technology; 3 On the basis of theoretical research, the application of theoretical method in optimized design and efficient realization of computer-based automatic spelling check, automatic sorting, and intelligent input method of Tibetan is detailed. v

5 vi Foreword I believe that the publication of this book will extend the valuable help to researchers engaged in research on Chinese information technology, Tibetan information technology, Tibetan computational linguistics and natural language processing. Beijing, China March 2016 Pan Yunhe Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering

6 Preface When I started the R&D on Tibetan information technology in the later 1980s, I felt that the previous R&D was mainly focused on the application level of Tibetan information technology and there was few basic research on the object of research (namely Tibetan and its grammar) from the viewpoint of information technology. According to the laws of development of information technology, the level of research, development, and innovation can be improved only after the basic theoretical research has been properly carried out and the technical bottleneck has been overcome. To research the Tibetan spelling grammar and word structure from the viewpoint of information technology and explore into the basic theory and application method of Tibetan spelling formal language and its automata is of great significance for improving the level of research and application of Tibetan information technology. Tibetan is a kind of alphabetic writing, but its spelling mode is different from other languages such as English. The Tibetan has to be not only transversely spelled but also longitudinally spelled, with a nonlinear two-dimensional structure. The spelling sequence of Tibetan is as follows: prefix character, superfix character, root character, subfix character, vowel, suffix character, and postfix character, among which the superfix character, root character, subfix character, and vowel are longitudinally spelled in an overlapped manner. The root character is the core of a Tibetan word, and recognizing the root character and then every constituent of a Tibetan word is a key technology which involves many research fields of Tibetan information technology. When I was studying for a doctorate of computer application in Sichuan University, I had an idea of researching the Tibetan spelling formal language by using the formal language and automata theory and applying it into the research on recognition of constituents of Tibetan words, and I carried out the exploratory research in my doctoral dissertation and subsequent works. In 2012, I completed the draft of this book, but still felt that there were many technical issues which had to be further explained and the research result would be verified through actual application. Therefore, I adjusted the structure of the draft and added the contents on the application of Tibetan spelling formal language in computer vii

7 viii Preface automatic spelling check and automatic sorting of Tibetan. More than three years later, this book was finally completed. During the writing of this book, I received a great deal of support from many friends and colleagues. I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to all the friends and colleagues who have supported and helped me, and to my family members who have cared and encouraged me for many years! Owing to my limited capacity, it is inevitable that there may exist something wrong in this book. All the readers are kindly requested to point them out for me. Lhasa, China July 2016 Nyima Tashi

8 Contents 1 Tibetan Brief Introduction to Tibetan The Orgin and Collation of Tibetan Ancient Literatures of Tibetan Use of Tibetan Tibetan Words Tibetan Consonant Alphabets, Vowel Signs and Punctuation Marks Writing and Fonts of Tibetan Basic Structure of Tibetan Tibetan Spelling Grammar Tibetan Spelling Grammar Vertical Combining Spelling Spelling of Prefix Characters Spelling of Suffix Characters Spelling of Postfix Characters Others Basic Spelling Structure of Tibetan Theoretical Basis Mathematic Basis Set String Function Graph Formal Language Overview Formal Grammar Types of Formal Grammar ix

9 x Contents Automata Regular Grammar and Automata Formal Description of Tibetan Spelling Grammar Definition of Terms Definition Symbol Mapping Formal Description of Tibetan Spelling Grammar Nature of Tibetan Spelling Grammar Tibetan Spelling Formal Language Overview of Tibetan Spelling Formal Language Tibetan Spelling Formal Grammar Tibetan Spelling Formal Grammar Ambiguity in Use of Tibetan Spelling Formal Grammar Computer-Based Tibetan Coding Coding Mode for Tibetan Characters GB Information Technology Tibetan Coded Character Sets for Information Interchange Basic Set Scope Reference Standards Definition Form of Code Expressing Combined Use of Control Function and This Standard Statement Code Expression of Tibetan Recognition of Constituents of Tibetan Words Tibetan Spelling Formal Language Application Application in Computer-Based Tibetan Intelligent Input Method Layout of Non-repeated-Code Tibetan Computer Keyboard Tibetan Spelling Formal Grammar Intelligent Input Method of Tibetan Application in Computer-Based Tibetan Automatic Spelling Check Tibetan Automatic Spelling Check and Tibetan Spelling Formal Language Realization of Tibetan Automatic Spelling Check

10 Contents xi 7.3 Application in Computer-Based Tibetan Automatic Sorting Sorting Rules of Tibetan Sorting Method of Tibetan Words Sorting Method of Tibetan Expressions Bibliography

11 Introduction This book introduces formal language and automata theory into a field of Tibetan information technology, constructs formal grammar to generate Tibetan spelling formal language and automata to recognize the language, and studies the application of Tibetan spelling formal language and its automata. There are seven chapters in this book, among which Chap. 1 briefly introduces the Tibetan language; Chap. 2 analyzes and summarizes the Tibetan spelling grammars and the basic spelling structure of Tibetan words; Chap. 3 introduces the basic knowledge about formal language; Chap. 4 formally describes the inherent Tibetan spelling grammars; Chap. 5 sets forth the formal grammars used to generate the Tibetan spelling formal languages and the automata used to recognize the languages; Chap. 6 introduces the application method of Tibetan coding standard; and Chap. 7 introduces the actual application of Tibetan spelling formal language. This book has a referential value for researchers engaged in research on computational linguistics, information technology, and Tibetan computational linguistics and can also be used by professional teachers and graduate students majored in Tibetan information technology and Tibetan computational linguistics. xiii

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