Educational Decentralization and School Based Management: The Case of Hong Kong

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1 Educational Decentralization and School Based Management: The Case of Hong Kong Esther Sui-chu Ho, Professor, Department of Educational Administration and Policy Director of HKPISA Center, Faculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Benchmarking Education Systems for Results: East Asia Regional Conference, Singapore, June 2010 Three Forms of Educational Decentralization Organizational A decision to decentralize authority vertically to schools School administrators (and/or Teachers) make important decisions concerning staffing, budgeting, teaching learning Example in HK: SMI (1991) SBM (1999) - IMC Economic Inspired by the need for competition in a market economy of schools School revenues are tied closely to the numbers of students they attract Example in HK: Direct Subsidized Scheme (DSS) Voucher for Pre-primary Private (e.g. International Schools) Political Members of the boards: substantial representation of teachers + parents May have authority over the employment of key school personnel e.g. principals Example in HK: Incorporated Management Committee (IMC)- but only with teacher, parent and alumni representative School-based Management in Hong Kong Institutionalization stage- Transforming schools into dynamic and accountable professionla learnng communities (2000) -\ Governance Framework and Ordinance (2004) Each school have to set up Incorporated Management Committee (IMC) 1997 Implementation stage Educational Commission Report No 7 All schools should have put in place SBM by the year Rationale Participation Transparency Accountability Self-improvement Student-oriented School-based flexibility 1991 Initiation stage The School Management Initiative: the framework for quality in Hong Kong schools (SMI) 1

2 Decision Makers Decision Areas Incorporated Management Committee (IMC/SMC) Major Tasks of IMC (1) Administration and Management : staffing and budgeting - parental and community involvement Teaching and Learning: Cognitive: Courses offering, Medium of Student Conduct, Moral / Civic education Student Activities, School ethos / prestige Major Tasks of IMC (2) School development plan (3 years) Annual school plan + report Annual financial plan + report Performance indicators - Value addedness in cognitive outcomes - Evaluation of teachers and principals, and overall school quality from students, parents, teachers and principals 2

3 Nature and Impact of Hong Kong SBM 1. The measurement of educational decentralization 2. Nature of SBM in Hong Kong 3. Impact of SBM on Student Learning in Hong Kong Database and Methodology Data from the first 3 cycles of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA2000+, PISA2003, PISA2006) were analysed to investigate the extent of educational decentralization Countries/Regions: Hong Kong and some other Asian societies (e.g. Japan, Korea, Thailand etc). Cluster analysis was used to reveal to nature and extent of decentralization of the schooling systems in the three societies. Nature of SBM in Hong Kong The measurement of decentralization (OECD/PISA2000) Decentralized Two dimensional model constructed by HO (Ho, 2006) Decision Makers (6 Levels) Decision Areas (5 Areas) Teachers Department Heads Principals School District Provinces / Regions State 6 levels of decision makers 5 decision areas Centralized Budgeting Students and instruction 3

4 The measurement of decentralization (Hong Kong) Decentralized Teachers Department Heads Principals School Board (SMB/IMC) Central Office (EDB) Centralized 5 levels of decision makers 5 decision areas Budgeting Students and instruction Percentage of principals reporting their schools have responsibility for the following school issues in PISA OECD/PISA Five Decision Areas Administrative items Hong Kong average (%) 2003 average (%) Appointing teachers Dismissing teachers Teacher Establishing teachers' starting salaries Determining teachers' salary increases Budgeting Formulating the school budget Deciding on budget allocations within the school Student Establishing student disciplinary policies Establishing student assessment policies Approving students for admittance to school and s Choosing which textbooks are used Determining course content Deciding which courses are offered The measurement of the degree of decentralization Decentralized The measurement of the degree of decentralization Decentralized Teachers Teachers Department Heads Principals School District School autonomy Decision making is a school level responsibility Department Heads Principals School District Teacher Participation Teachers are the decision makers Provinces / Regions Provinces / Regions State State Centralized Budgeting Students and instruction Centralized Budgeting Students and instruction 4

5 School autonomy Teacher participation Cluster Analysis of schools participated in PISA (41 countries) Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Centralized School Driven Teacher Driven Decentralized The measurement of the degree of decentralization 4 different forms of decentralization Low Teacher participation High School autonomy Low The centralized model The teacher - driven model High The school - driven model The decentralized model Four forms of decentralization models in PISA2006 Cluster 1 - The centralized model (characterized by low levels of both school autonomy and teacher participation), Cluster 2 - The school-driven model (characterized by high levels of school autonomy but low levels of teacher participation), Cluster 3 The teacher-driven model (characterized by low levels of school autonomy but high levels of teacher participation), Cluster 4 The decentralized/shared model (characterized by both high levels of both school autonomy and teacher participation). Different Models of SBM in Hong Kong, Japan and Korea Hong Kong (11.4%) Japan (54.8 %) Korea (69.9%) Teacher participation Low High School autonomy Low The centralized model The teacher - driven model Hong Kong (45.7 %) Japan (23.7 %) Korea (16.4 %) High The school - driven model Hong Kong (35.7%) Japan (8.1 %) Korea (2.7%) Hong Kong (7.1 %) Japan (13.3 %) Korea (11.0%) The decentralized model 5

6 Decision Areas in HK SBM Budgeting Student and School 88.8 % 17.0 % 95.8 % 99.0 % 98.8 % Teacher 2.2 % 0.0 % 9.6 % 41.4 % 46.7 % % 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Budgeting Students and Principals Teachers School Autonomy of HK vs PISA standard Budgeting Student and Hong Kong 88.8 % 17.0 % 95.8 % 99.0 % 98.8 % PISA Average % 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 48.6 % 37.1 % 40.3 % 38.8 % 67.3 % School Autonomy Budgeting Students and Hong Kong PISA Average Teacher Participation of HK vs PISA standard Budgeting Student and Hong Kong 2.2 % 0.0 % 9.6 % 41.4 % 46.7 % PISA Average % 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1.4 % 0.6 % 9.2 % 38.5 % 52.1 % Teacher Participation Budgeting Students and Hong Kong PISA Average School Decentralization: Hong Kong, Korea, Japan 6

7 Decentralization in East Asian Societies (Ho, 2005) Percentage of Schools in which school have the main responsibility for the following five decision areas 1980s and 1990s: Trend of decentralization Korea 1990s: All primary and secondary schools were mandated to establish school councils school autonomy Hong Kong 1991: Decentralization devolve decision making to all stakeholders 1980s 1990s 1998 Country Student Budgeting & setting affairs Hong Kong 88.8% 17.0% 95.8% 99.0% 98.8% Japan 31.7% 31.3% 70.6% 99.8% 98.8% Korea Republic 22.4% 10.7% 91.4% 98.4% 96.5% PISA Average 48.6% 83.6% 40.3% 38.8% 67.3% Japan 1980s:Take the power from Central bureaus and delegate to local institutions Hong Kong 1999: Educational Commission Report no.7 proposed, by 2000, all schools are recommended to implement school based management Percentage of Schools in which teachers have the main responsibility for the following five decision areas Indices of School Autonomy and Teacher Participation in Hong Kong, Japan and Korea Country Student Budgeting & setting affairs Hong Kong 2.2% 0.0% 9.6% 41.4% 46.7% Japan 0.4% 0.0% 2.6% 18.0% 29.0% Korea Republic 0.4% 0.7% 2.8% 9.8% 56.3% PISA Average 1.4% 0.6% 9.2% 38.5% 52.1% Country School autonomy Teacher participation Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.) Hong Kong 0.51 (0.50) (1.25) Japan 0.16 (1.05) (1.09) Korea (0.51) (0.65) 7

8 Four forms of decentralization across countries/r egions in PISA C ountries C entralized School D riven T eacher D riven D ecentralized Albania 86.5% 7.0% 4.7% 1.8% Argentina 49.3% 10.4% 34.0% 6.3% Australia 25.5% 19.5% 37.7% 17.3% A u stria %.9 % %.9 % Belgium 38.3% 24.8% 18.2% 18.7% Brazil 41.2% 10.8% 40.9% 7.1% Bulgaria 44.7% 8.2% 36.5% 10.7% Canada 38.3% 16.5% 27.4% 17.9% Chile 30.2% 20.7% 34.6% 14.5% Czech republic 16.2% 48.0% 9.2% 26.6% D enm ark 26.4% 13.7% 28.3% 31.6% Finland 8.4% 1.9% 80.0% 9.7% France 66.0% 1.9% 30.1% 1.9% G erm a n y %.5 % %.5 % G reece 25.3% 71.4%.6% 2.6% H ong K ong 11.4% 45.7% 7.1% 35.7% H ungary 9.7% 33.0% 15.7% 41.6% Iceland 21.3% 7.1% 40.2% 31.5% Indonesia 19.7% 41.7% 15.9% 22.8% Ireland 30.7% 8.0% 42.3% 19.0% Israel 24.8% 49.6% 14.2% 11.3% Italy 63.7% 1.2% 32.7% 2.3% J apan 54.8% 23.7% 13.3% 8.1% K orea, 69.9% 16.4% 11.0% 2.7% Latvia 42.0% 30.5% 9.9% 17.6% Liechtenstein 45.5% 0% 45.5% 9.1% Luxem bourg 100.0% 0% 0% 0% M exico 60.1% 20.8% 12.0% 7.1% N etherlands 2.1% 77.9% 1.1% 18.9% N ew Zealand 8.3% 59.3% 4.1% 28.3% Peru 41.4% 11.0% 34.0% 13.6% Portugal 75.2% 1.3% 22.8%.7% Rom ania 71.1% 3.5% 22.5% 2.9% Russian 44.1% 50.2% 2.0% 3.7% Spain 51.1% 12.2% 18.3% 18.3% Sweden 11.0% 35.7% 17.5% 35.7% Summary(1) The results revealed four models of decentralization: highly decentralized, school-driven, teacher-driven, and highly decentralized model. Whist the school-driven model was dominant in Hong Kong, indicating that the school itself is largely responsible for making school related decisions, the centralized model was dominate in both Japan and Korea, indicating that authorities outside of the school are largely responsible for making school related decisions. Summary (2) When compared to the PISA average, Hong Kong schools were shown to have relatively higher levels of school autonomy, but comparable levels of teacher participation. The level of school autonomy in Japan was similar to the PISA average, whilst teacher participation was lower than the PISA average. Korean schools were found to have lower levels of teacher participation when compared to the PISA average. Is it necessary to increase teachers participation? To what extent teachers participation (vs school autonomy) related to student outcomes? Let s check a more international picture Impact of School Decentralization on Learning Outcomes and Schooling Process (PISA2003) 8

9 Correlation Coefficients between indices of School Decentralization and School Climate (Hong Kong, 2003) School Mean Mathematical Literacy School Decentralization School autonomy Teacher participation.194 * Students View on School Climate Sense of belonging.490 *** Attitudes toward school.385 *** Disciplinary climate.544 *** Student teacher relationship.184 * Teacher support.229 ** Principals View on School Climate Student morale.586 *** Teacher morale.359 *** Student behaviour-health climate.261 ** Teacher behaviour-health climate.116 ns Note: * p< 0.05; ** p< 0.01; *** p< ns: not significant Effects of School Decentralization and School Climate on Students Mathematical Literacy Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 + School Predictor Student Background Decentralization + School Climate Coefficient SE Coefficient SE Coefficient SE Intercept *** *** *** 3.71 Student Background Girl *** *** *** 3.01 Immigrant Student *** *** *** 3.57 Single Parent -6.32* * * 2.96 SES School Decentralization School Autonomy Teachers Participation 13.75* Students View on School Climate Sense of Belongings 23.04*** 5.55 Attitudes Toward Schools Disciplinary Climate 25.80*** 4.88 Student Teacher Relationship * 5.20 Teacher Support Principals View on School Climate Student Morale 20.90*** 5.08 Teacher Morale Student Behaviour 23.76** 7.85 Teacher Behaviour Between School Variance *** *** *** Within School Variance Between School Variance Explained 1.80% 4.91% 58.97% Within School Variance Explained 2.73% 2.73% 2.73% Total Variance Total Variance Explained 2.29% 3.75% 29.02% SBM in PISA 2006 PISA 2006 Methodology In total, schools from 57 countries and economies participated in PISA 2006 cycle (See Appendix 1). The unit of analysis employed in this study is the school Cluster analysis, a multivariate statistical procedure used to detect groupings in data was used Purpose to examine and compare various forms of decentralization in PISA2006 to assess how different forms of decentralization associated with schooling processes and schooling outcomes Participating Countries / Regions of PISA 2006 OECD Countries Partner Countries (Non-OECD Countries / Regions) Australia Hungary Norway Argentina Indonesia Romania Austria Iceland Poland Azerbaijan Israel Russian Federation Belgium Ireland Portugal Brazil Jordan Serbia Canada Italy Slovak Republic Bulgaria Kyrgyzstan Slovenia Czech Republic Japan Spain Chile Latvia Thailand Denmark Korea Sweden Chinese Taipei Liechtenstein Tunisia Finland Luxembourg Switzerland Colombia Lithuania Uruguay France Mexico Turkey Croatia Macao-China Germany Netherlands United Kingdom Estonia Montenegro Greece New Zealand United States Hong Kong-China Qatar 9

10 School Autonomy across countries (PISA2006) Teacher Participation by countries/economies (PISA2006) Hungary United States Liechtenstein Lithuania Chile Belgium Thailand Brazil Hong Kong-China Macao-China Estonia Romania Switzerland United Kingdom New Zealand Colombia Russian Federation Portugal Ireland Czech Republic Canada Netherlands Serbia and/or Montenegro PISA2006 average Latvia Israel Spain Argentina Chinese Taipei Germany Mexico Korea Croatia Qatar Luxembourg Jordan Kyrgyzstan Denmark Indonesia Iceland Australia Italy Turkey Finland Slovenia Slovak Republic Azerbaijan Greece Bulgaria Japan Uruguay Tunisia Austria Norway Sweden Poland France Sweden Netherlands Hungary Latvia Estonia Lithuania Finland Thailand Australia Poland Norway United States Korea Japan Germany Slovenia Austria New Zealand Colombia Hong Kong-China Russian Federation Czech Republic Romania Belgium Indonesia Canada Italy PISA2006 average Croatia Denmark Brazil Serbia and/or Mexico Chinese Taipei Macao-China Argentina Kyrgyzstan Chile Turkey Switzerland Israel Ireland Jordan Liechtenstein Azerbaijan Bulgaria Slovak Republic Spain Qatar Luxembourg United Kingdom Portugal Uruguay Greece Iceland Tunisia France Index of school autonomy Index of teacher participation Four forms of decentralization models in PISA 2006 Centralized School Driven Teacher Driven Shared School autonomy Teacher participation Percentage of Different Models of Educational Decentralization in Selected Societies Countries/Economies Centralized School driven Teacher driven Shared United States Hong Kong-China Macao-China Finland Australia Korea United Kingdom Chinese Taipei Iceland Thailand Hungary PISA2006 average

11 Variation of schooling outcomes across different decentralization models (57 countries in PISA2006) Math Reading Science Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Centralized (82.72) (82.70) (78.33) School Driven (79.00) (81.57) (76.90) Teacher Driven (84.78) (87.54) (80.72) Shared (81.31) (82.67) (76.35) PISA 2006 Average (83.04) (85.17) (79.51) Effects of School Decentralization, School Process and School Climate on Science Performance (PISA2006) Predictors Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Coefficient SE Coefficient SE Coefficient SE Intercept *** *** *** Mean ESCS *** *** *** SBM Model Teacher_driven *** *** *** School_driven 6.915*** *** *** Shared *** *** *** Schooling Process School activities for learning science 5.201*** *** Quality of educational resources *** *** Teacher shortage *** *** Student Self-related cognition Science efficacy *** Intrinsic Motivation 8.891*** Extrinsic Motivation *** R Square 51.0% 53.5% 59.5% Concluding (1) PISA2006 provide new evidence to examine the nature of educational decentralization across 57 different countries and assess its impact on student learning outcomes. The findings suggested that there are different forms of educational decentralization at the school level which showed different impact of students outcome. Teacher driven model appeared to be most effective, followed by shared model and administrator model. 11

12 Concluding (2) New Direction of Decentralization and SBM The positive impact of various decentralized models on students achievement might be mediated by improving the schooling processes, which were measured by allocation of quality resources and providing quality teaching and learning activities of students in the present study. These findings support previous research studies which argued for the substantial contribution of educational decentralization on organizational health as well as on teaching and learning structural Governance Weaker Improvement Organization/ Management SBM Community Education organic Stronger Improvement Thank you! HKPISA Further information Tel: (852) Fax: (852) Visit the websites: OECD-PISA : HK-PISA: 12

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