EFA Global Monitoring Report YOUTH AND SKILLS. Putting education to work Gender Overview. Organisation United Nations. Cultural Organization

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1 EFA Global Monitoring Report YOUTH AND SKILLS Putting education to work Gender Overview Organisation United Nations Cultural Organization

2

3 ED-2013/WS/8

4

5

6

7 Education for All goals Key messages Education for All Global Monitoring report

8 Education for All Global Monitoring report Youth and Skills: Putting education to work

9 Part one Monitoring progress towards the Education for All goals Education for All Global Monitoring report

10 Education for All Global Monitoring report Introduction

11 Girls face obstacles entering school Education for All Global Monitoring report

12 Education for All Global Monitoring report

13 Senegal Mauritania Malawi Gambia Uganda Iran, Isl. Rep. India Ghana Burundi Tunisia Egypt Guatemala Cambodia Morocco Algeria Guinea-Bissau Sierra Leone Lao PDR Burkina Faso Comoros Ethiopia Nigeria Mozambique Djibouti Togo Papua N. Guinea Mali Benin D. R. Congo Cameroon Guinea Niger Côte d'ivoire Pakistan Chad C. A. R Below 0.90 represents severe gender disparity. Gender parity Education for All Global Monitoring report Gender parity index

14 Education for All Global Monitoring report (%) Female Low income countries Male Female Lower middle income countries Male Female Upper middle income countries Male Female High income countries Male World Expected never to enrol Enrolled but dropped out Expected to enrol late

15 Education for All Global Monitoring report Grade 1 Grade 6 Male Female Expected cohort intake and survival rate (%) Rich Poor Rich Poor Rich Poor Rich Poor Rich Poor Rich Poor Rich Poor Rich Poor Rich Poor Rich Poor Benin D. R. Congo Togo Yemen Nigeria Guinea Côte d Ivoire Mali Niger C. A. R

16 Education for All Global Monitoring report Male Female Poorest Richest Poorest Richest Poorest Richest Poorest Richest Poorest Richest Poorest Richest Poorest Richest Poorest Out-of-school children (%) Richest Bangladesh 2010 Egypt 2005/06 Indonesia 2006 Iraq 2007 Nigeria 2010 South Africa 2009 U. R. Tanzania 2010 Uganda 2005/06

17 Gender disparities in learning outcomes persist Number of countries/economies Girls perform better No significant difference Boys perform better Number of countries/economies Reading Mathematics Science 80 SERCE 2005/6 Grade 6 SERCE 2005/6 Grade 3 PIRLS 2006 Grade 4 TIMSS 2007 Grade 4 SACMEQ 2007 Grade 6 SACMEQ 2007 Grade 6 SERCE 2005/6 Grade 6 SERCE 2005/6 Grade 6 PISA year-olds TIMSS 2007 Grade 8 PISA year-olds Education for All Global Monitoring report Number of countries/economies TIMSS 2007 Grade 4 SERCE 2005/6 Grade 6 TIMSS 2007 Grade 8 PISA year-olds

18 Education for All Global Monitoring report A. Percentage of countries and economies by gender gap, countries and economies with data in both years, PISA B. Gender gap by subject, countries and economies with data in both years, PISA Percentage of countries/economies (%) Mean point score difference between boys and girls Reading Mathematics Science 38 countries 39 countries 56 countries Reading Mathematics Science Girls perform better No significant difference Boys perform better

19 Literacy status (%) Literate Semi-literate Illiterate Education for All Global Monitoring report Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Nigeria Ghana Zambia India Kenya Timor-Leste Cambodia U. R. Tanzania Haiti Nepal

20 Education for All Global Monitoring report Challenging disadvantage and disengagement among boys Disparities in secondary education are sometimes at the expense of boys

21 Education for All Global Monitoring report

22 Education for All Global Monitoring report Number of boys enrolled per 100 girls, by grade, 1999 and 2010 Sources: Antoninis and Mia (2011); Asadullah and Chaudhury (2009); World Bank (2008). Number of boys enrolled for every 100 girls In 1999, there were 90 boys enrolled in grade 8 for every 100 girls. By 2010, there were only 82 boys for every 100 girls Source: UIS database Grade

23 Education for All Global Monitoring report

24 Education for All Global Monitoring report Why some boys face disadvantage in secondary school Secondary education attendance rate (%) National Richest Poorest Lower secondary National Richest Poorest Upper secondary Score Shanghai, China Germany Chile Trinidad and Tobago Peru Lowest 25% Tamil Nadu, India Kyrgyzstan Highest 25% Urban Rural Urban Rural Male Female

25 Education for All Global Monitoring report

26 Education for All Global Monitoring report year-olds below level 2 (%) Poor Rich Slovenia Poor Rich Greece Poor Rich Hungary Poor France Rich Reading Poor Rich Portugal Poor Rich New Zealand Poor Male Female Rich Rep. of Korea

27 Challenging boys disadvantage and disengagement Education for All Global Monitoring report

28 1 Education for All Global Monitoring report 0 2 2

29 Education for All Global Monitoring report

30 Education for All Global Monitoring report Conclusion

31 World Inequality Database on Education Education for All Global Monitoring report Niger National average 100% 0% Poorest Richest Female Male Female Male Pakistan Poorest Richest Female Male Female Male Egypt Poorest Richest Female Male Female Male

32 Education for All Global Monitoring report Part two Youth and Skills: Putting education to work

33 Poor young women are the least likely to have skills Gender disparities are aggravated by wealth disparities Education for All Global Monitoring report

34 Education for All Global Monitoring report Youth in or having completed lower secondary (%) Girls are worse off than boys among the richest. Girls are worse off than boys among the poorest. Boys are worse off than girls among the poorest. Mozambique Burkina Faso Ethiopia Morocco Pakistan India Turkey Philippines Brazil Male richest 20% Female richest 20% Male poorest 20% Female poorest 20% Location affects the acquisition of foundation skills

35 Nigeria Pakistan Urban male Urban female Rural male Rural female Urban male Urban female Rural male Rural female Youth aged 15 to 19 (%) No education Dropped out (primary) In primary Dropped out (lower secondary) In lower secondary Dropped out (upper secondary) In upper secondary or higher Young women need a second chance to acquire basic literacy and numeracy skills Education for All Global Monitoring report

36 Education for All Global Monitoring report A lack of skills will affect the lives of young women and their country s growth forever Gender discrimination in education continues through into the workplace

37 Youth earning above US$2 per day (%) Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Mongolia Azerbaijan Nepal Iran, Isl. Rep. Egypt Male secondary complete Male secondary incomplete Female secondary complete Female secondary incomplete Education for All Global Monitoring report Many young women are invisible in the labour force

38 Education for All Global Monitoring report Not in education or in labour force (%) Female Male 20 0 No education Primary Secondary Higher No education Primary Secondary Higher Jordan Turkey

39 Education for All Global Monitoring report Many governments neglect skills and the disadvantaged lose out most

40 Education for All Global Monitoring report

41 Secondary Education: Paving the way to work Removing the barriers to a secondary education Education for All Global Monitoring report

42 1 Education for All Global Monitoring report 0 2 2

43 Education for All Global Monitoring report Making secondary education relevant to the world of work: Addressing discrimination in internships and apprenticeships

44 1 Education for All Global Monitoring report 0 2 2

45 Career counselling should aim to help disadvantaged youth secure apprenticeships Conclusion Education for All Global Monitoring report

46 Education for All Global Monitoring report Many urban poor young women lack foundation skills

47 Discrimination excludes many women from good jobs Education for All Global Monitoring report Expanding skills training opportunities for disadvantaged youth

48 1 Education for All Global Monitoring report 0 2 2

49 Education for All Global Monitoring report

50 Education for All Global Monitoring report Young Women in rural areas need skills the most In rural areas, young women are more disadvantaged than young men

51 Youth aged 15 to 24 (%) Niger Burkina Faso Mozambique C. A. R. Senegal Females are at a disadvantage Morocco Guinea Mali Ethiopia Sierra Leone Côte d Ivoire Benin Liberia Cameroon Uganda U. R. Tanzania Togo D. R. Congo Zambia Pakistan Malawi Cambodia Congo Mauritania Turkey Nepal Syrian A. R. Nigeria Ghana Zimbabwe Bolivia P.S. Kenya Egypt Tajikistan Azerbaijan Rural male Rural female Gender parity Rwanda Madagascar Haiti San Tome/Principe Bangladesh Swaziland Timor-Leste Indonesia Albania Kyrgyzstan Armenia Ukraine Kazakhstan Education for All Global Monitoring report

52 Education for All Global Monitoring report Addressing rural training needs

53 Education for All Global Monitoring report

54 1 Education for All Global Monitoring report 0 2 2

55 Education for All Global Monitoring report

56 1 Education for All Global Monitoring report 0 2 2

57 Education for All Global Monitoring report Recommendations

58 Education for All Global Monitoring report

59 Education for All Global Monitoring report

60 Website: Blog: efareport.wordpress.com

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