Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession

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1 1 Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession Lessons from around the world Andreas Schleicher Special advisor to the Secretary-General on Education Policy Head of the Indicators and Analysis Division, EDU

2 2 High average performance High student performance (PISA average reading, mathematics and science) Shangai-China High average performance Large socio-economic disparities High social equity Low equity Low average performance Large socio-economic disparities Japan Canada New Zealand Netherlands Australia Chinese Taipei Liechtenstein Switzerland Estonia Belgium Germany France United Kingdom Poland Slovenia Norway Denmark Iceland Sweden Ireland Hungary United States Czech Republic Portugal Austria Slovak Republic Italy Spain Latvia Luxembourg Lithuania Greece Croatia Russian Federation Low student performance Korea Finland Dubai (UAE) Israel Turkey Bulgaria Singapore Kazakhstan Montenegro Argentina Chile Uruguay Romania Trinidad and Tobago Albania Serbia High equity Low average performance High social equity Mexico Thailand Brazil Jordan Colombia Tunisia Azerbaijan Indonesia Hong Kong-China Macao-China

3 3 Tools Standards Processes Curricula Selection People Teachers Technology Preparation Practices Principals Assessments Instruction Student Intervention learning Support Families systems Recruitment/induction Policies Support and personnel alignment Work Data organisation systems Development Supervision Retention

4 4 Teacher policies The past Some students learn at high levels Student inclusion The most effective systems All students learn at high levels Curriculum, instruction and assessment Routine cognitive skills for lifetime jobs Learning to learn, complex ways of thinking, ways of working Teacher quality Taught to teach established content Tayloristic, hierarchical Primarily to authorities Work organisation Teacher evaluation and accountability High-level professional knowledge workers Flat, collegial, differentiated and diverse careers Also to peers and stakeholders

5 5 How teachers are recruited into the profession and educated Great systems attract great teachers Last year Finland had over 6000 applicants for 600 jobs. Great systems prioritize the quality of teachers over the size of classes. Salaries matter but career prospects, career diversity and giving teachers responsibility as professionals and leaders of reform are equally important.

6 Spain New Zealand Germany Australia Finland Sweden Belgium (Fl.) Scotland Belgium (Fr.) Denmark France England Korea Netherlands Austria Greece Portugal Estonia Poland Norway United States Italy Israel Slovenia Hungary Iceland Czech Republic New York, March Teacher salaries relative to workers with college degrees Ratio of salary after 15 years of experience/minimum training to earnings for full-time full-year workers with tertiary education aged 25 to Source: OECD, Education at a Glance 2010, Table 3.1 (Fig 1.1 )

7 Portugal Spain Switzerland Belgium Korea Luxembourg Germany Greece Japan Australia United Kingdom New Zealand France Netherlands Denmark Italy Austria Czech Republic Hungary Norway Iceland Ireland Mexico Finland Sweden United States Poland Slovak Republic New York, March High performing systems often prioritize the quality of teachers over the size of classes Contribution of various factors to upper secondary teacher compensation costs per student as a percentage of GDP per capita (2004) Salary as % of GDP/capita Instruction time 1/teaching time 1/class size Percentage points Difference with OECD average

8 12 Percentage of OECD countries in which the following factors shape teacher pay Years of experience as a teacher Additional management responsibilities 84% 10 Teaching in a disadvantaged, remote or high cost area Special tasks (career guidance, counselling) 66% 72% Teaching courses in a particular field A higher initial educational qualification A higher certification or training obtained during professional life Outstanding performance in teaching 31% 44% 66% 69% Source: OECD, Education at a Glance (Fig 3.6 )

9 13 How teachers are recruited into the profession and educated The status of teaching is not a static attribute of culture but has, in some countries, changed significantly. Top-down initiatives alone were often insufficient to achieve deep and lasting changes (You can mandate compliance but you need to unleash excellence).

10 New York, March 2011 System s accountability arrangements 16 School autonomy, accountability and student performance Impact of school autonomy on performance in systems with and without PISA score in reading 500 accountability arrangements Systems with more accountability Systems with less accountability School autonomy in resource allocation Schools with more autonomy Schools with less autonomy

11 17 Interesting practices to bring in a wider background of teachers Opening the teaching profession to individuals with relevant experience outside education not just in vocational programs. Recognizing the skills and experience gained outside education and reflecting those in starting salaries. Enabling appropriately qualified entrants, including mature student teacher trainees to start working and earning a salary before acquiring teacher education qualifications. Offering more flexible approaches to teacher education that provide opportunities for part-time study and distance learning, and that give credits for relevant qualifications and experience.

12 18 New York, March 2011

13 19 How teachers are developed in service and supported No matter how good the pre-service education for teachers is it cannot prepare teachers for rapidly changing challenges throughout their careers High-performing systems rely on ongoing professional to update individuals knowledge of a subject in light of recent advances update skills and approaches in light of new teaching techniques, new circumstances, and new research enable teachers to apply changes made to curricula or teaching practice enable schools to develop and apply new strategies concerning the curriculum and teaching practice exchange information and expertise among teachers and others help weaker teachers become more effective. Effective professional development is on-going includes training, practice and feedback, and adequate time and follow-up support

14 New York, March 2011 Brazil Lithuania Spain Malta Mexico Source: OECD, TALIS Table 3.6 (Fig 2.1 Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession) Norway Austria Turkey TALIS Average Italy Denmark Portugal Summit 11 average Hungary Estonia Korea Malaysia Bulgaria Iceland Ireland Slovenia Poland Slovak Republic Belgium (Fl.) Australia 20 % Percentage of teachers without mentoring and induction No formal induction process No formal mentoring process

15 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation OECD Teaching and Learning International Study (TALIS) 21 % Relatively few teachers participate in the kinds of professional development which they find has the largest impact on their work Comparison of teachers participating in professional development activities and teachers reporting moderate or high level impact by types of activity TALIS Average Individual Qualification and programmes collaborative research Informal dialogue to improve teaching Reading professional literature Courses and workshops Professional development network Mentoring and peer observation Observation visits to other schools Education conferences and seminars Figure 3.15

16 Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation Impact Participation OECD Teaching and Learning International Study (TALIS) 22 % Relatively few teachers participate in the kinds of professional development which they find has the largest impact on their work Comparison of teachers participating in professional development activities and teachers reporting moderate or high level impact by types of activity TALIS Average Individual Qualification and programmes collaborative research Informal dialogue to improve teaching Reading professional literature Courses and workshops Professional development network Mentoring and peer observation Observation visits to other schools Education conferences and seminars

17 Conflict with work schedule No suitable professional development Family responsibilities Too expensive Lack of employer support Did not have the prerequisites 23 Teacher demand for professional development is often not met, sometimes for lack of time, sometimes for lack of opportunity % 50 Among those teachers who wanted more development than they received (TALIS averages) Source: OECD, TALIS Table 3.7 (Fig 2.3 )

18 24 70 % It s not just about more of the same For what type of professional development do teachers report a high level of need? TALIS Average Teaching special learning needs students ICT teaching skills Student discipline and behaviour problems Instructional practices Subject field Student counselling Content and performance standards Student assessment practices Teaching in a multicultural setting Areas are ranked in descending order of the international average where teachers report a high level of need for development. Source: OECD. Table 3.2 Classroom management School management and administration

19 28 Employment conditions The predominant employment model remains career-based but some countries have introduced position-based systems many countries have probationary periods and an increasing number require periodic renewal of licenses. Limited but increasing career diversity both horizontally and vertically. Some efforts to improve mobility between schools and with other occupations. Countries struggle with transparency in teacher labour market but some have all vacancies posted, and provide websites where the information is centralized or establish a network of agencies to co-ordinate and foster recruitment activities. Schools have become more involved in personnel management.

20 29 Percentage of public and private schools that have considerable autonomy over Selecting teachers for hire Dismissing teachers Source: OECD, PISA 2009 Database, T able I V.3.5 (Fig 2.7 ) New Zealand Netherlands Czech Republic Hungary Slovak Republic Shanghai-China Denmark Sweden Slovenia Russian Federation United Kingdom United States Poland Hong Kong-China Switzerland Belgium Norway Chile Israel OECD average Ireland Australia Canada Qatar Argentina Mexico Finland Korea Spain Germany Indonesia Japan Colombia Brazil Singapore Portugal Austria Italy Greece

21 30 New York, March 2011

22 Italy Spain Portugal Ireland Brazil Iceland Norway Austria Australia Belgium (Fl.) Malta Turkey Mexico Denmark Poland Korea Slovenia Hungary Estonia Slovak Republic Lithuania Malaysia Bulgaria 31 Some teachers are left alone Teachers who received no appraisal or feedback and teachers in schools that had no school evaluation in the previous five years % No appraisal or feedback No school evaluation Countries are ranked in descending order of the percentage of teachers who have received no appraisal or feedback. Source: OECD. Table 5.1 and 5.3

23 32 How teachers are evaluated and compensated Criteria used to evaluate teachers include teacher qualifications, including teacher credentials, years of service, degrees, certifications and relevant professional development how teachers operate in the classroom setting, including attitudes, expectations and personal characteristics, as well as strategies, methods and actions employed in their interaction with students; and measures of teacher effectiveness, based on assessment of how teachers contribute to students learning outcomes as well as their knowledge of their field and pedagogical practice In most countries, teachers value appraisal and feedback highly and report that it improves their job satisfaction and personal development, widens their repertoire of pedagogical practices and improves their effectiveness. In many countries, appraisal and feedback have limited impact on public recognition, professional development, careers and pay.

24 Malaysia Lithuania Bulgaria Poland Slovenia Estonia Slovak Republic Brazil Mexico Denmark TALIS Average Hungary Norway Iceland Italy Korea Australia Ireland Spain Turkey Portugal Austria Malta Belgium (Fl.) New York, March % Does appraisal and feedback make a difference for the job? Opportunities for professional development activities A change in the likelihood of career advancement Public recognition from the principal and/or colleagues Changes in work responsibilites that make the job more attractive Countries are ranked in descending order of changes in teachers' opportunities for professional development activities. Source: OECD. Table 5.5.

25 % 80 Teachers report on impact of appraisal and feedback in their school Increased monetary or non-monetary rewards for improving quality of teaching Increased monetary or non-monetary rewards for more innovative teaching School principal alters monetary rewards of persistently underperforming teacher Teachers will be dismissed because of sustained poor performance Source: OECD. Table 5.9.

26 37 How much autonomy public and private schools have over salaries Establishing teachers starting salaries Determining teachers salaries increases Source: OECD, PISA 2009 Database, T able I V.3.5 (Fig 2.7 ) Czech Republic Netherlands Sweden United Kingdom Hungary Slovak Republic Chile Shanghai-China Russian Federation Indonesia Denmark Hong Kong-China United States OECD average Colombia Japan Australia Poland New Zealand Israel Finland Brazil Switzerland Norway Mexico Korea Estonia Slovenia Iceland Luxembourg Portugal Singapore Canada Italy Spain Germany Argentina Turkey Austria Ireland Greece Belgium

27 38 Coherence of policy and practice Alignment of policies across all aspects of the system Coherence of policies over sustained periods of time Consistency of implementation Fidelity of implementation

28 39 Find out more about our work at U.S. White House Thank you! and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion

29 40 New York, March 2011 Backup slides

30 Portugal Turkey Serbia Albania Panama Kazakhstan Dubai (UAE) Indonesia Colombia Brazil Shanghai-China United States Peru Singapore Jordan Canada Trinidad and Tobago Denmark United Kingdom Australia Azerbaijan Mexico Qatar New Zealand Thailand Estonia Russian Federation Ireland Sweden Argentina Chile Iceland Chinese Taipei Italy Slovak Republic Uruguay Hong Kong-China Spain Montenegro Switzerland Kyrgyzstan Hungary Czech Republic OECD average Liechtenstein Greece Croatia Latvia Macao-China Belgium Romania Israel Netherlands Korea Austria Luxembourg Germany Norway Lithuania France Bulgaria Tunisia Finland Poland Slovenia Japan New York, March Students views of teacher-student relations % Most of my teachers are interested in my well-being Source: OECD, PISA 2009 Database, T able I V.4.1 (Fig 2.6 )

31 Kazakhstan Albania Azerbaijan Shanghai-China Portugal Canada Kyrgyzstan Hong Kong-China Chinese Taipei United Kingdom United States Singapore New Zealand Turkey Dubai (UAE) Latvia Netherlands Indonesia Peru Estonia Australia Finland Belgium Korea Thailand Switzerland Russian Federation Iceland Sweden Trinidad and Tobago Qatar Jordan France Bulgaria Slovak Republic Colombia Denmark Panama OECD average Mexico Czech Republic Lithuania Macao-China Brazil Liechtenstein Chile Ireland Hungary Italy Tunisia Montenegro Norway Slovenia Romania Poland Luxembourg Serbia Germany Israel Croatia Spain Argentina Austria Uruguay Japan Greece New York, March Students views of teacher-student relations % If I need extra help, I will receive it from my teachers Source: OECD, PISA 2009 Database, T able I V.4.1 (Fig 2.6 )

32 43 How much autonomy individual schools have over resource allocation Only principals and/or teachers have considerable responsibility to: Determining course content Deciding which courses are offered Source: OECD, PISA 2009 Database, T able I V.3.5 (Fig 2.7 ) Macao-China Poland Japan Korea Thailand Netherlands Czech Republic Hong Kong-China Chinese Taipei New Zealand United Kingdom Indonesia Colombia Estonia Sweden Dubai (UAE) Iceland Kyrgyzstan Italy Denmark Peru Israel Lithuania Hungary Slovak Republic Romania Australia OECD average Shanghai-China Singapore Chile Liechtenstein Panama Austria United States Albania Brazil Slovenia Finland Belgium Spain Qatar Norway Ireland Argentina Azerbaijan Germany Switzerland Trinidad and Tobago Russian Federation Latvia Mexico Canada Croatia Kazakhstan Bulgaria Turkey Luxembourg Jordan Montenegro Portugal Tunisia Uruguay Serbia Greece

33 Lithuania Germany Denmark Croatia Hong Kong-China Korea Macao-China Portugal Hungary New Zealand Chile Italy Panama Qatar Score point difference Parental support at the beginning of primary school Score point difference between students whose parents often do (weekly or daily) and those who do not: "talk about what they had done"

34 Israel Singapore Belgium Qatar Macao-China Italy France Hong Kong-China Switzerland Denmark United Kingdom Liechtenstein Dubai (UAE) Greece Kyrgyzstan Uruguay Argentina Shanghai-China Germany Spain New Zealand Australia Slovak Republic Sweden Brazil Hungary Luxembourg Mexico Thailand Trinidad and Tobago Canada OECD average Chinese Taipei Indonesia Poland Iceland Kazakhstan Panama Romania Czech Republic Japan Tunisia Peru Austria Jordan Bulgaria Norway Albania Azerbaijan Russian Federation Colombia Portugal Chile United States Lithuania Turkey Serbia Montenegro Netherlands Ireland Slovenia Croatia Finland Korea Latvia Estonia Score point difference New York, March Beyond schooling Performance difference between students who had attended preprimary school for more than one year and those who did not Observed performance advantage Performance advantage after accounting for socio-economic factors

35 United States Czech Republic Estonia Germany Switzerland Denmark Canada Norway Sweden Russian Federation4 Austria3 Slovenia Israel Slovak Republic New Zealand Hungary Finland United Kingdom3 Netherlands Luxembourg EU19 average OECD average France Australia Iceland Belgium Poland Ireland Korea Chile2 Greece Italy Spain Turkey Portugal Mexico Brazil2 New York, March A world of change in baseline qualifications Approximated by percentage of persons with high school or equivalent qualfications in the age groups 55-64, 45-55, und years 1990s 1980s 1970s 1960s % Excluding ISCED 3C short programmes 2. Year of reference Including some ISCED 3C short programmes 3. Year of reference 2003.

36 Percent addition to GDP 47 Relationship between test performance and economic outcomes Annual improved GDP from raising performance by 25 PISA points 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

37 United States Japan Germany United Kingdom France Italy Mexico Spain Korea Canada Turkey Australia Poland Netherlands Belgium Sweden Greece Czech Republic Austria Norway Switzerland Portugal Hungary Denmark Finland Ireland New Zealand Slovak Republic Luxembourg Iceland New York, March Increase average performance by 25 PISA points (Total 115 trillion $) bn$ Potential increase in economic output (bn $)

38 49 High science performance Chinese Taipei Estonia Liechtenstein United Kingdom Czech Republic Macao-China Ireland France Iceland United States Norway Portugal Finland 560 Hong Kong-China Canada Japan Australia New Zealand Netherlands Slovenia Korea Switzerland Germany 510 Austria Belgium Hungary Sweden Croatia Poland Denmark Slovak Republic, Spain, Latvia Lithuania Russian Luxembourg Federation Italy Greece Average performance of 15-year-olds in science extrapolate and apply 460 Israel Thailand Montenegro Brazil Turkey Jordan Romania 410 Mexico Indonesia Argentina Colombia Tunisia Azerbaijan 360 Qatar Kyrgyzstan Low science performance

39 United States Mexico Turkey Germany Italy Japan France Spain United Kingdom Poland Canada Greece Korea Australia Portugal Belgium Netherlands Norway Sweden Austria Czech Republic Switzerland Hungary Denmark Ireland Slovak Republic New Zealand Luxembourg Finland Iceland New York, March Raise everyone to minimum of 400 PISA points bn$ Potential increase in economic output (bn $)

40 Mexico Turkey Greece Portugal Italy Luxembourg United States Spain Poland Germany Norway Hungary Slovak Republic Belgium France Denmark Austria Sweden Iceland Switzerland Czech Republic Ireland United Kingdom New Zealand Australia Netherlands Japan Canada Korea Finland 51 Raise everyone to minimum of 400 PISA points % currrent GDP 1200% 1000% 800% 600% 400% 200% 0%

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