Gender difference in performance (15-year-olds)

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1 Score-point difference (boys-girls) Gender difference in performance (15-year-olds) 4 Reading Mathematics Science Boys perform better Girls perform better -4-5 OECD average PISA 12

2 PISA 6 revealed that boys were more likely to outperform girls in tasks that require them to think like a scientist Score -point difference (B-G) Boys perform better than girls Average Lowest performers Highest performers Girls perform better than boys Science Identifying scientific issues Explaining phenomena scientifically Using scientific evidence Source: Figure 1.6

3 Jordan 24 Poland Slovenia 15 Mexico 17 Colombia 17 Chile 16 Portugal 15 Spain 14 Slovak Republic 13 Latvia 15 Chinese Taipei 13 Thailand 18 Italy 13 Russian Federation 12 Turkey 14 Czech Republic 13 Norway 13 Greece 13 Hungary 12 Canada 11 Lithuania 12 Belgium 12 Argentina 12 Estonia 14 France OECD average 11 Ireland 11 Serbia 11 Brazil 11 Croatia Romania 11 Luxembourg United States 9 Australia 9 Uruguay 11 Israel 11 Sweden Japan 9 Austria 9 Switzerland 9 Tunisia Germany 9 Iceland 11 Hong Kong-China 8 Denmark 8 United Kingdom 7 Bulgaria 12 Korea 8 New Zealand 8 Indonesia 9 Finland 6 Macao-China 6 Kyrgyzstan 5 Azerbaijan 5 Netherlands 5 Montenegro 5 In 6 far more boys than girls expected to have a career in engineering or computing % Boys Girls Percentage of all students who expect a career in engineering or computing Source: Figure 4.11

4 Kyrgyzstan 24 Colombia 23 Brazil 22 United States Chile Canada 19 Tunisia Portugal 17 Israel 19 Uruguay 17 France 16 Azerbaijan 16 Indonesia 16 Bulgaria* 18 Thailand 16 Jordan* 19 Iceland 15 Argentina 14 New Zealand 14 Spain 13 Slovenia 13 Ireland 14 Mexico 15 Japan 12 Poland 11 Serbia 12 Denmark 11 OECD average 11 Romania Norway Italy 12 Australia 11 Switzerland 8 Croatia Netherlands 9 Turkey 11 United Kingdom Finland 9 Russian Federation 8 Sweden 8 Montenegro Lithuania 8 Belgium 9 Austria 8 Germany 8 Hong Kong-China* Greece 9 Estonia 6 Luxembourg 8 Macao-China 9 Hungary 7 Slovak Republic 6 Czech Republic 5 Latvia 5 Korea 6 Chinese Taipei* 7 and more girls than boys expected to have a career in health services % Boys Girls Percentage of all students who expect a career in health services Source: Figure 4.12

5 Hungary (28) Portugal (27) Chile (28) Italy (24) Croatia (18) Germany (19) Mexico (21) Hong Kong-China (13) Korea (7) Macao-China () Parents are more likely to expect their sons, rather than their daughters, to enter a STEM career even when boys and girls perform equally well in school Percentage of students whose parents expect that they will work in STEM occupations % Boys Girls Gender gap among boys and girls with similar results in mathematics, reading and science performance STEM stands for science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Source: Figure 5.1 PISA 12

6 Estonia Latvia Italy Slovenia Poland Hungary Czech Republic Austria EU22 average Finland Argentina1 New Zealand Sweden OECD average Lithuania Portugal Netherlands Spain Iceland1 United States Slovak Republic Russian Federation Korea Germany Chile United Kingdom Greece Brazil France Canada1 Australia South Africa1 Norway Costa Rica Mexico Japan Ireland Denmark Switzerland Colombia Turkey Indonesia Luxembourg India1 Women are over-represented among graduates in some fields but are not in others Education Sciences Engineering, manufacturing and construction Health and welfare Number of female graduates for one male graduate Number of male graduates for one female graduate EAG, 16

7 Private costs and benefits for men attaining a tertiary degree Direct costs Foregone earnings Income tax effect Social contribution effect Transfers effect Gross earnings benefits Chile Luxembourg United States Poland Hungary Czech Republic Portugal Slovak Republic Austria OECD average Slovenia EU22 average Japan Netherlands Australia Israel Finland Italy Norway Spain Canada Denmark Estonia New Zealand USD

8 Private costs and benefits for women attaining a tertiary degree Direct costs Foregone earnings Income tax effect Social contribution effect Transfers effect Gross earnings benefits Chile Luxembourg United States Poland Hungary Czech Republic Portugal Slovak Republic Austria OECD average Slovenia EU22 average Japan Netherlands Australia Israel Finland Italy Norway Spain Canada Denmark Estonia New Zealand USD

9 Literacy and numeracy score differences between men and women

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