Paradox of the East Asian Learners

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1 HKPISA Centre Characteristics of East-Asian Learners: What we Learned from the PISA studies Esther S C Ho & W L Kwong HKPISA Center The Chinese University of Hong Kong 5 August 2008 University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC Canada

2 Paradox of the East Asian Learners Learning Outcomes: Cognitive vs Affective Motivation: Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Attribution of Success: Effort vs Ability Concept of learning : Rote vs Depth Concept of teaching :Transmission-teachercenter vs Facilitative student center approach Learners Characteristics : Passive vs Active

3 Basic Design of OECD/PISA Age-based target population (15 year-olds) National samples of 150 schools with 5,000 students Two hours of testing time for each student (In PISA2006, embedded attitudinal measures) Context questionnaires for the students and schools; Parent questionnaire is optional

4 Testing Scope To test students competencies for real-life situations which are not constrained by the common denominator of national curricula. Three Domains + problem solving (2003 only): Mathematics Science Reading (Problem Solving)

5 OECD/PISA Project 2006 Countries participating in the OECD PISA Project 2006: Western Europe Asia/Pacific Rim Eastern Europe Americas & others Austria Australia Bulgaria Argentina Belgium Hong Kong - China Czech Republic Brazil Denmark Indonesia Croatia Canada Finland Japan Estonia Chile France Korea Greece Colombia Germany Macao - China Hungary Israel Iceland New Zealand Jordan Mexico Ireland Chinese Taipei Latvia United States Italy Thailand Lithuania Uruguay Luxembourg Poland Tunisia Netherlands Russian Federation Norway Serbia Montenegro Portugal Slovak Republic Spain Slovenia Sweden Turkey Switzerland United Kingdom

6 Focus of the Analysis East Asian Societies: Hong Kong, Chinese Taipei, Macao, Japan, Korea (Canada and USA as references) Database: PISA2003 and PISA2006 Analysis: (1 ) cognitive and affective outcomes (2) family structure and resources (3) student learning strategies (4) school climate

7 Mean Performance of 15-year-0lds in the Top Ten Countries in PISA 2003 Mathematical Literacy Reading Literacy Scientific Literacy Problem Solving Skills Country Mean S.E. Country Mean S.E. Country Mean S.E. Country Mean S.E. Hong Kong 550 (4.5) Finland 543 (1.6) Finland 548 (1.9) Korea 550 (3.1) Finland 544 (1.9) Korea 534 (3.1) Japan 548 (4.1) Hong Kong 548 (4.2) Korea 542 (3.2) Canada 528 (1.7) Hong Kong 539 (4.3) Finland 548 (1.9) Netherlands 538 (3.1) Australia 525 (2.1) Korea 538 (3.5) Japan 547 (4.1) Liechtenstein 536 (4.1) Liechtenstein 525 (3.6) Liechtenstein 525 (4.3) New Zealand 533 (2.2) Japan 534 (4.0) New Zealand 522 (2.5) Australia 525 (2.1) Macao 532 (2.5) Canada 532 (1.8) Ireland 515 (2.6) Macao 525 (3.0) Australia 530 (2.0) Belgium 529 (2.3) Sweden 514 (2.4) Netherlands 524 (3.1) Liechtenstein 529 (3.9) Macao 527 (2.9) Netherlands 513 (2.9) Czech Republic 523 (3.4) Canada 529 (1.7) Switzerland 527 (3.4) Hong Kong 510 (3.7) New Zealand 521 (2.4) Belgium 525 (2.2)

8 HKPISA Centre Asian Students performance in scientific literacy: cognitive domain (PISA 2006)

9 Scientific Literacy Knowledge and use of that knowledge to identify questions, to acquire new knowledge, to explain scientific phenomena and to draw evidence-based conclusions

10 Framework for PISA 2006 science assessment Context Life situations involving science & technology Competencies Identify scientific issues Explain phenomena scientifically Use scientific evidence Knowledge of science about science Attitude Interest Support for scientific inquiry

11 From framework to assessment units and items Context Stimulus material Competencies Identify scientific issues explain phenomena scientifically by applying scientific knowledge Using scientific evidence to make and communicate decisions 28 Knowledge Knowledge of science Knowledge about science Attitudes Attitudes toward scientific and technological matters 39

12 Performance in PISA 2006 Science Reading Mathematics Mean S.E. Mean S.E. Mean S.E. Finland 563 (2.0) Korea 556 (3.8) Chinese Taipei 549 (4.1) Hong Kong-China 542 (2.5) Finland 547 (2.1) Finland 548 (2.3) Canada 534 (2.0) Hong Kong-China 536 (2.4) Hong Kong-China 547 (2.7) Chinese Taipei 532 (3.6) Canada 527 (2.4) Korea 547 (3.8) Estonia 531 (2.5) New Zealand 521 (3.0) Netherlands 531 (2.6) Japan 531 (3.4) Ireland 517 (3.5) Switzerland 530 (3.2) New Zealand 530 (2.7) Australia 513 (2.1) Canada 527 (2.0) Australia 527 (2.3) Liechtenstein 510 (3.9) Macao-China 525 (1.3) Netherlands 525 (2.7) Poland 508 (2.8) Liechtenstein 525 (4.2) Liechtenstein 522 (4.1) Sweden 507 (3.4) Japan 523 (3.3) Korea 522 (3.4) Netherlands 507 (2.9) New Zealand 522 (2.4) OECD average 500 (0.5) OECD average 492 (0.6) OECD average 498 (0.5) Asian students: strong in mathematics and science

13 Comparing performance on the subscales of scientific literacy Competency Science Identifying scientific Explaining Using scientific Score issues phenomena evidence Finland Hong Kong-China Chinese Taipei Japan Korea Macao-China Canada Source: OECD PISA database 2006, Tables 2.1c, 2.2c, 2.3c, 2.4c, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9 and 2.10 Each scale is 20 or more score points higher than the combined science scale Each scale is between 10 and score points higher than the combined science scale Each scale is between 0 to 9.99 score points higher than the combined science scale Each scale is 20 or more score points lower than the combined science scale Each scale is between 10 and score points lower than the combined science scale Each scale is between 0 to 9.99 score points lower than the combined science scale Chinese students: strong in explaining phenomena scientifically and weak in identifying scientific issues

14 Performance in different competencies of scientific literacy Comparision of Percentage of Correct Answer in Different Competencies of Scientific Literacy between Hong Kong, Canada and the OECD Countries 1. Explaining Phenomena Scientifically 2. Identifying Scientific Issues Using Scientific Evidence Percentage Correct Hong Kong Canada OECD Countries

15 HK students performance in different competencies Relative to their overall performance Overall science Hong Kong=542 Explaining phenomena scientifically (7) Identifying scientific issues (-14) Using scientific evidence (0) Chinese students: Stronger in Explaining phenomena scientifically Weaker in Identifying scientific issues

16 Canadian students performance in different competencies Relative to their overall performance Overall science Canada=534 Explaining phenomena scientifically (-3.6) Identifying scientific issues (-2.6) Using scientific evidence (7.1)

17 Affective Outcomes Self concept and Self Efficacy in Math and Science Self concept and self efficacy of East Asian Societies (PISA2003 & 2006) Hong Macao Japan Korea CANADA USA Kong Self-concept in Math Self-Concept in Science Self-Efficacy in Science Self-efficacy in Math

18 Self concept in Math Self Concept in Mathematics (PISA2003) United States Denmark Canada New Zealand Germany Tunisia Mexico Australia Russian Federation Liechtenstein Sweden Indonesia United Kingdom Greece Switzerland Austria Luxembourg Brazil Iceland Yugoslavia Poland Finland Uruguay Turkey Italy Netherlands Ireland Belgium Slovakia Czech Republic Thailand Latvia Hungary France Norway Spain Portugal Macao (China) Hong Kong (China) Korea Japan CANADA

19 Self-concept in Science Self-concept in Science Colombia Jordan Kyrgyzs tan Thailand Azerbaijan Tunisia Qatar Mexico Montenegro Bulgaria Brazil Uruguay Romania Portugal Israel Canada Argentina Germany Serbia Luxembourg Slovenia United States Chile Indonesia Italy Russian Turkey Slovak Republic Estonia Iceland Switzerland Aus tria Liechtenstein Poland Finland Norway Greece Latvia United Kingdom Sweden Spain Croatia Aus tralia Czech Republic New Zealand Denmark France Macao-China Ireland Belgium Hungary Lithuania Hong Kong- Netherlands Chinese Taipei Korea Japan Self-concept Index HONG KONG CANADA

20 Self-efficacy in Math SRL Mathematics Efficacy across countries in PISA2003 Liechtenstein Slovakia Hungary Czech Switzerland United States Austria Canada Germany Hong Kong Luxembourg Macao Australia Poland Iceland Sweden New Zealand France Uruguay Yugoslavia Spain United Ireland Belgium Italy Norway Portugal Russian Denmark Netherlands Latvia Finland Turkey Mexico Greece Tunisia Indonesia Brazil Korea Thailand Japan CANADA HONG KONG

21 Self-efficacy in Science Poland United States Canada Jordan Portugal United Kingdom Chinese Taipei Czech Republic Croatia Iceland Uruguay Norway Australia Slovak Republic Mexico Colombia Thailand Hong Kong- China Chile Germany Serbia Netherlands Estonia Israel Finland Turkey Ireland Lithuania Russian Federation Latvia New Zealand Montenegro Bulgaria Argentina Brazil France Hungary Sweden Spain Belgium Denmark Qatar Slovenia Macao- China Tunisia Austria Liechtenstein Greece Luxembourg Kyrgyzstan Switzerland Italy Korea Romania Azerbaijan Japan Indonesia Self-efficacy in Science CANADA HONG KONG Self-efficacy index

22 Student Learning Characteristics Educational Aspiration Anxiety in Math Intrinsic motivation (Interest or Enjoyment in Math and Science) Extrinsic motivation (Instrumental)

23 Learners Characteristics (1) Aspiration and Anxiety Table 2. Educational Aspiration and Anxiety of East Asian Societies (PISA2003) Hong Kong Macao Japan Korea CANADA USA Educational Aspiration Anxiety in Math

24 Educational Aspiration Educational Aspiration across countries in PISA2003 Korea Turkey United States Canada Greece Brazil Russian Federation Australia Mexico Japan Thailand Ireland Hong Kong (China) Hungary Macao (China) Finland Italy Czech Republic Yugoslavia Tunisia Slovakia Indonesia New Zealand Spain Iceland Belgium Latvia Sweden France Uruguay Portugal Luxembourg Norway United Kingdom Poland Denmark Austria Netherlands Liechtenstein Switzerland Germany CANADA Relative high educational aspiration across the 4 East Asian Societies

25 Educational Aspiration Educational Aspiration across countries in PISA2003 Korea Turkey United States Canada Greece Brazil Russian Federation Australia Mexico Japan Thailand Ireland Hong Kong (China) Hungary Macao (China) Finland Italy Czech Republic Yugoslavia Tunisia Slovakia Indonesia New Zealand Spain Iceland Belgium Latvia Sweden France Uruguay Portugal Luxembourg Norway United Kingdom Poland Denmark Austria Netherlands Liechtenstein Switzerland Germany CANADA Relative high educational aspiration across the 4 East Asian Societies

26 Anxiety in Math Mathematics anxiety across countries in PISA2003 Tunisia Brazil Thailand Mexico Japan Korea Indonesia France Turkey Uruguay Yugoslavia Spain Macao (China) Hong Kong (China) Italy Greece Portugal Russian Latvia Ireland Belgium Slovakia Poland Hungary Luxembourg Australia United Kingdom Norway Canada Czech Republic United States New Zealand Iceland Switzerland Germany Austria Finland Liechtenstein Netherlands Denmark Sweden HONG KONG CANADA

27 Learners Characteristics (2) Motivation in Math and Science Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation of East Asian Societies (PISA2003 & 2006) Hong Macao Japan Korea CANADA USA Kong Intrinsic Motivation in Math Enjoyment of Science Extrinsic Motivation in Math Instrumental Motivation in Science

28 Intrinsic Motivation in Math Interest in Mathematics across countries in PISA2003 Tunisia Indonesia Thailand Turkey Brazil Mexico Denmark Uruguay Russian Federation Hong Kong (China) Portugal New Zealand Macao (China) Poland Switzerland Greece Liechtenstein Sweden United States France Germany Latvia Slovakia Australia United Kingdom Canada Italy Yugoslavia Ireland Spain Iceland Korea Norway Czech Republic Belgium Finland Netherlands Hungary Luxembourg Austria Japan CANADA HONG KONG

29 Enjoyment of Science Enjoyment of science Tunisia Kyrgyzstan Colombia Jordan Indonesia Azerbaijan Thailand Mexico Romania Turkey Macao-China Bulgaria Brazil Hong Kong- Qatar Portugal Montenegro Chile Lithuania Hungary Canada Chinese France Russian Italy Finland Croatia Uruguay Greece Serbia Argentina Estonia Latvia Norway New Zealand Slovak Belgium Iceland United States Luxembourg Israel Czech Switzerland Denmark Australia United Germany Sweden Slovenia Spain Korea Ireland Austria Liechtenstein Poland Japan Netherlands HONG KONG Enjoyment of science index CANADA

30 Extrinsic Motivation in Math Instrumential Motivation in Mathematics across countries in PISA2003 Mexico Tunisia Thailand Brazil Indonesia Denmark Iceland Uruguay New Zealand Portugal Canada Turkey Australia United States United Kingdom Norway Ireland Finland Latvia Poland Sweden Switzerland Russian Federation Czech Republic Macao (China) Germany Spain Liechtenstein Greece France Slovakia Hungary Hong Kong (China) Yugoslavia Italy Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg Korea Austria Japan -.66 CANADA HONG KONG

31 Instrumental Motivation in Science Instrumental motivation to learn science Kyrgyzstan Tunisia Jordan Indonesia Thailand Colombia Azerbaijan Mexico Qatar Chile Brazil Portugal Montenegro Argentina Romania Macao-China Lithuania Bulgaria Turkey Canada United States Chinese Taipei Russian Uruguay New Zealand United Kingdom Hong Kong-China Poland Ireland Italy Serbia Australia Iceland Greece Slovenia Estonia Spain Croatia Denmark Latvia Sweden Hungary Germany France Luxembourg Norway Slovak Republic Belgium Finland Netherlands Czech Republic Switzerland Korea Liechtenstein Israel Austria Japan CANADA HONG KONG Instrumental motivation index

32 Learning Strategies in Math Class Table 5 Learning Strategies and Learning Environment of East Asian Learners (PISA2003) Hong Macao Japan Korea CANADA USA Kong Memorization strategies Elaboration strategies Competitive learning Co-operative learning

33 Competitive Learning Competitive Learning across countries in PISA2003 Tunisia Turkey Mexico Indonesia United States Brazil Thailand Australia Greece Iceland United Kingdom Canada New Zealand Hong Kong (China) Poland Ireland Slovakia Macao (China) Spain Luxembourg Russian Federation Germany Denmark Sweden Korea Uruguay Portugal Italy Latvia Czech Republic France Yugoslavia Liechtenstein Switzerland Belgium Austria Finland Norway Hungary Netherlands Japan CANADA

34 Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning across countries in PISA2003 Brazil Tunisia Uruguay Turkey Thailand United States Portugal Yugoslavia Slovakia Denmark Greece Liechtenstein Mexico Switzerland New Zealand Canada Macao (China) United Kingdom Poland Australia Indonesia Italy Spain France Norway Germany Austria Hong Kong Czech Republic Belgium Russian Ireland Hungary Netherlands Latvia Finland Luxembourg Sweden Iceland Japan Korea CANADA OECD average=0.00

35 School Climate Table 6. Teaching and Learning Environment of Four East Asian Societies (PISA2003) Hong Kong Macao Japan Korea CANADA USA Disciplinary climate in Math lessons Attitudes towards school Sense of belonging to school NA

36 Disciplinary Climate Disciplinary Climate across countries in PISA2003 Russian Japan Germany Latvia Ireland Austria Liechtenstein Hong Kong (China) Hungary United States Switzerland United Kingdom Korea Poland Indonesia Macao (China) Belgium Mexico Czech Republic Portugal Thailand Canada Spain Uruguay Australia Sweden Tunisia Yugoslavia Turkey Denmark Italy Slovakia Finland France Netherlands Iceland New Zealand Luxembourg Greece Norway Brazil CANADA

37 Sense of Belonging Sample items: I feel like an outsider; I make friends easily; I feel like I belong; I feel lonely School Climate: Sense of Belonging ISRAEL SWEDEN AUSTRIA BRAZIL SWITZERLAND GERMANY LIECHTENSTEIN CHILE ARGENTINA DENMARK NORWAY CANADA UNITED KINGDOM ICELAND IRELAND MEXICO HUNGARY LUXEMBOURG MACEDONIA FINLAND PORTUGAL NETHERLANDS ITALY PISA Average SPAIN NEW ZEALAND GREECE UNITED STATES AUSTRALIA FRANCE PERU INDONESIA BELGIUM BULGARIA RUSSIAN FEDERATION CZECH REPUBLIC THAILAND JAPAN LATVIA ALBANIA KOREA, REPUBLIC OF HONG KONG POLAND CANADA

38 Challenges of East-Asian Schools High participation but low sense of belonging

39 Concluding Remarks (1) Similarities across four East-Asian countries Hong Kong Macao Japan Korea 1. Educational Aspiration 2. Anxiety in Math 3. Self-concept in Math 4. Extrinsic Motivation in Math 5. Disciplinary climate in Math lessons 6. Attitudes towards school 7. Sense of belonging to school 8. Memorisation strategies

40 Concluding Remarks (2) Differences between the Chinese vs non-chinese Societies Hong Kong Macao Japan Korea 1. Self-efficacy in Math 2. Interest in Math 3. Enjoyment of Science 4. Elaboration strategies 5. Competitive learning 6. Co-operative learning

41 Convergences and Divergences of the Characteristics of East Asian Learners High Academic Achievement in Math and Science for all the five East Asian Learners. High Educational Aspiration and also High Testing Anxiety across the East Asian Societies Extremely Low Self-concept for all the East Asian Learners but relatively higher level of Self-efficacy for Chinese Learners Low Extrinsic Motivation across the four East Asian Learners, but relatively higher level of intrinsic motivation for Chinese Learners. Low Memorization across the East Asian Learners, but relatively higher level of Elaboration for Chinese Learners Higher level of Competitive and Cooperative learning in the Chinese Classroom. Orderly Disciplinary Climate but extremely low Sense of Belongings in the East Asian Societies.

42 HKPISA Centre Further information OECD/PISA HKPISA Further Contact THANK YOU!

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