# CS340 Machine learning Lecture 2

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1 CS340 Machine learning Lecture 2

2 What is machine learning? ``Learning denotes changes in the system that are adaptive in the sense that they enable the system to do the task or tasks drawn from the same population more efficiently and more effectively the next time.'' -- Herbert Simon Closely related to Statistics (fitting models to data and testing them) Data mining/ exploratory data analysis (discovering models) Adaptive control theory AI (building intelligent machines by hand)

3 Types of machine learning Supervised Learning Classification (pattern recognition) Regression Unsupervised Learning Reinforcement Learning

4 Classification Example: Credit scoring Differentiating between low-risk and high-risk customers from their income and savings Discriminant: IF income > θ 1 AND savings > θ 2 THEN low-risk ELSE high-risk Input data is two dimensional, output is binary}

5 Classification p features (attributes) Training set: X: n p y: n 1 n cases Color Shape Size Blue Square Small Red Ellipse Small Label Yes Yes Red Ellipse Large No Test set Blue Crescent Small? Yellow Ring Small?

6 Notation Alpaydin book uses x t (d-dimensional) to denote t'th training input, and r t to denote t'th training output (response), for t=1:n Bishop book uses x n (d-dimensional) for n'th input, and t n for n'th output (target), n=1:n Hastie book uses x i (p-dimensional) for i'th covariate, and y i for i'th output, i=1:n We will often omit vector notation x_i Please do not let notation obscure the ideas!

7 Hypothesis (decision tree) yes blue? yes oval? no big? no no yes

8 Decision Tree blue? yes oval?? big? no no yes

9 Decision Tree blue? yes oval?? big? no no yes

10 What's the right hypothesis?

11 What's the right hypothesis? Linearly separable data

14 Noisy/ mislabeled data

15 Overfitting Memorizes irrelevant details of training set

16 Underfitting Ignores essential details of training set

17 Larger data set

18 Now more complex hypothesis is ok

19 No free lunch theorem Unless you know something about the distribution of problems your learning algorithm will encounter, any hypothesis that agrees with all your data is as good as any other. You have to make assumptions about the underlying future. These assumptions are implicit in the choice of hypothesis space (and maybe the algorithm). Hence learning is inductive, not deductive.

20 Supervised learning methods Methods differ in terms of The form of hypothesis space they use The method they use to find the best hypothesis given data There are many successful approaches Neural networks Decision trees Support vector machines (SVMs) Gaussian processes Boosting etc

21 Handwritten digit recognition x t i\ R 16 16, y t i\ {0,...,9}

22 Face Recognition Training examples of a person Test images AT&T Laboratories, Cambridge UK

23 Linear regression Example: Price of a used car x : car attributes y : price y = g (x θ ) g ( ) model, θ = (w,w 0 ) parameters y = wx+w 0 Regression is like classification except the output is a real-valued scalar

24 Polynomial regression Polynomial regression is linear regression with polynomial basis functions

25 Piecewise linear 2D regression Now the basis functions φ(x 1,x 2 ) must be learned from data: how many pieces? where the put them? flat or curved? Much harder problem!

26 Regression Applications Navigating a car: Angle of the steering wheel (CMU NavLab) Kinematics of a robot arm (x,y) α 2 α 1 = g 1 (x,y) α 2 = g 2 (x,y) α 1 Response surface design

27 Supervised Learning: Uses Prediction of future cases: Use the rule to predict the output for future inputs Knowledge extraction: The rule is easy to understand Compression: The rule is simpler than the data it explains Outlier detection: Exceptions that are not covered by the rule, e.g., fraud

28 Unsupervised Learning Learning what normally happens No output Can be formalized in terms of probability density estimation Examples: clustering dimensionality reduction abnormality detection latent variable estimation

29 K-means clustering Desired output Input Hard labeling Soft labeling K=3 is the number of clusters, here chosen by hand

30 Hierarchical agglomerative clustering Greedily build a dendogram

31 Clustering art

32 Principal components analysis (PCA) Project high dimensional data into a linear subspace which captures most of the variance of the data Input Output

33

34

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36 Image denoising with Markov random fields φ Ψ φ Ψ Ψ φ Ψ φ y x Popular in: Computer vision Language modeling Information extraction Sequence prediction Graphics Compatibility with neighbors Local evidence (compatibility with image)

37 People tracking X 1 X 2 X 3 Unknown player location Y 1 Y 3 Y 2 Observed video frames

38 Active learning: asking the right questions

39 Robots that ask questions and learn

40 Reinforcement Learning Learning a policy: A sequence of outputs No supervised output, but delayed reward Credit assignment problem: which action led to me winning the game of chess? This is covered in CS422 (AI II), not in CS340.

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