1 SPEAKING V ADVANCED 1. Overall Level V Structure Objectives (general structure objectives for Level V, see Grammar curriculum for detailed descriptions) 1. infinitives and gerunds 2. modals 3. adverb clauses and reduced forms including conditionals 4. adjective clauses and reduced forms 5. noun clauses 6. passive voice 7. review and integration of tenses and aspect 2. Structure Objectives (specifically targeted structures to be addressed through speaking activities, see Grammar curriculum for detailed descriptions) 1. verb tense and aspect (also taught in R/W class) 3. Vocabulary and Idioms (development of level appropriate active vocabulary, see Level V Speaking Appendix for suggested content areas) 4. Individual Speaking and Presentation Skills (speaking to another student, group of students, or class with no or limited interaction) 1. functions 1. paraphrasing 2. reporting heard and read information 3. reporting gathered information 4. explaining 5. expressing opinion 2. presentation skills (presentations can be done at the instructor's discretion, see Level V Speaking Appendix for an overview of presentation skills) 5. Conversational/ Interactive Speaking (talking with one or more speakers) 1. Information gathering 1. interrupters / apologies Excuse me. I m sorry, but 2. introduction My name is Sonia. I am an ELI student from. 3. permission/ explaining the purpose I m working on a project. 4. posing the question What do you think about the XXX? 5. clarification/restatement of the question and/or answer So you think it s okay? You disagree? 6. thanks/ ending the conversation Thank you very much. I appreciate your time.
2 2. Specific Functions 1. interrupting May I say something here? Yes, well, I want to point out that 2. expressing regret I wish I d never I m sorry I ever I ll never do this again. 3. certainty and uncertainty I m positive that I m sure You can count on it. No doubt! In fact,.. Believe me, I m not so sure. It s hard to believe.. I don t know.. (intonation) I ve never heard of that I wouldn t bet on it 4. possibility and qualification (modals) In that case, I guess If that s true, I d agree. 5. expressing unhappiness or relating bad news I m feeling kind of down. My friend is a little blue lately. I hate to tell you this, but I m afraid that How terrible! I m so sorry! What a shame. 6. complaining I can t stand I m sick and tired of I ve had enough of 7. blaming If he hadn t. I don t want to point the finger, but 8. congratulating Congratulations I'm so happy for you. 3. Conversation management 1. initiate or further conversation 1. connectors How come? Why? I see. How about you? 2. requesting explanation What do you mean when you say? What does X mean? Can you give me an example? How do you spell that? 3. expressing agreement, disagreement My ideas are going in the same direction. I think you re exaggerating the point. 4. correctors Don t you mean Are you sure? I thought 5. clarification with embedded questions You went where? It was how much? 2. turn-taking 1. concept 2. phrases to exchange the turn What do you think? What is your idea? Do you know?
3 5. Conversational/ Interactive Speaking, cont d 3. inappropriate or improper topics 1. age 2. income 3. costs 4. sex 5. on the spot questions that require unwanted revelations 6. questions already purposefully avoided 4. responses to above topics 1. phrases to decline to answer I couldn t really say. I m not sure I remember. That's personal. I'd rather not say. 5. changing the topic Have you heard about XXX? So, how has XXXX been going? 6. closing the conversation Well, I have to go. It s been nice talking to you.. 6. Specific Discussion Skills and Concepts 1. Concepts 1. turn-taking 1. visual cues 2. intonation 3. phrases 2. silence 3. quantity (how much or how little information) 4. quality (accuracy, relevancy) 5. interrupting 6. body language 2. Skills 1. turn-taking 1. asking for input from another 2. ceding the floor 3. gaining the floor 2. agreeing That sounds logical. Makes sense. 3. disagreeing I see it a little differently. 4. new information I read in Time that 5. restating previous ideas So you re saying that 6. referring to previous ideas I think what Pia said was true, that...
4 Getting back to 7. interrupting 8. introducing opinions Wouldn t you think. I was thinking that It seems to me. 6. Discussion Concepts and Skills, cont'd. 5. Gathering a consensus 1. state the problem 2. pros and cons On the one hand, but on the other hand 3. sift the values 4. imposing coherence: summarize problem, order the points and choose support Can we agree that.. It looks like the most important That s fine with me. Are you okay with it if we say that? APPENDIX 2. Vocabulary and Idioms (the following are content areas for which level appropriate vocabulary and idioms may be reviewed and practiced) 1. self and others: work, interests, abilities, plans and goals, feelings, attitudes, expectations 2. intercultural exchange: values, religious beliefs, customs, laws, politics, environment, dating 3. families: relationships, responsibilities, values, concerns, social unit, fulfillment 4. natural surroundings: climatic change and events; man, science and environment; resources 5. communities: governments, politics, leaders, occupations, technology, crime and punishment 6. field-specific technical vocabulary (academic, business) 4. Presentation Skills 1. content constraints 1. time 2. complexity of information 3. personal knowledge 4. audience interest and knowledge 5. resources (multimedia) 2. content form 1. telling (or retelling) a story, with attention to implications 2. paraphrasing and summarizing information from another source
5 3. development and expanded reply to query: examples, definitions, explanations, arguments 4. describing and reasoning out an academic or social situation 4. Presentation Skills, cont'd. 3. organization 1. warm-up/attention-getter (with introduction) 2. background to the problem/theme 3. presentation of the main idea 4. logical flow of information (main idea detail conclusion) 5. use and variety of detail; appropriate choice of appeal 1. rational 1. documented examples 2. statistics 3. demonstration/audiovisual 2. dramatic 1. narrative 2. testimonial 3. demonstration/audiovisual 6. verbal signals of order 1. relation: adverbs, prepositional phrases of time, place 2. coordinators and selected subordinators (see chart) 3. embedding citations and attributions 4. rhetorical questions 7. comprehension checks (variety) 8. visuals and manipulatives (attention-keepers) 9. turning the presentation over to a partner 10. conclusion with a review of major support, final integrative statement 11. allowance for questions 4. vocabulary 1. accuracy 2. appropriateness 3. jargon vs. idiom vs. slang 4. register 5. audience 1. interest check Do you like dance music? 2. knowledge check Do you know R & B? 3. comprehension check Do you understand me? (intonation)
6 4. audience involvement (integration of audience responses to questions, hands-on materials, etc.) 5. register (levels of formality) 6. delivery 1. pronunciation: clarity of discrete sounds, controlling interference, expressive stress, intonation, fillers (um, uh, you see) 2. volume: appropriate for room, context 3. formality of movement, mode (vs. language) 4. Presentation Skills, cont d 6. delivery cont d 4. speed of speech; pacing of presentation 5. spontaneity (vs. notes) 6. eye contact: cultural notes as appropriate 7. body language: cultural notes as appropriate 1. facial expression 2. posture 3. position 4. movement (feet, trunk) 5. gestures 8. control of presentation area (and technological hardware) 9. appearance