# CS 6375 Advanced Machine Learning (Qualifying Exam Section) Nicholas Ruozzi University of Texas at Dallas

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1 CS 6375 Advanced Machine Learning (Qualifying Exam Section) Nicholas Ruozzi University of Texas at Dallas Slides adapted from David Sontag and Vibhav Gogate

2 Course Info. Instructor: Nicholas Ruozzi Office: ECSS Office hours: Tues. 10am-11am TA:? Office hours and location? Course website: 2

3 Prerequisites CS 5343 (algorithms) Mathematical sophistication Basic probability Linear algebra Eigenvalues, eigenvectors, matrices, vectors, etc. Multivariate calculus Derivatives, integration, gradients, Lagrange multipliers, etc. I ll review some concepts as we come to them, but you should brush up in areas that you aren t as comfortable 3

4 Grading 5-6 problem sets (50%) See collaboration policy on the web Mix of theory and programming (in MATLAB or Python) Available and turned in on elearning Approximately one assignment every two weeks Midterm Exam (20%) Final Exam (30%) -subject to change- 4

5 Course Topics Dimensionality reduction PCA Matrix Factorizations Learning Supervised, unsupervised, active, reinforcement, Learning theory: PAC learning, VC dimension SVMs & kernel methods Decision trees, k-nn, Parameter estimation: Bayesian methods, MAP estimation, maximum likelihood estimation, expectation maximization, Clustering: k-means & spectral clustering Graphical models Neural networks Bayesian networks: naïve Bayes Statistical methods Boosting, bagging, bootstrapping Sampling Ranking & Collaborative Filtering 5

6 What is ML? 6

7 What is ML? A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some task T and some performance measure P, if its performance on T, as measured by P, improves with experience E. - Tom Mitchell 7

8 Basic Machine Learning Paradigm Collect data Build a model using training data Use model to make predictions 8

9 Supervised Learning Input: xx (1), yy (1),, (xx (MM), yy (MM) ) xx (mm) is the mm ttt data item and yy (mm) is the mm ttt label Goal: find a function ff such that ff xx (mm) is a good approximation to yy (mm) Can use it to predict yy values for previously unseen xx values 9

10 Examples of Supervised Learning Spam detection Handwritten digit recognition Stock market prediction More? 10

11 Supervised Learning Hypothesis space: set of allowable functions ff: XX YY Goal: find the best element of the hypothesis space How do we measure the quality of ff? 11

12 Types of Learning Supervised The training data includes the desired output Unsupervised The training data does not include the desired output Semi-supervised Some training data comes with the desired output Active learning Semi-supervised learning where the algorithm can ask for the correct outputs for specifically chosen data points Reinforcement learning The learner interacts with the world via allowable actions which change the state of the world and result in rewards The learner attempts to maximize rewards through trial and error 12

13 Regression yy xx 13

14 Regression yy xx Hypothesis class: linear functions ff xx = aaaa + bb How do we measure the quality of the approximation? 14

15 Linear Regression In typical regression applications, measure the fit using a squared loss function LL ff = 1 MM mm ff xx mm yy mm 2 Want to minimize the average loss on the training data For 2-D linear regression, the learning problem is then min aa,bb 1 MM mm aaxx (mm) + bb yy (mm) 2 For an unseen data point, xx, the learning algorithm predicts ff(xx) 15

16 Linear Regression min aa,bb 1 MM mm aaxx (mm) + bb yy (mm) 2 How do we find the optimal aa and bb? 16

17 Linear Regression min aa,bb 1 MM mm aaxx (mm) + bb yy (mm) 2 How do we find the optimal aa and bb? Solution 1: take derivatives and solve (there is a closed form solution!) Solution 2: use gradient descent 17

18 Linear Regression min aa,bb 1 MM mm aaxx (mm) + bb yy (mm) 2 How do we find the optimal aa and bb? Solution 1: take derivatives and solve (there is a closed form solution!) Solution 2: use gradient descent This approach is much more likely to be useful for general loss functions 18

19 Gradient Descent Iterative method to minimize a (convex) differentiable function ff Pick an initial point xx 0 Iterate until convergence xx tt+1 = xx tt γγ tt ff(xx tt ) where γγ tt is the tt ttt step size (sometimes called learning rate) 19

20 Gradient Descent 20 source: Wikipedia

21 Gradient Descent min aa,bb 1 MM mm aaxx (mm) + bb yy (mm) 2 What is the gradient of this function? What does the gradient descent iteration look like for this simple regression problem? 21

22 Linear Regression In higher dimensions, the linear regression problem is essentially the same only xx (mm) R nn min aa R nn,bb 1 MM mm aa TT xx (mm) + bb yy (mm) 2 Can still use gradient descent to minimize this Not much more difficult than the nn = 1 case 22

23 Gradient Descent Gradient descent converges under certain technical conditions on the function ff and the step size γγ tt If ff is convex, then any fixed point of gradient descent must correspond to a global optimum of ff In general, convergence is only guaranteed to a local optimum 23

24 Regression What if we enlarge the hypothesis class? Quadratic functions kk-degree polynomials Can we always learn better with a larger hypothesis class? 24

25 Regression What if we enlarge the hypothesis class? Quadratic functions kk-degree polynomials Can we always learn better with a larger hypothesis class? 25

26 Regression What if we enlarge the hypothesis class? Quadratic functions kk-degree polynomials Can we always learn better with a larger hypothesis class? Larger hypothesis space always decreases the cost function, but this does NOT necessarily mean better predictive performance This phenomenon is known as overfitting Ideally, we would select the simplest hypothesis consistent with the observed data 26

27 Binary Classification Regression operates over a continuous set of outcomes Suppose that we want to learn a function ff: XX {0,1} As an example: xx 11 xx 22 xx 3 yy How do we pick the hypothesis space? How do we find the best ff in this space? 27

28 Binary Classification Regression operates over a continuous set of outcomes Suppose that we want to learn a function ff: XX {0,1} As an example: xx 11 xx 22 xx 3 yy How many functions with three binary inputs and one binary output are there? 28

29 Binary Classification xx 11 xx 22 xx 3 yy 0 0 0? ? 1 0 0? 1 0 1? possible functions 2 4 are consistent with the observations How do we choose the best one? What if the observations are noisy? 29

30 Challenges in ML How to choose the right hypothesis space? Number of factors influence this decision: difficulty of learning over the chosen space, how expressive the space is, How to evaluate the quality of our learned hypothesis? Prefer simpler hypotheses (to prevent overfitting) Want the outcome of learning to generalize to unseen data 30

31 Challenges in ML How do we find the best hypothesis? This can be an NP-hard problem! Need fast, scalable algorithms if they are to be applicable to real-world scenarios 31

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