# Machine Learning for Computer Vision

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1 Computer Group Prof. Daniel Cremers Machine Learning for Computer PD Dr. Rudolph Triebel

2 Lecturers PD Dr. Rudolph Triebel Room number Main lecture MSc. Ioannis John Chiotellis Room number Assistance and exercises 2 Computer Group

3 Topics Covered Introduction (today) Regression Graphical Models (directed and undirected); note: special class on PGM Hidden Markov Models Mixture models and EM Neural Networks and Deep Learning Boosting Kernel Methods Gaussian Processes Sampling Methods Variational Inference and Expectation Propagation Clustering 3 Computer Group

4 Literature Recommended textbook for the lecture: Christopher M. Bishop: Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning More detailed: Gaussian Processes for Machine Learning Rasmussen/Williams Machine Learning - A Probabilistic Perspective Murphy 4 Computer Group

5 The Tutorials Bi-weekly tutorial classes Participation in tutorial classes and submission of solved assignment sheets is totally free The submitted solutions can be corrected and returned In class, you have the opportunity to present your solution Assignments will be theoretical and practical problems 5 Computer Group

6 The Exam No qualification necessary for the final exam Final exam will be oral From a given number of known questions, some will be drawn by chance Usually, from each part a fixed number of questions appears 6 Computer Group

7 Class Webpage Contains the slides and assignments for download Also used for communication, in addition to list Some further material will be developed in class 7 Computer Group

8 Computer Group Prof. Daniel Cremers 1. Introduction to Learning and Probabilistic Reasoning

9 Motivation Suppose a robot stops in front of a door. It has a sensor (e.g. a camera) to measure the state of the door (open or closed). Problem: the sensor may fail. 9 Computer Group

10 Motivation Question: How can we obtain knowledge about the environment from sensors that may return incorrect results? Using Probabilities! 10 Computer Group

11 Basics of Probability Theory Definition 1.1: A sample space of a given experiment. is a set of outcomes Examples: a) Coin toss experiment: b) Distance measurement: Definition 1.2: A random variable is a function that assigns a real number to each element of. Example: Coin toss experiment: Values of random variables are denoted with small letters, e.g.: 11 Computer Group

12 Discrete and Continuous If is countable then is a discrete random variable, else it is a continuous random variable. The probability that takes on a certain value is a real number between 0 and 1. It holds: Discrete case Continuous case 12 Computer Group

13 A Discrete Random Variable Suppose a robot knows that it is in a room, but it does not know in which room. There are 4 possibilities: Kitchen, Office, Bathroom, Living room Then the random variable Room is discrete, because it can take on one of four values. The probabilities are, for example: 13 Computer Group

14 A Continuous Random Variable Suppose a robot travels 5 meters forward from a given start point. Its position is a continuous random variable with a Normal distribution: Shorthand: 14 Computer Group

15 Joint and Conditional Probability The joint probability of two random variables is the probability that the events and occur at the same time: and Shorthand: Definition 1.3: The conditional probability of is defined as: given 15 Computer Group

16 Independency, Sum and Product Rule Definition 1.4: Two random variables and are independent iff: For independent random variables and we have: Furthermore, it holds: Sum Rule Product Rule 16 Computer Group

17 Law of Total Probability Theorem 1.1: For two random variables and it holds: Discrete case Continuous case The process of obtaining from by summing or integrating over all values of is called Marginalisation 17 Computer Group

18 Bayes Rule Theorem 1.2: For two random variables and it holds: Bayes Rule Proof: I. (definition) II. (definition) III. (from II.) 18 Computer Group

19 Bayes Rule: Background Knowledge For it holds: Background knowledge Shorthand: Normalizer 19 Computer Group

20 Computing the Normalizer Bayes rule Total probability can be computed without knowing 20 Computer Group

21 Conditional Independence Definition 1.5: Two random variables and are conditional independent given a third random variable iff: This is equivalent to: and 21 Computer Group

22 Expectation and Covariance Definition 1.6: The expectation of a random variable is defined as: (discrete case) (continuous case) Definition 1.7: The covariance of a random variable is defined as: Cov[X] =E[(X E[X]) 2 ]=E[X 2 ] E[X] 2 22 Computer Group

23 Mathematical Formulation of Our Example We define two binary random variables: open and, where is light on or light off. Our question is: What is? 23 Computer Group

24 Causal vs. Diagnostic Reasoning Searching for reasoning Searching for is called diagnostic is called causal reasoning Often causal knowledge is easier to obtain Bayes rule allows us to use causal knowledge: 24 Computer Group

25 Example with Numbers Assume we have this sensor model: and: Prior prob. then: raises the probability that the door is open 25 Computer Group

26 Combining Evidence Suppose our robot obtains another observation, where the index is the point in time. Question: How can we integrate this new information? Formally, we want to estimate. Using Bayes formula with background knowledge:?? 26 Computer Group

27 Markov Assumption If we know the state of the door at time then the measurement does not give any further information about. Formally: and are conditional independent given. This means: This is called the Markov Assumption. 27 Computer Group

28 Example with Numbers Assume we have a second sensor: Then: (from above) lowers the probability that the door is open 28 Computer Group

29 General Form Measurements: Markov assumption: and are conditionally independent given the state. Recursion 29 Computer Group

30 Example: Sensing and Acting Now the robot senses the door state and acts (it opens or closes the door). 30 Computer Group

31 State Transitions The outcome of an action is modeled as a random variable where in our case means state after closing the door. State transition example: If the door is open, the action close door succeeds in 90% of all cases. 31 Computer Group

32 The Outcome of Actions For a given action we want to know the probability. We do this by integrating over all possible previous states. If the state space is discrete: If the state space is continuous: 32 Computer Group

33 Back to the Example 33 Computer Group

34 Sensor Update and Action Update So far, we learned two different ways to update the system state: Sensor update: Action update: Now we want to combine both: Definition 2.1: Let be a sequence of sensor measurements and actions until time. Then the belief of the current state is defined as 34 Computer Group

35 Graphical Representation We can describe the overall process using a Dynamic Bayes Network: This incorporates the following Markov assumptions: (measurement) (state) 35 Computer Group

36 The Overall Bayes Filter (Bayes) (Markov) (Tot. prob.) (Markov) (Markov) 36 Computer Group

37 The Bayes Filter Algorithm Algorithm Bayes_filter : 1. if is a sensor measurement then for all do for all do 7. else if is an action then 8. for all do 9. return 37 Computer Group

38 Bayes Filter Variants The Bayes filter principle is used in Kalman filters Particle filters Hidden Markov models Dynamic Bayesian networks Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs) 38 Computer Group

39 Summary Probabilistic reasoning is necessary to deal with uncertain information, e.g. sensor measurements Using Bayes rule, we can do diagnostic reasoning based on causal knowledge The outcome of a robot s action can be described by a state transition diagram Probabilistic state estimation can be done recursively using the Bayes filter using a sensor and a motion update A graphical representation for the state estimation problem is the Dynamic Bayes Network 39 Computer Group

40 Computer Group Prof. Daniel Cremers 2. Introduction to Learning

41 Motivation Most objects in the environment can be classified, e.g. with respect to their size, functionality, dynamic properties, etc. Robots need to interact with the objects (move around, manipulate, inspect, etc.) and with humans For all these tasks it is necessary that the robot knows to which class an object belongs Which object is a door? 41 Computer Group

42 Object Classification Applications Two major types of applications: Object detection: For a given test data set find all previously learned objects, e.g. pedestrians Object recognition: Find the particular kind of object as it was learned from the training data, e.g. handwritten character recognition 42 Computer Group

43 Learning A natural way to do object classification is to first learn the categories of the objects and then infer from the learned data a possible class for a new object. The area of machine learning deals with the formulation and investigates methods to do the learning automatically. Nowadays, machine learning algorithms are more and more used in robotics and computer vision 43 Computer Group

44 Mathematical Formulation Suppose we are given a set of objects and a set of object categories (classes). In the learning task we search for a mapping such that similar elements in are mapped to similar elements in. Examples: Object classification: chairs, tables, etc. Optical character recognition Speech recognition Important problem: Measure of similarity! 44 Computer Group

45 Categories of Learning Learning Unsupervised Learning clustering, density estimation Supervised Learning learning from a training data set, inference on the test data Reinforcement Learning no supervision, but a reward function Discriminant Function no prob. formulation, learns a function from objects to labels. Discriminative Model estimates the posterior for each class Generative Model est. the likelihoods and use Bayes rule for the post. 45 Computer Group

46 Categories of Learning Learning Unsupervised Learning clustering, density estimation Supervised Learning learning from a training data set, inference on the test data Reinforcement Learning no supervision, but a reward function Supervised Learning is the main topic of this lecture! Methods used in Computer include: Regression Conditional Random Fields Boosting Support Vector Machines Gaussian Processes Hidden Markov Models 46 Computer Group

47 Categories of Learning Learning Unsupervised Learning clustering, density estimation Supervised Learning learning from a training data set, inference on the test data Reinforcement Learning no supervision, but a reward function Most Unsupervised Learning methods are based on Clustering. Will be handled at the end of this semester 47 Computer Group

48 Categories of Learning Learning Unsupervised Learning clustering, density estimation Supervised Learning learning from a training data set, inference on the test data Reinforcement Learning no supervision, but a reward function Reinforcement Learning requires an action the reward defines the quality of an action mostly used in robotics (e.g. manipulation) can be dangerous, actions need to be tried out not handled in this course 48 Computer Group

49 Generative Model: Example Nearest-neighbor classification: Given: data points Rule: Each new data point is assigned to the class of its nearest neighbor in feature space 1. Training instances in feature space 49 Computer Group

50 Generative Model: Example Nearest-neighbor classification: Given: data points Rule: Each new data point is assigned to the class of its nearest neighbor in feature space 2. Map new data point into feature space 50 Computer Group

51 Generative Model: Example Nearest-neighbor classification: Given: data points Rule: Each new data point is assigned to the class of its nearest neighbor in feature space 3. Compute the distances to the neighbors 51 Computer Group

52 Generative Model: Example Nearest-neighbor classification: Given: data points Rule: Each new data point is assigned to the class of its nearest neighbor in feature space 4. Assign the label of the nearest training instance 52 Computer Group

53 Generative Model: Example Nearest-neighbor classification: General case: K nearest neighbors We consider a sphere around each training instance that has a fixed volume V. K k : Number of points from class k inside sphere N k : Number of all points from class k 53 Computer Group

54 Generative Model: Example Nearest-neighbor classification: General case: K nearest neighbors We consider a sphere around a training / test sample that has a fixed volume V. With this we can estimate: likelihood # points in sphere and likewise: using Bayes rule: # all points uncond. prob. posterior 54 Computer Group

55 Generative Model: Example Nearest-neighbor classification: General case: K nearest neighbors To classify the new data point we compute the posterior for each class k = 1,2, and assign the label that maximizes the posterior (MAP). 55 Computer Group

56 Summary Learning is usually a two-step process consisting in a training and an inference step Learning is useful to extract semantic information, e.g. about the objects in an environment There are three main categories of learning: unsupervised, supervised and reinforcement learning Supervised learning can be split into discriminant function, discriminant model, and generative model learning An example for a generative model is nearest neighbor classification 56 Computer Group

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