# Course 395: Machine Learning Lectures

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1 Course 395: Machine Learning Lectures Lecture 1-2: Concept Learning (M. Pantic) Lecture 3-4: Decision Trees & CBC Intro (M. Pantic) Lecture 5-6: Artificial Neural Networks (THs) Lecture 7-8: Instance Based Learning (M. Pantic) Lecture 9-10: Genetic Algorithms (M. Pantic) Lecture 11-12: Evaluating Hypotheses (THs) Lecture 13-14: Guest Lectures on ML Applications Lecture 15-16: Inductive Logic Programming (S. Muggleton) Lecture 17-18: Inductive Logic Programming (S. Muggleton)

2 Decision Trees & CBC Intro Lecture Overview Problem Representation using a Decision Tree ID3 algorithm The problem of overfitting Research on affective computing, natural HCI, and ambient intelligence Facial expressions and Emotions Overview of the CBC Group forming

3 Problem Representation using a Decision Tree Decision Tree learning is a method for approximating discrete classification functions by means of a tree-based representation A learned Decision Tree classifies a new instance by sorting it down the tree tree node classification OR test of a specific attribute of the instance tree branch possible value for the attribute in question Concept: Good Car size = small, brand = Ferari, model = Enzo, sport = yes, engine = V12, colour = red Volvo no large brand BMW yes SUV no size no mid F12 no small sport yes engine V12 V8 yes no no

4 Problem Representation using a Decision Tree A learned Decision Tree can be represented as a set of if-then rules To read out the rules from a learned Decision Tree tree disjunction ( ) of sub-trees sub-tree conjunction ( ) of constraints on the attribute values Rule: Good Car IF (size = large AND brand = BMW) OR (size = small AND sport = yes AND engine = V12) THEN Good Car = yes ELSE Good Car = no; Volvo no large brand BMW yes SUV no size no mid F12 no small sport yes engine V12 V8 yes no no

5 Decision Tree Learning Algorithm Decision Tree learning algorithms employ top-down greedy search through the space of possible solutions. A general Decision Tree learning algorithm: 1. perform a statistical test of each attribute to determine how well it classifies the training examples when considered alone; 2. select the attribute that performs best and use it as the root of the tree; 3. to decide the descendant node down each branch of the root (parent node), sort the training examples according to the value related to the current branch and repeat the process described in steps 1 and 2. ID3 algorithm is one of the most commonly used Decision Tree learning algorithms and it applies this general approach to learning the decision tree.

6 ID3 Algorithm ID3 algorithm uses so-called Information Gain to determine how informative an attribute is (i.e., how well it alone classifies the training examples). Information Gain is based on a measure that we call Entropy, which characterizes the impurity of a collection of examples S (i.e., impurity E(S) ): E(S) abs( p log2 p p log2 p ), where p (p ) is the proportion of positive (negative) examples in S. (Note: E(S) = 0 if S contains only positive or only negative examples p = 1, p = 0, E(S) = abs( log2 p ) = 0) (Note: E(S) = 1 if S contains equal amount of positive and negative examples p = ½, p = ½, E(S) = abs( ½ 1 ½ 1) = 1) In the case that that the target attribute can take n values: E(S) i abs( pi log2 pi), i = [1..n] where pi is the proportion of examples in S having the target attribute value i.

7 ID3 Algorithm Information Gain is based on a measure that we call Entropy, which characterizes the impurity of a collection of examples S (impurity E(S) ): E(S) abs( p log2 p p log2 p ), where p (p ) is the proportion of positive (negative) examples in S. (Note: E(S) = 0 if S contains only positive or only negative examples p = 1, p = 0, E(S) = abs( log2 p ) = 0) (Note: E(S) = 1 if S contains equal amount of positive and negative examples p = ½, p = ½, E(S) = abs( ½ 1 ½ 1) = 1) In the case that that the target attribute can take n values: E(S) i abs( pi log2 pi), i = [1..n] where pi is the proportion of examples in S having the target attribute value i. Information Gain Reduction in E(S) caused by partitioning S according to attribute A IG(S, A) = E(S) v values(a) ( Sv / S ) E(Sv) where values(a) are all possible values for attribute A, Sv S contains all examples for which attribute A has the value v, and Sv is the cardinality of set Sv.

8 ID3 Algorithm Example For each attribute A of the training examples in set S calculate: IG(S, A) = E(S) v values(a) ( Sv / S ) E(Sv), E(Sv) v abs( pv log2 pv), v = [1..n]. Select the attribute with the maximal IG(S, A) and use it as the root of the tree. To decide the descendant node down each branch of the root (i.e., parent node), sort the training examples according to the value related to the current branch and repeat the process described in steps 1 and 2. Target concept: Play Tennis (Mitchell s book, p. 59) PlayTennis(d) outlook temperature humidity wind 1 0 sunny hot high weak 2 0 sunny hot high strong 13 1 overcast hot normal weak 14 0 rain mild high strong IG(D, Outlook) = E(D) 5/14 E(Dsunny) 4/14 E(Dovercast) 5/14 E(Drain)

9 ID3 Algorithm Example PlayTennis(d) outlook temperature humidity wind 1 0 sunny hot high weak 2 0 sunny hot high strong 3 1 overcast hot high weak 4 1 rain mild high weak 5 1 rain cool normal weak 6 0 rain cool normal strong 7 1 overcast cool normal strong 8 0 sunny mild high weak 9 1 sunny cool normal weak 10 1 rain mild normal weak 11 1 sunny mild normal strong 12 1 overcast mild high strong 13 1 overcast hot normal weak 14 0 rain mild high strong

10 ID3 Algorithm Example For each attribute A of the training examples in set S calculate: IG(S, A) = E(S) v values(a) ( Sv / S ) E(Sv), E(Sv) v abs( pv log2 pv), v = [1..n]. Select the attribute with the maximal IG(S, A) and use it as the root of the tree. To decide the descendant node down each branch of the root (i.e., parent node), sort the training examples according to the value related to the current branch and repeat the process described in steps 1 and 2. Target concept: Play Tennis (Mitchell s book, p. 59) PlayTennis(d) outlook temperature humidity wind IG(D, Outlook) = E(D) 5/14 E(Dsunny) 4/14 E(Dovercast) 5/14 E(Drain) = = IG(D, Temperature) = E(D) 4/14 E(Dhot) 6/14 E(Dmild) 4/14 E(Dcool) = = IG(D, Humidity) = E(D) 7/14 E(Dhigh) 7/14 E(Dnormal) = ½ ½ 0.591= IG(D, Wind) = E(D) 8/14 E(Dweak) 6/14 E(Dstrong) = = 0.048

11 ID3 Algorithm Example For each attribute A of the training examples in set S calculate: IG(S, A) = E(S) v values(a) ( Sv / S ) E(Sv), E(Sv) v abs( pv log2 pv), v = [1..n]. Select the attribute with the maximal IG(S, A) and use it as the root of the tree. To decide the descendant node down each branch of the root (i.e., parent node), sort the training examples according to the value related to the current branch and repeat the process described in steps 1 and 2. Target concept: Play Tennis (Mitchell s book, p. 59) PlayTennis(d) outlook temperature humidity wind sunny outlook overcast yes rain

12 ID3 Algorithm Example PlayTennis(d) outlook temperature humidity wind 1 0 sunny hot high weak 2 0 sunny hot high strong 3 1 overcast hot high weak 4 1 rain mild high weak 5 1 rain cool normal weak 6 0 rain cool normal strong 7 1 overcast cool normal strong 8 0 sunny mild high weak 9 1 sunny cool normal weak 10 1 rain mild normal weak 11 1 sunny mild normal strong 12 1 overcast mild high strong 13 1 overcast hot normal weak 14 0 rain mild high strong

13 ID3 Algorithm Example For each attribute A of the training examples in set S calculate: IG(S, A) = E(S) v values(a) ( Sv / S ) E(Sv), E(Sv) v abs( pv log2 pv), v = [1..n]. Select the attribute with the maximal IG(S, A) and use it as the root of the tree. To decide the descendant node down each branch of the root (i.e., parent node), sort the training examples according to the value related to the current branch and repeat the process described in steps 1 and 2. Target concept: Play Tennis (Mitchell s book, p. 59) PlayTennis(d) outlook temperature humidity wind D1 = {d D Outlook (d) = sunny} sunny temperature / humidity / wind outlook yes overcast rain temperature / humidity / wind D2 = {d D Outlook (d) = rain}

14 ID3 Algorithm Example PlayTennis(d) outlook temperature humidity wind 1 0 sunny hot high weak 2 0 sunny hot high strong 8 0 sunny mild high weak 9 1 sunny cool normal weak 11 1 sunny mild normal strong 4 1 rain mild high weak 5 1 rain cool normal weak 6 0 rain cool normal strong 10 1 rain mild normal weak 14 0 rain mild high strong 3 1 overcast hot high weak 7 1 overcast cool normal strong 12 1 overcast mild high strong 13 1 overcast hot normal weak D1 D2

15 ID3 Algorithm Example PlayTennis(d) outlook temperature humidity wind 1 0 sunny hot high weak 2 0 sunny hot high strong 8 0 sunny mild high weak 9 1 sunny cool normal weak 11 1 sunny mild normal strong D1 E(D1) = abs ( 2/5 log2 2/5 3/5 log2 3/5) = IG(D1, Temperature) = E(D1) 2/5 E(D1hot) 2/5 E(D1mild) 1/5 E(D1cool) = = IG(D1, Humidity) = E(D1) 3/5 E(D1high) 2/5 E(D1normal) = = IG(D1, Wind) = E(D1) 3/5 E(D1weak) 2/5 E(D1strong) = = 0.02

16 ID3 Algorithm Example PlayTennis(d) outlook temperature humidity wind 1 0 sunny hot high weak 2 0 sunny hot high strong 8 0 sunny mild high weak 9 1 sunny cool normal weak 11 1 sunny mild normal strong D1 sunny humidity normal high outlook yes overcast rain temperature / humidity/ wind yes no

17 ID3 Algorithm Example PlayTennis(d) outlook temperature humidity wind 4 1 rain mild high weak 5 1 rain cool normal weak 6 0 rain cool normal strong 10 1 rain mild normal weak 14 0 rain mild high strong D2 E(D2) = abs ( 3/5 log2 3/5 2/5 log2 2/5) = IG(D2, Temperature) = E(D2) 0/5 E(D2hot) 3/5 E(D2mild) 2/5 E(D2cool) = = 0.02 IG(D2, Humidity) = E(D2) 2/5 E(D2high) 3/5 E(D2normal) = = 0.02 IG(D2, Wind) = E(D2) 3/5 E(D2weak) 2/5 E(D2strong) = = 0.971

18 ID3 Algorithm Example PlayTennis(d) outlook temperature humidity wind 4 1 rain mild high weak 5 1 rain cool normal weak 6 0 rain cool normal strong 10 1 rain mild normal weak 14 0 rain mild high strong D2 sunny humidity outlook yes overcast rain wind normal high weak strong yes no yes no

19 ID3 Algorithm Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages of ID3 algorithm: 1. Every discrete classification function can be represented by a decision tree it cannot happen that ID3 will search an incomplete hypothesis space. 2. Instead of making decisions based on individual training examples (as is the case by Find-S and Candidate-Elimination algorithms), ID3 uses statistical properties of all examples (information gain) resulting search is much less sensitive to errors in individual training examples. Disadvantages of ID3 algorithm: 1. ID3 determines a single hypothesis, not a space of consistent hypotheses (as is the case by Candidate-Elimination algorithm) ID3 cannot determine how many different decision trees are consistent with the available training data. 2. ID3 grows the tree to perfectly classify the training examples without performing a backtracking in its search ID3 may overfit the training data and converge to locally optimal solution that is not globally optimal.

20 The Problem of Overfitting Def (Mitchell 1997): Given a hypothesis space H, h H overfits the training data if h H such that h has smaller error over the training examples, but h has smaller error than h over the entire distribution of instances. performance of h H on testing data performance of h H on training data

21 The Problem of Overfitting Ways to avoid overfitting: 1. Stop the training process before the learner reaches the point where it perfectly classifies the training data. 2. Apply backtracking in the search for the optimal hypothesis. In the case of Decision Tree Learning, backtracking process is referred to as post-pruning of the overfitted tree. Ways to determine the correctness of the learner s performance: 1. Use two different sets of examples: training set and validation set. 2. Use all examples for training, but apply a statistical test to estimate whether a further training will produce a statistically significant improvement of the learner s performance. In the case of Decision Tree Learning, the statistical test should estimate whether expanding / pruning a particular node will result in a statistically significant improvement of the performance. 3. Combine 1. and 2.

22 Decision Tree Learning Exam Questions Tom Mitchell s book chapter 3 Relevant exercises from chapter 3: 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4

23 Decision Trees & CBC Intro Lecture Overview Problem Representation using a Decision Tree ID3 algorithm The problem of overfitting Research on affective computing, natural HCI, and ambient intelligence Facial expressions and Emotions Overview of the CBC Group forming

24 Importance of Computing Technology

25 Current Human-Computer Interfaces

26 Current Human-Computer Interfaces

27 Current Human-Computer Interfaces Human-Human Interaction: Human-Computer Interaction: keyboard mouse touch screen joystick Direct manipulation Simultaneous employment of sight, sound and touch Current HCI-designs are singlemodal and context-insensitive

28 Future Human-Computer Interfaces Visual processing Who the user is? What his/her task is? How he/she feels? Audio processing Context-sensitive interpretation Context-sensitive responding Tactile processing

29 Face for Interfaces

30 Automatic Facial Expression Analysis

31 Automatic Facial Expression Analysis Anger Surprise Sadness Disgust Fear Happiness

32 Facial Muscle Actions (Action Units - AUs)

33 CBC Emotion Recognition Anger Surprise Sadness Disgust Fear Happiness Prototypic facial expressions of the six basic emotions were introduced by Charles Darwin (1872) and elaborated by Ekman These prototypic facial expressions can be described in terms of AUs (e.g., surprise AU1 + AU2 + AU5 + AU26 / AU27)

34 CBC Emotion Recognition V: AUs basic-emotions V : a1,, a45 [1..6] learning algorithms: decision trees (ID3) Neural Networks Case-based Reasoning evaluating developed systems: t-test ANOVA test

35 Decision Trees & CBC Intro Lecture Overview Problem Representation using a Decision Tree ID3 algorithm The problem of overfitting Research on affective computing, natural HCI, and ambient intelligence Facial expressions and Emotions Overview of the CBC Group forming

36 CBC - Goal Hands-on experience in implementing and testing basic machine learning techniques Work with other team members Both your group and individual effort/performance are graded! CBC = Computer-Based Coursework

37 Group Forming Students will be divided in groups of 4 students Simply fill in the excel form with the following information (for each group member): -Student login, , First Name, Last Name, Course You can find the excel form on Section: Group Forming the excel form by Tuesday 16 th October If you cannot form a team with 4 members then just us the above information and we will assign you to a team.

38 Tutorial Helpers A Tutorial Helper (TH) will be assigned to each group - Akshay Astana - Bihan Jiang - Ioannis Marras - Brais Martinez - Mihalis Nicolaou AA BJ IM BM - Antonis Oikonomopoulos - Javier Orozco - Ioannis Panagakis - Stavros Petridis - Ognjen Rudovic MN AO JO IP - Yijia Sun SP OR YS

39 Communication Via the website: - CBC Manual - Provided Matlab files, datasets - Tutorials Via ALWAYS put your group number in the subject line

40 CBC Organisation Each group must hand in a report of 2-3 pages (excluding figures) per assignment, including discussion on implementation and answers to questions posed in the manual. ONE report per group Each group must hand in the code they implemented for each assignment. Hand in the code and the reports via CATE.

41 CBC Assignment hand in Hand in via CATE One group leader per group Each and every group member individually has to confirm that s(he) is part of that particular group, for each and every assignment submission (under the pre-determined group leader) before each assignment submission deadline.

42 CBC Organisation The THs will test the implemented algorithms using a separate test set (not available to the students). Each group will have an interview of 15-20min with two THs after the completion of each assignment. ALL members must be present.

43 Lab Schedule Assisted Labs (THs present to answer questions), starting on October 16 th continuing until December 14th Every Tuesday 12:00-13:00 - lab 219 Every Wednesday 11:00-13:00 - lab 219

44 Deadlines Assignment 1: optional (no hand in required) Assignment 2: November 1 st (Thursday) Assignment 3: November 20 th (Tuesday) Assignment 4: November 30 th (Friday) Assignment 5: December 6 th (Thursday)

45 Late Submissions -20% up to 12h -40% up to 24h -75% up to 36h -100% >36h

46 Interviews Week 6 (Nov 5 9) Assignment 2 Tuesday 6/11, Wednesday 7/11 Week 9 (Nov 26 Nov 30) Assignment 3 Tuesday 27/11, Wednesday 28/11 Week 11 (Dec 10 14) Assignments 4, 5 Tuesday 11/12, Wednesday 12/12 Some interviews may be held outside lab hours. You will receive your interviews timetable soon.

47 CBC Grading Grading will be done exclusively by the lecturer, taking into account the THs recommendations. Every group member is expected to have sufficient contribution to the implementation of every assignment. Personal contribution will be evaluated during the interviews after each assignment. Plagiarism is not allowed! Involved groups will be instantly eliminated.

48 Assignment Grading Report Content 65% Code 25% Report Quality 10% Group_grade = 0.65*report_content *code + 0.1*report_quality

52 CBC Tools Training data and useful functions are provided via the course website in a separate.rar file. Implementation in MATLAB MATLAB basics (matrices, vectors, functions, input/output) (Assignments 2,4,5) ANN Toolbox (Assignment 3) Students are strongly advised to use the MATLAB help files!

53 Assignment 1 : MATLAB Exercises Optional (no hand in required) A brief introduction to some basic concepts of MATLAB (that are needed in Assignments 2-5) without assessing students' acquisition, application and integration of this basic knowledge. The students, are strongly encouraged to go through all the material, experiment with various functions, and use the MATLAB help files extensively (accessible via the main MATLAB window).

54 Assignments 2-4 : Overview Classification Problem - Inputs: x (AU vectors) - Desired Output: y (Emotion label) Use x and y to train your learning algorithms to discriminate between the 6 classes (emotions) Evaluate your algorithms using 10-fold cross validation Write a function y pred = testlearner(t, x), which takes your trained learners T and the features x and produces a vector of label predictions y pred

55 Training Validation Test Sets Training Set: Used to train the classifiers Validation Set: Used to optimise the parameters of the classifiers - e.g. number of hidden neurons in neural networks Test Set: Used to measure the performance of the classifier

56 N-fold Cross validation Total error estimate: Initial dataset is partitioned in N folds Training + Validation set: N - 1 folds, Test set: 1 fold This process is repeated N times N error estimates Final error: Average of the N error estimates

57 Assignment 2 : Decision Trees Implement and train a decision tree learning algorithm Evaluate your trees using 10-fold cross validation Write a function y pred = testtrees(t, x), which takes your trained trees T and the features x and produces a vector of label predictions y pred Theoretical / Implementation questions

58 Assignment 3 : Artificial Neural Networks Use the Neural Networks toolbox (MATLAB built-in) to train your networks Evaluate your networks using 10-fold cross validation Write a function: y pred = testann(n, x), which takes your trained networks N and produces a vector of label predictions y pred. Theoretical / Implementation questions

59 Assignment 4 : Case Based Reasoning Implement and train CBR system Evaluate your system using 10-fold cross validation Theoretical / Implementation questions

60 Assignment 5 : T-test Evaluate if the performance of the algorithms implemented so far differ significantly. Use the results that were previously obtained from cross validation! Both clean and noisy data will be used.

61 Decision Trees & CBC Intro Lecture Overview Problem Representation using a Decision Tree ID3 algorithm The problem of overfitting Research on affective computing, natural HCI, and ambient intelligence Facial expressions and Emotions Overview of the CBC Group forming

62 Group Forming Students will be divided in groups of 4 students Simply fill in the excel form with the following information (for each group member): -Student login, , First Name, Last Name, Course You can find the excel form on Section: Group Forming the excel form by Tuesday 16 th October If you cannot form a team with 4 members then just us the above information and we will assign you to a team.

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