Grade 8 Unit 10 Standards-Based Worksheet

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1 Grade 8 Unit 10 Standards-Based Worksheet D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a P u b l i c S c h o o l s S o c i a l S t u d i e s STANDARD Identify the various leaders of the abolitionist movement (e.g., John Quincy Adams, his proposed constitutional amendment and the Amistad case; John Brown and the armed resistance; Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad; Theodore Weld, crusader for freedom; William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator; Frederick Douglass and the Slave Narratives; Martin Delany and The Emigration Cause; and Sojourner Truth and Ain t I A Woman ). (P) Concepts: leaders of the abolitionist movement John Quincy Adams and his proposed constitutional amendment and the Amistad case John Brown and the armed resistance Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad Theodore Weld William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator Frederick Douglass and the Slave Narratives Martin Delany and The Emigration Cause Sojourner Truth and Ain t I a Woman Skills: identify Big Ideas: There were many leaders of the abolitionist movement Northerners, Southerners; men and women; free and enslaved. Abolitionists had different approaches in their work, despite working toward the same goal to eradicate slavery. The fight for abolition took time and was not an achievement that occurred overnight. Essential Questions: Who were the key leaders in the abolitionist movement and how did they become leaders? What were some of the approaches used by abolitionists to aid their cause and how did they work (or not)? What were the outcomes of the efforts of abolitionists? How were the lives of these key leaders adversely effected through their dedication to eradicate slavery? What were some common elements between and among the various abolitionist leaders? Differences?

2 Engaging Scenario: You are an artist and have been asked to design a mural of the abolitionist movement. Include three of the following people in your mural: John Quincy Adams, John Brown, Harriet Tubman, Theodore Weld, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, Martin Delany and/or Sojourner Truth. You must include a symbol for each person and a different, but meaningful, word for each person. Your mural must also have a reference key on it that describes who you depicted, the word and symbol you chose, and how they contributed to the abolitionist movement. PERFORMANCE TASKS Students read about the abolitionist movement, and summarize what motivated abolitionists and what opposition they faced. THINKING SKILLS ( )* read PERFORMANCE TASK ASSESSMENT (PROFICIENT CRITERIA) Students summarize at least three key points of information either verbally or in writing. summarize Students identify the key figures of the abolitionist movement by looking at primary sources related to each abolitionist. After making three selections, students complete a graphic organizer classifying the people they chose, where they were located, when they were active, and what they accomplished. Students then research and summarize the contributions of their selected individuals. Students draw a symbol they believe represents each of their selected abolitionists and what he/she did specifically. Students present their symbols and explanations of those symbols to the class. identify classify (analysis) research (comprehension) summarize Graphic organizers contain three selections of key figures and mostly places said individuals properly including at least two accomplishments for each. Students present three symbols (one for each abolitionist selected) and orally share in class why each symbol was chosen. The drawings show that time and thought was taken in choosing the symbols and in drawing them. draw/sketch (application)

3 Students create a mural of the abolitionist movement using the three symbols they designed that represent each of the individuals chosen in Task #2. Students must include a reference key which summarizes the mural and its contents. create (synthesis) summarize (evaluation) Murals are attractive and words and symbols plausibly summarize the main ideas/contributions of selected abolitionists. Reference keys are well written, free of grammatical errors, accurate, and adequately explain the significance of words and symbols. *See Bloom s Taxonomy of Thinking Skills to determine higher order thinking skills () or lower order thinking skills (). The goal is to create tasks that employ higher order thinking skills. Standard Assessment: 1) The purpose of the Underground Railroad was to: a. make transportation to the western frontier easier. b. take Native Americans to reservations in the West. c. provide an escape route for slaves fleeing their masters. d. provide a way for European immigrants to move to the Midwest. (NAEP Social Studies: 8th Grade, US History Exam (8H7) 2006: Question 8) 2) Sojourner Truth said these words in 1852; I hears talk about the constitution and rights of man. I come up and I takes hold of this constitution. It looks mighty big. And I feels for my rights, but they not there. What did Sojourner Truth want to communicate with her words? a. Poor people did not know what was written in the Constitution. b. African Americans were not allowed to read the Constitution. c. The Constitution did not talk about the rights of African Americans. d. The Constitution needed to talk about the rights of Native Americans. (NAEP Social Studies: 8th Grade, US History Exam (8H7) 2006: Question 5) 3) Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, Nat Turner, and Joseph Cinque were all: a. soldiers in the American Revolution. b. merchants who were involved in the triangular trade. c. authors who described slave conditions. d. leaders of slave rebellions. (NAEP Social Studies: 8th Grade, US History Exam (8H9) 2006: Question 8) 4) Essay: In a well written five paragraph essay, compare and contrast the different approaches abolitionists used.

4 Resources: Textbook Materials: American History: Beginnings through McDougal-Littell, 2007; Chapter 15. Supplementary Materials: The American Nation, Chapter 13.2, pages (Textbook resources related to the abolitionist movement.) The American Nation, Source Readings, The Fires of Jubilee, pp and Education of a Slave, pages (Primary source documents related to the abolitionist movement.) A History of U.S. by Joy Hakim, Book 5, pages (Book featuring primary sources, interactive dialogue, and probing questions to help the reader engage with the history of abolitionist movement.) (A wealth of documents that can be easily printed and used in the classroom, particularly for primary source discussion.) (This website has links to more than 50 abolitionist biographies and primary sources. It is very useful as a background for teachers or as material to use in the classroom for individual research.)

5 Grade 8 Unit 10 Standards-Based Worksheet D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a P u b l i c S c h o o l s S o c i a l S t u d i e s STANDARD Describe the importance of the slavery issue as raised by the annexation of Texas and California s admission to the Union as a free state under the Compromise of (P, S) Concepts: slavery annexation of Texas California s admission to the Union as a free state Compromise of 1850 Skills: describe Big Ideas: The issue of slavery grew increasingly contentious as more states were added to the Union. The balance of free and slave states was monitored closely by United States citizens and Congressmen. The Compromise of 1850 attempted to put a band-aid on the growing tensions between abolitionists and slavery supporters. Essential Questions: What impact did the annexation of Texas have on the United States in regards to slavery? What impact did the admission of California as a free state to the Union have on the United States in regards to the issue of slavery? Why did people care if there were more free or slave states in the Union? Where did government stand on the issue? What was the Compromise of 1850? Why was it so significant? Engaging Scenario: You are a United States Congressman in You must debate the issue of slavery in the territories and in the country. You will be assigned a role as a northern abolitionist Congressman, southern Congressman, a Congressman from the newly annexed Texas and newly admitted California, or a representative from the western territories (which are not yet states). You must research what YOUR constituents would like from the Compromise of 1850, and then advocate that position.

6 PERFORMANCE TASKS Students read about how Texas was annexed to the United States (Mexican War and Mexican Cession) and what caused California to be eligible for admission to the United States (gold rush). Students prepare a brief summary to exhibit an understanding of what caused both events. Students identify and label a blank map to show what the United States looked like in Students identify: 1. The geographic split in the country between the free and slave states. 2. Compare the changes between 1850 and 1820, the time when the Missouri Compromise was created. Students hypothesize what would happen if various territories were added as either free or slave states. Students read about the Compromise of 1850 and what it encompassed. Students then complete a graphic organizer that depicts the particular points of the Compromise, the impact, and where it affected people the most. Students are assigned their congressional role and write three paragraphs on the reaction based on that assignment (Northern, Southern, Western, Texan or Californian perspective). THINKING SKILLS ( )* read summarize identify compare (analysis) hypothesize (synthesis) read organize (application) write (synthesis) PERFORMANCE TASK ASSESSMENT (PROFICIENT CRITERIA) Students share orally or through a short written quiz what they read and summarize the key points of this information. The map is mostly correct in its completion. Students list at least three comparisons and three contrasts between the maps of 1850 and 1820, based on prior knowledge and current information. Students provide reasonable answers to the significance of territories being added to the United States. Graphic organizers include at least three particular points of the Compromise of 1850 and at least two points each on its impact and where it affected people the most. Paragraphs are historically accurate, convey appropriate emotions, and correctly identify the benefits and drawbacks of the Compromise of 1850 as based on geography.

7 Mock Congress: Based on the previous task a mock congressional session is held in which students must articulate arguments for or against the Compromise of 1850, as well as specific aspects of the wider slavery debate in America. debate/argue (evaluation) Student arguments are articulate, persuasive, and show a logical progression. Students are active participants in the debate. *See Bloom s Taxonomy of Thinking Skills to determine higher order thinking skills () or lower order thinking skills (). The goal is to create tasks that employ higher order thinking skills. Standard Assessment: 1) On the map below, the shaded area shows: a. free states b. slave states c. eastern states d. northern states (NAEP Social Studies: 8th Grade, US History Exam (8H8) 2006: Question 9) 2) Essay: Why was the Compromise of 1850 so controversial? Resources: Textbook Materials: American History: Beginnings to McDougal-Littell, 2007; Chapter 15.

8 Supplementary Materials: A History of U.S. by Joy Hakim, Book 5, pages (Book featuring primary sources, interactive dialogue, and probing questions to help the reader engage with history of slavery and the annexation of Texas.) A History of U.S. by Joy Hakim, Book 5, pages (Book featuring primary sources, interactive dialogue, and probing questions to help the reader engage with history of slavery and the admission of California as a free state to the Union.) A History of U.S. by Joy Hakim, Book 5, pages (Compromise of 1850) (Book featuring primary sources, interactive dialogue, and probing questions to help the reader engage with history of slavery and the compromise of 1850.) (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which eventually led to the admission of California as a free state.) (Summary of Compromise of 1850.) (Online exhibit of original speeches by John C. Calhoun and Daniel Webster opposing and supporting the Compromise of From the Library of Congress.)

9 Grade 8 Unit 10 Standards-Based Worksheet D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a P u b l i c S c h o o l s S o c i a l S t u d i e s STANDARD Identify the conditions of enslavement, and explain how slaves adapted and resisted in their daily lives. Concepts: conditions of enslavement slaves Skills: identify explain Big Ideas: Enslaved people were denied basic human rights. The specific conditions of slavery varied by region, state and slave owner. Slaves adopted both direct and indirect forms of resistance against their enslavement. Essential Questions: What were the conditions of slavery like in the United States? What were some documented examples? How did enslaved people resist the conditions of slavery in their own lives? How did enslaved people adapt (or not) to their situation? How did this adversely affect their culture? Engaging Scenario: You have been asked to create the narration for a documentary movie about slavery. You must use primary sources (documents, music, and excerpts) to explain the conditions of slave life, and express how slaves were forced to adapt and/or resist. The narration should highlight the daily difficulties encountered by enslaved people and the mental and physical strength they were forced to embody and came to rely on for mere survival. PERFORMANCE TASKS Students complete a K-W-L chart about slavery in the United States. THINKING SKILLS ( )* list PERFORMANCE TASK ASSESSMENT (PROFICIENT CRITERIA) Students must complete a minimum of three points under the K and W columns of the graphic organizer at the start of the unit.

10 Students read about the conditions of slavery through primary sources, such as narratives and slave codes (including Frederick Douglass early years as a slave, Henry Box Brown, laws that governed against freedoms of enslaved people). Students then summarize the different experiences that enslaved people endured. Students write a letter to one of the people they read about in the previous activity. Students speculate how they feel about his/her particular story and the emotions his/her story evokes for them. Students listen to songs sung by enslaved people in the field. Students complete a graphic organizer including emotions evoked, key words to the song, and then share how the song makes them feel today. Students complete a summary paragraph discussing the power of the songs as a tool of resistance and as a means of strength. Students research one person in the slave narrative anthology and write a one minute vignette about the person and their experiences as a slave. Students present their selection, in first-person character, to the rest of the class, concluding with a response to this person s life. Students create a two-page narration which explains the conditions of slavery and ways that slaves adapted to and resisted slavery. Narration should refer to at least three specific primary source documents. read summarize (comprehension) write/speculate (synthesis) organize (application) summarize (evaluation) read write (synthesis) create (synthesis) Students summarize at least three key points from the information they read either verbally or in writing. Student letters are historically accurate, show a distinct point of view, and present a clear emotional reaction. Letters are written with a clear progression (introduction, body, and conclusion) and are free of technical error. Students complete the graphic organizer mostly free of grammatical mistakes. Their reflections exhibit both an understanding of the material as well as in depth thought. There is some variance for personal answers of their own feelings and where they hear these songs today. Student presentations are historically accurate, given with only casual reference to notes and are in the first-person character. Effective public speaking strategies are employed including eye contact with the class, clear enunciation, and voice projection. Narrations are free of grammatical and historical error; reflect an engaging storyline or sequence of events, as well as the voice of the student. *See Bloom s Taxonomy of Thinking Skills to determine higher order thinking skills () or lower order thinking skills (). The goal is to create tasks that employ higher order thinking skills.

11 Standard Assessment: 1) Short Answer: List three ways that slaves either adapted to or resisted slavery. 2) Essay: How did the conditions of enslavement lead to methods of resistance by slaves? Resources: Textbook Materials: American History: Beginnings to McDougal-Littell, 2007: Chapter 11, Section 2,; Chapter 15. Supplementary Materials: A History of U.S. by Joy Hakim, Book 4, pages and pages ; Book 5, pages (Book featuring primary sources, interactive dialogue, and probing questions to help the reader engage with the paradox of slavery in the U.S., the history of slavery in the U.S. in the early 1800s, and the history of the Underground Railroad.) Brown, Henry. Narrative of the life of Henry Box Brown, Oxford University Press, 2000 (Primary source autobiography of Henry Brown, excellent source for the performance tasks.) (This website has lesson plans, handouts, assessment questions, and supplemental resources for the teaching of slavery in the United States.) (Lesson plans, handouts, assessment questions, and supplemental resources for a variety of topics, including slavery.) (American Slave Narratives, this online anthology allows the teacher or the student to read short vignettes about the person, and then to click on the individual s biography to read the actual narrative in full.) (This website has primary source quotations about slave songs from Frederick Douglass, Henry Box Brown, and others.) (This document is the slave codes in Washington, DC, with background information provided.)

12 Grade 8 Unit 11 Standards-Based Worksheet D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a P u b l i c S c h o o l s S o c i a l S t u d i e s STANDARD Trace on a map the boundaries constituting the North and the South, the geographical differences between the two regions, and the differences between agrarians and industrialists. (G, P) Concepts: boundaries the North and the South regions agrarians industrialists Skills: trace Big Ideas: Geography influenced the northern states to industrialize and the southern states to remain agrarian. The agrarian way of like was a factor in the South s decision to secede from the Union. The Civil War outcome was influenced greatly by the industries in the North. Essential Questions: Why did the North industrialize? Why did the South not industrialize? How did geographical differences affect boundaries? To what extent did geography play a role in the cultural and economic differences between the North and the South? Engaging Scenario: You are a cartographer asked to create a wall-sized, 3-D map of the United States for a middle school classroom. Draw the state boundaries of the United States as if it were Create geographical features in 3-D using materials such as cardboard for mountains, sand for desert, pasta for farms, etc. After the creation of the map, create a key for the map as well as a written description of the country in 1861 and the significance of geography to the economies of the regions.

13 PERFORMANCE TASKS On a map, identify and use different colors to shade in the Northern states, Southern states, and the slave holding states in the North. Students complete a Venn diagram of Industrialists and Agrarians to compare and contrast the lifestyles of the two. After the Venn diagram is complete, students write a paragraph using the information from their diagram comparing and contrasting the two. Students list the geography of each region. In an essay they argue how geography is connected to the economy of a region. Students create a 3-D map of the United States in 1861, showing geographic, physical, economic, and political characteristics of the nation and regions. THINKING SKILLS ( )* identify label (comprehension) compare & contrast (evaluation) list argue (evaluation) create (synthesis) PERFORMANCE TASK ASSESSMENT (PROFICIENT CRITERIA) In a formal or informal assessment, students correctly categorize at least 15 states in Students list at least five facts per section of the Venn diagram. The completed paragraph uses two facts from each part of the diagram to build a strong paragraph which compares and contrasts the two lifestyles. Students identify at least three types of geography per region. In their essays, students use at least three pieces of evidence each for the North and the South to argue that geography affects the economy of a region. Student maps are neat, attractive, easy to read, and meets the minimum criteria. Students exhibit individual proficiency by their contribution to the finished product and familiarity with the geographic differences between North and South. *See Bloom s Taxonomy of Thinking Skills to determine higher order thinking skills () or lower order thinking skills (). The goal is to create tasks that employ higher order thinking skills.

14 Standard Assessment: 1) Essay: UNION AND CONFEDERATE RESOURCES (as percentages of total United States resources): Resource North South Population 71% 29% Railroads 71% 29% Farm acreage 65% 35% Factory Workers 92% 8% Use the information in the table above to evaluate the statement, "The South could never have won the Civil War." (NAEP Social Studies: 8th Grade, US History, 2001: Question 9) 2) Essay: In a five paragraph essay, discuss how the geography of the north and the south affected lifestyle and economy. Resources: Textbook Materials: American History: Beginnings to McDougal-Littell, 2007: Chapter 15, pages Supplementary Materials: Hakim, Joy. A History of U.S., Book 6: War, Terrible, War (This book starts where book five left off which is a brief recounting of the causes of the Civil War followed by lots of information. Not only are the people, places, and events of the Civil War shared, but the interconnectedness of all of them to give us the history we have today.) (A map of the United States in 1861, showing the slave and free states, as well as states which joined the Confederacy.) (A physical map of the Eastern part of the United States so students can analyze how geography corresponds to economics, politics, etc.)

15 Grade 8 Unit 11 Standards-Based Worksheet D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a P u b l i c S c h o o l s S o c i a l S t u d i e s STANDARD Describe critical developments and events in the war, including locating on a map the major battles, geographical advantages and obstacles, technological advances, and General Lee s surrender at Appomattox. (G, M, P) Concepts: developments in the war major battles geographical advantages geographical obstacles technological advances General Lee s surrender Appomattox Skills: describe locate (major battles on a map) Big Ideas: The North had many advantages at the beginning of the war, but took four years to achieve victory. The Civil War was called the first modern war due to technological inventions and their uses during the War. The Civil War cost more American lives than any other war. General Lee s surrender at Appomattox ended the Civil War, but left the nation with a lot of wounds to mend. Essential Questions: How did the North have advantages over the South at the outbreak of the Civil War? How did major battles and events connect to each other? How did technological advances of the Civil War impact the outcome of the War? Why did the South lose the war? Engaging Scenario: You re a docent at a Civil War Museum. Write a script for the story of the Civil War that will be told in your museum. Include a general review of the war, a geographical overview, and a timeline.

16 PERFORMANCE TASKS Students identify the advantages of each side in the Civil War, emphasizing the role of geography to individual advantages. Students read an overview of the beginning of the Civil War that emphasizes: the secession of South Carolina, the firing of the first shots at Fort Sumter, the creation of the Confederacy, and the first battle at Manassas/Bull Run. Students then summarize these events and their significance in their own words. Students identify, describe character attributes, and compare and contrast the two presidents of the Civil War. Students include strengths and weaknesses of each, how they came to power, and how they related (or not) to each other. THINKING SKILLS ( )* identify read summarize identify describe PERFORMANCE TASK ASSESSMENT (PROFICIENT CRITERIA) Students list at least three advantages for each side. Students share orally, or through a short written quiz, what was read and summarize the key points of this information. Students list at least three strengths and three weaknesses for each president, as well as three similarities and three differences. Entries are historically accurate and well written. compare & contrast (evaluation) Students identify key battles of the Civil War (e.g., Fort Sumter, Manassas, Gettysburg, Vicksburg, Shiloh, Appomattox Courthouse, etc.), and complete a graphic organizer as a means of note taking. Organizers identify the outcome of the war, the significance and location of the battles, key generals/people involved, and any other information. Then, students identify these locations on a map. identify organize (application) Graphic organizers contain at least six key battles and related notes are historically accurate. Student maps identify most of the locations correctly.

17 Students read for comprehension about the technological advances of the Civil War (hot air balloons, photography, particular rifles, trenches). Students create a diorama of a battle scene depicting two or more of these technological advances being used. Students write a narrative for a tour of a Civil War Museum. Students make specific references to maps, visuals, and primary sources that they have examined in class and explain those documents in the context of a museum tour. comprehend (comprehension) create (synthesis) write (synthesis) Students relay information from the reading through oral discussion. Students create a diorama using a teacher or student made rubric with an emphasis on historical accuracy, neatness, interpretation and detail. Narratives meet minimum requirements, are well written, follow the chronology of the Civil War, and are engaging. *See Bloom s Taxonomy of Thinking Skills to determine higher order thinking skills () or lower order thinking skills (). The goal is to create tasks that employ higher order thinking skills. Standard Assessment: 1) Multiple Choice:... we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, When Lincoln talked about "these dead" he was referring to: a. soldiers killed in a Civil War battle b. workers who died building the railroad c. slaves killed while trying to escape d. women killed while working as nurses in the Civil War (NAEP Social Studies; Grade 8, US History, 2006: Question 7) 2) Essay: What was the turning point of the Civil War? Why do you believe this to be the case? Resources: Textbook Materials: American History: Beginnings to McDougal-Littell, 2007; Chapters 16 and 17, pages Supplemental Materials: Friedman, Robin. The Silent Witness (This children s book is about the McLean family who can claim that the Civil War started in their front yard and ended in their parlor. This is a great book to humanize the war, summarize the war, and discuss the surrender.)

18 Hakim, Joy. A History of U.S., Book 6: War, Terrible, War (This book starts where Book five left off which is a brief recounting of the causes of the Civil War, followed by lots of information. People, places, and events of the Civil War are shared and the interconnectedness of them is provided.) ( Official website of the Civil War, with maps, lesson plans, background guides, and other resources.) (Companion site to Ken Burns Civil War documentary of the conflict, with maps, background guides, study questions to accompany the documentary, and other resources.) (Primary source photographs of the Civil War battles, soldiers, leaders, and other significant individuals and events.)

19 Grade 8 Unit 12 Standards-Based Worksheet D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a P u b l i c S c h o o l s S o c i a l S t u d i e s STANDARD List and describe the original aims of Reconstruction (e.g., to reunify the nation) and its effects on the political and social structures of different regions. (G, P, S) Concepts: Reconstruction political and social structures different regions Skills: list describe Big Ideas: To help the United States heal after the Civil War, a plan called Reconstruction was developed. Reconstruction was designed to assist African-Americans in the South. Political and social controversies prevented Reconstruction from being successfully implemented. Essential Questions: Why was Reconstruction created? How did the programs of Reconstruction seek to heal the wounds of the country? How did Reconstruction affect the country as a whole and the North and South specifically? Why was Reconstruction abandoned in 1877? Engaging Scenario: You are an African-American living in the South during the period of Reconstruction. Your testimony has been requested at a Senate hearing on Reconstruction. Outline the effects of Reconstruction on your life, and argue in favor of or against the policies of Reconstruction.

20 PERFORMANCE TASKS As a review, students individually list the facts they know about the state of the country at the end of the Civil War and then share their answers as a class. Students read and analyze the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments to the Constitution. Students discuss their findings as a class when they are finished. Students read about the Freedmen s Bureau to gain an understanding as to what it did, why it was important and what it accomplished. Students look at Jim Crow laws and their restrictions to gain an understanding of the climate of the time. THINKING SKILLS ( )* list S analyze (analysis) examine (analysis) PERFORMANCE TASK ASSESSMENT (PROFICIENT CRITERIA) Students list a minimum of ten facts they know about the state of the country (from the surrender, to Lincoln s assassination, to the end of slavery, to the Union s victory). Students participate in their individual and small group study of the documents. Students take a quiz after the class discussion, based on the purpose and effects of the three documents. Analyses accurately summarize the main points of the primary source documents, and students accurately categorize the arguments in the texts as those of a northern or southern senator. Students brainstorm arguments used in the 1860 s and 1870 s in favor of and against Reconstruction. Students then rank the arguments from strongest to weakest and give an explanation as to how they came up with their rankings. Students assume the role of an African- American living in the South during the period of Reconstruction. Students detail specific ways that Reconstruction has affected their character s life and construct an engaging argument in defense of, or against, Reconstruction. brainstorm (comprehension) rank (evaluate) argue (evaluation) Students brainstorm at least three arguments in favor of, and three arguments against, Reconstruction. Ranking systems are internally consistent, historically relevant, reflect original thought, and exhibit understanding of the Reconstruction debates. Students arguments reflect the voice of a southern African-American during Reconstruction. Students assemble a coherent, logical, and historically accurate argument utilizing at least three specific historical examples. *See Bloom s Taxonomy of Thinking Skills to determine higher order thinking skills () or lower order thinking skills (). The goal is to create tasks that employ higher order thinking skills.

21 Standard Assessment: 1) The Black Codes passed in the South early in the Reconstruction era were designed to: a. restrict the rights of former slaves b. guarantee a minimum wage for former slaves c. force former slaves to move to cities and work in industry d. offer financial assistance to African Americans who had fought for the Confederacy during the Civil War (NAEP Social Studies: Grade 8, US History, 2006: Question 6) 2) Short Answer: The 15th amendment was designed to help. Why was the 15th amendment proposed at this particular time in United States history? (NAEP Social Studies: Grade 8, US History, 1994: Question 14) 3) Essay: "Our reconstruction measures were radically defective because they failed to give the ex-slaves any land." Frederick Douglas Describe briefly the way in which Douglass's statement helps explain the rise of sharecropping in the South after the Civil War. In your answer, be sure to define the term sharecropping. (NAEP Social Studies: Grade 8, US History, 1994: Question 4) Resources: Textbook Materials: American History: Beginnings to McDougal-Littell, 2007; Chapter 18, pages Supplementary Materials: Hakim, Joy. A History of U.S., Book 7: Reconstructing America (This entire book helps to teach both the breadth and depth of Reconstruction through interesting narrative and primary sources. People, places, and themes are introduced in this book.) (National Archives Document analysis worksheet: This website can be used with the primary sources for the activities.) (Fantastic articles, with references and links to primary source documents, detailing the history of Reconstruction.) (Companion site to documentary, this engaging and interactive site has lesson plans, primary source documents, and other useful resources.)

22 Grade 8 Unit 13 Standards-Based Worksheet D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a P u b l i c S c h o o l s S o c i a l S t u d i e s STANDARD Explain the location and effects of urbanization, renewed immigration, and industrialization (e.g., the effects on social fabric of cities, wealth and economic opportunity, the conservation movement). (G, S, E) Concepts: location of urbanization effects of urbanization immigration industrialization Skills: explain Big Ideas: In the late 1800 s, cities grew throughout the U.S. and had profound political, economic, and social effects. Immigrants from Europe found their way to urban centers and the Midwest in the late 1800 s. Immigration and urbanization fueled increased industrialization in the United States. Essential Questions: How do urbanization, immigration, and industrialization all correspond? How did the wave of immigrants arriving and settling affect this country? Why did immigrants come to the United States during the late 1800 s and early 1900 s? What drew immigrants to urban centers and the Midwest and how did they change the fabric of those areas? How did the increased urbanization and industrialization of the turn of the century contribute to the conservation movement? Engaging Scenario: You are a City Planner at the turn of the century. The City Council has asked you to present at the next council meeting the updated city plan. You will need to account for such elements as immigration, industrialization and urbanization and how they relate to the new plan. Prepare a presentation with a visual to help the City Council understand the new city plans.

23 PERFORMANCE TASKS On a map, students identify urban centers in the late 1800 s to Students list reasons why these cities sprung up where they did. THINKING SKILLS ( )* identify PERFORMANCE TASK ASSESSMENT (PROFICIENT CRITERIA) Students correctly label at least ten urban centers on a map. For each center labeled, students provide at least one reason for the city s growth. Students read about immigration patterns in the United States in the 1880 s and 1890 s. Students list examples of world issues that pushed immigrants out of their respective home countries and pulled them to the U.S. Students graph the immigration population from various countries to the United States, as well as the migration patterns of immigrants within the U.S. Students read about industrialization and the growth of factories, industrial centers, pollution, division of labor, and the assembly line (Fordism). Students then select ten key terms which they define, give examples of, and give the significance of (with regard to industrialization). Students create a visual representation of the intersection of industrialization, immigration, and urbanization. Students may create a Venn diagram, picture, mural, or other applicable visual representation. read & graph (comprehension) read (comprehension) define & explain (application) visualize (synthesize) Students identify at least four places from where immigrants to the United States came. Students identify one push and one pull factor for each of the countries of origin listed above. Graphs are neat, easy to read, and mostly accurate. Students clearly depict both the immigration population from various countries to the U.S. and migration patterns within the U.S. Student definitions are mostly accurate, examples are plausible, and significances relate to the period of industrialization. Selected words relate to the period of industrialization and student word choice reflects an understanding of key points of industrialization. Student visuals are open ended and can take on many forms. It is essential that the visual exhibits creative and original thought, and can be plausibly linked to the period and topic.

24 Students develop a presentation on this era, summarizing the interconnectedness of industrialization, immigration, and urbanization. develop (synthesis) Presentations are engaging, logical and can hold the City Council s (the class) attention. Presentations touch on: 1) Immigration provided a cheap labor force and added consumers to the American economy. 2) Immigrants were drawn by the promise of jobs, cheap goods, and a better life. 3) Urbanization provided close knit immigrant and industrial centers in the era before mass transit and the automobile. *See Bloom s Taxonomy of Thinking Skills to determine higher order thinking skills () or lower order thinking skills (). The goal is to create tasks that employ higher order thinking skills. Standard Assessment: 1) Short Answer: Over the years, many people have immigrated to the United States. Give two reasons why people have come. Name a group of immigrants who came for each reason you have given. (NAEP Social Studies: Grade 8, US History, 2001: Question 1) 2) Essay: In America, it was no disgrace to work at a trade. Workmen and capitalists were equal. The employer addressed the employee as you, not familiarly as thou. The cobbler and the teacher had the same title, mister, and all the children, boys and girls, Jews and Gentiles, went to school! - Polish immigrant, Using the quotation above and your knowledge of history, explain in your own words two important aspects of life in the United States that seemed good to this immigrant. What do you think was the most important difference this man saw between Poland and the United States? (NAEP Social Studies: Grade 8, US History, 2001: Question 3) Resources: Textbook Materials: American History: Beginnings to McDougal-Littell, 2007; Chapter 20, pages Supplementary Materials: Hakim, Joy. A History of U.S., Book 8: An Age of Extremes (This book discusses the gilded age in America. A time of new inventions, great wealth for some and a time of struggle for immigrants.)

25 (Lesson plan related to industrialization in the United States, with sources, readings, and sample assessments.) (Outline, pictures, primary source documents, and historical articles related to industrialization.) (Statistics related to American immigration during the period in question, excellent for student analysis.) (Primary source documents, readings, articles, and sample lesson plans related to immigration and urbanization.)

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