266 JULY. Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation. Rob McIntosh SEMINAR SERIES 266

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1 Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation Rob McIntosh SEMINAR SERIES 266 Centre for Strategic Education (CSE) is the business name for IARTV ABN JULY 2017

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3 Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation Rob McIntosh Contents 2 Introduction 3 Key messages to be addressed in this paper 5 What do our young people need, to enjoy success in the future? 7 What progress are we making in providing our young people with what they need? 11 So what do we make of where we are now and where do we need to head? 15 How should we move forward? 19 Conclusion 2017 Centre for Strategic Education Seminar Series Paper #266 July 2017

4 Acknowledgement I would like to thank Robyn Baker, Mary Chamberlain, Howard Fancy, Anne Jackson, Jim Matheson and Derek Wenmoth for their helpful comments during the preparation of this paper. ISSN ISBN Centre for Strategic Education, Victoria. The Centre for Strategic Education * welcomes usage of this publication within the restraints imposed by the Copyright Act. Where the material is to be sold for profit then written authority must be obtained first. Detailed requests for usage not specifically permitted by the Copyright Act should be submitted in writing to: The Centre for Strategic Education Mercer House, 82 Jolimont Street, East Melbourne VIC 3002 ( * The Centre for Strategic Education (CSE) is the business name adopted in 2006 for the Incorporated Association of Registered Teachers of Victoria (IARTV). Therefore, publications which were previously published in the name of IARTV are now published in the name of CSE.) Produced in Australia by Centre for Strategic Education Mercer House, 82 Jolimont Street, East Melbourne VIC 3002 Editorial Team: Tony Mackay, Keith Redman, Murray Cropley, Andrew Miller

5 Introduction In this paper I will assess how well the New Zealand schooling system is positioning all our young people for success and wellbeing, in an increasingly complex and rapidly changing world. I will look only at the schooling years, not because the earlier and later stages of learning are not also important, but because a narrower focus supports more coherent consideration of a set of issues that are impacting all young New Zealanders. I will explore: what the capabilities are that our young people will need in the future in order to enjoy individual and collective success and wellbeing; what the information that is currently available, on achievement within our schooling system, tells us about how well we are equipping all our young people with those capabilities they will require in the future; what we should make of our current situation, and how we need teaching and learning in our schooling system to develop in the future; how we should go about ensuring that our young people experience the teaching and learning they will need to support individual and collective future success and wellbeing. In doing so I will identify some key areas for action, and also make recommendations as to how the task for achieving change within the schooling system should be tackled. Consistent with the recommended approach to change, however, I stop short of making detailed recommendations for action, for two reasons. It is important to agree the direction in which we need to travel, before deciding how to get there. It is important that all who have a stake in the future of learning have a say in its future direction and can find a role in making that future a reality. Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation 2

6 Key messages to be addressed in this paper The changes that are occurring in technology, the nature of work, the environment, the economy and society make education more central to individual, community and national wellbeing than ever before and it is not just any education that matters. For us not just to survive but to thrive, both individually and collectively in the world of the future, our young people need to be not only strong in literacy and numeracy and increasingly science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) but, importantly, also to develop a newer set of capabilities. The key capabilities that our young people will need are the ones that most uniquely make us human; that are hardest to replicate by automation or mechanisation; and which will enable our young people to grapple successfully with the big issues that will confront the society in which they live. While information on how we are doing in developing these new capabilities is relatively scarce, overall we cannot be confident that we are making the progress needed for all our learners. In particular, despite much effort to make progress, some of our young people in New Zealand primarily of Māori or Pasifika ethnicity and/ or residing in poorer socioeconomic communities remain seriously disadvantaged in terms of how the school system is preparing them for future success and wellbeing. Given what we know of how the future is unfolding, failure to take decisive action to address what we currently observe in terms of schooling outcomes will perpetuate, and indeed exacerbate, current inequality in our society and it will impede our ability as a nation to move forward rapidly to a more sustainably successful future. The proposition in this paper is that to achieve the change we require rather than continue our efforts of the last two decades to achieve improvements in current practice a much more fundamental transformation is needed in the nature of teaching and learning. The teaching and learning that is required is experiential, engages the passion and interests of each individual learner, and allows each one of them to learn in ways and at a pace that meets their needs. Personalisation of learning in this way respects all learners as individuals, gives them a voice, creates connections and allows them to follow their passions and build their capabilities, so that they are engaged and develop the confidence and the ability to learn more widely. Teaching and learning that does provide this engagement offers us the best chance of tackling the inequities in our system successfully, because it works from a strengths-based rather than a deficit-based approach. It is also this type of learning that will build the capabilities every young person will require for success in the future. It does not focus on the transmission of knowledge by one individual, the teacher, but on the integration of knowledge accessed from a wide range of sources, with the development of key competencies, in order to create new 3 CSE Seminar Series Paper #266 July 2017

7 knowledge to tackle collaboratively real world challenges that are meaningful to the learner. In such learning the role of the teacher remains key, but as the activator of learning rather than the transmitter of knowledge. Learning partnerships with the family/whānau, hapū and iwi, 1 local community, businesses and other learners and learning institutions, both locally and globally, are core to this type of learning. Learning can occur in a much wider range of contexts and with a much wider range of participants. The influence of technology in such learning is pervasive both as an enabler and motivator of different ways of learning. Learning like this is already happening every day in some New Zealand schools. So this type of learning is not something that might happen in the future, it is here now. However, such learning is not yet happening consistently or comprehensively. Gradual evolution rather than transformation will mean many will miss out on the opportunities that the future presents. Those most likely to miss out will be the same learners who miss out currently, but to even more devastating effect. So we need to be proactive in pursuing transformation and, given what is at stake, we need to do so with urgency. To achieve such transformation, it is important to be realistic about the scale of the task and to be very intentional about any change process. The change process needs to be focused on whole-ofsystem change, to align different actions and actors within the system in pursuit of a common set of agreed goals. It also requires co-construction of overall system direction and the priorities for action with all key stakeholders, rather than through mandate or prescription from the centre. To do otherwise will risk incoherence and non-engagement, or active resistance. Actions in at least five areas are required, to achieve real and deep change. They will be to develop a guiding system vision for the future of teaching and learning, and prioritise system actions in support of this; invest in the systems and supports to build the required professional capability; provide sufficient resources to support the implementation of new models of teaching and learning, and enable the challenges faced by our most disadvantaged learners to be overcome; enable an innovation culture and develop the infrastructure to support system learning from that innovation; create mechanisms to establish roles for and ownership by a wide group of key stakeholders (eg, parents/whānau, hapū and iwi, communities, businesses and, most importantly, learners). The detail of how action in each of these areas might be shaped requires further collaborative investigation. Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation 4

8 education is about more than economic outcomes What do our young people need, to enjoy success in the future? It has been recognised increasingly, over the last two to three decades, that education is key to individual, community and national wellbeing. The changes that are occurring in technology, the nature of work, the environment, the economy and society make this truer than ever before; and it is not just any education that matters. In terms of technology and the nature of work, New Zealand will be affected by the same forces that are impacting elsewhere, and can draw insight from analysis that has been done internationally. For instance, work undertaken for the Foundation for Young Australians includes the following statistics and projections about work in Australia: 40 per cent of current jobs are at high risk of automation in the next years (AlphaBeta, 2015a, p 7) and 70 per cent of young people will enter the labour market in jobs that will be lost or automated (p 22). Already, over the last twenty-five years occupations that are high skill or high touch have grown while lower skill routine occupations have shed jobs (p 12); 90 per cent of future jobs will require digital literacy and 50 per cent will require advanced digital skills (Foundation for Young Australians, 2015, p 1); 75 per cent of future jobs will involve science, technology, engineering and maths (Foundation for Young Australians, 2015, p 1). In addition analysis of job advertisements between 2012 and 2015 shows jobs that involve problem solving, digital literacy and presentation skills are paying significant income premiums, as compared with similar early-career jobs that do not request these skills, and employment opportunities that involve digital literacy, critical thinking and creativity are growing rapidly (AlphaBeta, 2016, p 4); the job clusters that will enjoy the strongest growth in the future are likely to be those which involve caring, informing (including education and business services) and technology (AlphaBeta, 2015b, p 21); with increasingly flexible work and portfolios of work activities, some studies have estimated that the average young person could make 17 changes in employers across five different careers throughout their lifetime (AlphaBeta, 2015b, p 6). In the future, individuals may also piece their income together from a range of sources at the same time. These estimates for Australia are very similar to the projections being made globally. For instance, consider the following. The McKinsey Global Institute estimates that in the United States about 46 percent of time spent on work activities across occupations and industries is technically automatable based on currently demonstrated technologies. (Manyika et al, 2017, p 32) The results of another study projects that over the coming decades 47 per cent of total US employment is at high risk of computerisation (Benedikt Frey and Osborne, 2013, p 38). The modelling suggests that occupations with significant components of social and creative intelligence are at lower risk at least in the short term (p 40) and that high-skill and high-wage occupations are the least susceptible to computer capital (p 42). 5 CSE Seminar Series Paper #266 July 2017

9 A McKinsey Global Institute survey finds that per cent of the workingage population in the US and EU is engaged in independent work, with the proportion conducted on digital platforms growing rapidly. (Manyika, 2017, p 3). We can expect to experience these trends in the economy and the labour market in New Zealand as well. However, education is about more than economic outcomes, as important as they are. Changes in society including the growing dominance of new channels of relating and communicating through social media; increasing cultural diversity; the potential for polarisation in political and social discourse; and the environmental challenges confronting the planet also demand new capabilities, both to understand and satisfactorily resolve the issues that arise from such forces. For us not just to survive but to thrive, both individually and collectively, in this rapidly emerging world, our young people need to be not only strong in literacy and numeracy and increasingly science, technology, engineering and maths but, importantly, also to develop a newer set of competencies that have in the past received less attention. These newer competencies find expression in different ways. Educationalist David Perkins (2014) says as ways to approach what is worth learning we need to look for lifeworthy learning by identifying big understandings and big questions which are big in insight, action, ethics and opportunity for the lives learners are likely to live (Perkins, 2014, p ). In their broad-ranging analysis of the future of work, the Foundation for Young Australians reports that the most plentiful and richly rewarded work opportunities in the future will require enterprise skills transferable skills that enable young people to engage with a complex world and navigate the challenges they will inherit. (AlphaBeta, 2016, p 5). New Zealand employers express what they want more practically but in a similar vein. Careers New Zealand (2017) reports that what employers want from employees is a positive attitude, communication, teamwork, self-management, willingness to learn, thinking skills (problem solving and decision making) and resilience. Michael Fullan and Joanne Quinn (2016) provide a useful summary of much of the thinking in this area. They propose the six Cs of communication, critical thinking, collaboration, creativity, character and citizenship (p 84 85). In essence, the key capabilities that we need to develop are the ones that most uniquely make us human, the ones that are hardest to replicate by automation or mechanisation. The importance of our young people acquiring such capabilities is already recognised in New Zealand. The New Zealand Curriculum that was mandated in 2008 included for the first time a set of core competencies that are intended to be integrated with learning in individual discipline areas. The curriculum identifies these core competencies as thinking, using language, symbols, and texts, managing self, relating to others and participating, and contributing. 2 However, it is one thing to recognise the importance of such competencies, it is another to support learning that develops them. In the following section I assess what we know about how far we have got, in getting to where we need to be. In essence the key capabilities that we need to develop are the ones that most uniquely make us human, the ones that are hardest to replicate by automation or mechanisation. Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation 6

10 What progress are we making in providing our young people with what they need? Success in achieving key learning outcomes There is relatively little New Zealand system-level information about what progress we have been making in building the capabilities that are critical for the future. What we do know from system-level information is as follows. School leaver achievement, as measured by attainment of National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) level 2, has been rising; and it has been rising for all groups of students, regardless of ethnicity or socioeconomic background (see Figure 1). However, while the flexibility of NCEA is a great strength in terms of enabling these higher levels of qualification attainment, attainment of qualifications per se does not guarantee that our young people have what they most need, if they are to prosper in the world where they will live in the future. For instance, rising NCEA achievement needs to be considered alongside New Zealand student achievement in the international assessment studies in which it participates. These include the Programme for International Student Achievement (PISA) which looks at the achievement of fifteen-year-olds and the Trends in International Maths and Science Study (TIMSS), which is focused on student achievement at Years 5 and 9. In the key areas of literacy, maths and science New New Zealand s overall absolute performance, while above international averages in most assessments, has been static or declining over the last fifteen years at all age levels (see Table 1). Again this does not necessarily tell us too much about performance in the new capabilities that are so important for the future, but the fact that the upward trend in NCEA achievement is in contrast with the results in PISA, even though both measures are looking at the achievement of learners of approximately the same age, should give us cause to consider how much comfort we can draw from rising NCEA qualification attainment. Figure 1. Percentage of school leavers with at least an NCEA level 2 qualification or equivalent Source: Ministry of Education accessed at 7 CSE Seminar Series Paper #266 July 2017

11 Table 1. Summary of Trends in New Zealand Student Achievement in TIMMS and PISA Assessment study and focus Source: May et al 2016 and Caygill et al 2016a, b, c and d. Time period Direction of any significant change PISA Reading Decline PISA Maths Decline PISA Science Decline TIMSS Maths Year TIMSS Maths Year TIMSS Science Year Improvement No change No change No change No change Decline TIMSS Science Year No change The reason for these different trends is not well understood. It could partially be a measurement issue, with New Zealand learners increasingly being less motivated to demonstrate their true capability in PISA, an assessment that does not count in terms of their own future. However, we would want to be confident that this is the main explanation before dismissing uncomfortable trends in an assessment that purports to be an internationally accepted measure of capabilities that young people will need to operate successfully in the future. In international assessments (May et al, 2016 and Caygill et al, 2016a, b, c and d) New Zealand learners do tend to score relatively better in areas that are likely to be increasingly important in the future such as reasoning, interpretation and the practical application of knowledge but even then our performance in this regard is not as strong as that of leading countries in these studies; and there has been at best marginal improvements in performance in these areas since the introduction of the new curriculum, with its focus on key competencies. Learner engagement levels are also a critical marker for future success. Evidence suggests some areas of concern. For instance, the international studies show that nearly half of Year 9 learners reported not enjoying learning maths (Caygill et al, 2016b, p 74). This is higher than the international average. In science, compared to international averages, New Zealand had more Year 9 learners who reported that they did not value science, did not like learning science and were not confident in science (Caygill et al, 2016d, p 77), although there has been some improvement in valuing and enjoying science in recent years. The National Monitoring of School Student Achievement (NMSSA) Study which reports on student performance against the curriculum at the primary level, notes in its science report that, consistent with results from TIMSS, learners at Year 4 reported a more positive attitude to science than at Year 8 (EARU and NZCER, 2013, p 8). Finally in TIMSS New Zealand learners report experiencing bullying more frequently than learners in many other we have further to go in the areas of relating to and respecting others Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation 8

12 countries. (Caygill et al, 2016b, p 102) This suggests that we have further to go in the areas of relating to and respecting others and creating a secure learning environment. Equity of outcomes We also know that, despite the improvements in NCEA achievement already discussed, the long-standing inequity of outcomes in our system remains real and entrenched, despite the considerable efforts to address the issue over the last twenty years. Though NCEA achievement rates have been rising for learners of Māori and Pasifika ethnicity, and those in low-decile schools, the way in which NCEA qualifications for those learners are achieved provides them with a narrower set of future life opportunities than is the case for other learners in the system. An analysis of 2015 NCEA results undertaken by Kirsty Johnston of the New Zealand Herald (Johnston, 2016) shows that Māori, Pasifika and lowdecile students were less likely to take academic subjects than Pākehā, Asian and high-decile students. Instead, Māori, Pasifika and low-decile students were more likely to be enrolled in unit standards, gaining skills-based credits in more vocational subjects, most which are not university-approved. For example, decile-1 Māori students were four times more likely than decile-10 Pākehā to take subjects in the services sector field an area including hospitality, tourism and retail. Figure 2 shows the changing mix of vocational and academic subjects across school deciles. 3 The point is not that one pathway is better than any other particular pathways will be more appropriate for the interests and aspirations of individual learners but our system should ensure that every learner has a full set of future learning and career options available to them, so they can choose the one that best matches their interests and aspirations. The reported pattern of outcomes suggests that this is not the case currently. All other national assessments of learner achievement within our system, whether international or New Figure 2. Different compositions of NCEA participation across school deciles Source: New Zealand Herald website: Sourced from New Zealand Herald website: 9 CSE Seminar Series Paper #266 July 2017

13 Zealand-based, and at all age levels, show over time strong and largely unchanging differences in learner achievement, according to ethnicity and socioeconomic background. These differences emerge in the early years of schooling and do not disappear subsequently. For instance, Figure 3 shows that the average reading achievement of Māori learners in PISA has not risen since 2000 and the gap between the average reading achievement of Māori and New Zealand learners as a whole has not change markedly over the same time. Unlike for New Zealand as a whole, average scores for Māori are significantly below the OECD average. The same is true in science and maths, and for Pasifika learners. And Figure 4 shows the persistence of differences in achievement for different socioeconomic groups. For earlier age groups the TIMSS study of achievement of Year 5 and Year 9 learners shows inequities in learning achievement in Maths and Science, across socioeconomic and ethnic groups, are strongly entrenched and there is no indication of an increase in achievement over time. The NMSSA 2012 science report comments that the disparity between school decile and ethnicity subgroups, found in NEMP from 1999 to 2007, continued to be present in 2012 (EARU and NZCER, 2013, p 8). The reality is that inequity of outcomes is evident early in our system and, despite significant effort, little progress has been made in addressing the inequity of outcomes in our schooling system over the last twenty years. While the flexibility of NCEA is being used to provide some amelioration of the worst impacts of this situation through more diverse learning pathways, the underlying reality has changed little. Significant variations in achievement between ethnic and socioeconomic groups emerge in the early years of schooling meaning that attempts to bring about fundamental improvement need to begin early and be sustained throughout all levels of schooling. Figure 3. Trends in average PISA reading scores for Maori learners and all New Zealand learners Figure 4. Trends in average PISA reading scores for different socioeconomic groups NZ average Maori Low SES Low/med SES Med/High SES High SES Source: May et al (2016) Source: May et al (2016) Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation 10

14 it is the skills that are embodied in any qualification, rather than the qualification per se, that will really matter Summary Overall, it appears from the available evidence that we are at best making limited progress in equipping our young people with the capabilities they will need for success in the future, and that some of our young people, primarily of Māori or Pasifika ethnicity and/or residing in poorer socioeconomic communities, remain seriously disadvantaged in terms of how the school system is preparing them for future success and wellbeing. So what do we make of where we are now and where do we need to head? This situation is a serious one and requires urgent attention. As already highlighted, the future of the economy and the nature of work, as well as the broader environmental and social challenges facing humanity, mean that failure to take decisive action to address what we currently observe in terms of schooling outcomes will perpetuate and indeed exacerbate current inequality in our society; and it will impede our ability as a nation to move forward rapidly to a more sustainably successful future. Klaus Schwab (2015), founder of the World Economic Forum, says that the current technological revolution has the potential to raise global income levels and improve the quality of life for populations around the world. However, he also says that talent, more than capital, will represent the critical factor of production and that this will give rise to a job market increasingly segregated into low-skill/ low-pay and high-skill/high-pay segments which, in turn, will lead to an increase in social tensions. The reality globally is that it is not just the low income jobs that are disappearing but also those in the middle income area administrative and process management tasks that can be automated easily. The returns to work that require the new skill set is growing. Potentially, the result is increasingly polarisation of the workforce and income distribution. The effects of this are already evident in some of the political turmoil observed in the US and Europe in recent years, and could emerge in New Zealand as well. Having the right skills for the future is not only the key to future opportunity, it is the protection against being on the down side of this change. In such a world, having NCEA level 2, while better to have than not to have, might well not be enough. As already stated, it is the skills that are embodied in any qualification, rather than the qualification per se, that will really matter. As a country, we need to maximise the number of our young people who are in the high-skill/high-pay group. The nature of the emerging world is such that there are multiple ways of developing and utilising high skills, and enjoying high returns to those skills, beyond the pathways that have been the routes to high incomes and security in the past. So we need to guard against one size fits all; but we also need to ensure that whatever pathways individual learners follow, they are equipped to the greatest extent possible with all they need to succeed. To understand what we need to do to achieve this goal, it is useful to look briefly at some of the possible reasons why we may not have achieved the progress we needed or that we have sought to date, despite much effort and good intentions. Such reasons are potentially many and varied. Amongst them are tendencies to 11 CSE Seminar Series Paper #266 July 2017

15 pursue too many potentially competing policy agendas, without an overarching game plan; underestimate the infrastructure required around the profession to achieve and sustain real change in professional practice. In addition, we have not thought sufficiently about the range of support required to address the complexity of improving learning for a small percentage of our learners who are facing multiple areas of disadvantage; and overestimate the capability of individual schools to bring about improvement in teaching and learning while working in isolation from others, and to undervalue the power of effective collaborative practice. Attempts have been made to address some of these deficiencies. The current government s adoption of targets for student achievement has provided greater goal clarity and generated greater use of assessment data in pursuit of better learning outcomes. The focus on building the cultural competence of teachers has sought to shift teacher understanding and appreciation of the importance of valuing the whole individual in the learning process. The development of Communities of Learning/Kāhui Ako is seeking to foster professional collaboration beyond the boundaries of the individual school. Over and above all this, however, the proposition in this paper is that our improvement efforts over the last two decades have focused on marginal improvements in current practice (eg, better use of assessment data, stronger teaching strategies for literacy and numeracy) when, given the evidence that now exists, what was required was a more fundamental transformation in the nature of teaching and learning. Traditional approaches to teaching and learning have frequently involved a deficit focus on what learners cannot do rather than what they can do. With such an approach, learning becomes less about what is meaningful and relevant for the individual learner, and more about fixing their deficits relative to some arbitrary benchmark. For learners, this risks a narrowing of the curriculum and reduced enjoyment of learning which runs counter to holistic approaches based on the interdependence of body and mind, the emotional and the cognitive which the OECD reports neuroscience is showing is needed for successful learning (Evans et al, 2007, p 154). It is teaching and learning that does provide this engagement, which offers us the best chance of tackling the inequities in our system successfully; and it is also this type of learning that will build the capabilities every young person will require for success in the future. Fundamental transformation in teaching and learning offers us the best opportunity to achieve these two highest priorities facing New Zealand schooling. The teaching and learning that is required is experiential, engages the passion and interests of each individual learner and allows them to develop and pursue their life goals in ways and at a pace that meet their needs and ambitions. Personalisation of learning in this way respects learners as individuals, gives them a voice and allows them to follow their passions and use their capabilities so that they are engaged and develop the confidence and the ability to learn more widely. Perhaps just as significantly, because it seeks to engage the whole person, it provides a stronger level of wellbeing for every learner, something that is fundamental to successful learning and sadly too often is lacking in situations when learners are our improvement efforts over the last two decades have focused on marginal improvements in current practice... when... what was required was a more fundamental transformation in the nature of teaching and learning Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation 12

16 The role of the teacher remains key, but as the activator of learning rather than the transmitter of knowledge. alienated, disengaged and demotivated. It is not surprising that learning that affirms and strengthens learners in their unique individuality is most likely to build those human capabilities that will be so essential for future success. Such learning does not focus primarily on the transmission of knowledge by one individual, the teacher, but on the integration of knowledge accessed from a wide range of sources with the development of key competencies, in order to build the capabilities required to tackle real world challenges that are meaningful to the learner. It is learning that involves a high level of collaborative working with others, thereby building the ability to understand others perspectives, as well as development of capability in management of self. It recognises that learning is a natural process, and is much more than content acquisition or the development of cognitive skills (Evans et al, 2007, p 204). The reason why learning like this offers the best chance of fundamentally addressing the current inequities in our system is that it inherently involves a strengths-based rather than deficit-based approach, engages with whole learners and relates to the realities of their lives. For instance, it values the culture of the learner as an essential element of the learning process. It should enable all individual learners, and their family/ whānau, hapū and iwi, and broader community to feel they belong and that the schooling system is responsive to their needs and aspirations. For Māori, learning like this will support the aspiration, as Professor Sir Mason Durie once framed it, to live as Māori, to actively participate as citizens of the world and to enjoy good health and a high standard of living (Durie, 2001, p 3 4). Learning like this would be characterised by high expectations of learning success for every learner, through recognition of diverse forms of intelligence and capability rather than a narrow focus on academic or conceptual aptitude; cultural and social assumptions that include rather than exclude some learners; learning organised so as to support meaningful pathways for individuals, rather than what is most manageable from the institution s perspective; a strong focus on the development of engaged, self-directed learners and knowledge creators, rather than recipients and reproducers of established knowledge; recognition of the importance of learning design that draws together different aspects of learning so that the learner s experience is of a coherent whole, rather than a set of unrelated parts; and recognition that learners can experience valuable learning in all areas of their life, rather than only when in school. The emergence of such characteristics implies profound shifts in traditional models of schooling. The role of the teacher remains key, but as the activator of learning rather than the transmitter of knowledge. Learning is not confined to the institution of the school within the hours of the school day but can occur anywhere, anytime. Learning partnerships with the family/whānau, hapū and iwi, local community, businesses and other learners and learning institutions, both locally and globally, are core to this type of learning. Technology has a pervasive and multidimensional impact on such learning. As well as affecting what it is important to 13 CSE Seminar Series Paper #266 July 2017

17 learn, it enables new ways and sources of learning and can expand the network of educators and peers that interact with an individual learner. It is a key driver in changing the role and required capabilities of a teacher. Project-based learning is a common feature in new ways of teaching and learning. In a teacher s guide to project-based learning Alec Patton (Patton, 2013) says Project-based learning refers to students designing, planning and carrying out an extended project that produces a tangible output such as a product, publication or presentation. It is related to enquiry-based learning and problem-based learning but its distinctive feature is the publiclyexhibited output. According to Patton, projects ignite a shared passion for learning in both students and staff; they foster a wide range of the needed skills... and they can be tailored to suit students with a wide range of abilities and learning needs. He also says Digital technology makes it easier than ever before for learners to conduct serious research, produce high quality work, keep a record of the entire process, communicate with a wide range of other expertise, and share their creations with the world. Learning like this is already happening every day in some New Zealand classrooms. So this type of learning is not something that might happen in the future, it is here now. Learner-centred learning, and diversity in approaches to teaching and learning, are valued in our system and great examples of inspirational teaching and learning can be found. In the senior secondary years, new learning opportunities and pathways have been developed to provide different options for students. However, such learning is not yet happening consistently or comprehensively. For instance, in a 2015 evaluation of the implementation of the vocational pathways initiative in secondary schools, the Education Review Office concluded that only a few of the schools it reviewed for the study were using the opportunity presented by the initiative to move towards substantial curriculum change (ERO, 2016, p 25). The broader aims of vocational pathways of increasing curriculum relevance and authenticity supporting a coherent pathway structure for students were less evident in most schools in the study. (ERO, 2016, p 5). Undoubtedly, models of learning like this will continue to emerge and become increasingly common; but we cannot allow such a change to continue according to its own timetable. Rather, New Zealand needs to be proactive in driving system-wide transformation in teaching and learning in its schools. If we do not do this, then change will occur at a slower rate than we need and, worse than that, it will occur unevenly both in terms of quality and coverage. Gradual evolution rather than transformation will mean many will miss out on the opportunities that the future presents. Those most likely to miss out will be the same learners who miss out currently, to even more devastating effect. So we need to be proactive in pursuing transformation and we need to do so with urgency. This is not because the changes can be made quickly, but because they cannot. What we are talking about is largescale system transformation, which will take years, but the sooner we start the more quickly we will enjoy the benefits. we need to be proactive in pursuing transformation and we need to do so with urgency Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation 14

18 We need clarity of vision for the future of teaching and learning in New Zealand How should we move forward? The nature of the process required to achieve change Even if the analysis just discussed were to be agreed, there would be much to do to make the proposed sort of change into a reality. New Zealand does not have a good track record of successful change initiatives sustained over a longer timeframe. The transition to the NCEA system is perhaps the only recent example of such a system-wide change in actual practice, and even then it had its fair share of bumpy patches along the way. So it is important to be realistic about the scale of the task and to be very intentional about any change process. First, it is important to be clear about the ways of working that will be necessary to bring real change. The two key characteristics are a whole-of-system approach to align different actions and actors within the system in pursuit of a common set of agreed goals. This means consistency of policy settings and initiatives with overall system goals, and alignment between those operating at the system level, those acting on the ground and those working as intermediaries between the two. This middle level has been weak in New Zealand but needs further strengthening to provide essential connections and coherence within the system, both vertically and horizontally; and co-construction of overall system direction with key stakeholders, rather than through mandate or prescription from the centre. Buy-in from those stakeholders is key to achieving real change, because real change in professional practice and supportive engagement from the wider community will require both an understanding of the rationale for the new ways of working and a sense of ownership and commitment to the change that is being sought. Absence of either or both of these characteristics would fatally weaken any program of systemic change. The absence of a system-wide approach to achieving would lead to fragmentation of change, a loss of cohesion and uneven impact. The absence of opportunity for all stakeholders to both contribute to and develop ownership of the change process would lead to both active and/or passive resistance and a lack of understanding of the rationale for the changes and what is required to achieve them. The absence of both of these characteristics will lead to a continuation of the status quo. The areas of action required to achieve change Five key areas of action to pursue are proposed below, to support system transformation through working in this way. Develop a guiding system vision We need clarity of vision for the future of teaching and learning in New Zealand, to act as a guide for actors at all levels of the system as to what they should do and, perhaps just as importantly, what they should not do. A detailed vision is not feasible, given the dynamic nature of what is being sought, but a process of establishing agreement on the principles for the future of teaching and learning, and the 15 CSE Seminar Series Paper #266 July 2017

19 system goals with all key stakeholders both within the sector (eg, education professionals) and just as importantly outside of it (eg, family/whānau, hāpu and iwi, community, business) could help to build understanding of the case for change and establish aligned priorities for action by all. The development of such a vision could help to highlight those system features that might need modification (including potentially the New Zealand curriculum framework and the operation of the qualifications system), so that they are fit for purpose to support the agreed future vision. Importantly though, such changes should be limited in number to only those essential to support the realisation of the vision on the ground, so as not to overburden the change effort or distract attention from what is most essential. Similarly, the agreed goals for the system should advance the overall vision. Some of the most important outcomes to achieve in the future are currently hard to measure (eg, in some of the competency areas) and work to develop such measures is a priority. It would also be important to reconsider how current outcome targets and reporting (including the newly proposed literacy and numeracy targets at Year 8) fit within the bigger picture. To focus exclusively on these, important as they are, risks marginalising the learning of what will matter increasingly in the future. Because the change process envisaged in this paper is likely to need to be sustained over quite a few years, crossparty agreement about the guiding vision would be ideal, in order to support consistency of government direction and action over time. Invest in professional capability The future for teaching and learning pictured in this paper implies a significant change in approach to teaching for many of our workforce. However, as hard as it might be, such a change might be professionally more rewarding and certainly more effective than the marginal change to existing models that is required in the current improvement approach. Nevertheless, the required changes in professional practice will only occur with the right processes and professional support. Change in practice will only come about if teachers and principals accept the case for change; are provided with the prerequisite knowledge and skills to start planning for change in their practice; and are given access to ongoing support as they seek to implement, evaluate and adapt the changes they are making. To achieve this will require clarity as to what are the critical competencies teachers will need to develop for the future. Significant investment in the right supports will also be essential. Equipping professional leaders (widely defined) to both build local commitment to change and provide required professional expertise is essential. The right systems and supports for effective professional collaboration are also critical. Fullan and Quinn say that sustained and systemic shifts in practice occur when there are strong collaborative work structures combined with good learning design. Learning is sustained and explored in depth with opportunities for application within roles. Coaches, mentors and peers stimulate learning and provide timely feedback. (Fullan and Quinn, 2016, p 62) the agreed goals for the system should advance the overall vision Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation 16

20 We need to resource what we need rather than live with what we are willing to resource. Communities of Learning/Kāhui Ako offer the potential to play an important role in the sharing of professional knowledge and the development of professional collaboration. The initiative has the right intention and desirable attributes, and can make a valuable contribution as it is further embedded. The approach to implementation, however, is highly structured. This has discouraged participation and, if what the communities are required to do is too tightly prescribed, the potential for innovation within a collaborative framework will be undermined. Professional accountability is a frequent topic in discussions about building capability for change in schooling systems. Fullan and Quinn state that a range of research suggests internal accountability must precede external accountability if lasting improvement in student achievement is the goal. (Fullan and Quinn, 2016, p 111) Internal accountability, occurs when individuals and groups willingly take on personal, professional and collective responsibility for continuous improvement and success for all students. (p 110) Internal accountability is most likely to develop if the inclusive change processes advocated earlier in this paper are followed and the whole of the system is focused on supporting the desired shifts in practice. Intrinsic motivation will flow out of a compelling case for change and the belief that change is possible. How the levers available to the Educational Council are used to strengthen the profession and the contribution to the profession by system agencies such as the Ministry of Education, the Education Review Office and teacher educators are also all key here. Teachers and principals cannot be expected to make the required changes on their own. Provide sufficient resources to support the new models of teaching and learning Resources do not guarantee good outcomes, but availability of the resources required to support new models of teaching and learning will be necessary. We need to resource what we need rather than live with what we are willing to resource. This does not mean that every school needs to be refitted as a modern learning environment, but innovative models of creating a supportive learning environment should be explored and shared. Resources available more broadly within the community and sharing across learning contexts should be a part of this. More specifically, it will be important to do more to ensure that those schools serving disadvantaged learners have the level of support they need to address the underlying level of educational need. While such schools do currently receive additional support, there is no rigorous basis currently for assessing whether this resource is sufficient to make a real difference. The current review of equity funding will only achieve marginal impact if it focuses mainly on the mechanism for distributing funding rather than also on the level of funding. In moving forward and attempting to achieve increased equity of outcomes through transformation, a broadly supported approach to reducing barriers and enhancing attachment to learning will be especially important for some learners. Early and, if necessary, ongoing multidisciplinary intervention, is likely to be important in securing better outcomes for a small but significant group of learners. For example, recently released New Zealand research found increasing levels of school-based health services in some secondary schools were associated with progressively lower levels of student-reported depressive symptoms, 17 CSE Seminar Series Paper #266 July 2017

21 emotional and behavioural difficulties and suicidality. (Denny et al, 2017, p 1) Improvements in student wellbeing of this type are a prerequisite to enhancing learning for some learners. This is consistent with the current government s social investment approach. Create an innovative learning system Real change will only happen when successful changes in teaching and learning occur on the ground. A system that is able to innovate and learn from that innovation is key to this because, given the complexity of the change proposed, it is not possible to know at the outset all that has to be done and how the change process will play out. For instance, the challenge of achieving change in practice is more complex than just scaling up existing examples of future-oriented practice. Rather, professionals will need to be supported to learn from and adapt what they see happening elsewhere, to make innovations in their own practices that are relevant for their own context. This will require infrastructure that not only supports knowledge sharing across the system but which curates examples of professional practice so that they can be more easily interpreted and used by other professionals. A culture of trust, partnership and collective accountability will also be essential. Such an environment also requires system regulations and culture that give permission to experimentation and innovation. Quality monitoring and feedback mechanisms should be in place to protect the interests of learners and support ongoing professional learning but they should not be so heavy-handed as to work against movements to new ways of doing things. System investment in specific innovations in teaching and learning, in a variety of contexts, should be considered. Models for involving family/whānau, hapū and iwi and community in the delivery of learning could be one specific area of innovation to invest in. It would be important that such innovation initiatives are framed in a way that positions them as key components of the system, and aligned with overall system goals, in order to encourage the uptake of learning from such innovation. While partnership schools provide opportunities to explore innovation in teaching and learning, the way the policy has been positioned outside of the mainstream makes it less likely that the mainstream will learn from these innovations. Widespread innovation to improve outcomes for all learners, within rather than outside the system, should be the goal. Maintain broad collective input and ownership Just as it will be important to involve key stakeholders in the development of the future vision, so it will be important to continue to give those stakeholders both a role in making new ways of teaching and learning and continuing to guide and champion the process of change, as it proceeds at both a local and national level. Currently, education professionals are critical to the success of our schooling system, and they will continue to be in the future as well, but they cannot do it on their own. They do not possess all of the expertise or resources that will be necessary to achieve successful change. The opportunity for learning and the capabilities that exist in our communities are a vital resource for making a new vision of teaching and learning a reality. Partnerships between professional educators and other stakeholders will be key in tapping this potential. education professionals... do not possess all of the expertise or resources that will be necessary to achieve successful change Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation 18

22 Processes for sustaining the interest in and influence on how our schooling system develops, of key stakeholders such as parents/whānau, hapū and iwi, communities, businesses and most importantly learners, will be critical. For nearly thirty years we have worked under a system of self-managing schools and many benefits have flowed from this, including significant parental involvement in school governance. However, this system has not always enabled all who have a strong and legitimate interest in the learning that occurs in our schools to have their voice heard. Ways to enable this need to be explored. Conclusion We are at a critical point in terms of the future direction of schooling. We need to be proactive in ensuring that our young people are equipped with the capabilities required to succeed in the future. This is core to the future wellbeing of our nation. To be successful we need to do more than just try to improve our current approaches to schooling. We need to fundamentally transform the teaching and learning all our young people experience. This is particularly important for the young people who are not currently well served by the system. If we fail to embrace transformation they will continue to experience the poor outcomes that have long been the case, but with increasingly adverse consequences for both them and society. Teaching and learning that will equip our young people with the capabilities they need for the future already occur in our schools, but this is not yet consistently the norm. We need to create a high-level vision for the future of teaching and learning that is accepted by key stakeholders, namely professional educators, family/whānau, hapū and iwi, communities and business. We need to invest the resources required to develop new professional capability and innovative learning systems. We need to sustain the involvement and ownership of all of our community in making the agreed vision a reality. Finally, we need to act with urgency, not because we can quickly make the changes we need, but because it will be too late for too many young people if we delay action. 19 CSE Seminar Series Paper #266 July 2017

23 Endnotes 1. Whānau refers to extended family, hapū to a kinship group or subtribe and iwi to a people or nation often translated as tribe or confederation of tribes. 2. Further explanation of the New Zealand Curriculum can be found at nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/keycompetencies and nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/the-new-zealand-curriculum#collapsible7. 3. A school s decile rating reflects an estimate of the proportion of its students that come from a neighbourhood indicating high levels of social disadvantage. A lower decile rating reflects a higher proportion of such students. Glossary of Maori words Iwi: extended kinship group, people or nation often translated as tribe or confederation of tribes. Hapū: kinship group or subtribe of a larger iwi. Whānau: extended family. Hui Taumata Mātauranga: education summit. Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation 20

24 References AlphaBeta (2015a) New Work Order: Ensuring Young Australians Have Skills and Experience for the Jobs of the Future, Not the Past, Foundation for Young Australians. Accessed at AlphaBeta (2015b) The New Work Mindset: 7 New Job Clusters to Help Young People Navigate the New Work Order, Foundation for Young Australians. Accessed at www. fya.org.au/report/the-new-work-mindsetreport/. AlphaBeta (2016) The New Basics: Big Data Reveals the Skills Young People Need for the New Work Order, Foundation for Young Australians. Accessed at report/the-new-basics/. Benedikt Frey, C and Osborne, A (2013) The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation? Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford. Accessed at view/1314. Careers New Zealand (2017) Why Are These Seven Skills So Important to Employers? Accessed at Caygill, R, Singh, S and Hanlar, V (2016) TIMSS2014/15. Mathematics Year 5. Trends Over 20 Years in TIMSS. Findings from TIMSS 2014/15, Ministry of Education, New Zealand. Accessed at govt.nz/ data/assets/pdf_file/0010/180388/ TIMSS-2014-Maths-Y5-Report.pdf. Caygill, R, Hanlar, V and Singh, S (2016) TIMSS2014/15. Mathematics Year 9. Trends Over 20 Years in TIMSS. Findings from TIMSS 2014/15, Ministry of Education, New Zealand. Accessed at govt.nz/ data/assets/pdf_file/0018/180342/ TIMSS Mathematics-Year-9-Trends- Over-20-Years-in-TIMSS.pdf. Caygill, R, Singh, S and Hanlar, V (2016) TIMSS2014/15. Science Year 5. Trends Over 20 Years in TIMSS. Findings from TIMSS 2014/15, Ministry of Education, New Zealand. Accessed at govt.nz/ data/assets/pdf_file/0003/180390/ TIMSS Science-Year-5-Trends-over- 20-years-in-TIMSS.pdf. Caygill, R, Hanlar, V and Singh, S (2016) TIMSS2014/15. Science Year 9. Trends Over 20 Years in TIMSS. Findings from TIMSS 2014/15, Ministry of Education, New Zealand. Accessed at govt.nz/ data/assets/pdf_file/0005/180338/ TIMSS Science-Year-9-Trends- Over-20-Years-in-TIMSS.pdf. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (2007) Understanding the Brain: The Birth of a Learning Science, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. Denny, S, Howie, H, Grant, S, Galbreath, R, Utter, J, Fleming, T and Clark, T (2017) Characteristics of school-based health services associated with students mental health, Journal of Health Services Research & Policy. Accessed at journals.sagepub.com/ doi/abs/ / Durie, M (2001) A framework for considering Māori educational advancement, Opening address at Hui taumata mātauranga, Taupo, New Zealand. Accessed at com/scholar?q=durie%2c%20m.%20 %282001%29.%20A%20Framework%20 for%20considering%20m%c4%81ori%20 Educational%20Advancement.%20 Opening%20address.%20Hui%20- taumata%20m%c4%81tauranga%2c%20 Taupo%2C%20New%20Zealand. Education Review Office (ERO) (2016) Vocational Pathways: Authentic and Relevant Learning. Accessed at govt.nz/publications/vocational-pathwaysauthentic-and-relevant-learning/. Educational Assessment Research Unit (EARU), University of Otago and New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) (2013) National Monitoring Study of Student Achievement, Science 2012, Ministry of Education, Wellington. Accessed at nmssa. otago.ac.nz/reports/2012_science_online. pdf. Evans, K, Gerlach, C and Kelner, S (2007) The Brain and Learning in Adolescence in Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (2007) Understanding the Brain: The Birth of a Learning Science, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. 21 CSE Seminar Series Paper #266 July 2017

25 Foundation for Young Australians (2015), How Are Young People Faring in the Transition from School to Work? Accessed at org.au/report/how-are-young-people-faringreport-card-2015/. Fullan, M and Quinn, J (2016) The Right Drivers in Action for Schools, Districts and Systems, Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA. Johnston, K (2016) NCEA: The only brown kid in the room, New Zealand Herald. Accessed at cfm?c_id=1&objectid= Manyika, J (2017) Technology, Jobs and the Future of Work, McKinsey Global Institute. Accessed at global-themes/employment-and-growth/ technology-jobs-and-the-future-of-work. Manyika, J, Chui, M, Miremadi, M, Bughin, J, George, K, Willmott, P and Dewhurst, M (2017) A Future that Works: Automation, Employment and Productivity, McKinsey Global Institute. Accessed at com/global-themes/digital-disruption/ harnessing-automation-for-a-future-thatworks. May, S, Flockton, J and Kirkham, S (2016) PISA2015 New Zealand Summary Report, Ministry of Education, Wellington. Accessed at data/ assets/pdf_file/0019/180613/pisa Summary-Report_v2.pdf. Patton, A (2012) Work that Matters: The Teacher s Guide to Project-based Learning, Paul Hamlyn Foundation, London. Accessed at Perkins, D (2014) Futurewise: Educating Our Children for a Changing World, Jossey Bass, San Francisco, CA. Schwab, K (2015) The Fourth Industrial Revolution: What It Means and How to Respond, The Council on Foreign Relations. Accessed at articles/ /fourth-industrialrevolution. Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation 22

26 CSE/IARTV PUBLICATIONS Recent titles in the Centre for Strategic Education Seminar Series No. 266 Future directions in New Zealand schooling: The case for transformation by Rob McIntosh (July 2017) No. 265 Students who dare to learn differently: Then, now and in the future by John Munro (July 2017) No. 264 Wisdom in education: Promoting emotional and social intelligence by Paul G Power (April 2017) No. 263 System leadership: A precondition for system improvement by Ross Kimber (April 2017) No. 262 The unintended outcomes of decentralisation: How the middle tier may be influencing teacher recruitment and retention by Karen Edge (February 2017) No. 261 Schooling Redesigned networking towards innovative learning systems by David Istance (February 2017) No. 260 System transformation for equity and quality: Purpose, passion and persistence by Judy Halbert and Linda Kaser (November 2016) No. 259 How revolution happens: The full Kambrya College story by Vic Zbar, Pamela Macklin, Michael Muscat, Nalini Naidu and Jo Wastle (November 2016) No. 258 The New Work Order: Preparing young Australians for work of the future by Jan Owen and Rachel Mutch (September 2016) No. 257 Embedding evaluative thinking as an essential component of successful innovation by Lorna Earl and Helen Timperley (September 2016) No. 256 Connecting school, family, and community: The power of positive relationships by George Otero (July 2016) No. 255 The neuroscience of learning and leadership by Richard F Elmore (July 2016) No. 254 Teacher education for equity: Perspectives of interculturality, inclusivity and indigeneity by Eeqbal Hassim, Lorraine Graham and Elizabeth McKinley (April 2016) No. 253 Educating for uncertainty: Ideas and challenges for schooling in a post-industrial society by Lucas Walsh (April 2016) No. 252 School autonomy: Are education systems doing their part? by Dahle Suggett (February 2016) No. 251 Recruiting teachers: Reflecting on global trends in higher education and initial teacher education by Kathryn Moyle (February 2016) No. 250 Reform, reformers, and the segregationist logic of Australian schooling by Dean Ashenden (November 2015) No. 249 Learning together: The power of cluster-based school improvement by Maggie Farrar (November 2015) No. 248 Generational change in schools: Addressing the challenge of generational collision by Phil Lambert (September 2015) No. 247 The shared work of learning: Lifting educational achievement through collaboration. An agenda for systemic change by Tom Bentley and Ciannon Cazaly (September 2015) Other publications Leading the education debate Volume 4: Selected papers from the CSE s Seminar Series and Occasional Papers, Editors Vic Zbar and Tony Mackay. The Centre for Strategic Education has consolidated a selection of the best of its ground-breaking series of seminar papers from the last four years of cutting-edge contributions to educational discourse into its publication Leading the education debate Vol 4. This collection includes some of the most recognised authors in education including Yong Zhao, Charles Leadbeater, Valerie Hannon, Charles Fadel, Paul Clarke, David Istance, Anthony Mackay, Nelson R González, Helen Timperley, Linda Kaser and Judy Halbert, Michael Fullan, David Hopkins, Brian J Caldwell and Jim M Spinks, Patricia Collarbone, Pamela Macklin, Graham Marshall, Vic Zbar, Dylan Wiliam, Peter Cole, Geoff Masters and Kathe Kirby with Dahle Suggett. The 20 papers included in the publication constitute a major contribution to discussion on school improvement and reform, written in a clear and accessible way. Volumes 1 3 of Leading the education debate by the same authors, collections of similar cutting edge papers from earlier CSE papers, are also available from CSE. A complete back catalogue of the CSE/IARTV Seminar and Occasional Paper Series, subscription rates to both of these series and more detailed information on any of the publications listed are available on the Centre for Strategic Education s website Alternatively contact Centre for Strategic Education, phone (+61 3) , fax (+61 3) ,

27

28 Rob McIntosh About the Author Rob McIntosh currently works as an education consultant, undertaking projects both within New Zealand and internationally on system strategy and policy design. A particular interest for Rob through all his education work is the changing nature of teaching and learning and its implications for education systems. For fifteen years, up until 2012, Rob was part of the leadership team in the New Zealand Ministry of Education, with responsibility for the development of education system strategy, research and data analysis and the design of policy across a range of schooling and tertiary education issues. Since then, in addition to his consultancy work, he has also served as the Acting Chief Executive of the Education Review Office and the Acting Director of the New Zealand Teachers Council. Prior to working in the education sector, Rob held a range of positions in the New Zealand Treasury. About the Paper The author explores how well New Zealand s schooling system has been positioning all its young people for success and wellbeing, in an increasingly complex and rapidly changing world. Focusing on the schooling years, he discusses capabilities they will need in future to enjoy individual and collective success and wellbeing; how well we are equipping our young people with these capabilities currently; how teaching and learning need to develop; and how to go about ensuring all young people actually get to experience the teaching and learning they need. He identifies key areas for urgent action and makes recommendations on how to achieve the transformational changes necessary to avoid instances of disadvantage among young people. About the Seminar Series This series of papers, by leading educators, is based primarily on seminar presentations. The series is intended to encourage discussion of major issues in education. Views expressed by the authors do not necessarily represent views of the Centre for Strategic Education. Comments on papers are most welcome. How to order back issues A complete back catalogue of the CSE/IARTV Seminar and Occasional Paper Series, subscription rates to both of these series and detailed information on other recent publications are available on the Centre for Strategic Education website Alternatively contact Centre for Strategic Education: phone (+61 3) , fax (+61 3) or Mercer House 82 Jolimont Street East Melbourne Victoria 3002 Phone Fax ISSN ISBN The constituent bodies of CSE/IARTV are the Association of Heads of Independent Schools of Australia (Vic) and the Victorian Independent Education Union.

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